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Fatty acid synthetase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222028/sodium-butyrate-enhanced-physical-barrier-function-referring-to-nrf2-jnk-and-mlck-signaling-pathways-in-the-intestine-of-young-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#1
Pei Wu, Li Tian, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Fei Xie, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Juan Yang, Yong-An Zhang, He-Qun Shi, Lin Feng
This study evaluated the effect of dietary sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation on the intestinal physical barrier function of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The fish were fed one powdery sodium butyrate (PSB) diet (1000.0 mg kg-1 diet) and five graded levels of microencapsulated sodium butyrate (MSB) diets: 0.0 (control), 500.0, 1000.0, 1500.0 and 2000.0 mg kg-1 diet for 60 days. Subsequently, a challenge test was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila to explore the effect of SB supplementation on intestinal physical barrier function and the potential mechanisms in fish...
December 5, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176964/only-acyl-carrier-protein-1-acpp1-functions-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-fatty-acid-synthesis
#2
Jin-Cheng Ma, Yun-Qi Wu, Dan Cao, Wen-Bin Zhang, Hai-Hong Wang
The genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa contains three open reading frames, PA2966, PA1869, and PA3334, which encode putative acyl carrier proteins, AcpP1, AcpP2, and AcpP3, respectively. In this study, we found that, although these apo-ACPs were successfully phosphopantetheinylated by P. aeruginosa phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PcpS) and all holo-forms of these proteins could be acylated by Vibrio harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase (AasS), only AcpP1 could be used as a substrate for the synthesis of fatty acids, catalyzed by P...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163455/designing-and-creating-a-synthetic-omega-oxidation-pathway-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-enables-production-of-medium-chain-%C3%AE-%C3%AF-dicarboxylic-acids
#3
Li Han, Yanfeng Peng, Yuangyuan Zhang, Wujiu Chen, Yuping Lin, Qinhong Wang
Medium-chain (C8-C14) α, ω-dicarboxylic acids (α, ω-DCAs), which have numerous applications as raw materials for producing various commodities and polymers in chemical industry, are mainly produced from chemical or microbial conversion of petroleum-derived alkanes or plant-derived fatty acids at present. Recently, significant attention has been gained to microbial production of medium-chain α, ω-DCAs from simple renewable sugars. Here, we designed and created a synthetic omega oxidation pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce C10 and C12 α, ω-DCAs from renewable sugars and fatty acids by introducing a heterogeneous cytochrome P450 CYP94C1 and cytochrome reductase ATR1...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158261/the-biotin-ligating-protein-bpl-1-is-critical-for-lipid-biosynthesis-and-polarization-of-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-embryo
#4
Jason S Watts, Diane G Morton, Kenneth J Kemphues, Jennifer L Watts
Biotin is an essential cofactor for multiple metabolic reactions catalyzed by carboxylases. Biotin is covalently linked to apoproteins by holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS). Accordingly, some mutations in HCS cause holocarboxylase deficiency, a rare metabolic disorder that can be life threatening if left untreated. However, the long-term effects of HCS deficiency are poorly understood. Here, we report our investigations of bpl-1, which encodes the C. elegans ortholog of HCS. We found that mutations in the biotin-binding region of bpl-1 are maternal-effect lethal, and cause defects in embryonic polarity establishment, meiosis, and the integrity of the eggshell permeability barrier...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155266/chronic-dexamethasone-exposure-markedly-decreased-the-hepatic-triglyceride-accumulation-in-growing-goats
#5
Qu Chen, Liqiong Niu, Canfeng Hua, Yali Geng, Liuping Cai, Shiyu Tao, Yingdong Ni, Ruqian Zhao
Chronic stress seriously threatens welfare and health in animals and humans. Consecutive dexamethasone (Dex) injection was used to mimic chronic stress previously. In order to investigate the effect of chronic stress on hepatic lipids metabolism, in this study, 10 healthy male goats were randomly allocated into two groups, one received a consecutive injection of Dex via intramuscularly for 3 weeks (Dex group), the other received the same volume of saline as the control group (Con group). Hepatic health and triglyceride (TG) metabolism were analyzed and compared between two groups...
