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Cardiac insufficiency

Muhammad Naveed, Lei Han, Ghulam Jilany Khan, Sufia Yasmeen, Reyaj Mikrani, Muhammad Abbas, Li Cunyu, Zhou Xiaohui
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a complicated pathophysiological syndrome, leading cause of hospitalization as well as mortalities in developed countries wherein an irregular function of the heart leads to the insufficient blood supply to the body organs. It is an accumulative slackening of various complications including myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CAD), hypertension, valvular heart disease (VHD) and cardiomyopathy; its hallmarks include hypertrophy, increased interstitial fibrosis and loss of myocytes...
March 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
John M Trahanas, Benjamin S Van Boxtel, Steven E Miller, Christopher Irobunda, Susheel K Kodali, Isaac George
There are few case reports in the literature of transcatheter aortic valve replacement used as emergent therapy for aortic insufficiency. We present a case in which transcatheter aortic valve replacement was implemented successfully as a salvage therapy in a hemodynamically unstable patient experiencing aortic insufficiency as a result of a torn bio-prosthetic leaflet during an unrelated abdominal operation. The successful use of this technique in a non-cardiac operating room allowed the patient to be placed on extracorporeal support and ultimately to be discharged home...
March 13, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
C Le Roy, G Larios, D Springmüller, C Clavería
INTRODUCTION: Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) present a high percentage of undern utrition and the interpretation of their nutritional assessment is difficult. OBJECTIVE: To describe the nutritional status of infants with CHD using two anthropometric classifications and compare them. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Non-concurrent cohort study. We studied children under 12 months under going cardiac surgery. We excluded preterm infants, small for gestational age, carriers of genetic syndrome or other disease with nutritional compromise...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Michael C Mongé, Osama M Eltayeb, John M Costello, Joyce T Johnson, Andrada R Popescu, Cynthia K Rigsby, Carl L Backer
BACKGROUND: Controversy remains regarding the optimal surgical approach for children with supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS). METHODS: Since 1997 we have used Brom three-patch aortoplasty for patients with SVAS. We prefer computed tomography (CT) imaging for preoperative evaluation rather than cardiac catheterization as it avoids the well-known morbidity of general anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to present our intermediate-term results of this strategy...
March 2018: World Journal for Pediatric & Congenital Heart Surgery
Jessica N R Peoples, Timmi Maxmillian, Quynh Le, Sergiy M Nadtochiy, Paul S Brookes, George A Porter, Victor L Davidson, Steven N Ebert
Cardiac energy demands during early embryonic periods are sufficiently met through glycolysis, but as development proceeds, oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria becomes increasingly vital. Adrenergic hormones are known to stimulate metabolism in adult mammals and are essential for embryonic development, but relatively little is known about their effects on metabolism in the embryonic heart.  Here, we show that embryos lacking adrenergic stimulation have approximately 10-fold less cardiac ATP compared to littermate controls...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Marta Scatena, Melissa F Jackson, Mei Y Speer, Elizabeth M Leaf, Mary C Wallingford, Cecilia M Giachelli
OBJECTIVE: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a major cause of aortic stenosis (AS) and cardiac insufficiency. Patients with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at heightened risk for CAVD, and their valves have greater calcification than nondiabetic valves. No drugs to prevent or treat CAVD exist, and animal models that might help identify therapeutic targets are sorely lacking. To develop an animal model mimicking the structural and functional features of CAVD in people with T2DM, we tested a diabetogenic, procalcific diet and its effect on the incidence and severity of CAVD and AS in the, LDLr-/- ApoB100/100 mouse model...
