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Fatty acid synthetase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049903/glutamate-homeostasis-in-the-adult-rat-prefrontal-cortex-is-altered-by-cortical-docosahexaenoic-acid-accrual-during-adolescence-an-in-vivo-1-h-mrs-study
#1
Robert K McNamara, Ruth H Asch, Jennifer D Schurdak, Diana M Lindquist
Major psychiatric disorders are associated with dysregulated glutamate homeostasis and deficits in the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This study determined the effects of dietary-induced alterations in brain DHA accrual on cortical glutamate homeostasis in the adult rat brain. Adolescent rats were fed a control diet (n = 20), a n-3 fatty acid-deficient diet (DEF, n = 20), or a fish oil-fortified diet containing preformed DHA (FO, n = 20). In adulthood (1)H MRS scans were performed with voxels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and thalamus...
October 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031784/isobarictags-for-relative-and-absolute-quantitation-itraq-based-proteomics-for-the-investigation-of-the-effect-of-huganqingzhi-on-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-rats
#2
Fan Xia, Xiaorui Yao, Waijiao Tang, Chunxin Xiao, Miaoting Yang, Benjie Zhou
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hugan Qingzhi tablet (HQT), a traditional Chinese medicine formula has been adopted for preventing and treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). AIM: In order to explore the anti-NAFLD mechanisms of HQT, iTRAQ-based proteomics was employed to investigate the expression profiles of proteins in NAFLD rats induced by high-fat diet after HQT treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The NAFLD rat model was administration of high-fat diet (HFD) for 12weeks and administering HQT in a daily basis to the HFD groups...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022553/polynucleobacter-aenigmaticus-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-permanently-anoxic-monimolimnion-of-a-temperate-meromictic-lake
#3
Martin W Hahn, Ulrike Koll, Gerlinde Karbon, Johanna Schmidt, Elke Lang
The bacterial strain MWH-K35W1(T) was isolated from a permanently anoxic water layer of a meromictic lake located in the Austrian Salzkammergut area. The basically chemo-organoheterotrophic strain was isolated and maintained under aerobic conditions. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene and the glutamine synthetase gene (glnA) of the strain suggested an affiliation to the genus Polynucleobacter and the cryptic species complex PnecC. Strain MWH-K35W1(T) shares with the type strains of the six free-living species of the genus Polynucleobacter affiliated with this species complex 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 99...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986507/a-conserved-mammalian-mitochondrial-isoform-of-acetyl-coa-carboxylase-acc1-provides-the-malonyl-coa-essential-for-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-tandem-with-acsf3
#4
Geoffray Monteuuis, Fumi Suomi, Juha M Kerätär, Ali J Masud, Alexander J Kastaniotis
Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFAS) is a highly conserved pathway essential for mitochondrial biogenesis. The mtFAS process is required for mitochondrial respiratory chain assembly and function, synthesis of the lipoic acid cofactor indispensable for the function of several mitochondrial enzyme complexes and essential for embryonic development in mice. Mutations in human mtFAS have been reported to lead to neurodegenerative disease. The source of malonyl-CoA for mtFAS in mammals has remained unclear...
October 6, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956599/first-biochemical-characterization-of-a-methylcitric-acid-cycle-from-bacillus-subtilis-strain-168
#5
Jason J Reddick, Sherona Sirkisoon, Rejwi Acharya Dahal, Grant Hardesty, Natalie E Hage, William T Booth, Amy L Quattlebaum, Suzette N Mills, Victoria G Meadows, Sydney L H Adams, Jennifer S Doyle, Brittany E Kiel
The genome of Bacillus subtilis strain 168 contains the mother cell metabolic gene (mmg) operon that encodes homologues from the methylcitric acid cycle. We showed that the three genes, mmgDE and yqiQ(mmgF), provide three of the five steps of the methylcitric acid cycle. We also showed that the fourth step can be supplied by citB (aconitase), and we suggest that the fifth missing step, the propionyl-CoA synthetase, is probably skipped because the β-oxidation of methyl-branched fatty acids by the enzymes encoded by mmgABC should produce propionyl-CoA...