November 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150677/phosphatidylserine-decarboxylase-ct699-lysophospholipid-acyltransferase-ct775-and-acyl-acp-synthase-ct776-provide-membrane-lipid-diversity-to-chlamydia-trachomatis
#6
Eric Soupene, Frans A Kuypers
De novo lipid synthesis and scavenging of fatty acids (FA) are processes essential for the formation of the membrane of the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t.). Host FA are assimilated via esterification by the bacterial acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase AasC but inhibitors of the host acyl-CoA synthetase enymes ACSL also impaired growth of C.t. in human cells. In E. coli, activity of AasC was sensitive to triacsin C and rosiglitazone G. The absence of a triacsin C-insensitive pathway and the increased inhibition by rosiglitazone G confirmed the sensitivity of the bacterial acyl-ACP synthase to these drugs in infected human cells...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147968/effects-of-fasting-on-the-activities-and-mrna-expression-levels-of-lipoprotein-lipase-lpl-hormone-sensitive-lipase-hsl-and-fatty-acid-synthetase-fas-in-spotted-seabass-lateolabrax-maculatus
#7
Hongli Huang, Yu Zhang, Mingyue Cao, Liangyi Xue, Weiliang Shen
To investigate the effects of fasting on lipid metabolism in spotted seabass muscle and liver tissues, we analyzed mRNA levels and enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and fatty acid synthetase (FAS), and the relationship among fat content, mRNA level, and enzyme activity during fasting of 35 days. The results showed that expressions of all the three genes were ubiquitous. During the fasting experiment, the hepatosomatic index (HSI) and fat content of muscle and liver tissues significantly decreased before 5 days of fasting (P < 0...
November 16, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137983/transcriptional-regulation-of-acetoacetyl-coa-synthetase-by-sp1-in-neuroblastoma-cells
#8
Shinya Hasegawa, Masahiko Imai, Masahiro Yamasaki, Noriko Takahashi, Tetsuya Fukui
Acetoacetyl-CoA synthetase (AACS) is the enzyme responsible for cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis in the cytosol. We have previously shown that AACS has an important role in normal neuronal development and that knockdown of SREBP-2, which orchestrates cholesterol synthesis, resulted in the downregulation of AACS mRNA levels. In this study, we investigated the transcriptional mechanism of AACS in Neuro-2a, neuroblastoma cells. Luciferase assay showed that the minimal core promoter of the mouse AACS gene is located in a region with 110 bps upstream from the transcription start site...
November 11, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124334/production-of-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate-copolymer-from-coffee-waste-oil-using-engineered-ralstonia-eutropha
#9
Shashi Kant Bhatia, Jung-Ho Kim, Min-Sun Kim, Junyoung Kim, Ju Won Hong, Yoon Gi Hong, Hyun-Joong Kim, Jong-Min Jeon, Sang-Hyoun Kim, Jungoh Ahn, Hongweon Lee, Yung-Hun Yang
Polyhydroxyalkonate (PHA) is a type of polymer that has the potential to replace petro-based plastics. To make PHA production more economically feasible, there is a need to find a new carbon source and engineer microbes to produce a commercially valuable polymer. Coffee waste is an inexpensive raw material that contains fatty acids. It can act as a sustainable carbon source and seems quite promising with PHA production in Ralstonia eutropha, which is a well-known microbe for PHA accumulation, and has the potential to utilize fatty acids...
November 9, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122703/improving-metabolic-efficiency-of-the-reverse-beta-oxidation-cycle-by-balancing-redox-cofactor-requirement
#10
Junjun Wu, Xia Zhang, Peng Zhou, Jiaying Huang, Xiudong Xia, Wei Li, Ziyu Zhou, Yue Chen, Yinghao Liu, Mingsheng Dong
Previous studies have made many exciting achievements on pushing the functional reversal of beta-oxidation cycle (r-BOX) to more widespread adoption for synthesis of a wide variety of fuels and chemicals. However, the redox cofactor requirement for the efficient operation of r-BOX remains unclear. In this work, the metabolic efficiency of r-BOX for medium-chain fatty acid (C6-C10, MCFA) production was optimized by redox cofactor engineering. Stoichiometric analysis of the r-BOX pathway and further experimental examination identified NADH as a crucial determinant of r-BOX process yield...
