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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30016966/advances-in-pediatrics-in-2017-current-practices-and-challenges-in-allergy-endocrinology-gastroenterology-genetics-immunology-infectious-diseases-neonatology-nephrology-neurology-pulmonology-from-the-perspective-of-italian-journal-of-pediatrics
#1
REVIEW
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Silvia Montella, Bertrand Tchana, Giuliana Valerio, Alberto Verrotti, Mariella Valenzise, Sergio Bernasconi, Giovanni Corsello
This review provides an overview of a remarkable number of significant studies in pediatrics that have been published over the past year in the Italian Journal of Pediatrics. We have selected information from papers presented in the Journal that deal with allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, genetics, immunology, infectious diseases, neonatology, nephrology, neurology, pulmonology. The relevant epidemiologic findings, and developments in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of the last year have been discussed and placed in context...
July 17, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29974950/dtr-mediated-conditional-cell-ablation-progress-and-challenges
#2
Christiane Ruedl, Steffen Jung
Cell ablation is a valuable complement to mutagenesis for experimentally defining specific cell functions in physiology and pathophysiology in small animal models. One of the most popular ablation strategies involves transgenic expression of a primate diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) on murine cells that are otherwise resistant to the bacterial exotoxin. The efforts of many laboratories using the DTR approach over the years have yielded numerous valuable insights into specific cell functions. Here, we will discuss the technical aspects of the DTR approach, including the strengths, pitfalls, and future strategies to overcome the shortcomings, highlighting a recent paper published in the European Journal of Immunology [El Hachem et al...
July 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29963293/journal-of-oral-microbiology-extends-its-editorial-competence-in-immunology-promoting-its-international-impact
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775468/conflicts-of-interest-of-editors-of-medical-journals
#4
Waqas Haque, Abu Minhajuddin, Arjun Gupta, Deepak Agrawal
BACKGROUND: Almost all medical journals now require authors to publicly disclose conflicts of interests (COI). The same standard and scrutiny is rarely employed for the editors of the journals although COI may affect editorial decisions. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study to determine the prevalence and magnitude of financial relationships among editors of 60 influential US medical journals (10 each for internal medicine and five subspecialties: cardiology, gastroenterology, neurology, dermatology and allergy & immunology)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757903/contemporary-strategies-and-barriers-to-transplantation-tolerance
#5
Brian Ezekian, Paul M Schroder, Kyle Freischlag, Janghoon Yoon, Jean Kwun, Stuart J Knechtle
The purpose of this review is to discuss immunologic tolerance as it applies to solid organ transplantation and to identify barriers that hinder the achievement of this long-term goal. First, the definition of tolerance and an introduction of mechanisms by which tolerance exists or can be achieved will be discussed. Next, a review of contemporary attempts at achieving transplant tolerance will be described. Finally, a discussion of the humoral barriers to transplantation tolerance and potential ways to overcome these barriers will be presented...
May 31, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625844/who-iuis-allergen-nomenclature-providing-a-common-language
#6
Anna Pomés, Janet M Davies, Gabriele Gadermaier, Christiane Hilger, Thomas Holzhauser, Jonas Lidholm, Andreas L Lopata, Geoffrey A Mueller, Andreas Nandy, Christian Radauer, Sanny K Chan, Uta Jappe, Jörg Kleine-Tebbe, Wayne R Thomas, Martin D Chapman, Marianne van Hage, Ronald van Ree, Stefan Vieths, Monika Raulf, Richard E Goodman
A systematic nomenclature for allergens originated in the early 1980s, when few protein allergens had been described. A group of scientists led by Dr. David G. Marsh developed a nomenclature based on the Linnaean taxonomy, and further established the World Health Organization/International Union of Immunological Societies (WHO/IUIS) Allergen Nomenclature Sub-Committee in 1986. Its stated aim was to standardize the names given to the antigens (allergens) that caused IgE-mediated allergies in humans. The Sub-Committee first published a revised list of allergen names in 1986, which continued to grow with rare publications until 1994...
April 3, 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528966/in-case-you-missed-it-basic-science-advances-in-transplantation-2017
#7
Carla C Baan
Developments in organ preservation techniques, novel immunosuppressants and improved diagnostics have made organ transplantation the success it is today. That does not mean that we are not still striving to perfect techniques, or that there are no more problems to solve. New strategies to address the donor organ shortage, prevent and manage antibody-mediated rejection, lower long-term allograft failure rates and reduce the toxicity of lifelong immunosuppressive medication are urgently needed, and are being widely researched...
