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journal of immunology

Carla C Baan
Developments in organ preservation techniques, novel immunosuppressants and improved diagnostics have made organ transplantation the success it is today. That does not mean that we are not still striving to perfect techniques, or that there are no more problems to solve. New strategies to address the donor organ shortage, prevent and manage antibody-mediated rejection, lower long-term allograft failure rates and reduce the toxicity of life-long immunosuppressive medication are urgently needed, and are being widely researched...
March 9, 2018: Transplantation
Jacques Robert
Although the amphibian Xenopus laevis produces antibodies as diversified as those from mammals in the primary repertoire, antibody affinity maturation after immunization is relatively poor and has been associated with a poor B cell selection of AID-mediated hypermutations and lack of germinal centers in the spleen, the only secondary lymphoid organ of this amphibian. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Neely et al., [Eur. J. Immunol. 2018. 48: 430-440] have unveiled the role of distinctive dendritic cell (DC) subset, XL cells, which have the capacity to acquire and retain native antigens for B cell maturation...
March 2018: European Journal of Immunology
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March 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Mohammad-Reza Mahmoudian-Sani, Fatemeh Rafeei, Razieh Amini, Massoud Saidijam
INTRODUCTION: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that have the potential of proliferation, high self-renewal, and the potential of multilineage differentiation. The differentiation potential of the MSCs in vivo and in vitro has caused these cells to be regarded as potentially appropriate tools for wound healing. After the burn, trauma or removal of the tumor of wide wounds is developed. Although standard treatment for skin wounds is primary healing or skin grafting, they are not always practical mainly because of limited autologous skin grafting...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Hanif Esmail, Catherine Riou, Elsa du Bruyn, Rachel Pei-Jen Lai, Yolande X R Harley, Graeme Meintjes, Katalin A Wilkinson, Robert J Wilkinson
Globally, about 36.7 million people were living with HIV infection at the end of 2015. The most frequent infection co-occurring with HIV-1 is Mycobacterium tuberculosis-389,000 deaths per annum are attributable to HIV tuberculosis, 75% of those occurring in Africa. HIV-1 infection increases the risk of tuberculosis by a factor of up to 26 and alters its clinical presentation, complicates diagnosis and treatment, and worsens outcome. Although HIV-1-induced depletion of CD4+ T cells underlies all these effects, more widespread immune deficits also contribute to susceptibility and pathogenesis...
February 28, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
J Magarian Blander
Antigen cross-presentation is an adaptation of the cellular process of loading MHC-I molecules with endogenous peptides during their biosynthesis within the endoplasmic reticulum. Cross-presented peptides derive from internalized proteins, microbial pathogens, and transformed or dying cells. The physical separation of internalized cargo from the endoplasmic reticulum, where the machinery for assembling peptide-MHC-I complexes resides, poses a challenge. To solve this problem, deliberate rewiring of organelle communication within cells is necessary to prepare for cross-presentation, and different endocytic receptors and vesicular traffic patterns customize the emergent cross-presentation compartment to the nature of the peptide source...
February 28, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
Jessica R Ingram, Florian I Schmidt, Hidde L Ploegh
The unique class of heavy chain-only antibodies, present in Camelidae, can be shrunk to just the variable region of the heavy chain to yield VHHs, also called nanobodies. About one-tenth the size of their full-size counterparts, nanobodies can serve in applications similar to those for conventional antibodies, but they come with a number of signature advantages that find increasing application in biology. They not only function as crystallization chaperones but also can be expressed inside cells as such, or fused to other proteins to perturb the function of their targets, for example, by enforcing their localization or degradation...
February 28, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
Mark M Davis, Petter Brodin
Recent progress in both conceptual and technological approaches to human immunology have rejuvenated a field that has long been dominated by the inbred mouse model. This is a healthy development both for the clinical relevance of immunology and for the fact that it is a way to gain access to the wealth of phenomenology in the many human diseases that involve the immune system. This is where we are likely to discover new immunological mechanisms and principals, especially those involving genetic heterogeneity or environmental influences that are difficult to model effectively in inbred mice...
February 28, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
Daniel Martinho-Dias, Bernardo Sousa-Pinto, Júlio Botelho-Souza, António Soares, Luís Delgado, João Almeida Fonseca
We performed a MeSH term-based bibliometric analysis aiming to assess the publication trends of EAACI journals, namely Allergy, Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (PAI) (from 1990 to 2015) and Clinical and Translational Allergy (CTA) (from its inception in 2011 to 2015). We also aimed to discuss the impact of the creation of CTA in the publication topics of Allergy and PAI. We analysed a total of 1973 articles and 23,660 MeSH terms. Most MeSH terms in the three journals fell in the category of "basic immunology and molecular biology" (BIMB)...
2018: Clinical and Translational Allergy
Daisuke Takahashi, Mitsuhiro Fujihara, Toru Miyazaki, Keiji Matsubayashi, Shinichiro Sato, Hiroshi Azuma, Toshiaki Kato, Shuichi Kino, Hisami Ikeda, Shigeru Takamoto, Noriyuki Sato, Toshihiko Torigoe
Antibody-mediated phagocytosis of platelets using a flow cytometric monocyte-based phagocytosis assay (FMPA) has been shown to predict the outcome of platelet transfusion. The easy adherence between platelets and monocytes even in the absence of an antibody is regarded as one of limitations of the FMPA. To improve the FMPA for prediction of transfusion outcome, we used the pH-sensitive dye pHrodo succinimidyl ester (pHrodo-SE), which has weak fluorescence at neutral pH and has increased fluorescence intensity in low pH conditions such as in lysomes...
