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Fatty acid synthetase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431246/fatty-acids-regulate-germline-sex-determination-through-acs-4-dependent-myristoylation
#1
Hongyun Tang, Min Han
Fat metabolism has been linked to fertility and reproductive adaptation in animals and humans, and environmental sex determination potentially plays a role in the process. To investigate the impact of fatty acids (FA) on sex determination and reproductive development, we examined and observed an impact of FA synthesis and mobilization by lipolysis in somatic tissues on oocyte fate in Caenorhabditis elegans. The subsequent genetic analysis identified ACS-4, an acyl-CoA synthetase and its FA-CoA product, as key germline factors that mediate the role of FA in promoting oocyte fate through protein myristoylation...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429279/improvement-of-lipid-production-by-the-oleaginous-yeast-rhodosporidium-toruloides-through-uv-mutagenesis
#2
Ryosuke Yamada, Tomomi Kashihara, Hiroyasu Ogino
Oleaginous yeasts are considered a promising alternative lipid source for biodiesel fuel production. In this study, we attempted to improve the lipid productivity of the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides through UV irradiation mutagenesis and selection based on ethanol and H2O2 tolerance or cerulenin, a fatty acid synthetase inhibitor. Glucose consumption, cell growth, and lipid production of mutants were evaluated. The transcription level of genes involved in lipid production was also evaluated in mutants...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414710/using-the-pimeloyl-coa-synthetase-adenylation-fold-to-synthesize-fatty-acid-thioesters
#3
Menglu Wang, Lucile Moynié, Peter J Harrison, Van Kelly, Andrew Piper, James H Naismith, Dominic J Campopiano
Biotin is an essential vitamin in plants and mammals, functioning as the carbon dioxide carrier within central lipid metabolism. Bacterial pimeloyl-CoA synthetase (BioW) acts as a highly specific substrate-selection gate, ensuring the integrity of the carbon chain in biotin synthesis. BioW catalyzes the condensation of pimelic acid (C7 dicarboxylic acid) with CoASH in an ATP-dependent manner to form pimeloyl-CoA, the first dedicated biotin building block. Multiple structures of Bacillus subtilis BioW together capture all three substrates, as well as the intermediate pimeloyl-adenylate and product pyrophosphate (PPi), indicating that the enzyme uses an internal ruler to select the correct dicarboxylic acid substrate...
April 17, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410665/impact-of-dietary-precursor-ala-versus-preformed-dha-on-fatty-acid-profiles-of-eggs-liver-and-adipose-tissue-and-expression-of-genes-associated-with-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-laying-hens
#4
M Neijat, P Eck, J D House
Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), including alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and preformed longer chain PUFA (LCPUFA, particularly docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) differ in their egg LCPUFA enrichment efficiency. However, mechanisms leading to these differences are unclear. To this end, omega-3 PUFA contents in different lipid classes, including triacylglycerol (TAG) and total phospholipid (PL) in yolk, liver and adipose, as well as the expression of key hepatic enzymes in lipid metabolism were evaluated in laying hens in response to changes in dietary supply...
