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Fatty acid synthetase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814239/homology-modeling-and-molecular-docking-studies-of-bacillomycin-and-iturin-synthetases-with-novel-ligands-for-the-production-of-therapeutic-lipopeptides
#1
Jujjavarapu Satya Eswari, Swasti Dhagat, Shubham Kaser, Anoop Tiwari
BACKGROUND: Lipopeptide synthetases play an important role in the production of lipopeptides. Lipopeptides are molecules made up of peptides and fatty acid moieties and have shown to have a broad range of antimicrobial activity. As infectious diseases have caused severe health problems mainly resulting from the development of antibiotic resistant strains of disease causing microorganisms there is a need of alternatives to antibiotics. The lipopeptide synthetase of the corresponding lipopeptides can be used as templates to design these as drugs using computational techniques...
August 15, 2017: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766168/pre-and-post-prandial-expression-of-genes-involved-in-lipid-metabolism-at-the-end-of-the-overfeeding-period-of-mule-ducks
#2
Tavernier Annabelle, Ricaud Karine, Bernadet Marie-Dominique, Gontier Karine, Davail Stéphane
In palmipeds, overfeeding leads to hepatic steatosis, also called "foie gras" which is the result of many metabolic mechanisms. In order to understand these mechanisms, we decided to measure the expression of genes implicated in lipid metabolism during 12 hours (h) following the last meal of the overfeeding period. We have shown that there is a precocious expression (within 2 h) of fatty acid synthase and acyl CoA synthetase long-chain 1 in liver and muscle of mule ducks in addition with a later peak. Furthermore, di-acyl glycerol acyl transferase presents the highest induction of expression in liver and it is overexpressed quite a long time, positioning this enzyme as a key factor in hepatic steatosis...
August 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765222/role-of-fatty-acid-kinase-in-cellular-lipid-homeostasis-and-saers-dependent-virulence-factor-expression-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#3
Megan E Ericson, Chitra Subramanian, Matthew W Frank, Charles O Rock
The SaeRS two-component system is a master activator of virulence factor transcription in Staphylococcus aureus, but the cellular factors that control its activity are unknown. Fatty acid (FA) kinase is a two-component enzyme system required for extracellular FA uptake and SaeRS activity. Here, we demonstrate the existence of an intracellular nonesterified FA pool in S. aureus that is elevated in strains lacking FA kinase activity. SaeRS-mediated transcription is restored in FA kinase-negative strains when the intracellular FA pool is reduced either by growth with FA-depleted bovine serum albumin to extract the FA into the medium or by the heterologous expression of Neisseria gonorrhoeae acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase to activate FA for phospholipid synthesis...
August 1, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762729/activation-and-loading-of-the-starter-unit-during-thiocoraline-biosynthesis
#4
Shogo Mori, Sanjib K Shrestha, Javier Fernández, María Álvarez San Millán, Atefeh Garzan, Ahmad H Al-Mestarihi, Felipe Lombó, Sylvie Garneau-Tsodikova
The initiation of the nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) assembly of the bisintercalator natural product thiocoraline involves key enzymatic steps for AMP activation and carrier protein loading of the starter unit 3-hydroxyquinaldic acid (3HQA). Gene cluster data combined with protein sequence homology analysis originally led us to propose that TioJ could be responsible for the AMP activation step, whereas TioO could act as the thiolation (T) domain, facilitating the transfer of 3HQA to the next NRPS module, TioR...
August 17, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753670/effects-of-dietary-lipids-on-the-hepatopancreas-transcriptome-of-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#5
Banghong Wei, Zhigang Yang, Jianyi Wang, Aqin Chen, Qiuyan Shi, Yongxu Cheng
Fish oil supplies worldwide have declined sharply over the years. To reduce the use of fish oil in aquaculture, many studies have explored the effects of fish oil substitutions on aquatic animals. To illustrate the effects of dietary lipids on Chinese mitten crab and to improve the use of vegetable oils in the diet of the crabs, 60 male juvenile Chinese mitten crabs were fed one of five diets for 116 days: fish oil (FO), soybean oil (SO), linseed oil (LO), FO + SO (1:1, FSO), and FO + LO (1:1, FLO). Changes in the crab hepatopancreas transcriptome were analyzed using RNA sequencing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662394/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-improve-the-antioxidative-defense-in-rat-astrocytes-via-an-nrf2-dependent-mechanism
#6
Emilia Zgórzyńska, Barbara Dziedzic, Anna Gorzkiewicz, Dawid Stulczewski, Katarzyna Bielawska, Kuan-Pin Su, Anna Walczewska
INTRODUCTION: Neuronal tolerance to hypoxia and nutrient defficiency highly depends on GSH levels and antioxidant enzyme activity in astrocytes. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3PUFA) enhance antioxidant defence in different cells. The aim of present study was to investigate if ω-3PUFA improve antioxidant status in astrocytes. METHODS: Rat primary astrocytes were incubated for 24h with DHA and EPA (30μM), then lysed, fractioned and fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography...
