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Fatty acid synthetase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906613/fatty-acid-binding-protein-5-fabp5-promotes-lipolysis-of-lipid-droplets-de-novo-fatty-acid-fa-synthesis-and-activation-of-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-cancer-cells
#1
Shogo Senga, Narumi Kobayashi, Koichiro Kawaguchi, Akira Ando, Hiroshi Fujii
Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are involved in binding and storing hydrophobic ligands such as long-chain fatty acids, as well as transporting them to the appropriate compartments in the cell. Epidermal fatty acid-binding protein (FABP5) is an intracellular lipid-binding protein that is abundantly expressed in adipocytes and macrophages. Previous studies have revealed that the FABP5 expression level is closely related to malignancy in various types of cancer. However, its precise functions in the metabolisms of cancer cells remain unclear...
June 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903901/distribution-and-functional-analysis-of-the-phosphopantetheinyl-transferase-superfamily-in-actinomycetales-microorganisms
#2
Jeong Ho Kim, Mamoru Komatsu, Kazuo Shin-Ya, Satoshi Omura, Haruo Ikeda
Phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases) are a superfamily of essential enzymes required for the synthetic processes of many compounds including fatty acid, polyketide, and nonribosomal peptide metabolites. These enzymes activate carrier proteins in specific biosynthetic pathways via the transfer of a phosphopantetheinyl moiety to a serine residue in the conserved motif of carrier proteins. Since many Actinomycetales microorganisms produce a number of polyketide and nonribosomal peptide metabolites, the distribution of PPTase genes was investigated in these microorganisms...
June 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885532/sex-steroids-and-hypolipidemic-chemicals-impacts-on-brown-trout-lipid-and-peroxisome-signaling-molecular-biochemical-and-morphological-insights
#3
Tânia Vieira Madureira, Fernanda Malhão, Tiago Simões, Ivone Pinheiro, Célia Lopes, José F Gonçalves, Ralph Urbatzka, L Filipe C Castro, Marco F L Lemos, Eduardo Rocha
Lipid metabolism involves complex pathways, which are regulated in a similar way across vertebrates. Hormonal and hypolipidemic deregulations cause lipid imbalance from fish to humans, but the underlying mechanisms are far from understood. This study explores the potential of using juvenile brown trout to evaluate the in vivo interferences caused by estrogenic (17α-ethinylestradiol - EE2), androgenic (testosterone - T), and hypolipidemic (clofibrate - CLF) compounds in lipidic and/or peroxisomal pathways. Studied endpoints were from blood/plasma biochemistry, plasma fatty acid profile, ultrastructure of hepatocytes and abundance of their peroxisomes to mRNA expression in the liver...
June 6, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863473/biosynthetic-tailoring-of-existing-ascaroside-pheromones-alters-their-biological-function-in-c-elegans
#4
Yue Zhou, Yuting Wang, Xinxing Zhang, Subhradeep Bhar, Rachel A Jones Lipinski, Jungsoo Han, Likui Feng, Rebecca A Butcher
Caenorhabditis elegans produces ascaroside pheromones to control its development and behavior. Even minor structural differences in the ascarosides have dramatic consequences for their biological activities. Here, we identify a mechanism that enables C. elegans to dynamically tailor the fatty-acid side chains of the indole-3-carbonyl (IC)-modified ascarosides it has produced. In response to starvation, C. elegans uses the peroxisomal acyl-CoA synthetase ACS-7 to activate the side chains of medium-chain IC-ascarosides for β-oxidation involving the acyl-CoA oxidases ACOX-1...
June 4, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793055/fatty-acid-activation-in-thermogenic-adipose-tissue
#5
REVIEW
Sandra Steensels, Baran A Ersoy
Channeling carbohydrates and fatty acids to thermogenic tissues, including brown and beige adipocytes, have garnered interest as an approach for the management of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (β-oxidation) is crucial for the maintenance of thermogenesis. Upon cellular fatty acid uptake or following lipolysis from triglycerides (TG), fatty acids are esterified to coenzyme A (CoA) to form active acyl-CoA molecules. This enzymatic reaction is essential for their utilization in β-oxidation and thermogenesis...