April 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407230/acyl-coa-synthetase-short-chain-family-member-2-acss2-is-regulated-by-srebp-1-and-plays-a-role-in-fatty-acid-synthesis-in-caprine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#5
Huifen Xu, Jun Luo, Gongzhen Ma, Xueying Zhang, Dawei Yao, Ming Li, Juan J Loor
Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) is well-known as the master regulator of lipogenesis in rodents. Acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2) plays a key role in lipogenesis by synthesizing acetyl-CoA from acetate for lipogenesis. ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) catalyzes the conversion of citrate and coenzyme A to acetyl-CoA, hence, it is also important for lipogenesis. Although ACSS2 function in cancer cells has been elucidated, its essentiality in ruminant mammary lipogenesis is unknown...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401010/downregulation-of-acsm3-promotes-metastasis-and-predicts-poor-prognosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
Hao-Yu Ruan, Chen Yang, Xue-Mei Tao, Jia He, Ting Wang, Hui Wang, Cun Wang, Guang-Zhi Jin, Hao-Jie Jin, Wen-Xin Qin
Understanding mechanisms of cancer metastasis is crucial for reduction of cancer mortality. Acyl-CoA medium-chain synthetase 3 (ACSM3) is an acyl-CoA synthetase which takes part in the first step of fatty acid metabolism. However, the expression, clinical significance and biological function of ACSM3 remain unknown in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, the expression and prognostic relevance of ACSM3 were investigated by tissue microarray and HCC clinical samples. Migration and invasion assays were carried out for functional analysis in vitro and a xenograft model was used to analyze the effects of ACSM3 on cancer metastasis in vivo...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393528/one-step-transformation-of-coenzyme-a-into-analogues-by-transamidation
#7
Randy Sanichar, John C Vederas
Several coenzyme A (CoA) analogues are made in a single step under mild conditions via transamidation reactions catalyzed by boric acid in water. This approach offers rapid access to compounds useful for the study of a wide spectrum of enzyme catalyzed reactions, especially processes involving acyl carrier proteins (ACP) of polyketide synthases (PKS), fatty acid synthases (FAS), and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). The CoA analogues presented are readily elaborated or extended by precedented reactions for specific applications that may be required...
April 10, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392294/a-systematic-optimization-of-medium-chain-fatty-acid-biosynthesis-via-the-reverse-beta-oxidation-cycle-in-escherichia-coli
#8
Junjun Wu, Xia Zhang, Xiudong Xia, Mingsheng Dong
Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs, 6-10 carbons) are valuable precursors to many industrial biofuels and chemicals, recently engineered reversal of the β-oxidation (r-BOX) cycle has been proposed as a potential platform for efficient synthesis of MCFAs. Previous studies have made many exciting achievements on functionally characterizing four core enzymes of this r-BOX cycle. However, the information about bottleneck nodes in this cycle is elusive. Here, a quantitative assessment of the inherent limitations of this cycle was conducted to capitalize on its potential...
April 7, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390038/integrative-transcriptome-analysis-of-liver-cancer-profiles-identifies-upstream-regulators-and-clinical-significance-of-acsm3-gene-expression
#9
Ramani Gopal, Karthikeyan Selvarasu, Ponmathi Panneer Pandian, Kumaresan Ganesan
PURPOSE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common human malignancies. It has frequently been associated with metabolic perturbations and liver damages. Various members of the family of acyl-CoA synthetases are known to be involved in the production of bioactive fatty acids, and altered expression of its encoding genes has been found to be involved in metabolic perturbations. For the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic HCC options, a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms associated with the deregulation of candidate genes involved in metabolic perturbation is required...
April 7, 2017: Cellular Oncology (Dordrecht)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382520/rice-fatty-acyl-coa-synthetase-osacos12-is-required-for-tapetum-programmed-cell-death-and-male-fertility
#10
Xijia Yang, Wanqi Liang, Minjiao Chen, Dabing Zhang, Xiangxiang Zhao, Jianxin Shi
Loss of function mutation of rice OsACOS12 impairs lipid metabolism-mediated anther cuticle and pollen wall formation, and interferes with tapetum programmed cell death, leading to male sterility. Acyl-CoA Synthetase (ACOS) is one of the enzymes activating fatty acids for various metabolic functions in plants. Here, we show that OsACOS12, an orthologue of Arabidopsis ACOS5 in rice, is crucial for rice fertility. Similar to acos5, osaocs12 mutant had no mature pollen. But unlike acos5, osaocs12 produced defective anthers lacking cutin and Ubisch bodies on the epidermal and inner surfaces, respectively, and delayed programmed cell death (PCD)-induced tapetum degradation...
