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Fatty acid synthetase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927994/the-acyl-activating-enzyme-phaae13-is-an-alternative-enzymatic-source-of-precursors-for-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-in-petunia-flowers
#1
Guoju Chen, Heping Liu, Qian Wei, Huina Zhao, Juanxu Liu, Yixun Yu
Anthocyanins, a class of flavonoids, are responsible for the orange to blue coloration of flowers and act as visual attractors to aid pollination and seed dispersal. Malonyl-CoA is the precursor for the formation of flavonoids and anthocyanins. Previous studies have suggested that malonyl-CoA is formed almost exclusively by acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of malonyl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and bicarbonate. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of Petunia hybrida acyl-activating enzyme 13 (PhAAE13), a member of clade VII of the AAE superfamily that encodes malonyl-CoA synthetase, was isolated...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913282/proteomics-provides-insights-into-biological-pathways-altered-by-plant-growth-promoting-bacteria-and-arbuscular-mycorrhiza-in-sorghum-grown-in-marginal-soil
#2
Faten Dhawi, Rupali Datta, Wusirika Ramakrishna
Sorghum is an economically important crop, a model system for gene discovery and a biofuel source. Sorghum seedlings were subjected to three microbial treatments, plant growth promoting bacteria (B), arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi mix with two Glomus species (G. aggregatum and G. etunicatum), Funelliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus irregularis (My), and B and My combined (My+B). Proteomic analysis was conducted followed by integration with metabolite, plant biomass and nutrient data. Out of 366 differentially expressed proteins in sorghum roots, 44 upregulated proteins overlapping among three treatment groups showed positive correlation with sorghum biomass or element uptake or both...
November 29, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908785/disco-interacting-protein-2-regulates-axonal-bifurcation-and-guidance-of-drosophila-mushroom-body-neurons
#3
Yohei Nitta, Daisuke Yamazaki, Atsushi Sugie, Makoto Hiroi, Tetsuya Tabata
Axonal branching is one of the key processes within the enormous complexity of the nervous system to enable a single neuron to send information to multiple targets. However, the molecular mechanisms that control branch formation are poorly understood. In particular, previous studies have rarely addressed the mechanisms underlying axonal bifurcation, in which axons form new branches via splitting of the growth cone. We demonstrate that DISCO Interacting Protein 2 (DIP2) is required for precise axonal bifurcation in Drosophila mushroom body (MB) neurons by suppressing ectopic bifurcation and regulating the guidance of sister axons...
November 28, 2016: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888064/molecular-cloning-and-nutrient-regulation-analysis-of-long-chain-acyl-coa-synthetase-1-gene-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella-l
#4
Han-Liang Cheng, Shuai Chen, Jian-He Xu, Le-Fei Yi, Yong-Xing Peng, Qian Pan, Xin Shen, Zhi-Guo Dong, Xia-Qing Zhang, Wen-Xiang Wang
Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (ACSL1), a key regulatory enzyme of fatty acid metabolism, catalyzes the conversion of long-chain fatty acids to acyl-coenzyme A. The full-length cDNAs of ACSL1a and ACSL1b were cloned from the liver of a grass carp. Both cDNAs contained a 2094bp open reading frame encoding 697 amino acids. Amino acid sequence alignment showed that ACSL1a shared 73.5% sequence identity with ACSL1b. Each of the two ACSL1s proteins had a transmembrane domain, a P-loop domain, and L-, A-, and G-motifs, which were relatively conserved in comparison to other vertebrates...
November 23, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881664/lipid-disequilibrium-disrupts-er-proteostasis-by-impairing-erad-substrate-glycan-trimming-and-dislocation
#5
Milton To, Clark W H Peterson, Melissa A Roberts, Jessica L Counihan, Tiffany T Wu, Mercedes S Forster, Daniel K Nomura, James A Olzmann
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mediates the folding, maturation, and deployment of the secretory proteome. Proteins that fail to achieve their native conformation are retained in the ER and targeted for clearance by ER-associated degradation (ERAD), a sophisticated process that mediates the ubiquitin-dependent delivery of substrates to the 26S proteasome for proteolysis. Recent findings indicate that inhibition of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases with triacsin C, a fatty acid analog, impairs lipid droplet (LD) biogenesis and ERAD, suggesting a role for LDs in ERAD...