June 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522243/frog-s-dcs-have-it-all-in-one
#8
Jacques Robert
Although the amphibian Xenopus laevis produces antibodies as diversified as those from mammals in the primary repertoire, antibody affinity maturation after immunization is relatively poor and has been associated with a poor B cell selection of AID-mediated hypermutations and lack of germinal centers in the spleen, the only secondary lymphoid organ of this amphibian. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Neely et al., [Eur. J. Immunol. 2018. 48: 430-440] have unveiled the role of distinctive dendritic cell (DC) subset, XL cells, which have the capacity to acquire and retain native antigens for B cell maturation...
March 2018: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518825/-consensus-on-the-application-of-glucocorticoid-from-relative-experts-in-pediatric-rheumatoid-diseases-part-1
#9
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504236/the-effect-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-combined-with-platelet-rich-plasma-on-skin-wound-healing
#10
REVIEW
Mohammad-Reza Mahmoudian-Sani, Fatemeh Rafeei, Razieh Amini, Massoud Saidijam
INTRODUCTION: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that have the potential of proliferation, high self-renewal, and the potential of multilineage differentiation. The differentiation potential of the MSCs in vivo and in vitro has caused these cells to be regarded as potentially appropriate tools for wound healing. After the burn, trauma or removal of the tumor of wide wounds is developed. Although standard treatment for skin wounds is primary healing or skin grafting, they are not always practical mainly because of limited autologous skin grafting...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490165/the-immune-response-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-hiv-1-coinfected-persons
#11
Hanif Esmail, Catherine Riou, Elsa du Bruyn, Rachel Pei-Jen Lai, Yolande X R Harley, Graeme Meintjes, Katalin A Wilkinson, Robert J Wilkinson
Globally, about 36.7 million people were living with HIV infection at the end of 2015. The most frequent infection co-occurring with HIV-1 is Mycobacterium tuberculosis-374,000 deaths per annum are attributable to HIV-tuberculosis, 75% of those occurring in Africa. HIV-1 infection increases the risk of tuberculosis by a factor of up to 26 and alters its clinical presentation, complicates diagnosis and treatment, and worsens outcome. Although HIV-1-induced depletion of CD4+ T cells underlies all these effects, more widespread immune deficits also contribute to susceptibility and pathogenesis...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490164/regulation-of-the-cell-biology-of-antigen-cross-presentation
#12
J Magarian Blander
Antigen cross-presentation is an adaptation of the cellular process of loading MHC-I molecules with endogenous peptides during their biosynthesis within the endoplasmic reticulum. Cross-presented peptides derive from internalized proteins, microbial pathogens, and transformed or dying cells. The physical separation of internalized cargo from the endoplasmic reticulum, where the machinery for assembling peptide-MHC-I complexes resides, poses a challenge. To solve this problem, deliberate rewiring of organelle communication within cells is necessary to prepare for cross-presentation, and different endocytic receptors and vesicular traffic patterns customize the emergent cross-presentation compartment to the nature of the peptide source...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490163/exploiting-nanobodies-singular-traits
#13
Jessica R Ingram, Florian I Schmidt, Hidde L Ploegh
The unique class of heavy chain-only antibodies, present in Camelidae, can be shrunk to just the variable region of the heavy chain to yield VHHs, also called nanobodies. About one-tenth the size of their full-size counterparts, nanobodies can serve in applications similar to those for conventional antibodies, but they come with a number of signature advantages that find increasing application in biology. They not only function as crystallization chaperones but also can be expressed inside cells as such, or fused to other proteins to perturb the function of their targets, for example, by enforcing their localization or degradation...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490162/rebooting-human-immunology
#14
Mark M Davis, Petter Brodin
Recent progress in both conceptual and technological approaches to human immunology have rejuvenated a field that has long been in the shadow of the inbred mouse model. This is a healthy development both for the clinical relevance of immunology and for the fact that it is a way to gain access to the wealth of phenomenology in the many human diseases that involve the immune system. This is where we are likely to discover new immunological mechanisms and principals, especially those involving genetic heterogeneity or environmental influences that are difficult to model effectively in inbred mice...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484171/publication-trends-of-allergy-pediatric-allergy-and-immunology-and-clinical-and-translational-allergy-journals-a-mesh-term-based-bibliometric-analysis
#15
Daniel Martinho-Dias, Bernardo Sousa-Pinto, Júlio Botelho-Souza, António Soares, Luís Delgado, João Almeida Fonseca
We performed a MeSH term-based bibliometric analysis aiming to assess the publication trends of EAACI journals, namely Allergy, Pediatric Allergy and Immunology (PAI) (from 1990 to 2015) and Clinical and Translational Allergy (CTA) (from its inception in 2011 to 2015). We also aimed to discuss the impact of the creation of CTA in the publication topics of Allergy and PAI. We analysed a total of 1973 articles and 23,660 MeSH terms. Most MeSH terms in the three journals fell in the category of "basic immunology and molecular biology" (BIMB)...
