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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912316/th2-cells-in-health-and-disease
#1
Toshinori Nakayama, Kiyoshi Hirahara, Atsushi Onodera, Yusuke Endo, Hiroyuki Hosokawa, Kenta Shinoda, Damon J Tumes, Yoshitaka Okamoto
Helper T (Th) cell subsets direct immune responses by producing signature cytokines. Th2 cells produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which are important in humoral immunity and protection from helminth infection and are central to the pathogenesis of many allergic inflammatory diseases. Molecular analysis of Th2 cell differentiation and maintenance of function has led to recent discoveries that have refined our understanding of Th2 cell biology. Epigenetic regulation of Gata3 expression by chromatin remodeling complexes such as Polycomb and Trithorax is crucial for maintaining Th2 cell identity...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912315/genetics-of-infectious-and-inflammatory-diseases-overlapping-discoveries-from-association-and-exome-sequencing-studies
#2
David Langlais, Nassima Fodil, Philippe Gros
Genome technologies have defined a complex genetic architecture in major infectious, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorders. High density marker arrays and Immunochips have powered genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that have mapped nearly 450 genetic risk loci in 22 major inflammatory diseases, including a core of common genes that play a central role in pathological inflammation. Whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing have identified more than 265 genes in which mutations cause primary immunodeficiencies and rare forms of severe inflammatory bowel disease...
December 1, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910751/recent-advances-in-pharmacotherapeutic-paradigm-of-mild-to-recalcitrant-atopic-dermatitis
#3
Zahid Hussain, Shariza Sahudin, Hnin Ei Thu, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid, Syed Nasir Abbas Bukhari, Endang Kumolosasi
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic skin inflammatory disorder characterized by perivascular infiltration of immunoglobulin E (IgE), T lymphocytes, and mast cells. The key factors responsible for the pathophysiology of this disease are immunological disorders and defects in epidermal barrier properties. Pruritus, intense itching, psychological stress, deprived physical and mental performance, and sleep disturbance are the hallmark features of this dermatological disorder. Preventive interventions such as educational programs, avoidance of allergens, and exclusive care toward the skin could play a partial role in suppressing the symptoms...
2016: Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899145/bibliometric-analysis-of-publications-on-campylobacter-2000-2015
#4
Waleed M Sweileh, Samah W Al-Jabi, Ansam F Sawalha, Adham S AbuTaha, Sa'ed H Zyoud
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter species are widespread zoonotic pathogens. Campylobacter jejuni causes a form of gastroenteritis called campylobacteriosis. Campylobacter drug resistance is considered a serious threat. In order to better understand national and international research output on Campylobacter, we conducted this bibliometric overview of publications on Campylobacter. This study can be used to assess extent of interaction and response of researchers, food regulators, and health policy makers to global burden of campylobacateriosis...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885153/karl-otto-landsteiner-1868-1943-physician-biochemist-immunologist
#5
Armond S Goldman, Frank C Schmalsteig
Karl Landsteiner applied the sciences of biochemistry, pathology, microbiology, and immunology in medical research to great success during the first half of the 20th century. Although he is principally known for elucidating the major blood group antigens A and B and their isoantibodies for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Landsteiner made many other important medical discoveries. In that respect, he ascertained that paralytic poliomyelitis was due to a virus, the pancreas was damaged in cystic fibrosis, simple chemicals called haptens were able to combine with antibodies, and the Rh antigen that was later found to be the principal cause of hemolytic anemia of the newborn was found in most humans...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875523/a-protein-fragment-derived-from-dna-topoisomerase-i-as-a-novel-tumour-associated-antigen-for-the-detection-of-early-stage-carcinoma
#6
Shang-Mian Yie, Shang-Rong Ye, Xiao-Li Ma, Ke Xie, Jian-Bo Zhang, Mei Cao, Xu He, Zhen-Bo Hu, Cheng-Lu Yang, Jia Zhang, Jie Zeng
BACKGROUND: The production of autoantibodies against tumour-associated antigens (TAAs) is believed to reflect greater immunologic reactivity in cancer patients and enhanced immune surveillance for cancer cells. Over the past few decades, a number of different TAAs and their corresponding autoantibodies have been investigated. However, positive frequency of autoantibody detection in cancer patients has been relatively low. Here we describe a novel TAA that was a fragment derived from human DNA-topoiomerase I and an autoantibody against the novel TAA with relatively high positive frequency in the sera of early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), gastric cancer (GC), colorectal cancer (CRC) and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC)...