November 23, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875634/the-stringent-response-plays-a-key-role-in-bacillus-subtilis-survival-of-fatty-acid-starvation
#6
A A Pulschen, D E Sastre, F Machinandiarena, A Crotta Asis, D Albanesi, D de Mendoza, F J Gueiros-Filho
The stringent response is a universal adaptive mechanism to protect bacteria from nutritional and environmental stresses. The role of the stringent response during lipid starvation has been studied only in Gram-negative bacteria. Here we report that the stringent response also plays a crucial role in the adaptation of the model Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis to fatty acid starvation. B. subtilis lacking all three (p)ppGpp-synthetases (RelBs , RelP and RelQ) or bearing a RelBs variant that no longer synthesizes (p)ppGpp suffer extreme loss of viability upon lipid starvation...
November 22, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867934/a-comparison-of-molecular-biology-mechanism-of-shewanella-putrefaciens-between-fresh-and-terrestrial-sewage-wastewater
#7
Jiajie Xu, Weina He, Zhonghua Wang, Dijun Zhang, Jing Sun, Jun Zhou, Yanyan Li, Xiurong Su
Municipal and industrial wastewater is often discharged into the environment without appropriate treatment, especially in developing countries. As a result, many rivers and oceans are contaminated. It is urgent to control and administer treatments to these contaminated rivers and oceans. However, most mechanisms of bacterial colonization in contaminated rivers and oceans were unknown, especially in sewage outlets. We found Shewanella putrefaciens to be the primary bacteria in the terrestrial sewage wastewater outlets around Ningbo City, China...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854037/antifungal-lipopeptides-produced-by-bacillus-sp-fjat-14262-isolated-from-rhizosphere-soil-of-the-medicinal-plant-anoectochilus-roxburghii
#8
Qianqian Chen, Bo Liu, Jieping Wang, Jianmei Che, Guohong Liu, Xiong Guan
This study aimed to develop biocontrol Bacillus and explore bacterial biocontrol substances. According to the blood agar test, strain FJAT-14262 was screened as a biosurfactant-producer. The biosurfactant-producing ability of FJAT-14262 was further confirmed by the oil spreading tests because of its amphipathic character. Furthermore, its fermentation supernatant could decrease the surface tension from 74.1 to 32.7 mN m(-1). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis indicated that the biosurfactant produced by the strain FJAT-14262 was a kind of lipopeptides...
November 16, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742886/oil-biosynthesis-in-underground-oil-rich-storage-vegetative-tissue-comparison-of-cyperus-esculentus-tuber-with-oil-seeds-and-fruits
#9
Zhenle Yang, Hongying Ji, Dantong Liu
Cyperus esculentus is unique in that it can accumulate rich oil in tuber. However, the underlying mechanism of tuber oil biosynthesis is still unclear. Our transcriptional analyses of the pathways from pyruvate production up to triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in tuber revealed many distinct species-specific lipid expression patterns from oil seeds and fruits, indicating that in C. esculentus tuber, (1) carbon flux from sucrose toward plastid pyruvate could be produced mostly through cytosolic glycolytic pathway, (2) acetyl-CoA synthetase might be an important contributor to acetyl-CoA formation for plastid fatty acid biosynthesis, (3) expression pattern for stearoyl-ACP desaturase was associated with high oleic acid composition, (4) it was most likely that endoplasmic reticulum-associated acyl-CoA synthetase played a significant role in the export of fatty acids between the plastid and ER, (5) lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP)-δ was most probably related to the formation of DAG pool in Kennedy pathway, (6) diacylglyceroltransacylase 2 (DGAT2) and phospholipid:diacylglycerolacyltransferase 1 (PDAT1) might play crucial roles in tuber oil biosynthesis...
October 13, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713423/downregulation-of-acetyl-coa-synthetase-2-is-a-metabolic-hallmark-of-tumor-progression-and-aggressiveness-in-colorectal-carcinoma
#10
Jeong Mo Bae, Jung Ho Kim, Hyeon Jeong Oh, Hye Eun Park, Tae Hun Lee, Nam-Yun Cho, Gyeong Hoon Kang
Acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 is an emerging key enzyme for cancer metabolism, which supplies acetyl-CoA for tumor cells by capturing acetate as a carbon source under stressed conditions. However, implications of acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 in colorectal carcinoma may differ from other malignancies, because normal colonocytes use short-chain fatty acids as an energy source, which are supplied by fermentation of the intestinal flora. Here we analyzed acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 mRNA expression by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR in paired normal mucosa and tumor tissues of 12 colorectal carcinomas, and subsequently evaluated acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in 157 premalignant colorectal lesions, including 60 conventional adenomas and 97 serrated polyps, 1,106 surgically resected primary colorectal carcinomas, and 23 metastatic colorectal carcinomas in the liver...