May 21, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771917/the-differentiation-of-preadipocytes-and-gene-expression-related-to-adipogenesis-in-ducks-anas-platyrhynchos
#6
Shasha Wang, Yang Zhang, Qi Xu, Xiaoya Yuan, Wangcheng Dai, Xiaokun Shen, Zhixiu Wang, Guobin Chang, Zhiquan Wang, Guohong Chen
Meat quality is closely related to adipose tissues in ducks, and adipogenesis is controlled by a complex network of transcription factors tightly acting at different stages of differentiation especially in ducks. The aim of this study was to establish the preadipocyte in vitro culture system and understand the biological characteristics of expansion of duck adipocyte tissue at the cellular and molecular level. We isolated pre-adipocytes from the subcutaneous fat of three breeds of duck and differentiated them into mature adipocytes using a mixture of insulin, rosiglitazone, dexamethasone, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and oleic acid over 0,2, 4, 6, and 8 days...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759071/metformin-attenuates-triglyceride-accumulation-in-hepg2-cells-through-decreasing-stearyl-coenzyme-a-desaturase-1-expression
#7
Xiaopeng Zhu, Hongmei Yan, Mingfeng Xia, Xinxia Chang, Xi Xu, Liu Wang, Xiaoyang Sun, Yan Lu, Hua Bian, Xiaoying Li, Xin Gao
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased worldwide. Metformin decreases triglyceride (TG) accumulation in hepatocytes in vivo and in vitro. Stearyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD1) knockout mice also show decreased liver TG accumulation; however, whether SCD1 plays a role in the effect of metformin on TG accumulation is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether SCD1 mediated the effect of metformin on TG accumulation...
May 14, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758875/thifluzamide-affects-lipid-metabolism-in-zebrafish-danio-reio
#8
Yang Yang, Fengshou Dong, Xingang Liu, Jun Xu, Xiaohu Wu, Suzhen Qi, Wenxian Liu, Yongquan Zheng
Thifluzamide, a succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) fungicide, has been widely used in rice fields throughout the world and causes hepatotoxicity in zebrafish (Danio reio). This study was conducted to investigate the effect of thifluzamide on lipid metabolism in zebrafish after exposure to a control or, 0.019, 0.19, or 1.90mg/L thifluzamide for 28days. Following exposure, pathological changes in the liver were evaluated. Total cholesterol (TCHO) level, and triglyceride (TG) levels as well as hepatic lipase (HL), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthetase (FAS) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-I) activities were measured...
August 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739899/novel-xanthomonas-campestris-long-chain-specific-3-oxoacyl-acyl-carrier-protein-reductase-involved-in-diffusible-signal-factor-synthesis
#9
Zhe Hu, Huijuan Dong, Jin-Cheng Ma, Yonghong Yu, Kai-Hui Li, Qiao-Qiao Guo, Chao Zhang, Wen-Bin Zhang, Xinyun Cao, John E Cronan, Haihong Wang
The precursors of the diffusible signal factor (DSF) family signals of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris are 3-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein (3-hydroxyacyl-ACP) thioesters having acyl chains of 12 to 13 carbon atoms produced by the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. We report a novel 3-oxoacyl-ACP reductase encoded by the X. campestris pv. campestris XCC0416 gene ( fabG2 ), which is unable to participate in the initial steps of fatty acyl synthesis. This was shown by the failure of FabG2 expression to allow growth at the nonpermissive temperature of an Escherichia coli fabG temperature-sensitive strain...
May 8, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739804/etiology-and-treatment-of-adrenoleukodystrophy-new-insights-from-drosophila
#10
Hannah B Gordon, Lourdes Valdez, Anthea Letsou
Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting brain white matter. The most common form of ALD is X-linked (X-ALD) and results from mutation of the ABCD1 -encoded very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) transporter. X-ALD is clinically heterogeneous, with the cerebral form being the most severe. Diagnosed in boys usually between the ages of 4 and 8, cerebral X-ALD symptoms progress rapidly (in as little as two years) through declines in cognition, learning, and behavior, to paralysis and ultimately to a vegetative state and death...
