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Fatty acid synthetase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457784/hiv-latency-is-reversed-by-acss2-driven-histone-crotonylation
#1
Guochun Jiang, Don Nguyen, Nancie M Archin, Steven A Yukl, Gema Méndez-Lagares, Yuyang Tang, Maher M Elsheikh, George R Thompson, Dennis J Hartigan-O'Connor, David M Margolis, Joseph K Wong, Satya Dandekar
Eradication of HIV-1 (HIV) is hindered by stable viral reservoirs. Viral latency is epigenetically regulated. While the effects of histone acetylation and methylation at the HIV long-terminal repeat (LTR) have been described, our knowledge of the proviral epigenetic landscape is incomplete. We report that a previously unrecognized epigenetic modification of the HIV LTR, histone crotonylation, is a regulator of HIV latency. Reactivation of latent HIV was achieved following the induction of histone crotonylation through increased expression of the crotonyl-CoA-producing enzyme acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2)...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454926/chinese-patent-medicine-xin-ke-shu-inhibits-ca-2-overload-and-dysfunction-of-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-in-rats-with-myocardial-infarction-induced-by-lad-ligation
#2
Yong Yang, Hongmei Jia, Meng Yu, Chao Zhou, Lili Sun, Yang Zhao, Hongwu Zhang, Zhongmei Zou
Myocardial infarction (MI) occurs during a sustained insufficient blood supply to the heart, eventually leading to myocardial necrosis. Xin-Ke-Shu tablet (XKS) is a prescription herbal compound and a patented medicine extensively used in the clinical treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD). To understand the molecular mechanism of the XKS action against MI in detail, it is necessary to investigate the altered metabolome and related pathways coincident with clinical features. In this study, tissue-targeted metabonomics based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) were developed to explore the metabolic changes associated with XKS treatment in the heart tissue of rats with MI induced by a left anterior descending coronary artery ligation (LAD)...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453645/emphasis-of-fas-fasl-gene-polymorphism-in-patients-with-non-muscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#3
Cavit Ceylan, Sedat Yahşi, Serkan Doğan, Elife ÖztÜrk, Gulay Ceylan
BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer (BCa) is the seventh most common cancer among males worldwide. Some reliable markers in blood, urine, and tumor tissue, including clinicopathologic variables, molecular and inflammatory markers, gene polymorphisms, and tumor gene expression profiles are identified for predicting response to BCG immunotherapy in high-risk BCa patients. AIMS: We aimed to determine if FAS and FASL polymorphisms are associated with lack of response to BCG in patients with BCa...
February 16, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450800/the-endogenous-subcellular-localisations-of-the-long-chain-fatty-acid-activating-enzymes-acsl3-and-acsl4-in-sarcoma-and-breast-cancer-cells
#4
Yassmeen Radif, Haarith Ndiaye, Vasiliki Kalantzi, Ruth Jacobs, Andrew Hall, Shane Minogue, Mark G Waugh
Fatty acid uptake and metabolism are often dysregulated in cancer cells. Fatty acid activation is a critical step that allows these biomolecules to enter cellular metabolic pathways such as mitochondrial β-oxidation for ATP generation or the lipogenic routes that generate bioactive lipids such as the inositol phospholipids. Fatty acid activation by the addition of coenzyme A is catalysed by a family of enzymes called the acyl CoA synthetase ligases (ACSL). Furthermore, enhanced expression of particular ACSL isoforms, such as ACSL4, is a feature of some more aggressive cancers and may contribute to the oncogenic phenotype...