October 7, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708683/microarray-analysis-of-gene-expression-in-liver-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle-in-response-to-chronic-dietary-administration-of-ndga-to-high-fructose-fed-dyslipidemic-rats
#11
Haiyan Zhang, Wen-Jun Shen, Yihang Li, Alex Bittner, Stefanie Bittner, Juveria Tabassum, Yuan F Cortez, Fredric B Kraemer, Salman Azhar
Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), the main metabolite of Creosote Bush, has been shown to have profound effects on the core components of metabolic syndrome, including lowering of blood glucose, free fatty acids and triglyceride levels, attenuating elevated blood pressure in several rodent models of dyslipidemia, and improving body weight, insulin resistance, diabetes and hypertension. In the present study, a high-fructose diet fed rat model of hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis was employed to investigate the global transcriptional changes in the lipid metabolizing pathways in three insulin sensitive tissues: liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in response to chronic dietary administration of NDGA...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704180/a-simple-method-for-isolation-and-construction-of-markerless-cyanobacterial-mutants-defective-in-acyl-acyl-carrier-protein-synthetase
#12
Kouji Kojima, Sumie Keta, Kazuma Uesaka, Akihiro Kato, Nobuyuki Takatani, Kunio Ihara, Tatsuo Omata, Makiko Aichi
Cyanobacterial mutants defective in acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (Aas) secrete free fatty acids (FFAs) into the external medium and hence have been used for the studies aimed at photosynthetic production of biofuels. While the wild-type strain of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is highly sensitive to exogenously added linolenic acid, mutants defective in the aas gene are known to be resistant to the externally provided fatty acid. In this study, the wild-type Synechocystis cells were shown to be sensitive to lauric, oleic, and linoleic acids as well, and the resistance to these fatty acids was shown to be enhanced by inactivation of the aas gene...
December 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665016/effect-of-white-striping-myopathy-on-breast-muscle-pectoralis-major-protein-turnover-and-gene-expression-in-broilers
#13
Karen Vignale, Justina V Caldas, Judy A England, Nirun Boonsinchai, Andrew Magnuson, Erik D Pollock, Sami Dridi, Casey M Owens, Craig N Coon
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of white striping ( WS: ) of broiler breast muscle (Pectoralis major) on protein turnover and gene expression of genes related to protein degradation and fatty acid synthesis. A total of 560 day-old male broiler chicks Cobb 500 were allocated in a total of 16 pens, 35 chicks per pen. A completely randomized design was conducted with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (2 scores: severe and normal, and 3 breast meat samples sites). At d 60, 20 birds were randomly selected, euthanized, and scored for white striping...
September 24, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660679/contrast-enhanced-ultrasonographic-findings-of-serum-amyloid-a-positive-hepatocellular-neoplasm-does-hepatocellular-adenoma-arise-in-cirrhotic-liver
#14
Mariko Kumagawa, Naoki Matsumoto, Yukinobu Watanabe, Midori Hirayama, Takao Miura, Hiroshi Nakagawara, Masahiro Ogawa, Shunichi Matsuoka, Mitsuhiko Moriyama, Tadatoshi Takayama, Masahiko Sugitani
Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) was recently classified into four pathological subtypes. There have been few studies describing the findings of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) of each type. Our case concerns a 78-year-old man who had undergone routine medical check-ups for hepatitis C for 11 years. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a 28 mm, hypo-echoic mass in the segment 4 of the liver. His integrating amount of drinking was 670 kg convert into ethanol. CEUS with Sonazoid demonstrated mild uniform hypo-enhancement with inflow of microbubbles from the periphery of the tumor in the arterial phase, and heterogeneously hypo-enhancement in the post vascular phase...