April 5, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382459/proteomic-studies-on-anti-tumor-agent-ansamitocin-p-3-producer-actinosynnema-pretiosum-in-response-to-ammonium-and-isobutanol
#11
Jinxia Lin, Jian-Jiang Zhong
Our previous work showed that the biosynthesis of ansamitocin P-3 (AP-3), an anti-tumor agent, by Actinosynnema pretiosum was depressed by ammonium but enhanced by isobutanol in the medium. Here we show proteomics analyses on A. pretiosum in different fermentation conditions with and without ammonium or isobutanol using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, and linear ion trap quadrupole mass spectrometry. Pairwise comparison of repetitive 2-DE maps was performed to find differentially expressed spots, and eight proteins were identified as functionally annotated ones...
April 5, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379241/hypolipidemic-effect-of-youcha-in-hyperlipidemia-rats-induced-by-high-fat-diet
#12
Zhenjun Zhu, Zhongyi Lin, Hongrui Jiang, Yi Jiang, Mouming Zhao, Xiaoling Liu
Youcha is a novel tea drink from the northeast of Guangxi. This study aimed to investigate the hypolipidemic properties of Youcha in high-fat induced hyperlipidemic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. After designing the model, rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10): normal diet (NMD) group, high-fat diet (HFD) group, Xuezhikang (120 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) (HFD+P) group and Youcha (150, 750 or 1500 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) (HFD+L, HFD+M or HFD+H) groups. Youcha comprises tea polyphenols (1.51 g per 100 g), caffeine (34...
April 19, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365570/the-pathogen-related-yeast-protein-pry1-a-member-of-the-cap-protein-superfamily-is-a-fatty-acid-binding-protein
#13
Rabih Darwiche, Laurent Mène-Saffrané, David Gfeller, Oluwatoyin A Asojo, Roger Schneiter
Members of the CAP superfamily (cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5, and pathogenesis related 1 proteins), also known as SCP superfamily (sperm-coating proteins), have been implicated in many physiological processes, including immune defenses, venom toxicity, and sperm maturation. Their mode of action, however, remains poorly understood. Three proteins of the CAP superfamily, Pry1, 2, and 3 (pathogen related in yeast) are encoded in the S. cerevisiae genome. We have previously shown that Pry1 binds cholesterol in vitro and that Pry function is required for sterol secretion in yeast cells, indicating that members of this superfamily may generally bind sterols or related small hydrophobic compounds...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361037/either-fadd1-or-fadd2-which-encode-acyl-coa-synthetase-is-essential-for-the-survival-of-haemophilus-parasuis-sc096
#14
Saixiang Feng, Chenggang Xu, Kaijie Yang, Haihong Wang, Huiying Fan, Ming Liao
In Haemophilus parasuis, the genes HAPS_0217 and HAPS_1695 are predicted to encode long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligases (FACSs). These proteins contain ATP/AMP signature motifs and FACS conserved motifs that are homologous to those in Escherichia coli FadD (EcFadD). In this study, we demonstrate that HAPS_0217 and HAPS_1695 can functionally replace EcFadD in the E. coli fadD mutant JW1794, and were thus designated fadD1 and fadD2, respectively. An evaluation of kinetic parameters indicated that FadD1 and FadD2 have a substrate preference for long-chain fatty acids...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352352/combination-therapy-with-catechins-and-caffeine-inhibits-fat-accumulation-in-3t3-l1-cells
#15
Xiaojuan Zhu, Licong Yang, Feng Xu, Lezhen Lin, Guodong Zheng
Catechins and caffeine, which are green tea components, have a slimming effect; however, the combinational effect of fat metabolism in 3T3-L1 cells remains unclear. In the present study, 3T3-L1 cells were treated with catechins and caffeine in combination, and it was found that combination therapy with catechins and caffeine markedly reduced intracellular fat accumulation, mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α in the early stage of cell differentiation were significantly reduced, and mRNA expression of fatty acid synthetase(FAS) andglycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase protein expression levels of FAS were downregulated...