February 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398618/a-role-for-long-chain-acyl-coa-synthetase-4-acsl4-in-diet-induced-phospholipid-remodeling-and-obesity-associated-adipocyte-dysfunction
#5
Elizabeth A Killion, Andrew R Reeves, Mahmoud A El Azzouny, Qing-Wu Yan, Defne Surujon, John D Griffin, Thomas A Bowman, Chunyan Wang, Nirupa R Matthan, Eric L Klett, Dong Kong, John W Newman, Xianlin Han, Mi-Jeong Lee, Rosalind A Coleman, Andrew S Greenberg
OBJECTIVE: Regulation of fatty acid (FA) metabolism is central to adipocyte dysfunction during diet-induced obesity (DIO). Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase-4 (ACSL4) has been hypothesized to modulate the metabolic fates of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA), including arachidonic acid (AA), but the in vivo actions of ACSL4 are unknown. The purpose of our studies was to determine the in vivo role of adipocyte ACSL4 in regulating obesity-associated adipocyte dysfunction. METHODS: We developed a novel mouse model with adipocyte-specific ablation of ACSL4 (Ad-KO) using loxP Cre recombinase technology...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385857/fatty-acids-from-oleaginous-yeasts-and-yeast-like-fungi-and-their-potential-applications
#6
Si-Jia Xue, Zhe Chi, Yu Zhang, Yan-Feng Li, Guang-Lei Liu, Hong Jiang, Zhong Hu, Zhen-Ming Chi
PURPOSE: Oleaginous yeasts, fatty acids biosynthesis and regulation in the oleaginous yeasts and the fatty acids from the oleaginous yeasts and their applications are reviewed in this article. RESULTS: Oleaginous yeasts such as Rhodosporidium toruloides, Yarrowia lipolytica, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and Aureobasidium melanogenum, which can accumulate over 50% lipid of their cell dry weight, have many advantages over other oleaginous microorganisms. The fatty acids from the oleaginous yeasts have many potential applications...
February 1, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377237/drosophila-melanogaster-a-model-to-study-obesity-effects-on-genes-expression-and-developmental-changes-on-descendants
#7
Mariane T de Paula, Márcia R P Silva, Stífani M Araújo, Vandreza C Bortolotto, Illana K Martins, Giulianna E Macedo, Jeferson L Franco, Thaís Posser, Marina Prigol
Maternal obesity and metabolic diseases are two of the most important potential dangers to offspring, given that impaired offspring may cause deficiencies that impair the adult life and health. This study evaluated the oxidative damage, the enzymatic antioxidant defenses, and the enzymes of fatty acid metabolism, such as Acyl-CoA Synthetase and Acetyl-CoA Synthetase (mRNA expression levels), as well as the modulation of cell stress signaling pathway, as Hsp83, and gene expression and insulin-like peptide DILP6 in Drosophila melanogaster models that received a high fat diet (HFD) (10% and 20% of coconut oil) throughout their development period...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369464/genome-mining-of-lipopeptide-biosynthesis-of-paenibacillus-polymyxa-e681-in-combination-with-mass-spectrometry-discovery-of-the-lipoheptapeptide-paenilipoheptin
#8
Joachim Vater, Stefanie Herfort, Joerg Doellinger, Max Weydmann, Peter Lasch, Rainer Borriss
Paenibacillus polymyxa strains are qualified for agrobiotechnological uses such as plant growth promotion and for biocontrol strategies against deleterious phytopathogenic competitors in the soil depending on their attractive arsenal of bioactive compounds. On the other hand they are potent producers of antibiotics for medical applications. To identify new products of such organisms genome mining strategies in combination with mass spectrometry are the methods of choice. Here we performed such studies with the Paenibacillus strain E681...
January 25, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303644/expression-of-glutamate-transporters-in-mouse-liver-kidney-and-intestine
#9
Qiu Xiang Hu, Sigrid Ottestad-Hansen, Silvia Holmseth, Bjørnar Hassel, Niels Christian Danbolt, Yun Zhou
Glutamate transport activities have been identified not only in the brain, but also in the liver, kidney, and intestine. Although glutamate transporter distributions in the central nervous system are fairly well known, there are still uncertainties with respect to the distribution of these transporters in peripheral organs. Quantitative information is mostly lacking, and few of the studies have included genetically modified animals as specificity controls. The present study provides validated qualitative and semi-quantitative data on the excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT)1-3 subtypes in the mouse liver, kidney, and intestine...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296215/cell-surface-grp78-promotes-tumor-cell-histone-acetylation-through-metabolic-reprogramming-a-mechanism-which-modulates-the-warburg-effect
#10