September 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647415/long-chain-acyl-coa-synthetase-6-regulates-lipid-synthesis-and-mitochondrial-oxidative-capacity-in-human-and-rat-skeletal-muscle
#15
Bruno G Teodoro, Igor H Sampaio, Lucas H M Bomfim, André L Queiroz, Leonardo R Silveira, Anderson O Souza, Anna M A P Fernandes, Marcos N Eberlin, Tai-Yu Huang, Donghai Zheng, P Darrell Neufer, Ronald N Cortright, Luciane C Alberici
Long-chain Acyl-CoA Synthetases (ACSL 1 to 6) are key enzymes regulating partitioning of acyl-CoA species toward different metabolic fates such as lipid synthesis or β-oxidation. Despite the understanding that ecotopic lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle is associated with metabolic diseases like obesity and Type II Diabetes, the role of specific ACSL isoforms in lipid synthesis remains unclear. Herein we describe for the first time the presence of ACSL6 mRNA in human skeletal muscle and the role that ACSL6 plays in lipid synthesis in both rodent and human skeletal muscle...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644403/activation-of-ppar%C3%AE-by-fatty-acid-accumulation-enhances-fatty-acid-degradation-and-sulfatide-synthesis
#16
Yang Yang, Yuyao Feng, Xiaowei Zhang, Takero Nakajima, Naoki Tanaka, Eiko Sugiyama, Yuji Kamijo, Toshifumi Aoyama
Very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) catalyzes the first reaction in the mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation pathway. VLCAD deficiency is associated with the accumulation of fat in multiple organs and tissues, which results in specific clinical features including cardiomyopathy, cardiomegaly, muscle weakness, and hepatic dysfunction in infants. We speculated that the abnormal fatty acid metabolism in VLCAD-deficient individuals might cause cell necrosis by fatty acid toxicity. The accumulation of fatty acids may activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), a master regulator of fatty acid metabolism and a potent nuclear receptor for free fatty acids...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27618227/hindbrain-a2-noradrenergic-neuron-adenosine-5-monophosphate-activated-protein-kinase-activation-upstream-kinase-phosphorylase-protein-expression-and-receptivity-to-hormone-and-fuel-reporters-of-short-term-food-deprivation-are-regulated-by-estradiol
#17
Karen P Briski, Fahaad S H Alenazi, Manita Shakya, Paul W Sylvester
Estradiol (E) mitigates acute and postacute adverse effects of 12 hr-food deprivation (FD) on energy balance. Hindbrain 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates hyperphagic and hypothalamic metabolic neuropeptide and norepinephrine responses to FD in an E-dependent manner. Energy-state information from AMPK-expressing hindbrain A2 noradrenergic neurons shapes neural responses to metabolic imbalance. Here we investigate the hypothesis that FD causes divergent changes in A2 AMPK activity in E- vs...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616431/effects-of-fatty-acid-transport-protein-1-on-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-porcine-intramuscular-preadipocytes
#18
Xiaoling Chen, Yanliu Luo, Ruisheng Wang, Bo Zhou, Zhiqing Huang, Gang Jia, Hua Zhao, Guangmang Liu
Fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1) plays an important role in the fatty acid transmembrane transport and fat deposition. However, its role in porcine intramuscular preadipocytes proliferation and differentiation remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the effects of pFATP1 on porcine intramuscular preadipocytes proliferation and differentiation. Overexpression of pFATP1 in porcine intramuscular preadipocytes significantly promoted the proliferation of porcine intramuscular preadipocytes, and also significantly upregulated the expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT enhancer binding protein α, lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid synthetase and perilipin 1...
September 12, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588037/characterization-of-long-chain-acyl-coa-synthetases-which-stimulate-secretion-of-fatty-acids-in-green-algae-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#19
Bin Jia, Yanzi Song, Min Wu, Baicheng Lin, Kang Xiao, Zhangli Hu, Ying Huang
BACKGROUND: Microalgae biofuel has become the most promising renewable energy over the past few years. But limitations still exist because of its high cost. Although, efforts have been made in enhancement of lipid productivity, the major cost problem in harvesting and oil extraction is still intractable. Thus, the idea of fatty acids (FAs) secretion which can massively facilitate algae harvesting and oil extraction was investigated here. RESULTS: The cDNAs of two long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (LACSs) genes were cloned from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and named as cracs1 and cracs2...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578002/mnx1-is-oncogenically-upregulated-in-african-american-prostate-cancer
#20
Li Zhang, Jianghua Wang, Yongquan Wang, Yiqun Zhang, Patricia Castro, Longjiang Shao, Arun Sreekumar, Nagireddy Putluri, Nilanjan Guha, Saligrama Deepak, Arunkumar Padmanaban, Chad J Creighton, Michael Ittmann
Incidence and mortality rates for prostate cancer are higher in African-American (AA) men than in European-American (EA) men, but the biologic basis for this disparity is unclear. We carried out a detailed analysis of gene expression changes in prostate cancer compared with their matched benign tissues in a cohort of AA men and compared them with existing data from EA men. In this manner, we identified MNX1 as a novel oncogene upregulated to a relatively greater degree in prostate cancer from AA men. Androgen and AKT signaling play a central role in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and we found that both of these signaling pathways increased MNX1 expression...
November 1, 2016: Cancer Research
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