November 6, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114020/identification-of-novel-alleles-conferring-superior-production-of-rose-flavor-phenylethyl-acetate-using-polygenic-analysis-in-yeast
#11
Bruna Trindade de Carvalho, Sylvester Holt, Ben Souffriau, Rogelio Lopes Brandão, Maria R Foulquié-Moreno, Johan M Thevelein
Flavor compound metabolism is one of the last areas in metabolism where multiple genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes are still unknown. A major challenge is the involvement of side activities of enzymes having their main function in other areas of metabolism. We have applied pooled-segregant whole-genome sequence analysis to identify novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes affecting production of phenylethyl acetate (2-PEAc). This is a desirable flavor compound of major importance in alcoholic beverages imparting rose- and honey-like aromas, with production of high 2-PEAc levels considered a superior trait...
November 7, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093020/acetylome-profiling-reveals-extensive-lysine-acetylation-of-the-fatty-acid-metabolism-pathway-in-the-diatom-phaeodactylum-tricornutum
#12
Zhuo Chen, Ling Luo, Runfa Chen, Hanhua Hu, Yufang Pan, Haibo Jiang, Xia Wan, Hu Jin, Yangmin Gong
N(ε) -lysine acetylation represents a highly dynamic and reversibly regulated post-translational modification widespread in almost all organisms, and plays important roles for regulation of protein function in diverse metabolic pathways. However, little is known about the role of lysine acetylation in photosynthetic eukaryotic microalgae. We integrated proteomic approaches to comprehensively characterize the lysine acetylome in the model diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. In total, 2324 acetylation sites from 1220 acetylated proteins were identified, representing the largest dataset of the lysine acetylome in plants to date...
November 1, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092894/mitochondrial-reactive-oxygen-species-in-lipotoxic-hearts-induces-post-translational-modifications-of-akap121-drp1-and-opa1-that-promote-mitochondrial-fission
#13
Kensuke Tsushima, Heiko Bugger, Adam R Wende, Jamie Soto, Gregory A Jenson, Austin R Tor, Rose McGlauflin, Helena C Kenny, Yuan Zhang, Rhonda Souvenir, Xiao X Hu, Crystal L Black, Renata O Pereira, Vitor A Lira, Kenneth Spitzer, Terry L Sharp, Kooresh I Shoghi, Genevieve C Sparagna, Eva A Rog-Zielinska, Peter Kohl, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Jean E Schaffer, E Dale Abel
Rationale: Cardiac lipotoxicity, characterized by increased uptake, oxidation and accumulation of lipid intermediates, contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. However, mechanisms linking lipid overload and mitochondrial dysfunction are incompletely understood. Objective: To elucidate the mechanisms for mitochondrial adaptations to lipid overload in postnatal hearts in vivo. Methods and Results: Using a transgenic mouse model of cardiac lipotoxicity overexpressing long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 in cardiomyocytes, we show that modestly increased myocardial fatty acid uptake leads to mitochondrial structural remodeling with significant reduction in minimum diameter...
November 1, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071976/-hypothalamic-transcription-profiles-associated-with-twirling-reducing-needling-in-rats-with-stress-induced-prehypertension
#14
Qi-Sheng Sun, Qi-Ying Guo, Wen-Rui Jia, Zong-Yu Jin, Zhi Ji, Qiu-Lei Guo, Fang-Yuan Yang, He Zhan, He Wang, Qing-Guo Liu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of twirling-reducing needling on changes of profile of differentially-expressed genes in the hypothalamus in rats with stress-induced prehypertension (SI-PHT), so as to explore its mechanism under-lying improvement of prehypertension. METHODS: Wistar male rats were randomly divided into blank control group (n=12), model group (n=12) and acupuncture group (n=10). The SI-PHT model was established by planta-electric-shock stimulation (30 V, 5 s) plus noise stimulation (80-100 db, 50 ms), twice daily, continuously for 11 days...
June 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056428/a-lipoylated-metabolic-protein-released-by-staphylococcus-aureus-suppresses-macrophage-activation
#15
James P Grayczyk, Cameron J Harvey, Irina Laczkovich, Francis Alonzo
The virulence factors of pathogenic microbes often have single functions that permit immune suppression. However, a proportion possess multiple activities and are considered moonlighting proteins. By examining secreted virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus, we determine that the bacterial lipoic acid synthetase LipA suppresses macrophage activation. LipA is known to modify the E2 subunit of the metabolic enzyme complex pyruvate dehydrogenase (E2-PDH) with a fatty acid derivative, lipoic acid, yielding the metabolic protein lipoyl-E2-PDH...