Udhayakumar Gopal, Salvatore V Pizzo
Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is essential for histone acetylation, to promote cell proliferation by regulating gene expression. However, the underlying mechanism(s) governing acetylation remains poorly understood. Activated α2-Macroglobulin (α2M*) signals through tumor Cell Surface GRP78 (CS-GRP78) to regulate tumor cell proliferation through multiple signaling pathway. Here, we demonstrate that the α2M*/CS-GRP78 axis regulates acetyl-CoA synthesis and thus functions as an epigenetic modulator by enhancing histone acetylation in cancer cells...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250120/human-chorionic-plate-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-restore-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-a-rat-model-of-bile-duct-ligation
#11
Yun Bin Lee, Jong Ho Choi, Eun Nam Kim, Jin Seok, Hyun-Jung Lee, Jung-Hwan Yoon, Gi Jin Kim
In cholestatic liver diseases, impaired bile excretion disrupts lipid homeostasis. We investigated changes of lipid metabolism, including mitochondrial β-oxidation, in a rat model of bile duct ligation (BDL) in which chorionic plate-derived mesenchymal stem cells (CP-MSCs) were transplanted. Serum cholesterol level, which was elevated after BDL, was significantly decreased following CP-MSC transplantation. The expression levels of genes involved in intracellular lipid uptake, including long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetases and fatty acid transport proteins, were decreased in rats after BDL; however, they were not significantly changed by subsequent CP-MSC transplantation...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241577/caulerpa-okamurae-extract-inhibits-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes-and-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-in-c57bl-6-mice
#12
Bhesh Raj Sharma, Hyun Jung Kim, Min Suk Kim, Chul Min Park, Dong Young Rhyu
Seaweeds are considered a potential source of antiobesity agents. Because Caulerpa, a seaweed, has been consumed for food in Japan, China, South Korea, and Australia, we hypothesized that Caulerpa okamurae may have antiobesity effects in an animal model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice. Herein, we found that the ethanolic extract of C okamurae (COE) significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and reduced the expression of the master regulator of adipogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α in 3T3-L1 adipocytes...
November 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241575/dietary-supplementation-with-myo-inositol-reduces-hepatic-triglyceride-accumulation-and-expression-of-both-fructolytic-and-lipogenic-genes-in-rats-fed-a-high-fructose-diet
#13
Masaya Shimada, Masato Hibino, Anna Takeshita
Excessive fructose ingestion drastically enhances hepatic lipid accumulation. The most prominent form of inositol-myo-inositol (MI)-remarkably reduces high sucrose-induced hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. Because MI is a major and strong lipotrope, we hypothesized in this study that MI improves fatty liver more induced by excessive ingestion of fructose than sucrose. Rats were fed a high-glucose diet (HGD), a high-fructose diet (HFD), or an HFD supplemented with 0.2% MI for 12 days. Hepatic levels of TG and mRNAs for fructolysis (ketohexokinase and aldolase B), lipogenesis (pyruvate kinase, liver, and RBC; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha; fatty acid synthase; and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1), and a key transcription factor for lipogenesis-carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein-were significantly increased in the HFD group compared with the HGD group, and the increase was markedly decreased by MI supplementation...
November 2017: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222028/sodium-butyrate-enhanced-physical-barrier-function-referring-to-nrf2-jnk-and-mlck-signaling-pathways-in-the-intestine-of-young-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#14
Pei Wu, Li Tian, Xiao-Qiu Zhou, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Jun Jiang, Fei Xie, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Juan Yang, Yong-An Zhang, He-Qun Shi, Lin Feng
This study evaluated the effect of dietary sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation on the intestinal physical barrier function of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). The fish were fed one powdery sodium butyrate (PSB) diet (1000.0 mg kg-1 diet) and five graded levels of microencapsulated sodium butyrate (MSB) diets: 0.0 (control), 500.0, 1000.0, 1500.0 and 2000.0 mg kg-1 diet for 60 days. Subsequently, a challenge test was conducted by injection of Aeromonas hydrophila to explore the effect of SB supplementation on intestinal physical barrier function and the potential mechanisms in fish...
