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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521904/make-immunological-peace-not-war-potential-applications-of-tolerogenic-dendritic-cells
#1
EDITORIAL
Emma Louise Walton
In this issue of the Biomedical Journal, we explore the powerful immunosuppressive properties of tolerogenic dendritic cells and discuss their potential to bring about lifelong tolerance in transplantation and autoimmune disease. We also highlight an exciting new development in the field of malaria diagnosis that could facilitate early detection of the disease.
April 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498914/bibliometric-analysis-and-curriculum-mapping-of-travel-medicine-research
#2
Gerard T Flaherty, Keng Lim Yap
Evidence-based travel medicine requires that research priorities reflect the wide knowledge base of this discipline. Bibliometric analysis of articles published in Journal of Travel Medicine yielded the following results: epidemiology (6%, n = 105); immunology/vaccinology (8.5%, n = 148); pre-travel assessment/consultation (30.5%, n = 533); diseases contracted during travel (48.3%, n = 843); other clinical conditions associated with travel (6.8%, n = 119); post-travel assessment (5.2%, n = 91) and administrative and general travel medicine issues (6%, n = 105)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485520/murine-thymic-nk-cells-a-case-of-identity
#3
Victoria Male, Hugh J M Brady
Just over a decade ago, it was established that NK cells in the thymus do not follow precisely the same developmental pathway as conventional NK cells that develop in the bone marrow. Subsequently, it has emerged that NK cells are one branch of a family of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs). ILC1s and thymic NK cells have, however, sufficient similarities such that questions have been raised about how distinctive each cell type is from the other. In this issue of European Journal of Immunology, Gabrielli et al. [Eur...
May 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422058/melatonin-a-review-of-its-potential-functions-and-effects-on-dental-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Maria Permuy, Mónica López-Peña, Antonio González-Cantalapiedra, Fernando Muñoz
Melatonin is a hormone synthesised and secreted by the pineal gland and other organs. Its secretion, controlled by an endogenous circadian cycle, has been proven to exert immunological, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects that can be beneficial in the treatment of certain dental diseases. This article is aimed at carrying out a review of the literature published about the use of melatonin in the dental field and summarising its potential effects. In this review article, an extensive search in different databases of scientific journals was performed with the objective of summarising all of the information published on melatonin use in dental diseases, focussing on periodontal diseases and dental implantology...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406842/hfe-gene-mutations-and-iron-status-in-100-healthy-polish-children
#5
Barbara Kaczorowska-Hac, Marcin Luszczyk, Jedrzej Antosiewicz, Wieslaw Ziolkowski, Elzbieta Adamkiewicz-Drozynska, Malgorzata Mysliwiec, Ewa Milosz, Jan J Kaczor
Iron participates in oxygen transport, energetic, metabolic, and immunologic processes. There are 2 main causes of iron overload: hereditary hemochromatosis which is a primary cause, is a metabolic disorder caused by mutations of genes that control iron metabolism and secondary hemochromatosis caused by multitransfusions, chronic hemolysis, and intake of iron rich food. The most common type of hereditary hemochromatosis is caused by HFE gene mutation. In this study, we analyzed iron metabolism in 100 healthy Polish children in relation to their HFE gene status...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402325/the-bioenergetics-of-inflammation-insights-into-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#6
REVIEW
K N Keane, E K Calton, R Carlessi, P H Hart, P Newsholme
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic metabolic disorders worldwide, and its incidence in Asian countries is alarmingly high. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is closely associated with obesity, and the staggering rise in obesity is one of the primary factors related to the increased frequency of T2DM. Low-grade chronic inflammation is also accepted as an integral metabolic adaption in obesity and T2DM, and is believed to be a major player in the onset of insulin resistance. However, the exact mechanism(s) that cause a persistent chronic low-grade infiltration of leukocytes into insulin-target tissues such as adipose, skeletal muscle and liver are not entirely known...
April 12, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387944/th17-and-treg-lymphocytes-as-cellular-biomarkers-of-disease-activity-in-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis
#7
Lorenzo Cosmi
Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA) (formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis) is a vasculitis of unknown etiology affecting predominantly small- to medium-sized vessels, usually involving the upper and lower respiratory tract and kidneys. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies are probably the initial cause of the inflammatory process that leads to the typical necrotizing lesions. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Szczeklik et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2017. 47: 724-733] report some interesting findings on the possible involvement of T-cell subsets in the pathogenesis of the disease...