March 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
Frank J Lebeda, Michael Adler, Zygmunt F Dembek
Introduction: This review summarizes the research conducted on botulinum toxin (BoTx) from 1943 to 1956 by a small group of Camp Detrick investigators and their staff. A systematic, cross-disciplinary approach was used to develop effective vaccines against this biological warfare threat agent. In response to the potential need for medical countermeasures against BoTx during World War II, the refinement of isolation and purification techniques for BoTx successfully led to the large-scale production of botulinum toxoid vaccines...
February 6, 2018: Military Medicine
Antonio J Pagán, Lalita Ramakrishnan
Granulomas are organized aggregates of macrophages, often with characteristic morphological changes, and other immune cells. These evolutionarily ancient structures form in response to persistent particulate stimuli-infectious or noninfectious-that individual macrophages cannot eradicate. Granulomas evolved as protective responses to destroy or sequester particles but are frequently pathological in the context of foreign bodies, infections, and inflammatory diseases. We summarize recent findings that suggest that the granulomatous response unfolds in a stepwise program characterized by a series of macrophage activations and transformations that in turn recruit additional cells and produce structural changes...
February 5, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
Shigekazu Nagata
The human body generates 10-100 billion cells every day, and the same number of cells die to maintain homeostasis in our body. Cells infected by bacteria or viruses also die. The cell death that occurs under physiological conditions mainly proceeds by apoptosis, which is a noninflammatory, or silent, process, while pathogen infection induces necroptosis or pyroptosis, which activates the immune system and causes inflammation. Dead cells generated by apoptosis are quickly engulfed by macrophages for degradation...
February 5, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
Andrew J Macpherson, Bahtiyar Yilmaz, Julien P Limenitakis, Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg
IgA is the dominant immunoglobulin isotype produced in mammals, largely secreted across the intestinal mucosal surface. Although induction of IgA has been a hallmark feature of microbiota colonization following colonization in germ-free animals, until recently appreciation of the function of IgA in host-microbial mutualism has depended mainly on indirect evidence of alterations in microbiota composition or penetration of microbes in the absence of somatic mutations in IgA (or compensatory IgM). Highly parallel sequencing techniques that enable high-resolution analysis of either microbial consortia or IgA sequence diversity are now giving us new perspectives on selective targeting of microbial taxa and the trajectory of IgA diversification according to induction mechanisms, between different individuals and over time...
January 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
Marthe F S Lindenbergh, Willem Stoorvogel
The initiation and maintenance of adaptive immunity require multifaceted modes of communication between different types of immune cells, including direct intercellular contact, secreted soluble signaling molecules, and extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs can be formed as microvesicles directly pinched off from the plasma membrane or as exosomes secreted by multivesicular endosomes. Membrane receptors guide EVs to specific target cells, allowing directional transfer of specific and complex signaling cues. EVs are released by most, if not all, immune cells...
January 31, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
Michael Schatz, Scott H Sicherer, Robert S Zeiger
An impressive number of clinically impactful studies and reviews were published in The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice in 2017. As a service to our readers, the editors provide this Year in Review article to highlight and contextualize the advances published over the past year. We include information from articles on asthma, allergic rhinitis, rhinosinusitis, immunotherapy, atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, food allergy, anaphylaxis, drug hypersensitivity, urticarial/angioedema, eosinophilic disorders, and immunodeficiency...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Peter Parham, Lisbeth A Guethlein
Natural killer (NK) cells have vital functions in human immunity and reproduction. In the innate and adaptive immune responses to infection, particularly by viruses, NK cells respond by secreting inflammatory cytokines and killing infected cells. In reproduction, NK cells are critical for genesis of the placenta, the organ that controls the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the growing fetus. Controlling NK cell functions are interactions of HLA class I with inhibitory NK cell receptors. First evolved was the conserved interaction of HLA-E with CD94:NKG2A; later established were diverse interactions of HLA-A, -B, -C with killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors...
February 2, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
Hao Feng, Jing-Kun Zhao, Tobias S Schiergens, Pu-Xiongzhi Wang, Bao-Chi Ou, Rami Al-Sayegh, Ming-Lun Li, Ai-Guo Lu, Shuai Yin, Wolfgang E Thasler
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy remains one of the cornerstones to improve the outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Radiotherapy of the CRC not only help to destroy cancer cells but also remodel the tumour microenvironment by enhancing tumour-specific tropism of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (BM-MSC) from the peripheral circulation. However, the role of local MSCs and recruited BM-MSC under radiation were not well defined. Indeed, the functions of BM-MSC without irradiation intervention remained controversial in tumour progression: BM-MSC was previously shown to modulate the immune function of major immune cells, resulting in an impaired immunological sensitivity and to induce an increased risk of tumour recurrence...
February 6, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Robert Brink, Tri Giang Phan
Maintenance of immunological self-tolerance requires lymphocytes carrying self-reactive antigen receptors to be selectively prevented from mounting destructive or inflammatory effector responses. Classically, self-tolerance is viewed in terms of the removal, editing, or silencing of B and T cells that have formed self-reactive antigen receptors during their early development. However, B cells activated by foreign antigen can enter germinal centers (GCs), where they further modify their antigen receptor by somatic hypermutation (SHM) of their immunoglobulin genes...
January 22, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
Annie Elong Ngono, Sujan Shresta
Flaviviruses such as dengue (DENV), yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), and Zika (ZIKV) are human pathogens of global significance. In particular, DENV causes the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral diseases in humans, and ZIKV emerged from obscurity into the spotlight in 2016 as the etiologic agent of congenital Zika syndrome. Owing to the recent emergence of ZIKV as a global pandemic threat, the roles of the immune system during ZIKV infections are as yet unclear. In contrast, decades of DENV research implicate a dual role for the immune system in protection against and pathogenesis of DENV infection...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
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