December 6, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871877/journal-allergy-clinical-immunology-perspective-clinical-potential-for-imaging-in-asthma-and-other-lung-disorders
#7
Emily M DeBoer, David R Spielberg, Alan S Brody
The ability of lung imaging to phenotype patients, determine prognosis, and to predict response to treatments is expanding in clinical and translational research. The purpose of this perspective is to describe current imaging modalities that may be useful clinical tools in asthma and other lung disorders and to explore some of the new developments in imaging modalities of the lung. These imaging modalities include chest radiography (CXR), computed tomography (CT), lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electrical impedance tomography (EIT), bronchoscopy, and others...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860528/the-lymphatic-system-integral-roles-in-immunity
#8
Gwendalyn J Randolph, Stoyan Ivanov, Bernd H Zinselmeyer, Joshua P Scallan
The lymphatic vasculature is not considered a formal part of the immune system, but it is critical to immunity. One of its major roles is in the coordination of the trafficking of antigen and immune cells. However, other roles in immunity are emerging. Lymphatic endothelial cells, for example, directly present antigen or express factors that greatly influence the local environment. We cover these topics herein and discuss how other properties of the lymphatic vasculature, such as mechanisms of lymphatic contraction (which immunologists traditionally do not take into account), are nonetheless integral in the immune system...
November 14, 2016: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813075/disease-etiology-and-diagnosis-by-tcr-repertoire-analysis-goes-viral
#9
Meriem Attaf, Andrew K Sewell
The importance of T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire diversity is highlighted in murine models of immunodeficiency and in many human pathologies. However, the true extent of TCR diversity and how this diversity varies in health and disease is poorly understood. In a previous issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Lossius et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2014. 44: 3439-3452] dissected the composition of the TCR repertoire in the context of multiple sclerosis (MS) using high-throughput sequencing of TCR-β chains in cerebrospinal fluid samples and blood...
November 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813071/what-goes-up-must-come-down-a-tripartite-dok-3-grb2-ship1-inhibitory-module-limits-bcr-signaling
#10
Michael Reth, Michael R Gold
Properly regulated immunity requires precise integration of activating and inhibitory signals. As for other lymphocytes, B cells express an antigen-specific activating receptor, the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR), and inhibitory receptors (e.g. FcγRIIb) that exercise checkpoint control on B-cell activation. Moreover, following BCR engagement, CD19 recruits proteins that amplify BCR signaling, while CD22 initiates a negative feedback loop by recruiting proteins that inhibit BCR signaling. Initial BCR signaling is mediated by protein tyrosine kinases and lipid kinases; inhibitory receptors directly antagonize the actions of these enzymes by recruiting protein tyrosine phosphatases and lipid phosphatases and positioning them close to actively signaling BCRs...
November 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813070/atopic-dermatitis-a-tale-of-two-distinct-pathomechanisms-that-make-you-itch
#11
Edward F Knol, DirkJan Hijnen
Atopic dermatitis (AD) or eczema is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease. It is a multifactorial disease with local and systemic immune changes. Current therapies focus on restoring the local skin barrier or inhibiting immune responses. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Sehra et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2016. 46:2609-2613] describe a mouse model with T-cell-specific expression of constitutively active Stat6 in Flaky tail mice, which have mutations in the Flg and Tmem79 genes. The authors describe that it is the combination of changes in the skin barrier proteins filaggrin and Tmem79, together with Th2 cytokine signaling in the constitutively active Stat6 transgene, that drives the immune-pathomechanism in AD...
November 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744028/minimally-important-differences-and-risk-levels-for-the-composite-asthma-severity-index
#12
Rebecca Z Krouse, Christine A Sorkness, Jeremy J Wildfire, Agustin Calatroni, Rebecca Gruchalla, Gurjit K Khurana Hershey, Meyer Kattan, Andrew H Liu, Melanie Makhija, Stephen J Teach, Joseph B West, Robert A Wood, Edward M Zoratti, Peter J Gergen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726139/reverse-plasticity-tgf-%C3%AE-and-il-6-induce-th1-to-th17-cell-transdifferentiation-in-the-gut
#13
Jens Geginat, Moira Paroni, Ilko Kastirr, Paola Larghi, Massimiliano Pagani, Sergio Abrignani
Th17 cells are a heterogeneous population of pro-inflammatory T cells that have been shown to mediate immune responses against intestinal bacteria. Th17 cells are highly plastic and can transdifferentiate to Th1/17 cells or unconventional Th1 cells, which are highly pathogenic in animal models of immune-mediated diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases. A recent European Journal of Immunology article by Liu et al. (Eur. J. Immunol. 2015. 45:1010-1018) showed, surprisingly, that Th1 cells have a similar plasticity, and could transdifferentiate to Th17 cells...