April 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387942/the-balance-between-treg-and-th17-cells-cd11b-and-interleukin-6
#8
Christoph Garbers, Stefan Rose-John
One of the gold standards for animal models of rheumatoid arthritis is the murine collagen-induced arthritis model. Native type II collagen together with CFA is injected into susceptible mouse strains. Unfortunately, only mice with H-2(q) or H-2(r) MHC haplotypes are susceptible, making the widely used C57BL/6 mouse strain, which carries the H-2(b) haplotype, resistant against the disease. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Stevanin et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2017. 47: 637-645] now convincingly show that although WT C57BL/6 mice are resistant to collagen-induced arthritis, mice with a homozygous deletion of CD11b on the same genetic background are fully susceptible in this important animal model of rheumatoid arthritis...
April 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378851/effect-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-supplementation-on-c-peptide-preservation-in-pregnant-women-with-type-1-diabetes-randomized-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#9
M Horvaticek, J Djelmis, M Ivanisevic, S Oreskovic, M Herman
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is caused by autoimmune insulitis. There are evidences that pregnancy and n-3 fatty acids exhibit suppressive effect on human inflammatory system. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Ninety pregnant women with T1DM were included in the prospective randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. Forty-seven of them were put on standard diabetic diet enriched with EPA and DHA twice a day (EPA 120 mg and DHA 616 mg; Study group) and 43 pregnant diabetic women were on standard diabetic diet with placebo (Control group)...
April 5, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375775/engineering-microneedle-patches-for-vaccination-and-drug-delivery-to-skin
#10
Mark R Prausnitz
Microneedle patches (MNPs) contain arrays of solid needles measuring hundreds of microns in length that deliver drugs and vaccines into skin in a painless, easy-to-use manner. Optimal MNP design balances multiple interdependent parameters that determine mechanical strength, skininsertion reliability, drug delivery efficiency, painlessness, manufacturability, and other features of MNPs that affect their performance. MNPs can be made by adapting various microfabrication technologies for delivery of small-molecule drugs, biologics, and vaccines targeted to the skin, which can have pharmacokinetic and immunologic advantages...
March 24, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368539/measles-vaccination-is-effective-at-under-nine-months-of-age-and-provides-nonspecific-immunological-benefits
#11
Katie L Flanagan
The measles virus is highly contagious and causes considerable morbidity and mortality, particularly in the young. Immunization with the live measles vaccine (MV) continues to save millions of lives [1]. World Health Organization (WHO) policy now recommends giving measles vaccine at 9 months of age in high-risk settings in the developing world, and 12 months if the measles risk is lower [2]. This is because earlier vaccination in the presence of maternal antibody (mAb) interferes with the development of vaccine-induced immunity [3]...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332868/is-autoimmunology-a-discipline-of-its-own-a-big-data-based-bibliometric-and-scientometric-analyses
#12
Abdulla Watad, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Mohammad Adawi, Howard Amital, Shaye Kivity, Naim Mahroum, Miri Blank, Yehuda Shoenfeld
Autoimmunology is a super-specialty of immunology specifically dealing with autoimmune disorders. To assess the extant literature concerning autoimmune disorders, bibliometric and scientometric analyses (namely, research topics/keywords co-occurrence, journal co-citation, citations, and scientific output trends - both crude and normalized, authors network, leading authors, countries, and organizations analysis) were carried out using open-source software, namely, VOSviewer and SciCurve. A corpus of 169,519 articles containing the keyword "autoimmunity" was utilized, selecting PubMed/MEDLINE as bibliographic thesaurus...
March 23, 2017: Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322578/interview-with-amr-h-sawalha-epigenetics-and-autoimmunity
#13
Amr H Sawalha
Amr H Sawalha is Professor of Internal Medicine and Marvin and Betty Danto Research Professor of Connective Tissue Research at the University of Michigan, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Rheumatology. He also holds faculty appointments at the Center for Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics and the Graduate Program in Immunology at the University of Michigan. He was recently appointed as Guest Professor at Central South University in Changsha, China. He received his medical degree from Jordan University of Science and Technology and completed his residency training in internal medicine at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, and his fellowship in rheumatology at the University of Michigan...
