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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206852/british-journal-of-biomedical-science-in-2016-what-have-we-learned
#1
Andrew Blann
In 2016, the British Journal of Biomedical Science published 36 reports outlining specific advances in each of the various disciplines within biomedical science. These were one review, 25 original articles, 9 'In Brief' reports and one letter to the Editor. Of these, the majority were in blood science (5 in biochemistry, 7 in haematology and 2 in immunology) and infection science (8 in microbiology, 2 in virology) with a smaller number in cellular sciences (6 in cellular pathology and 2 in cytopathology). Three reports considered both biochemistry and immunology, while another reported an advance in the identification of chromosomal abnormalities...
January 2017: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185252/diagnostic-dilemmas-in-hlh-can-t-cell-phenotyping-help
#2
Rebecca A Marsh
The diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) can be a difficult one, and the distinction between primary versus secondary HLH can be particularly challenging during the early stages of diagnosis. This distinction is important to make as primary HLH requires allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for a definitive cure. Flow cytometric screening tests for many of the genetic forms of HLH are available. However, not all patients with primary HLH are captured by these screening tests, due to the fact that no screening test is 100% sensitive, and additionally, some patients with "primary" forms of HLH may have mutations in genes which are yet to be discovered...
February 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185248/mastering-gut-permeability-new-roles-for-old-friends
#3
Michael Bramhall, Colby Zaph
Mast cells are innate immune cells that respond rapidly to infection in barrier tissues such as the skin and intestinal mucosa. Expulsion of parasitic worms in the gut involves a robust type 2 host response, and an acute mastocytosis is often generated at the site of infection. However, the role of mast cells in resistance to worm infections appears to be parasite specific. Mast cells are also involved in tissue repair, but the long-term contribution of mast cell activation after worm expulsion has not been definitively studied...
February 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182501/disorders-of-the-jak-stat-pathway-in-t-cell-lymphoma-pathogenesis-implications-for-immunotherapy
#4
Thomas A Waldmann, Jing Chen
Common gamma receptor-dependent cytokines and their JAK/STAT pathways play pivotal roles in T cell immunity. Abnormal activation of this system was pervasive in diverse T cell malignancies assessed by pSTAT3/pSTAT5 phosphorylation. Activating mutations were described in some but not all cases. JAK1 and STAT3 were required for proliferation and survival of these T cell lines whether or not JAKs or STATs were mutated. Activating JAK and STAT mutations were not sufficient to initiate leukemic cell proliferation but rather only augmented signals from upstream in the cytokine pathway...
February 9, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143692/the-journal-of-allergy-and-clinical-immunology-in-practice-2016-year-in-review
#5
REVIEW
Michael Schatz, Scott H Sicherer, Robert S Zeiger
As editors, we concluded that it would be helpful to our readers to write a Year in Review article that highlights the Review, Original, and Clinical Communication articles published in 2016 in The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice. We summarized articles on the topics of asthma, rhinitis/rhinosinusitis, food allergy, anaphylaxis, drug allergy, urticarial/angioedema, eosinophilic disorders, and immunodeficiency. Within each topic, epidemiologic findings are presented, relevant aspects of prevention are described, and diagnostic and therapeutic advances are enumerated...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142324/memory-b-cells-of-mice-and-humans
#6
Florian Weisel, Mark Shlomchik
Wecomprehensively review memory B cells (MBCs), covering the definition of MBC and their identities and subsets, how MBCs are generated, where they are localized, how they are maintained, and how they are reactivated. Whereas naive B cells adopt multiple fates upon stimulation, MBCs are more restricted in their responses. Evolving work reveals that the MBC compartment in mice and humans consists of distinct subpopulations with differing effector functions. We discuss the various approaches to define subsets and subset-specific roles...
January 30, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142323/intracellular-nucleic-acid-detection-in-autoimmunity
#7
John T Crowl, Elizabeth E Gray, Kathleen Pestal, Hannah E Volkman, Daniel B Stetson
Protective immune responses to viral infection are initiated by innate immune sensors that survey extracellular and intracellular space for foreign nucleic acids. The existence of these sensors raises fundamental questions about self/nonself discrimination because of the abundance of self-DNA and self-RNA that occupy these same compartments. Recent advances have revealed that enzymes that metabolize or modify endogenous nucleic acids are essential for preventing inappropriate activation of the innate antiviral response...