October 2016: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709638/ige-associated-allergic-disorders-recent-advances-in-etiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#14
REVIEW
F Zellweger, A Eggel
IgE-associated allergic diseases belong to the most common inflammatory conditions. Their clinical manifestation ranges from mild symptoms to life-threatening episodes. Often patients experience a reduction in physical and psychologic well-being and suffer from a decreased quality of life due to disease activity. The continuously rising number of people that are affected by an allergic condition indicates an urgent need for better diagnostics and more efficient treatment options. Recent progress in the understanding of pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying IgE-associated allergic disorders has led to the identification of novel therapeutic targets and the development of drug candidates that are currently under evaluation...
December 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679709/atypical-anti-glomerular-basement-membrane-disease-lessons-learned
#15
EDITORIAL
Richard J Glassock
Anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease usually pursues a self-limited course, at least from the immunological perspective. In addition, circulating antibodies to cryptic, conformational epitopes within the NC1 domain of the alpha 3 chain of Type IV Collagen are commonly found at the zenith of the clinical disease. However, exceptions to these general rules do occur, as exemplified by two remarkable cases reported in this issue of the Clinical Kidney Journal. The possible explanations for and the lessons learned from these uncommon occurrences are discussed in this short commentary...
October 2016: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664377/current-application-of-exhaled-nitric-oxide-in-clinical-practice
#16
Joseph D Spahn, Jonathan Malka, Stanley J Szefler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648810/interleukin-15-promotes-intestinal-dysbiosis-with-butyrate-deficiency-associated-with-increased-susceptibility-to-colitis
#17
Marlies Meisel, Toufic Mayassi, Hannah Fehlner-Peach, Jason C Koval, Sarah L O'Brien, Reinhard Hinterleitner, Kathryn Lesko, Sangman Kim, Romain Bouziat, Li Chen, Christopher R Weber, Sarkis K Mazmanian, Bana Jabri, Dionysios A Antonopoulos
Dysbiosis resulting in gut-microbiome alterations with reduced butyrate production are thought to disrupt intestinal immune homeostasis and promote complex immune disorders. However, whether and how dysbiosis develops before the onset of overt pathology remains poorly defined. Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is upregulated in distressed tissue and its overexpression is thought to predispose susceptible individuals to and have a role in the pathogenesis of celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although the immunological roles of IL-15 have been largely studied, its potential impact on the microbiota remains unexplored...
September 20, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616001/top-100-cited-articles-on-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-a-bibliometric-analysis
#18
Jee-Eun Kim, Jong Kuk Kim, Kang Min Park, Yerim Kim, Dae Young Yoon, Jong Seok Bae
Since the first description of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) 100 years ago, the concept of this syndrome has changed remarkably. The purpose of our study was to identify and characterize the most-cited articles that have contributed to advancing the understanding of GBS. Based on the database of Journal Citation Reports, we selected 554 journals that were considered as potential sources of reports on studies related to clinical neurology and general medicine. The Web of Science search tools were used to identify the most-cited articles relevant to GBS or other variants in the selected journals...
September 12, 2016: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27611317/global-regulatory-t-cell-research-from-2000-to-2015-a-bibliometric-analysis
#19
Yin Zongyi, Chen Dongying, Li Baifeng
We aimed to analyze the global scientific output of regulatory T-cell (Treg) research and built a model to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate publications from 2000 to 2015. Data were obtained from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) of Thomson Reuters on January 1, 2016. The bibliometric method and Citespace III were used to analyze authors, journals, publication outputs, institutions, countries, research areas, research hotspots, and trends. In total, we identified 35,741 publications on Treg research from 2000 to 2015, and observed that the annual publication rate increased with time...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610592/correlation-between-antibodies-to-bisphenol-a-its-target-enzyme-protein-disulfide-isomerase-and-antibodies-to-neuron-specific-antigens
#20
Datis Kharrazian, Aristo Vojdani
Evidence continues to increase linking autoimmunity and other complex diseases to the chemicals commonly found in our environment. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic monomer used widely in many forms, from food containers to toys, medical products and many others. The potential for BPA to participate as a triggering agent for autoimmune diseases is likely due to its known immunological influences. The goal of this research was to determine if immune reactivity to BPA has any correlation with neurological antibodies...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
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