February 15, 2018: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Cristian A Linte, Jon J Camp, Maryam E Rettmann, Dieter Haemmerich, Mehmet K Aktas, David T Huang, Douglas L Packer, David R Holmes
In spite of significant efforts to improve image-guided ablation therapy, a large number of patients undergoing ablation therapy to treat cardiac arrhythmic conditions require repeat procedures. The delivery of insufficient thermal dose is a significant contributor to incomplete tissue ablation, in turn leading to the arrhythmia recurrence. Ongoing research efforts aim to better characterize and visualize RF delivery to monitor the induced tissue damage during therapy. Here, we propose a method that entails modeling and visualization of the lesions in real-time...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Bo Wen, Lei Xu, Junfu Liang, Zhanming Fan, Zhonghua Sun
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the image quality and radiation dose of computed tomography (CT) coronary angiography using a 256-row detector CT scanner in a single cardiac cycle in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: Seventy consecutive patients (41 men and 29 women; age range was from 37 to 84 years, mean age was 61.7 ± 10.2 years; body mass index range was from 15.08 to 36.45 kg/m, mean body mass index was 25.9 ± 3.5 kg/m) with persistent or paroxysmal AF during acquisition, who were not receiving any medications for heart rate (HR) regulation, were imaged with a 256-row detector CT scanner (Revolution CT, GE healthcare)...
March 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Shannon N Nees, Jonathan N Flyer, Anjali Chelliah, Jeffrey D Dayton, Lorraine Touchette, David Kalfa, Paul J Chai, Emile A Bacha, Brett R Anderson
OBJECTIVES: Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery (AAOCA) from the opposite sinus of Valsalva is a rare cardiac anomaly associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD). Single-center studies describe surgical repair as safe, although medium- and long-term effects on symptoms and risk of SCD remain unknown. We sought to describe outcomes of surgical repair of AAOCA. METHODS: We reviewed institutional records for patients who underwent AAOCA repair, from 2001 to 2016, at 2 affiliated institutions...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Thierry Brue, Vincent Amodru, Frédéric Castinetti
With fewer than 200 reported cases, Cushing's syndrome (CS) in pregnancy remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In normal pregnancies, misleading signs may be observed such as striae or hypokalemia, while plasma cortisol and urinary free cortisol may rise up to 2-3-fold. While the dexamethasone suppression test is difficult to use, reference values for salivary cortisol appear valid. The predominant cause is adrenal adenoma (sometimes without decreased ACTH), rather than Cushing's disease. There are considerable imaging pitfalls in Cushing's disease...
March 9, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Douglas W Jones, Philip P Goodney, Jens Eldrup-Jorgensen, Marc L Schermerhorn, Jeffrey J Siracuse, Jeanwan Kang, Jesse A Columbo, Bjoern D Suckow, David H Stone
OBJECTIVE: Performing lower extremity bypass (LEB) in actively smoking claudicants remains controversial. Whereas some surgeons advocate a strict nonoperative approach to active smokers, citing perceived inferior outcomes, others will proceed with surgical bypass if the patient is anatomically suited and medical management has failed. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of active smoking on LEB outcomes among claudicants. METHODS: All patients undergoing infrainguinal LEB for claudication in the Vascular Study Group of New England from 2003 to 2016 were analyzed...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Alyssa Kirby, Sisira Jayathissa
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia encountered perioperatively in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. There is emerging evidence suggesting high risk of ischaemic stroke. There are no clear guidelines surrounding initiation of anticoagulation in this setting. This study evaluates current practice in anticoagulant management of new perioperative AF at Hutt Hospital. METHODS: We have undertaken a retrospective study of 3,558 patients aged 60 years and over admitted for non-cardiac surgery at Hutt Hospital in 2014, to assess incidence of new AF/flutter and review how they were managed in regards to anticoagulation...
March 9, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
Diana-Alexandra Ertl, Andreas Gleiss, Katharina Schubert, Caroline Culen, Peer Hauck, Johannes Ott, Alois Gessl, Gabriele Haeusler
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that only a minority of patients with Turner syndrome (TS) have adequate medical care after transfer to adult care. AIM OF THIS STUDY: To assess the status of medical care and quality of life (QoL) in adult women diagnosed with TS and followed-up until transfer. To compare the subjective and objective view of the medical care quality and initiate improvements based on patients' experiences and current recommendations. METHODS: 39 adult women with TS out of 64 patients contacted were seen for a clinical and laboratory check, cardiac ultrasound, standardized and structured questionnaires (SF-36v2 and Beck depression inventory)...