January 30, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142322/microbes-and-cancer
#8
Amiran Dzutsev, Jonathan H Badger, Ernesto Perez-Chanona, Soumen Roy, Rosalba Salcedo, Carolyne K Smith, Giorgio Trinchieri
Commensal microorganisms (the microbiota) live on all the surface barriers of our body and are particularly abundant and diverse in the distal gut. The microbiota and its larger host represent a metaorganism in which the cross talk between microbes and host cells is necessary for health, survival, and regulation of physiological functions locally, at the barrier level, and systemically. The ancestral molecular and cellular mechanisms stemming from the earliest interactions between prokaryotes and eukaryotes have evolved to mediate microbe-dependent host physiology and tissue homeostasis, including innate and adaptive resistance to infections and tissue damage...
January 30, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142321/understanding-human-autoimmunity-and-autoinflammation-through-transcriptomics
#9
Romain Banchereau, Alma-Martina Cepika, Jacques Banchereau, Virginia Pascual
Transcriptomics, the high-throughput characterization of RNAs, has been instrumental in defining pathogenic signatures in human autoimmunity and autoinflammation. It enabled the identification of new therapeutic targets in IFN-, IL-1- and IL-17-mediated diseases. Applied to immunomonitoring, transcriptomics is starting to unravel diagnostic and prognostic signatures that stratify patients, track molecular changes associated with disease activity, define personalized treatment strategies, and generally inform clinical practice...
January 30, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129868/50-years-ago-in-the-journal-of-pediatrics-wiskott-aldrich-syndrome-clinical-immunologic-and-pathologic-observations
#10
Emily B Heikamp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125358/immunobiology-of-long-noncoding-rnas
#11
Maninjay K Atianand, Daniel R Caffrey, Katherine A Fitzgerald
The discovery of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) has provided a new perspective on gene regulation in diverse biological contexts. lncRNAs are remarkably versatile molecules that interact with RNA, DNA, or proteins to promote or restrain the expression of protein-coding genes. Activation of immune cells is associated with dynamic changes in expression of genes, the products of which combat infectious microorganisms, initiate repair, and resolve inflammatory responses in cells and tissues. Recent evidence indicates that lncRNAs play important roles in directing the development of diverse immune cells and controlling the dynamic transcriptional programs that are a hallmark of immune cell activation...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125357/mucosal-ecological-network-of-epithelium-and-immune-cells-for-gut-homeostasis-and-tissue-healing
#12
Yosuke Kurashima, Hiroshi Kiyono
The intestinal epithelial barrier includes columnar epithelial, Paneth, goblet, enteroendocrine, and tuft cells as well as other cell populations, all of which contribute properties essential for gastrointestinal homeostasis. The intestinal mucosa is covered by mucin, which contains antimicrobial peptides and secretory IgA and prevents luminal bacteria, fungi, and viruses from stimulating intestinal immune responses. Conversely, the transport of luminal microorganisms-mediated by M, dendritic, and goblet cells-into intestinal tissues facilitates the harmonization of active and quiescent mucosal immune responses...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125356/the-biology-and-underlying-mechanisms-of-cross-presentation-of-exogenous-antigens-on-mhc-i-molecules
#13
Friedrich M Cruz, Jeff D Colbert, Elena Merino, Barry A Kriegsman, Kenneth L Rock
To monitor the health of cells, the immune system tasks antigen-presenting cells with gathering antigens from other cells and bringing them to CD8 T cells in the form of peptides bound to MHC-I molecules. Most cells would be unable to perform this function because they use their MHC-I molecules to exclusively present peptides derived from the cell's own proteins. However, the immune system evolved mechanisms for dendritic cells and some other phagocytes to sample and present antigens from the extracellular milieu on MHC-I through a process called cross-presentation...