December 5, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176964/only-acyl-carrier-protein-1-acpp1-functions-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-fatty-acid-synthesis
#15
Jin-Cheng Ma, Yun-Qi Wu, Dan Cao, Wen-Bin Zhang, Hai-Hong Wang
The genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa contains three open reading frames, PA2966, PA1869, and PA3334, which encode putative acyl carrier proteins, AcpP1, AcpP2, and AcpP3, respectively. In this study, we found that, although these apo-ACPs were successfully phosphopantetheinylated by P. aeruginosa phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PcpS) and all holo-forms of these proteins could be acylated by Vibrio harveyi acyl-ACP synthetase (AasS), only AcpP1 could be used as a substrate for the synthesis of fatty acids, catalyzed by P...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163455/designing-and-creating-a-synthetic-omega-oxidation-pathway-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-enables-production-of-medium-chain-%C3%AE-%C3%AF-dicarboxylic-acids
#16
Li Han, Yanfeng Peng, Yuangyuan Zhang, Wujiu Chen, Yuping Lin, Qinhong Wang
Medium-chain (C8-C14) α, ω-dicarboxylic acids (α, ω-DCAs), which have numerous applications as raw materials for producing various commodities and polymers in chemical industry, are mainly produced from chemical or microbial conversion of petroleum-derived alkanes or plant-derived fatty acids at present. Recently, significant attention has been gained to microbial production of medium-chain α, ω-DCAs from simple renewable sugars. Here, we designed and created a synthetic omega oxidation pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce C10 and C12 α, ω-DCAs from renewable sugars and fatty acids by introducing a heterogeneous cytochrome P450 CYP94C1 and cytochrome reductase ATR1...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158261/the-biotin-ligating-protein-bpl-1-is-critical-for-lipid-biosynthesis-and-polarization-of-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-embryo
#17
Jason S Watts, Diane G Morton, Kenneth J Kemphues, Jennifer L Watts
Biotin is an essential cofactor for multiple metabolic reactions catalyzed by carboxylases. Biotin is covalently linked to apoproteins by holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS). Accordingly, some mutations in HCS cause holocarboxylase deficiency, a rare metabolic disorder that can be life threatening if left untreated. However, the long-term effects of HCS deficiency are poorly understood. Here, we report our investigations of bpl-1, which encodes the C. elegans ortholog of HCS. We found that mutations in the biotin-binding region of bpl-1 are maternal-effect lethal, and cause defects in embryonic polarity establishment, meiosis, and the integrity of the eggshell permeability barrier...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155266/chronic-dexamethasone-exposure-markedly-decreased-the-hepatic-triglyceride-accumulation-in-growing-goats
#18
Qu Chen, Liqiong Niu, Canfeng Hua, Yali Geng, Liuping Cai, Shiyu Tao, Yingdong Ni, Ruqian Zhao
Chronic stress seriously threatens welfare and health in animals and humans. Consecutive dexamethasone (Dex) injection was used to mimic chronic stress previously. In order to investigate the effect of chronic stress on hepatic lipids metabolism, in this study, 10 healthy male goats were randomly allocated into two groups, one received a consecutive injection of Dex via intramuscularly for 3 weeks (Dex group), the other received the same volume of saline as the control group (Con group). Hepatic health and triglyceride (TG) metabolism were analyzed and compared between two groups...
November 16, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150677/phosphatidylserine-decarboxylase-ct699-lysophospholipid-acyltransferase-ct775-and-acyl-acp-synthase-ct776-provide-membrane-lipid-diversity-to-chlamydia-trachomatis
#19
Eric Soupene, Frans A Kuypers
De novo lipid synthesis and scavenging of fatty acids (FA) are processes essential for the formation of the membrane of the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t.). Host FA are assimilated via esterification by the bacterial acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase AasC but inhibitors of the host acyl-CoA synthetase enymes ACSL also impaired growth of C.t. in human cells. In E. coli, activity of AasC was sensitive to triacsin C and rosiglitazone G. The absence of a triacsin C-insensitive pathway and the increased inhibition by rosiglitazone G confirmed the sensitivity of the bacterial acyl-ACP synthase to these drugs in infected human cells...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147968/effects-of-fasting-on-the-activities-and-mrna-expression-levels-of-lipoprotein-lipase-lpl-hormone-sensitive-lipase-hsl-and-fatty-acid-synthetase-fas-in-spotted-seabass-lateolabrax-maculatus
#20
Hongli Huang, Yu Zhang, Mingyue Cao, Liangyi Xue, Weiliang Shen
To investigate the effects of fasting on lipid metabolism in spotted seabass muscle and liver tissues, we analyzed mRNA levels and enzyme activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and fatty acid synthetase (FAS), and the relationship among fat content, mRNA level, and enzyme activity during fasting of 35 days. The results showed that expressions of all the three genes were ubiquitous. During the fasting experiment, the hepatosomatic index (HSI) and fat content of muscle and liver tissues significantly decreased before 5 days of fasting (P < 0...
November 16, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
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