April 20, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657495/in-silico-structural-studies-and-molecular-docking-analysis-of-delta6-desaturase-in-hufa-biosynthetic-pathway
#7
Suvra Roy, Hirak Jyoti Chakraborty, Vikash Kumar, B K Behera, R S Rana, Gireesh Babu
Fish are an important source of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) such as eicosapentaenoic acid EPA (20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid DHA (22:6 n-3) and play a significant role in human nutrition. The fatty acyl delta6-desaturase (Δ6 desaturase) is a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) that converts polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as linoleic (18:2n-6) and α-linolenic (18:3n-3) acids into HUFA. In this study, fatty acyl Δ6 desaturase was identified from pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and further analyzed for sequenced-based characterization and 3D structural conformation...
June 28, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641384/acute-testosterone-deficiency-alters-adipose-tissue-fatty-acid-storage
#8
Sylvia Santosa, Nikki C Bush, Michael D Jensen
Context: Although the long-term effects of testosterone on adipose tissue lipid metabolism in men have been defined, the short-term regulation of these effects is not well understood. Objective: We examined the effects of acute testosterone withdrawal on subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) storage and cellular mechanisms. Design: This was a prospective, randomized trial. Setting: Mayo Clinic Clinical Research Unit...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564555/holocarboxylase-synthetase-a-moonlighting-transcriptional-coregulator-of-gene-expression-and-a-cytosolic-regulator-of-biotin-utilization
#9
Alfonso León-Del-Río, Viviana Valadez-Graham, Roy A Gravel
The vitamin biotin is an essential nutrient for the metabolism and survival of all organisms owing to its function as a cofactor of enzymes collectively known as biotin-dependent carboxylases. These enzymes use covalently attached biotin as a vector to transfer a carboxyl group between donor and acceptor molecules during carboxylation reactions. In human cells, biotindependent carboxylases catalyze key reactions in gluconeogenesis, fatty acid synthesis, and amino acid catabolism. Biotin is attached to apocarboxylases by a biotin ligase: holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS) in mammalian cells and BirA in microbes...
May 31, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551825/necroptosis-and-ferroptosis-are-alternative-cell-death-pathways-that-operate-in-acute-kidney-failure
#10
Tammo Müller, Christin Dewitz, Jessica Schmitz, Anna Sophia Schröder, Jan Hinrich Bräsen, Brent R Stockwell, James M Murphy, Ulrich Kunzendorf, Stefan Krautwald
Ferroptosis is a recently recognized caspase-independent form of regulated cell death that is characterized by the accumulation of lethal lipid ROS produced through iron-dependent lipid peroxidation. Considering that regulation of fatty acid metabolism is responsible for the membrane-resident pool of oxidizable fatty acids that undergo lipid peroxidation in ferroptotic processes, we examined the contribution of the key fatty acid metabolism enzyme, acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4), in regulating ferroptosis...
May 27, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499082/exacerbation-of-liver-steatosis-following-exposure-to-famine-and-overnutrition
#11
Zhiyuan Ning, Kun Zhang, Li Zhao, You Lu, Honglin Sun, Chi Chen, Xiaomin Nie, Meng Lu, Ningjian Wang, Yingli Lu
SCOPE: People suffering from famine in early life and overnutrition in adulthood may have an increased risk for liver steatosis. We aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of early nutrition restriction and overnutrition on de novo lipogenesis in the liver. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three-week-old male rats were food restricted for 4 weeks and refed a high-fat or normal-fat diet individually in metabolic cages for 9 weeks. Weight-matched groups were also set up...