March 21, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226238/defense-priming-an-adaptive-part-of-induced-resistance
#14
Brigitte Mauch-Mani, Ivan Baccelli, Estrella Luna, Victor Flors
Priming is an adaptive strategy that improves the defensive capacity of plants. This phenomenon is marked by an enhanced activation of induced defense mechanisms. Stimuli from pathogens, beneficial microbes, or arthropods, as well as chemicals and abiotic cues, can trigger the establishment of priming by acting as warning signals. Upon stimulus perception, changes may occur in the plant at the physiological, transcriptional, metabolic, and epigenetic levels. This phase is called the priming phase. Upon subsequent challenge, the plant effectively mounts a faster and/or stronger defense response that defines the postchallenge primed state and results in increased resistance and/or stress tolerance...
April 28, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226229/a-perspective-on-the-role-of-computational-models-in-immunology
#15
Arup K Chakraborty
This is an exciting time for immunology because the future promises to be replete with exciting new discoveries that can be translated to improve health and treat disease in novel ways. Immunologists are attempting to answer increasingly complex questions concerning phenomena that range from the genetic, molecular, and cellular scales to that of organs, whole animals or humans, and populations of humans and pathogens. An important goal is to understand how the many different components involved interact with each other within and across these scales for immune responses to emerge, and how aberrant regulation of these processes causes disease...
April 26, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226228/antigen-presenting-cells-in-the-skin
#16
Sakeen W Kashem, Muzlifah Haniffa, Daniel H Kaplan
Professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the skin include dendritic cells, monocytes, and macrophages. They are highly dynamic, with the capacity to enter skin from the peripheral circulation, patrol within tissue, and migrate through lymphatics to draining lymph nodes. Skin APCs are endowed with antigen sensing, processing, and presenting machinery and play key roles in initiating, modulating, and resolving cutaneous inflammation. Skin APCs are a highly heterogeneous population with functionally specialized subsets that are developmentally imprinted and modulated by local tissue microenvironmental and inflammatory cues...
February 6, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226227/protective-and-harmful-immunity-to-rsv-infection
#17
Peter J M Openshaw, Chris Chiu, Fiona J Culley, Cecilia Johansson
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an exceptional mucosal pathogen. It specializes in infection of the ciliated respiratory epithelium, causing disease of variable severity with little or no direct systemic effects. It infects virtually all children by the age of three years and then repeatedly infects throughout life; this it does despite relatively slight variations in antigenicity, apparently by inducing selective immunological amnesia. Inappropriate or dysregulated responses to RSV can be pathogenic, causing disease-enhancing inflammation that contributes to short- and long-term effects...
February 6, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226226/microglia-function-in-the-central-nervous-system-during-health-and-neurodegeneration
#18
Marco Colonna, Oleg Butovsky
Microglia are resident cells of the brain that regulate brain development, maintenance of neuronal networks, and injury repair. Microglia serve as brain macrophages but are distinct from other tissue macrophages owing to their unique homeostatic phenotype and tight regulation by the central nervous system (CNS) microenvironment. They are responsible for the elimination of microbes, dead cells, redundant synapses, protein aggregates, and other particulate and soluble antigens that may endanger the CNS. Furthermore, as the primary source of proinflammatory cytokines, microglia are pivotal mediators of neuroinflammation and can induce or modulate a broad spectrum of cellular responses...
February 9, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226225/thymic-epithelial-cells
#19
Jakub Abramson, Graham Anderson
IntrathymicTcell development is a complex process that depends upon continuous guidance from thymus stromal cell microenvironments. The thymic epithelium within the thymic stroma comprises highly specialized cells with a high degree of anatomic, phenotypic, and functional heterogeneity. These properties are collectively required to bias thymocyte development toward production of self-tolerant and functionally competent T cells. The importance of thymic epithelial cells (TECs) is evidenced by clear links between their dysfunction and multiple diseases where autoimmunity and immunodeficiency are major components...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206852/british-journal-of-biomedical-science-in-2016-what-have-we-learned
#20
Andrew Blann
In 2016, the British Journal of Biomedical Science published 36 reports outlining specific advances in each of the various disciplines within biomedical science. These were one review, 25 original articles, 9 'In Brief' reports and one letter to the Editor. Of these, the majority were in blood science (5 in biochemistry, 7 in haematology and 2 in immunology) and infection science (8 in microbiology, 2 in virology) with a smaller number in cellular sciences (6 in cellular pathology and 2 in cytopathology). Three reports considered both biochemistry and immunology, while another reported an advance in the identification of chromosomal abnormalities...
January 2017: British Journal of Biomedical Science
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