May 8, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720105/transcriptome-analysis-of-chrysanthemum-dendranthema-grandiflorum-in-response-to-low-temperature-stress
#11
Ke Wang, Zhen-Yu Bai, Qian-Yu Liang, Qing-Lin Liu, Lei Zhang, Yuan-Zhi Pan, Guang-Li Liu, Bei-Bei Jiang, Fan Zhang, Yin Jia
BACKGROUND: Chrysanthemum is one kind of ornamental plant well-known and widely used in the world. However, its quality and production were severely affected by low temperature conditions in winter and early spring periods. Therefore, we used the RNA-Seq platform to perform a de novo transcriptome assembly to analyze chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum) transcription response to low temperature. RESULTS: Using Illumina sequencing technology, a total of 86,444,237 high-quality clean reads and 93,837 unigenes were generated from four libraries: T01, controls; T02, 4 °C cold acclimation (CA) for 24 h; T03, - 4 °C freezing treatments for 4 h with prior CA; and T04, - 4 °C freezing treatments for 4 h without prior CA...
May 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694909/expansion-retention-and-loss-in-the-acyl-coa-synthetase-bubblegum-acsbg-gene-family-in-vertebrate-history
#12
Mónica Lopes-Marques, André M Machado, Raquel Ruivo, Elza Fonseca, Estela Carvalho, L Filipe C Castro
Fatty acids (FAs) constitute a considerable fraction of all lipid molecules with a fundamental role in numerous physiological processes. In animals, the majority of complex lipid molecules are derived from the transformation of FAs through several biochemical pathways. Yet, for FAs to enroll in these pathways they require an activation step. FA activation is catalyzed by the rate limiting action of Acyl-CoA synthases. Several Acyl-CoA enzyme families have been previously described and classified according to the chain length of FAs they process...
April 22, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688495/supplementing-ca-salts-of-soybean-oil-after-artificial-insemination-increases-pregnancy-success-in-bos-taurus-beef-cows
#13
A P Brandão, R F Cooke, K M Schubach, R S Marques, D W Bohnert, R S Carvalho, N W Dias, C L Timlin, S Clark-Deener, J F Currin, D B Jump, K G Pohler, R L A Cerri, V R G Mercadante
Two experiments investigated the effects of supplementing Ca salts of soybean oil (CSSO) during early gestation on reproductive function and pregnancy rates to artificial insemination (AI) in Bos taurus beef cows. In Exp. 1, 771 suckled, lactating, multiparous Angus cows were divided into 22 groups of approximately 35 cows/group, and timed-inseminated on d 0. After AI, groups were assigned randomly to receive (as-fed basis) 100 g of ground corn + 100 g of soybean meal per cow/d, in addition to: 1) 100 g/cow daily of CSSO (n = 11), or 2) 87 g of prilled saturated fat + 13 g of limestone per cow/d (CON; n = 11)...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688484/effect-of-the-catechol-o-methyltransferase-inhibitors-tolcapone-and-entacapone-on-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-heparg-cells
#14
David Grünig, Andrea Felser, Urs Duthaler, Jamal Bouitbir, Stephan Krähenbühl
Tolcapone and entacapone are catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors used in patients with Parkinson's disease. For tolcapone, patients with liver failure have been reported with microvesicular steatosis observed in the liver biopsy of one patient. We therefore investigated the impact of tolcapone and entacapone on fatty acid metabolism in HepaRG cells exposed for 24 hours and on acutely exposed mouse liver mitochondria. In HepaRG cells, tolcapone induced lipid accumulation starting at 100µM, whereas entacapone was ineffective up to 200µM...
April 23, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678960/-toxoplasma-gondii-acetyl-coa-synthetase-is-involved-in-fatty-acid-elongation-of-long-fatty-acid-chains-during-tachyzoite-life-stages
#15
David Dubois, Stella Fernandes, Souad Amiar, Sheena Dass, Nicholas J Katris, Cyrille Y Botté, Yoshiki Yamaryo-Botté
Apicomplexan parasites are pathogens responsible for major human diseases such as toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii and malaria caused by Plasmodium spp. Throughout their intracellular division cycle, the parasites require vast and specific amounts of lipids to divide and survive. This demand for lipids relies on a fine balance between de novo synthesized lipids and scavenged lipids from the host. Acetyl-CoA is a major and central precursor for many metabolic pathways, especially for lipid biosynthesis...