January 11, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072762/giving-axl-the-axe-targeting-axl-in-human-malignancy
#14
REVIEW
Carl M Gay, Kavitha Balaji, Lauren Averett Byers
The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL, activated by a complex interaction between its ligand growth arrest-specific protein 6 and phosphatidylserine, regulates various vital cellular processes, including proliferation, survival, motility, and immunologic response. Although not implicated as an oncogenic driver itself, AXL, a member of the TYRO3, AXL, and MERTK family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is overexpressed in several haematologic and solid malignancies, including acute myeloid leukaemia, non-small cell lung cancer, gastric and colorectal adenocarcinomas, and breast and prostate cancers...
February 14, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063651/recent-highlights-in-psoriasis-research
#15
REVIEW
Samuel T Hwang, Tamar Nijsten, James T Elder
This article highlights recent advances in the immunology, epidemiology, and genetics/genomics of psoriasis from 2015 through 2016. Advances sometimes generate more questions, and this article makes an attempt to point out where controversies might exist in the literature. Many of the articles mentioned were published in the Journal of Investigative Dermatology, but many articles from the broader scientific literature are also cited, to provide context and to add further validity for some of these key findings...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063093/honey-and-wound-healing-an-update
#16
REVIEW
Sami K Saikaly, Amor Khachemoune
For centuries, honey has been utilized for wound healing purposes. In recent times, this specific topic has become a field of interest, possibly due to the advent of antibiotic resistance in microbial pathogens. With constant technological advancement, the information regarding honey's mechanisms of action on wound healing has accumulated at a rapid pace. Similarly, clinical studies comparing honey with traditional wound care therapies are steadily emerging. As a follow-up to a previous review published in the journal in 2011, the current review article outlines publications regarding honey and wound healing that have been published between June 2010 and August 2016...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004382/help-to-go-t-cells-transfer-cd40l-to-antigen-presenting-b-cells
#17
Michael L Dustin
Most immune cell communication takes place by intercellular transfer of cytokines or the contact-dependent interaction of surface receptors in immunological synapses. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Gardell and Parker (Eur. J. Immunol. 2016, X, XXX-XXX) point to a new, hybrid mechanism for Th1-cell delivery of help to B cells, based on contact-dependent CD40L transfer. The transfer process and its specificity are both cell contact dependent and antigen dependent. CD40 expression is also required on the B-cell surface to capture the CD40L presented by the Th1 cell...
December 22, 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984415/a-cytokine-pattern-that-differentiates-pre-from-post-seroconversion-phases-of-primary-hiv-infection
#18
Pastor Lucia, Parker Erica, Carrillo Jorge, Urrea Victor, Fuente-Soro Laura, Respeito Durval, Jairoce Chenjerai, Mandomando Inacio, Blanco Julià, Naniche Denise
BACKGROUND: During acute HIV infection (AHI) HIV actively replicates but seroconversion has not yet occurred. Primary HIV infection (PHI) is characterized by a transient non-specific febrile illness, a massive inflammatory response and the progressive appearance of anti-HIV specific antibodies. In this study we have identified patterns of inflammatory biomarkers associated with the innate immunological reaction prior to completion of a full humoral response. METHODS: A symptom-based screening was used to identify AHI in the Manhiça District Hospital in Mozambique...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959633/engineering-therapeutic-t-cells-from-synthetic-biology-to-clinical-trials
#19
Jonathan H Esensten, Jeffrey A Bluestone, Wendell A Lim
Engineered T cells are currently in clinical trials to treat patients with cancer, solid organ transplants, and autoimmune diseases. However, the field is still in its infancy. The design, and manufacturing, of T cell therapies is not standardized and is performed mostly in academic settings by competing groups. Reliable methods to define dose and pharmacokinetics of T cell therapies need to be developed. As of mid-2016, there are no US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved T cell therapeutics on the market, and FDA regulations are only slowly adapting to the new technologies...
January 24, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959620/microglia-in-physiology-and-disease
#20
Susanne A Wolf, H W G M Boddeke, Helmut Kettenmann
As the immune-competent cells of the brain, microglia play an increasingly important role in maintaining normal brain function. They invade the brain early in development, transform into a highly ramified phenotype, and constantly screen their environment. Microglia are activated by any type of pathologic event or change in brain homeostasis. This activation process is highly diverse and depends on the context and type of the stressor or pathology. Microglia can strongly influence the pathologic outcome or response to a stressor due to the release of a plethora of substances, including cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
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