October 6, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942495/candida-albicans-fatty-acyl-coa-synthetase-cafaa4p-is-involved-in-the-uptake-of-exogenous-long-chain-fatty-acids-and-cell-activity-in-the-biofilm
#6
Kengo Tejima, Masanori Ishiai, Somay O Murayama, Shun Iwatani, Susumu Kajiwara
Fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (Faa) activates fatty acid (FA) by converting the FA into the CoA ester in the cell. In the present study, we characterized a FAA homologue (CaFAA4) from the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. Most organisms can not only synthesize long-chain fatty acyl-CoAs (LCFA-CoAs) endogenously using a fatty acid synthase (Fas) activity but also can uptake long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) from the extracellular environment and convert them into LCFA-CoAs via a vectorial acylation system. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses two LCFA-CoA synthetases, ScFaa1p and ScFaa4p...
September 23, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934818/effects-of-zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein-on-lipid-metabolism-of-liver-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#7
Guoqiang Fan, Yu Qiao, Shixing Gao, Jun Guo, Ruqian Zhao, Xiaojing Yang
Zinc alpha2 glycoprotein (ZAG) is a new type of adipokine involved in adipose tissue mobilization, however, little is known about its lipid metabolism effect in liver. Therefore, we investigated the effects of ZAG in the regulation of hepatic lipid accumulation. Mice were randomly divided into two groups; one was fed a normal diet and another was fed a high-fat diet for eight weeks to establish obesity model. After that, the normal diet group was divided into ND (injection of pcDNA3.1) and NDZ (injection of ZAG recombinant plasmid) and the high-fat diet group was divided into HF (injection of pcDNA3...
October 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927126/overexpression-and-proliferation-dependence-of-acyl-coa-thioesterase-11-and-13-in-lung-adenocarcinoma
#8
Jen-Yu Hung, Shyh-Ren Chiang, Kuan-Ting Liu, Ming-Ju Tsai, Ming-Shyan Huang, Jiunn-Min Shieh, Meng-Chi Yen, Ya-Ling Hsu
The metabolites of fatty acyl-Coenzyme A (CoA) and metabolic enzymes contribute to lipid biosynthesis, signal transduction, and gene transcription. Previous studies have indicated that elevated concentrations of specific free fatty acids in the plasma and overexpression of specific fatty acyl-CoA metabolic enzymes are observed in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. However, there are >30 enzymes in this metabolic network and have been fully investigated. In the present study, the expression levels of enzymes in the acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) and acyl-CoA thioesterase (ACOT) families were analyzed from six microarray expression datasets that were collected from Gene Expression Omnibus...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918598/triacsin-c-reduces-lipid-droplet-formation-and-induces-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-primary-rat-hepatocytes
#9
Carlos R P Dechandt, Felippe H Zuccolotto-Dos-Reis, Bruno G Teodoro, Anna Maria A P Fernandes, Marcos N Eberlin, Isis C Kettelhut, Carlos Curti, Luciane C Alberici
Intracellular long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSL) activate fatty acids to produce acyl-CoA, which undergoes β-oxidation and participates in the synthesis of esterified lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). Imbalances in these metabolic routes are closely associated with the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Triacsin C is one of the few compounds that inhibit TAG accumulation into lipid droplets (LD) by suppressing ACSL activity. Here we report that treatment of primary rat hepatocytes with triacsin C at concentrations lower than the IC50 (4...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894242/complementary-acsl-isoforms-contribute-to-a-non-warburg-advantageous-energetic-status-characterizing-invasive-colon-cancer-cells
#10
Ruth Sánchez-Martínez, Silvia Cruz-Gil, María Soledad García-Álvarez, Guillermo Reglero, Ana Ramírez de Molina
Metabolic reprogramming is one of cancer hallmarks. Here, we focus on functional differences and individual contribution of acyl coA synthetases (ACSL) isoforms to the previously described ACSL/stearoyl-CoA desaturase (ACSL1/ACSL4/SCD) metabolic network causing invasion and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC). ACSL4 fuels proliferation and migration accompanied by a more glycolytic phenotype. Conversely, ACSL1 stimulates invasion displaying a lower basal respiratory rate. Acylcarnitines elevation, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) lower levels, and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) upregulation characterize the individual overexpression of ACSL1, ACSL4 and SCD, respectively...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851448/dietary-arachidonic-acid-increases-deleterious-effects-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-oligomers-on-learning-abilities-and-expression-of-ampa-receptors-putative-role-of-the-acsl4-cpla2-balance
#11
Mélanie H Thomas, Cédric Paris, Mylène Magnien, Julie Colin, Sandra Pelleïeux, Florence Coste, Marie-Christine Escanyé, Thierry Pillot, Jean-Luc Olivier
BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated fatty acids play a crucial role in neuronal function, and the modification of these compounds in the brain could have an impact on neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Despite the fact that arachidonic acid is the second foremost polyunsaturated fatty acid besides docosahexaenoic acid, its role and the regulation of its transfer and mobilization in the brain are poorly known. METHODS: Two groups of 39 adult male BALB/c mice were fed with an arachidonic acid-enriched diet or an oleic acid-enriched diet, respectively, for 12 weeks...