2018: Clinical and Translational Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455735/corrigendum-to-flow-cytometric-quantitation-of-platelet-phagocytosis-by-monocytes-using-a-ph-sensitive-dye-phrodo-se-journal-of-immunological-methods-447-2017-57-64
#16
Daisuke Takahashi, Mitsuhiro Fujihara, Toru Miyazaki, Keiji Matsubayashi, Shinichiro Sato, Hiroshi Azuma, Toshiaki Kato, Shuichi Kino, Hisami Ikeda, Shigeru Takamoto, Noriyuki Sato, Toshihiko Torigoe
Antibody-mediated phagocytosis of platelets using a flow cytometric monocyte-based phagocytosis assay (FMPA) has been shown to predict the outcome of platelet transfusion. The easy adherence between platelets and monocytes even in the absence of an antibody is regarded as one of limitations of the FMPA. To improve the FMPA for prediction of transfusion outcome, we used the pH-sensitive dye pHrodo succinimidyl ester (pHrodo-SE), which has weak fluorescence at neutral pH and has increased fluorescence intensity in low pH conditions such as in lysomes...
March 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420800/yesterday-and-today-the-impact-of-research-conducted-at-camp-detrick-on-botulinum-toxin
#17
Frank J Lebeda, Michael Adler, Zygmunt F Dembek
Introduction: This review summarizes the research conducted on botulinum toxin (BoTx) from 1943 to 1956 by a small group of Camp Detrick investigators and their staff. A systematic, cross-disciplinary approach was used to develop effective vaccines against this biological warfare threat agent. In response to the potential need for medical countermeasures against BoTx during World War II, the refinement of isolation and purification techniques for BoTx successfully led to the large-scale production of botulinum toxoid vaccines...
May 1, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400999/the-formation-and-function-of-granulomas
#18
Antonio J Pagán, Lalita Ramakrishnan
Granulomas are organized aggregates of macrophages, often with characteristic morphological changes, and other immune cells. These evolutionarily ancient structures form in response to persistent particulate stimuli-infectious or noninfectious-that individual macrophages cannot eradicate. Granulomas evolved as protective responses to destroy or sequester particles but are frequently pathological in the context of foreign bodies, infections, and inflammatory diseases. We summarize recent findings that suggest that the granulomatous response unfolds in a stepwise program characterized by a series of macrophage activations and transformations that in turn recruit additional cells and produce structural changes...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400998/apoptosis-and-clearance-of-apoptotic-cells
#19
Shigekazu Nagata
The human body generates 10-100 billion cells every day, and the same number of cells die to maintain homeostasis in our body. Cells infected by bacteria or viruses also die. The cell death that occurs under physiological conditions mainly proceeds by apoptosis, which is a noninflammatory, or silent, process, while pathogen infection induces necroptosis or pyroptosis, which activates the immune system and causes inflammation. Dead cells generated by apoptosis are quickly engulfed by macrophages for degradation...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400985/iga-function-in-relation-to-the-intestinal-microbiota
#20
Andrew J Macpherson, Bahtiyar Yilmaz, Julien P Limenitakis, Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg
IgA is the dominant immunoglobulin isotype produced in mammals, largely secreted across the intestinal mucosal surface. Although induction of IgA has been a hallmark feature of microbiota colonization following colonization in germ-free animals, until recently appreciation of the function of IgA in host-microbial mutualism has depended mainly on indirect evidence of alterations in microbiota composition or penetration of microbes in the absence of somatic mutations in IgA (or compensatory IgM). Highly parallel sequencing techniques that enable high-resolution analysis of either microbial consortia or IgA sequence diversity are now giving us new perspectives on selective targeting of microbial taxa and the trajectory of IgA diversification according to induction mechanisms, between different individuals and over time...
April 26, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
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