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Pediatric uti

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914999/dual-therapy-for-refractory-overactive-bladder-in-children-a-prospective-open-label-study
#1
Fannie Morin, Anne-Sophie Blais, Geneviève Nadeau, Katherine Moore, Lucie Genois, Stéphane Bolduc
PURPOSE: Mirabegron (β3-adrenoreceptor agonist) is a new molecule with a distinct mechanism of action from antimuscarinics. Combination therapy with solifenacin was recently studied in adult population. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mirabegron as add-on therapy, to treat urinary incontinence in children with idiopathic OAB, refractory/intolerant to antimuscarinics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective off-label study using add-on regimens of mirabegron was conducted with pediatric patients presenting no symptom improvement under intensive behavioural and medical therapies and/or significant side effects (S/E) on antimuscarinic dose escalation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894763/extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-esbl-producing-bacteria-urinary-tract-infections-and-complex-pediatric-urology
#2
Ruth Wragg, Anna Harris, Mitul Patel, Andrew Robb, Harish Chandran, Liam McCarthy
AIM OF THE STUDY: Extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria are resistant to most beta-lactam antibiotics including third-generation cephalosporins, quinolones and aminoglycosides. This resistance is plasmid-borne and can spread between species. Management of ESBL is challenging in children with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and complex urological abnormalities. We aim to quantify the risk in children and specifically in urological patients. METHODS: Retrospective review of a microbiology database (April 2014 to November 2015)...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888411/to-screen-or-not-to-screen-for-vesicoureteral-reflux-in-children-with-ureteropelvic-junction-obstruction-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Marcus Weitz, Maria Schmidt
: Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) are the most common uropathies. The co-occurrence of both anomalies has led to the practice of screening for VUR in children with UPJO to prevent deterioration of kidney function due to renal scarring following urinary tract infections (UTIs). We determined the prevalence of VUR in children with UPJO for a critical assessment of VUR screening by voiding cystourethrography (VCUG). A systematic search strategy in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL was carried out for all articles that included VCUG, and renal scintigraphy or any other appropriate imaging technique for the diagnosis of UPJO...
November 25, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887911/does-perception-of-catheterization-limit-its-use-in-pediatric-uti
#4
Rachel E Selekman, Melissa T Sanford, Lauren N Ko, I Elaine Allen, Hillary L Copp
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect 3-8% of febrile children annually, but correctly diagnosing UTI in young children can present a challenge. Diagnosis requires a non-contaminated urine sample, which requires catheterization or suprapubic aspiration in infants and young children that have not completed toilet training. To improve adherence to these guidelines, it is critical to understand the barriers to urine testing and catheterization. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate parental perception of pediatric UTI evaluation to better understand factors that impede urine testing prior to treatment of suspected UTI...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878110/discontinuation-of-antimicrobial-prophylaxis-ap-in-children-with-spina-bifida-a-case-series-analysis
#5
Kevin G Couloures, Michael Anderson, Michael Machiorlatti, Olivera Marsenic, Lawrence Opas
BACKGROUND: Spina bifida increases the risk for urinary tract infections (UTI). Antimicrobial prophylaxis (AP) reduces symptomatic UTI's but selects resistant organisms. Measures to ensure regular and complete emptying of the bladder combined with treatment of constipation reduce the risk for UTI. OBJECTIVES: Demonstrate that close adherence to a catheterization regimen in children with spina bifida (Selective Treatment - ST) reduces the need for antimicrobial prophylaxis...