August 29, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842428/defective-lysosomal-clearance-of-autophagosomes-and-its-clinical-implications-in-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#12
Xiaojuan Wang, Xiang Zhang, Eagle S H Chu, Xiaoting Chen, Wei Kang, Feng Wu, Ka-Fai To, Vincent W S Wong, Henry L Y Chan, Matthew T V Chan, Joseph J Y Sung, William K K Wu, Jun Yu
Autophagic impairment is implicated in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but the molecular mechanism is unclear. We found that autophagic flux was significantly inhibited in 3 murine models of NAFLD. Interestingly, the number of acidic organelles and the level of mature cathepsin D were reduced, suggesting defective lysosome acidification. Asparagine synthetase (ASNS) was induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress, leading to the generation of asparagine, which inhibited lysosome acidification. Both steatotic- and asparagine-treated hepatocytes showed reduced lysosomal acidity and retention of lysosomal calcium...
August 25, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814239/homology-modeling-and-molecular-docking-studies-of-bacillomycin-and-iturin-synthetases-with-novel-ligands-for-the-production-of-therapeutic-lipopeptides
#13
Jujjavarapu Satya Eswari, Swasti Dhagat, Shubham Kaser, Anoop Tiwari
BACKGROUND: Lipopeptide synthetases play an important role in the production of lipopeptides. Lipopeptides are molecules made up of peptides and fatty acid moieties and have shown to have a broad range of antimicrobial activity. As infectious diseases have caused severe health problems mainly resulting from the development of antibiotic resistant strains of disease causing microorganisms there is a need of alternatives to antibiotics. The lipopeptide synthetase of the corresponding lipopeptides can be used as templates to design these as drugs using computational techniques...
August 15, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766168/pre-and-post-prandial-expression-of-genes-involved-in-lipid-metabolism-at-the-end-of-the-overfeeding-period-of-mule-ducks
#14
Tavernier Annabelle, Ricaud Karine, Bernadet Marie-Dominique, Gontier Karine, Davail Stéphane
In palmipeds, overfeeding leads to hepatic steatosis, also called "foie gras" which is the result of many metabolic mechanisms. In order to understand these mechanisms, we decided to measure the expression of genes implicated in lipid metabolism during 12 hours (h) following the last meal of the overfeeding period. We have shown that there is a precocious expression (within 2 h) of fatty acid synthase and acyl CoA synthetase long-chain 1 in liver and muscle of mule ducks in addition with a later peak. Furthermore, di-acyl glycerol acyl transferase presents the highest induction of expression in liver and it is overexpressed quite a long time, positioning this enzyme as a key factor in hepatic steatosis...