June 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678171/analysis-of-hepatic-transcriptome-demonstrates-altered-lipid-metabolism-following-lactobacillus-johnsonii-bs15-prevention-in-chickens-with-subclinical-necrotic-enteritis
#16
Xiaodan Qing, Dong Zeng, Hesong Wang, Xueqin Ni, Jing Lai, Lei Liu, Abdul Khalique, Kangcheng Pan, Bo Jing
BACKGROUND: Subclinical necrotic enteritis (SNE) widely outbreaks in chickens which inflicted growth-slowing, causing enormous social and economic burdens. To better understand the molecular underpinnings of SNE on lipid metabolism and explore novel preventative strategies against SNE, we studied the regulatory mechanism of a potential probiotic, Lactobacillus johnsonii BS15 on the lipid metabolism pathways involved in chickens with SNE. METHODS: One hundred eighty one-day-old chickens were randomly divided into three groups and arranged with basal diet (control and SNE group)...
April 20, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671787/proteomic-identification-of-the-galectin-1-involved-molecular-pathways-in-urinary-bladder-urothelial-carcinoma
#17
Chien-Feng Li, Kun-Hung Shen, Lan-Hsiang Chien, Cheng-Hao Huang, Ting-Feng Wu, Hong-Lin He
Among various heterogeneous types of bladder tumors, urothelial carcinoma is the most prevalent lesion. Some of the urinary bladder urothelial carcinomas (UBUCs) develop local recurrence and may cause distal invasion. Galectin-1 de-regulation significantly affects cell transformation, cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and cell invasiveness. In continuation of our previous investigation on the role of galectin-1 in UBUC tumorigenesis, in this study, proteomics strategies were implemented in order to find more galectin-1-associated signaling pathways...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670594/cellular-and-molecular-responses-of-dunaliella-tertiolecta-by-expression-of-a-plant-medium-chain-length-fatty-acid-specific-acyl-acp-thioesterase
#18
Huixin Lin, Hui Shen, Yuan K Lee
Metabolic engineering of microalgae to accumulate high levels of medium chain length fatty acids (MCFAs) has met with limited success. Traditional approaches employ single introduction of MCFA specific acyl-ACP thioesterases (TEs), but our current research in transgenic Dunaliella tertiolecta line has highlighted that, there is no single rate-limiting approach that can effectively increase MCFA levels. Here, we explore the accumulation of MCFAs in D. tertiolecta after transgenic expression of myristic acid biased TE (C14TE)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651702/tsumura-suzuki-obese-diabetic-mice-derived-hepatic-tumors-closely-resemble-human-hepatocellular-carcinomas-in-metabolism-related-genes-expression-and-bile-acid-accumulation
#19
Tetsuyuki Takahashi, Ulrich Deuschle, Shu Taira, Takeshi Nishida, Makoto Fujimoto, Takao Hijikata, Koichi Tsuneyama
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tsumura-Suzuki obese diabetic (TSOD) is a good model of metabolic syndrome showing typical lesions found in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and develops spontaneous hepatic tumors with a high frequency. Majority of the developing tumors overexpress glutamine synthetase (GS), which is used as a marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study is to assess the status of expression of metabolism-related genes and the level of bile acids in the TSOD mice-derived tumors and to determine the association with metabolic dysregulation between human HCC and TSOD mice-derived tumors...
April 12, 2018: Hepatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648643/mutations-in-glycyl-trna-synthetase-impair-mitochondrial-metabolism-in-neurons
#20
Veronika Boczonadi, Kathrin Meyer, Humberto Gonczarowska-Jorge, Helen Griffin, Andreas Roos, Marina Bartsakoulia, Boglarka Bansagi, Giulia Ricci, Fanni Palinkas, René P Zahedi, Francesco Bruni, Brian Kaspar, Hanns Lochmüller, Kym M Boycott, Juliane S Müller, Rita Horvath
The nuclear-encoded glycyl-tRNA synthetase gene (GARS) is essential for protein translation in both cytoplasm and mitochondria. In contrast, different genes encode the mitochondrial and cytosolic forms of most other tRNA synthetases. Dominant GARS mutations were described in inherited neuropathies, while recessive mutations cause severe childhood-onset disorders affecting skeletal muscle and heart. The downstream events explaining tissue-specific phenotype-genotype relations remained unclear. We investigated the mitochondrial function of GARS in human cell lines and in the GarsC210R mouse model...
June 15, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
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