September 2016: Nephro-urology Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836442/intravesical-ureteric-reimplantation-for-primary-obstructed-megaureter-in-infants-under-1-year-of-age
#6
Emily Jude, Aniruddh Deshpande, Andrew Barker, Japinder Khosa, Naeem Samnakay
PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the outcome of intravesical ureteric reimplantation for primary obstructed megaureter (POM) performed in infants under 1 year of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was carried out of all infants undergoing intravesical ureteric reimplantation surgery for POM at two pediatric centers in the 12 years between 2003 and 2014. Outcomes were compared with those of children aged over 1 year undergoing intravesical reimplantation for POM during this period...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826154/high-dose-extended-interval-gentamicin-and-tobramycin-for-pediatric-inpatients-a-survey-of-canadian-hospital-pharmacists
#7
Caitlin Roy, Carolyn Gray, Lisa Ruda, Ali Bell, Jennifer Bolt
BACKGROUND: The use of high-dose, extended-interval aminoglycosides, a common practice in adult populations, is less well established for pediatric patients. In younger populations, these drugs are often administered according to a multiple daily dosing method. OBJECTIVE: To characterize prescribing practices for aminoglycosides in pediatric inpatients across Canada, with a focus on high-dose, extended-interval regimens. METHODS: This study was based on an electronic survey of pharmacists representing Canadian health care delivery organizations that provided pediatric inpatient services, which was distributed in March 2015...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824737/povidone-iodine-0-05-chlorhexidine-gluconate-or-water-for-periurethral-cleaning-before-indwelling-urinary-catheterization-in-a-pediatric-intensive-care-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Duygu Sönmez Düzkaya, Gülzade Uysal, Gülçin Bozkurt, Tülay Yakut, Agop Çitak
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of periurethral cleaning with 10% povidone-iodine, 0.05% chlorhexidine gluconate, or sterile water in preventing catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) prior to indwelling urinary catheter insertion in a pediatric intensive care unit. A secondary aim was to identify pathogens resulting in CAUTIs in this group. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: One hundred twenty-two patients cared for in a pediatric intensive care unit of a university hospital between September 2012 and December 2013 participated in the study...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801524/detection-of-pct-and-urinary-%C3%AE-2-mg-enhances-the-accuracy-for-localization-diagnosing-pediatric-urinary-tract-infection
#9
Jian Fang, Jiangwei Luan, Gaohong Zhu, Chang Qi, Dandan Wang
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article was to investigate whether the combination of urinary beta 2 microglobulin (urinary β2 -MG) and procalcitonin (PCT) diagnosis could enhance the localization diagnostic precision of pediatric urinary tract infection comparing with single diagnosis. METHODS: A study was conducted in the Nephrology Department of Wuhan women and children's health care centre. This study incorporated 85 participants, including 35 children who were diagnosed as upper urinary tract infection (UUTI) with the symptom of fever and 50 children who conducted lower urinary tract infection (LUTI)...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785626/neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin-utility-in-urologic-conditions
#10
EDITORIAL
Catherine S Forster, Prasad Devarajan
Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is best known as a non-invasive early marker of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, recent published reports have described additional utility of both plasma NGAL (pNGAL) and urine NGAL (uNGAL) in various pathologic conditions within the pediatric urinary tract, including urinary tract infection, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), renal scarring, and obstructive uropathy. These two forms of NGAL have different applications related to their mechanisms of upregulation: pNGAL can serve as a marker of systemic inflammatory conditions, whereas uNGAL is specific for insults to the renal epithelium...
October 26, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781344/endoscopic-antireflux-surgery-leading-to-obstruction-in-pediatric-renal-transplant-patients
#11
Gina Cambareri, Christina Carpenter, Jeffrey Stock, Jane Lewis, Sarah Marietti
To describe a multicenter experience with management of ureteral obstruction after injection of Dx/HA for VUR in pediatric renal transplant patients. The records of all pediatric renal transplant patients who underwent Dx/HA injection for VUR and had subsequent obstruction were identified, and the management and outcomes were reviewed. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 10 years. There were four patients identified, all of whom had a history of rising creatinine, recurrent UTI, and increasing hydronephrosis which led to the diagnosis of high-grade VUR...
October 26, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780500/adverse-events-following-diagnostic-urethral-catheterization-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#12
Julie Ouellet-Pelletier, Chantal Guimont, Marie Gauthier, Jocelyn Gravel
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess adverse events associated with diagnostic urethral catheterization (UC) in young children and to determine their impact on the patient and their family. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study conducted in the emergency department of a tertiary-care pediatric hospital. All 3- to 24-month-old children with fever who had a diagnostic UC were eligible. Parents who consented to participate were contacted by phone within 7 to 10 days after the UC to answer a standardized questionnaire inquiring about complications...
November 2016: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775283/-pediatric-extracorporeal-shock-wave-lithotripsy
#13
M Fernández Ibieta, A Bujons Tur, J Caffaratti Sfulcini, J Alberola, D Bonín, R Jiménez Corro, H Villavicencio
INTRODUCTION: Extracorporeal Shock Wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the cornerstone of pediatric urolitiasis management. We evaluated its efficacy and complications in a series of children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Children who were managed with ESWL between 2003 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. We studied etiology, clinical presentation, stonefree ratio and relevant complications. SPSS 17.0 software was used. RESULTS: 90 children aged 0 to 10 years (median 2...
April 15, 2015: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761778/antibiotic-resistance-in-pediatric-urinary-tract-infections
#14
REVIEW
Jeremy S Stultz, Christopher D Doern, Emily Godbout
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common problem in pediatric patients. Resistance to common antibiotic agents appears to be increasing over time, although resistance rates may vary based on geographic region or country. Prior antibiotic exposure is a pertinent risk factor for acquiring resistant organisms during a first UTI and recurrent UTI. Judicious prescribing of antibiotics for common pediatric conditions is needed to prevent additional resistance from occurring. Complex pediatric patients with histories of hospitalizations, prior antibiotic exposure, and recurrent UTIs are also at high risk for acquiring UTIs due to extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms...