March 7, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Takako Miyazaki, Masaaki Yamagishi, Yoshinobu Maeda, Satoshi Taniguchi, Shuhei Fujita, Hisayuki Hongu, Hitoshi Yaku
OBJECTIVE: Various types of conduits are available for right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) reconstruction. We have developed an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) conduit with bulging sinuses and a fan-shaped ePTFE valve. This study summarized the results of a multicenter study evaluating the valved ePTFE conduit. METHODS: The valve functions of 902 patients (median age, 3.9 years; median weight, 12.6 kg) who underwent RVOT reconstruction using valved ePTFE conduits (9 different sizes, 8-24 mm in diameter) at 65 hospitals between 2001 and 2015 were retrospectively investigated...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Dallas Duncan, Ashwin Sankar, W Scott Beattie, Duminda N Wijeysundera
BACKGROUND: The surgical stress response plays an important role on the pathogenesis of perioperative cardiac complications. Alpha-2 adrenergic agonists attenuate this response and may help prevent postoperative cardiac complications. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of α-2 adrenergic agonists for reducing mortality and cardiac complications in adults undergoing cardiac surgery and non-cardiac surgery. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (2017, Issue 4), MEDLINE (1950 to April Week 4, 2017), Embase (1980 to May 2017), the Science Citation Index, clinical trial registries, and reference lists of included articles...
March 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Karima Taamallah, Sinda Sahraoui, Walid Ghodhbane, Hakim Messaoudi, Mohamed Ziedi, Mokhles Lajmi, Slim Chenik
INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in chronic hemodialysis patients(1). Cardiac surgery in hemodialysis patients exposes to higher risks inherent in the particular status of these patients. The aim of our study is to report the perioperative particularities of hemodialysis patients undergoing cardiac surgery, and to determine the impact of preoperative clinical status on hospital and late morbidity and mortality. METHODS: Between January 1998 and December 2012, 48 patients in chronic hemodialysis (HD) and candidates for cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass were retrospectively included...
May 2017: La Tunisie Médicale
Peter Manu, Yevgeniya Lapitskaya, Atef Shaikh, Jimmi Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Clozapine is widely prescribed for treatment-refractory schizophrenia, but its use is limited by many potentially life-threatening adverse effects. The risk of rechallenge after these complications has never been comprehensively assessed in controlled studies. Thus, clinical guidelines must rely on the published case reports. The number of such reports is likely to increase over time, and updated analyses of larger samples are needed, as they may lead to changes in clinical guidelines...
March 2018: American Journal of Therapeutics
Hongzhi Li, Yeming Xie, Yunshuang Liu, Yali Qi, Chong Tang, Xuefeng Li, Kuiyang Zuo, Dingce Sun, Yongchao Shen, Daxin Pang, Yanhhui Chu, Binghai Zhao
Heart failure arises from diverse cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, ischemic disease and atherosclerosis, valvular insufficiency, myocarditis, and contractile protein mutations. MicroRNAs are dysregulated in heart failure, but identification of the specific microRNAs involved remains incomplete. Here, we evaluate miR-25 expression in the peripheral blood from healthy, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), remote infarct (OMI), hypertensive heart disease (HHD), and HHD resulting in heart failure (HHDF) using q-PCR...
February 27, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Jordi Heijman, Jean-Baptiste Guichard, Dobromir Dobrev, Stanley Nattel
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained heart rhythm disorder and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Current treatment options for AF have significant limitations. Basic research has provided information on mechanisms relevant to the management of AF and promises to contribute significantly to future advances, yet many important translational challenges remain. Here, we analyze the therapeutic limitations for which improvement is needed, consider the translational opportunities presented by recent scientific and technological developments, and attempt to look into the future of where these may lead...
March 2, 2018: Circulation Research
Kanza Benomar, Stéphanie Espiard, Camille Loyer, Arnaud Jannin, Marie-Christine Vantyghem
Natriuretic peptides are a group of hormones including atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), C type (CNP), urodilatin and guanilyn. ANP (half-life: 2-4 min), is secreted by the atrium, BNP (half-life: 20 min) by the ventricle, CNP by the vascular endothelium, urodilatin by the kidney and guanylin by the intestine. These natriuretic peptides prevent water and salt retention through renal action, vasodilatation and hormonal inhibition of aldosterone, vasopressin and cortisol. These peptides also have a recently demonstrated metabolic effect through an increase of lipolysis, thermogenesis, beta cell proliferation and muscular sensitivity to insulin...
February 26, 2018: La Presse Médicale
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