August 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765222/role-of-fatty-acid-kinase-in-cellular-lipid-homeostasis-and-saers-dependent-virulence-factor-expression-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#15
Megan E Ericson, Chitra Subramanian, Matthew W Frank, Charles O Rock
The SaeRS two-component system is a master activator of virulence factor transcription in Staphylococcus aureus, but the cellular factors that control its activity are unknown. Fatty acid (FA) kinase is a two-component enzyme system required for extracellular FA uptake and SaeRS activity. Here, we demonstrate the existence of an intracellular nonesterified FA pool in S. aureus that is elevated in strains lacking FA kinase activity. SaeRS-mediated transcription is restored in FA kinase-negative strains when the intracellular FA pool is reduced either by growth with FA-depleted bovine serum albumin to extract the FA into the medium or by the heterologous expression of Neisseria gonorrhoeae acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase to activate FA for phospholipid synthesis...
August 1, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762729/activation-and-loading-of-the-starter-unit-during-thiocoraline-biosynthesis
#16
Shogo Mori, Sanjib K Shrestha, Javier Fernández, María Álvarez San Millán, Atefeh Garzan, Ahmad H Al-Mestarihi, Felipe Lombó, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova
The initiation of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) assembly of the bisintercalator natural product thiocoraline involves key enzymatic steps for AMP activation and carrier protein loading of the starter unit 3-hydroxyquinaldic acid (3HQA). Gene cluster data combined with protein sequence homology analysis originally led us to propose that TioJ could be responsible for the AMP activation step, whereas TioO could act as the thiolation (T) domain, facilitating the transfer of 3HQA to the next NRPS module, TioR...
August 29, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753670/effects-of-dietary-lipids-on-the-hepatopancreas-transcriptome-of-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#17
Banghong Wei, Zhigang Yang, Jianyi Wang, Aqin Chen, Qiuyan Shi, Yongxu Cheng
Fish oil supplies worldwide have declined sharply over the years. To reduce the use of fish oil in aquaculture, many studies have explored the effects of fish oil substitutions on aquatic animals. To illustrate the effects of dietary lipids on Chinese mitten crab and to improve the use of vegetable oils in the diet of the crabs, 60 male juvenile Chinese mitten crabs were fed one of five diets for 116 days: fish oil (FO), soybean oil (SO), linseed oil (LO), FO + SO (1:1, FSO), and FO + LO (1:1, FLO). Changes in the crab hepatopancreas transcriptome were analyzed using RNA sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662394/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-improve-the-antioxidative-defense-in-rat-astrocytes-via-an-nrf2-dependent-mechanism
#18
Emilia Zgórzyńska, Barbara Dziedzic, Anna Gorzkiewicz, Dawid Stulczewski, Katarzyna Bielawska, Kuan-Pin Su, Anna Walczewska
INTRODUCTION: Neuronal tolerance to hypoxia and nutrient defficiency highly depends on GSH levels and antioxidant enzyme activity in astrocytes. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3PUFA) enhance antioxidant defence in different cells. The aim of present study was to investigate if ω-3PUFA improve antioxidant status in astrocytes. METHODS: Rat primary astrocytes were incubated for 24h with DHA and EPA (30μM), then lysed, fractioned and fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography...
April 20, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657495/in-silico-structural-studies-and-molecular-docking-analysis-of-delta6-desaturase-in-hufa-biosynthetic-pathway
#19
Suvra Roy, Hirak Jyoti Chakraborty, Vikash Kumar, B K Behera, R S Rana, Gireesh Babu
Fish are an important source of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid EPA (20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid DHA (22:6 n-3) and play a significant role in human nutrition. The fatty acyl delta6-desaturase (Δ6 desaturase) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) that converts polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as linoleic (18:2n-6) and α-linolenic (18:3n-3) acids into HUFA. In this study, fatty acyl Δ6 desaturase was identified from pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and further analyzed for sequenced-based characterization and 3D structural conformation...
June 28, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641384/acute-testosterone-deficiency-alters-adipose-tissue-fatty-acid-storage
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sylvia Santosa, Nikki C Bush, Michael D Jensen
Context: Although the long-term effects of testosterone on adipose tissue lipid metabolism in men have been defined, the short-term regulation of these effects is not well understood. Objective: We examined the effects of acute testosterone withdrawal on subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) storage and cellular mechanisms. Design: This was a prospective, randomized trial. Setting: Mayo Clinic Clinical Research Unit...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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