November 8, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049903/glutamate-homeostasis-in-the-adult-rat-prefrontal-cortex-is-altered-by-cortical-docosahexaenoic-acid-accrual-during-adolescence-an-in-vivo-1-h-mrs-study
#16
Robert K McNamara, Ruth H Asch, Jennifer D Schurdak, Diana M Lindquist
Major psychiatric disorders are associated with dysregulated glutamate homeostasis and deficits in the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This study determined the effects of dietary-induced alterations in brain DHA accrual on cortical glutamate homeostasis in the adult rat brain. Adolescent rats were fed a control diet (n = 20), a n-3 fatty acid-deficient diet (DEF, n = 20), or a fish oil-fortified diet containing preformed DHA (FO, n = 20). In adulthood (1)H MRS scans were performed with voxels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and thalamus...
December 30, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031784/isobaric-tags-for-relative-and-absolute-quantitation-itraq-based-proteomics-for-the-investigation-of-the-effect-of-huganqingzhi-on-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-rats
#17
Xiaorui Yao, Fan Xia, Waijiao Tang, Chunxin Xiao, Miaoting Yang, Benjie Zhou
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hugan Qingzhi tablet (HQT), a traditional Chinese medicine formula has been adopted for preventing and treating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). AIM: In order to explore the anti-NAFLD mechanisms of HQT, iTRAQ-based proteomic was employed to investigate the expression profiles of proteins in NAFLD rats induced by high-fat diet after HQT treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The NAFLD rat model was administrated with high-fat diet (HFD) for 12weeks...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022553/polynucleobacter-aenigmaticus-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-permanently-anoxic-monimolimnion-of-a-temperate-meromictic-lake
#18
Martin W Hahn, Ulrike Koll, Gerlinde Karbon, Johanna Schmidt, Elke Lang
The bacterial strain MWH-K35W1(T) was isolated from a permanently anoxic water layer of a meromictic lake located in the Austrian Salzkammergut area. The basically chemo-organoheterotrophic strain was isolated and maintained under aerobic conditions. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene and the glutamine synthetase gene (glnA) of the strain suggested an affiliation to the genus Polynucleobacter and the cryptic species complex PnecC. Strain MWH-K35W1(T) shares with the type strains of the six free-living species of the genus Polynucleobacter affiliated with this species complex 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 99...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986507/a-conserved-mammalian-mitochondrial-isoform-of-acetyl-coa-carboxylase-acc1-provides-the-malonyl-coa-essential-for-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-tandem-with-acsf3
#19
Geoffray Monteuuis, Fumi Suomi, Juha M Kerätär, Ali J Masud, Alexander J Kastaniotis
Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis (mtFAS) is a highly conserved pathway essential for mitochondrial biogenesis. The mtFAS process is required for mitochondrial respiratory chain assembly and function, synthesis of the lipoic acid cofactor indispensable for the function of several mitochondrial enzyme complexes and essential for embryonic development in mice. Mutations in human mtFAS have been reported to lead to neurodegenerative disease. The source of malonyl-CoA for mtFAS in mammals has remained unclear...
October 6, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956599/first-biochemical-characterization-of-a-methylcitric-acid-cycle-from-bacillus-subtilis-strain-168
#20
Jason J Reddick, Sherona Sirkisoon, Rejwi Acharya Dahal, Grant Hardesty, Natalie E Hage, William T Booth, Amy L Quattlebaum, Suzette N Mills, Victoria G Meadows, Sydney L H Adams, Jennifer S Doyle, Brittany E Kiel
The genome of Bacillus subtilis strain 168 contains the mother cell metabolic gene (mmg) operon that encodes homologues from the methylcitric acid cycle. We showed that the three genes, mmgDE and yqiQ(mmgF), provide three of the five steps of the methylcitric acid cycle. We also showed that the fourth step can be supplied by citB (aconitase), and we suggest that the fifth missing step, the propionyl-CoA synthetase, is probably skipped because the β-oxidation of methyl-branched fatty acids by the enzymes encoded by mmgABC should produce propionyl-CoA...
October 24, 2017: Biochemistry
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