February 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346095/identification-by-high-throughput-screening-of-pseudomonas-acyl-coenzyme-a-synthetase-inhibitors
#16
Lorenzo Turcano, Daniela Visaggio, Emanuela Frangipani, Antonino Missineo, Matteo Andreini, Sergio Altamura, Paolo Visca, Alberto Bresciani
Pseudomonas infections are common among hospitalized, immunocompromised, and chronic lung disease patients. These infections are recalcitrant to common antibacterial therapies due to inherent antibiotic resistance. To meet the need of new anti- Pseudomonas drugs, a sensitive, homogenous, and robust assay was developed with the aim of identifying inhibitors of acyl-coenzyme A synthetases (ACSs) from Pseudomonas. Given the importance of fatty acids for in vivo nutrition of Pseudomonas, such inhibitors might have the potential to reduce the bacterial fitness during infection...
January 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339712/effect-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-treatment-on-plasma-lipid-profile-and-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-hetian-broiler
#17
Z Xie, J Zhang, S Ma, X Huang, Y Huang
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether adding a Chinese herbal hedicine (CHM, including astragalus membranaceus, codonopsis pilosula, poria cocos, bighead atractylodes rhizome, fructus crataegi, folium epimedii, radix saposhnikoviae, and pericarpium citri reticulatae) diet has effects on lipid metabolism in the liver of the broiler. Six-hundred-thirty Hetian broilers were divided into 3 groups including base diet (control), 0.3%, or 1% CHM diets, for 130 days. The results showed that CHM treatment significantly increased the slaughter performance...
February 21, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321934/multi-layered-control-of-peroxisomal-activity-upon-salt-stress-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#18
Sara Manzanares-Estreder, Joan Espí-Bardisa, Benito Alarcón, Amparo Pascual-Ahuir, Markus Proft
Peroxisomes are dynamic organelles and the sole location for fatty acid β-oxidation in yeast cells. Here we report that peroxisomal function is crucial for the adaptation to salt stress, especially upon sugar limitation. Upon stress, multiple layers of control regulate the activity and the number of peroxisomes. Activated Hog1 MAP kinase triggers the induction of genes encoding enzymes for fatty acid activation, peroxisomal import and β-oxidation through the Adr1 transcriptional activator, which transiently associates with genes encoding fatty acid metabolic enzymes in a stress- and Hog1-dependent manner...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298234/dynamic-regulation-of-fatty-acid-pools-for-improved-production-of-fatty-alcohols-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#19
Paulo Gonçalves Teixeira, Raphael Ferreira, Yongjin J Zhou, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
BACKGROUND: In vivo production of fatty acid-derived chemicals in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires strategies to increase the intracellular supply of either acyl-CoA or free fatty acids (FFAs), since their cytosolic concentrations are quite low in a natural state for this organism. Deletion of the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase genes FAA1 and FAA4 is an effective and straightforward way to disable re-activation of fatty acids and drastically increase FFA levels. However, this strategy causes FFA over-accumulation and consequential release to the extracellular medium, which results in a significant loss of precursors that compromises the process yield...
March 15, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284693/the-effects-of-cell-death-inducing-dna-fragmentation-factor-%C3%AE-like-effector-c-cidec-on-milk-lipid-synthesis-in-mammary-glands-of-dairy-cows
#20
Yang Yang, Ye Lin, Xiaoyu Duan, He Lv, Weinan Xing, Qingzhang Li, Xuejun Gao, Xiaoming Hou
Adequate lipid synthesis by the mammary gland during lactation is essential for the survival of mammalian offspring. Cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-α-like effector C (CIDEC) is a lipid droplet-associated protein and functions to promote lipid accumulation and inhibit lipolysis in mice and human adipocytes. However, the function of CIDEC in regulation of milk lipid synthesis in dairy cow mammary gland remains largely unknown. In this study, 6 multiparous Holstein cows (parity = 3) in early lactation were allocated to high-fat milk (milk yield 33...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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