December 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753672/the-effects-of-bundles-on-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections-in-the-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#15
Duygu Sönmez Düzkaya, Gülçin Bozkurt, Gülzade Uysal, Tülay Yakut
BACKGROUND: There are few studies in the literature from developing countries regarding the rates of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), which is frequently encountered in pediatric intensive care units (PICUs). AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the 2-year rates of CAUTI in a PICU where a CAUTI Prevention Bundle was implemented. DESIGN: This was an interventional prospective study. METHODS: The study was conducted with 390 patients in the PICU of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Turkey, from July 2013 to July 2015...
November 2016: Clinical Nurse Specialist CNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753183/tolerability-of-up-to-200%C3%A2-days-of-prophylaxis-with-valganciclovir-oral-solution-and-or-film-coated-tablets-in-pediatric-kidney-transplant-recipients-at-risk-of-cytomegalovirus-disease
#16
G Varela-Fascinetto, C Benchimol, R Reyes-Acevedo, M Genevray, D Bradley, J Ives, H T Silva
This multicenter, open-label study evaluated the tolerability of extended prophylaxis with valganciclovir in pediatric kidney transplant recipients at risk of CMV disease. Fifty-six patients aged 4 months to 16 years received once-daily valganciclovir oral solution and/or tablets, dosed by BSA and renal function, for up to 200 days. The most common AEs on treatment were upper respiratory tract infection (33.9%), urinary tract infection (33.9%), diarrhea (32.1%), leukopenia (25.0%), neutropenia (23.2%), and headache (21...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749810/importance-of-urine-dipstick-in-evaluation-of-young-febrile-infants-with-positive-urine-culture-a-spanish-pediatric-emergency-research-group-study
#17
Roberto Velasco, Helvia Benito, Rebeca Mozun, Juan E Trujillo, Pedro A Merino, Mercedes de la Torre, Borja Gomez, Santiago Mintegi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics define urinary tract infection (UTI) as the growth of greater than 50,000 ufc/mL of a single bacterium in a urine culture with a positive urine dipstick or with a urinalysis associated. Our objective was to evaluate the adequacy of this cutoff point for the diagnosis of UTI in young febrile infants. METHODS: Subanalysis of a prospective multicenter study developed in RISeuP-SPERG Network between October 11 and September 13...
December 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746280/utility-estimation-for-pediatric-vesicoureteral-reflux-methodological-considerations-using-an-online-survey-platform
#18
Rohit Tejwani, Hsin-Hsiao S Wang, Jessica C Lloyd, Paul J Kokorowski, Caleb P Nelson, Jonathan C Routh
BACKGROUND: The advent of online task-distribution has opened a new avenue to efficiently gather community perspectives needed for utility estimation. Methodological consensus for estimating pediatric utilities is lacking, with disagreement over whom to sample, what perspective (patient vs. parent), and whether instrument-induced anchoring bias is significant. We sought to determine what methodological factors potentially impact utility estimates for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys using a time-trade-off (TTO) instrument were conducted via Amazon's Mechanical Turk online interface; respondents were randomized to answer questions from child, parent, or dyad perspectives on the utility of a VUR health state and one of three "warm-up" scenarios (paralysis, common cold, none) prior to a VUR scenario...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744630/metabolic-risk-factors-in-pediatric-stone-formers-a-report-from-an-emerging-economy
#19
Kiran Imran, Mirza Naqi Zafar, Uzma Ozair, Sadia Khan, Syed Adibul Hasan Rizvi
The goal of this study was to investigate metabolic risk factors in pediatric stone formers in an emerging economy. A prospective, data collection enrolled 250 children age <1-15 years at our center. Risk factors were evaluated by gender and in age groups <1-5, 6-10 and 11-15 years. Patients were evaluated for demographics, blood and 24 h urine for calcium, magnesium, phosphate, uric acid, electrolytes and additional protein, citrate, ammonia and oxalate in urine. All reported values were two sided and statistical significance was considered at p value ≤0...
October 15, 2016: Urolithiasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742519/bacteremic-vs-nonbacteremic-urinary-tract-infection-in-children
#20
Orli Megged
AIM: Bacteremia is an uncommon complication of urinary tract infection (UTI). The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for bacteremic UTI in pediatric patients. METHODS: The medical records of all pediatric patients with UTI between 2013 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Pediatric patients with accompanying bacteremia were compared with pediatric patients with no bacteremia. RESULTS: Five hundred twenty-seven cases of UTI were identified...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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