May 12, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498416/association-of-long-chain-acyl-coenzyme-a-synthetase%C3%A2-5-expression-in-human-breast-cancer-by-estrogen-receptor-status-and-its-clinical-significance
#12
Meng-Chi Yen, Jung-Yu Kan, Chia-Jung Hsieh, Po-Lin Kuo, Ming-Feng Hou, Ya-Ling Hsu
The lipid metabolic enzymes are considered candidate therapeutic targets for breast cancer. Long-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) synthase (ACSL) is one of lipid metabolic enzymes and converts free-fatty acid to fatty acid-CoA. Five ACSL isoforms including ACSL1, ACSL3, ACSL4, ACSL5 and ACSL6 are identified in human. High ACSL4 expression has been observed in aggressive breast cancer phenotype. However, the role of other isoforms is still little-known. We therefore, analyzed the expression of ACSL isoforms in each subtype of breast cancer within METABRIC dataset and cancer cell line encyclopedia dataset...
April 28, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497289/systematic-analysis-of-the-lysine-acetylome-reveals-diverse-functions-of-lysine-acetylation-in-the-oleaginous-yeast-yarrowia-lipolytica
#13
Guangyuan Wang, Lizhong Guo, Wenxing Liang, Zhenming Chi, Lin Liu
Lysine acetylation of proteins, a major post-translational modification, plays a critical regulatory role in almost every aspects in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Yarrowia lipolytica, an oleaginous yeast, is considered as a model for bio-oil production due to its ability to accumulate a large amount of lipids. However, the function of lysine acetylation in this organism is elusive. Here, we performed a global acetylproteome analysis of Y. lipolytica ACA-DC 50109. In total, 3163 lysine acetylation sites were identified in 1428 proteins, which account for 22...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479296/the-mammalian-malonyl-coa-synthetase-acsf3-is-required-for-mitochondrial-protein-malonylation-and-metabolic-efficiency
#14
Caitlyn E Bowman, Susana Rodriguez, Ebru S Selen Alpergin, Michelle G Acoba, Liang Zhao, Thomas Hartung, Steven M Claypool, Paul A Watkins, Michael J Wolfgang
Malonyl-coenzyme A (malonyl-CoA) is a central metabolite in mammalian fatty acid biochemistry generated and utilized in the cytoplasm; however, little is known about noncanonical organelle-specific malonyl-CoA metabolism. Intramitochondrial malonyl-CoA is generated by a malonyl-CoA synthetase, ACSF3, which produces malonyl-CoA from malonate, an endogenous competitive inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase. To determine the metabolic requirement for mitochondrial malonyl-CoA, ACSF3 knockout (KO) cells were generated by CRISPR/Cas-mediated genome editing...
June 22, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465060/biosynthesis-of-the-fatty-acid-isopropyl-esters-by-engineered-escherichia-coli
#15
Hong Pan, Lihua Zhang, Xun Li, Daoyi Guo
The fatty acid methyl esters and fatty acid ethyl esters are known as biodiesels which are considered to be renewable, nontoxic and biodegradable biofuels. However, the conventional biodiesels show a high crystallization temperature which is one of the most critical obstacles against the widespread biodiesel usage. The high crystallization temperature of biodiesel can be reduced by replacing the methyl or ethyl ester with an isopropyl moiety. Here we report on a strategy to establish biosynthesis of the fatty acid isopropyl esters(FAIPEs) from the simple substrate glucose in Escherichia coli with heterologous coexpression of atoB encoded acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase and atoAD encode acetoacetyl-CoA transferase from E...
July 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431246/fatty-acids-regulate-germline-sex-determination-through-acs-4-dependent-myristoylation
#16
Hongyun Tang, Min Han
Fat metabolism has been linked to fertility and reproductive adaptation in animals and humans, and environmental sex determination potentially plays a role in the process. To investigate the impact of fatty acids (FA) on sex determination and reproductive development, we examined and observed an impact of FA synthesis and mobilization by lipolysis in somatic tissues on oocyte fate in Caenorhabditis elegans. The subsequent genetic analysis identified ACS-4, an acyl-CoA synthetase and its FA-CoA product, as key germline factors that mediate the role of FA in promoting oocyte fate through protein myristoylation...
April 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429279/improvement-of-lipid-production-by-the-oleaginous-yeast-rhodosporidium-toruloides-through-uv-mutagenesis
#17
Ryosuke Yamada, Tomomi Kashihara, Hiroyasu Ogino
Oleaginous yeasts are considered a promising alternative lipid source for biodiesel fuel production. In this study, we attempted to improve the lipid productivity of the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides through UV irradiation mutagenesis and selection based on ethanol and H2O2 tolerance or cerulenin, a fatty acid synthetase inhibitor. Glucose consumption, cell growth, and lipid production of mutants were evaluated. The transcription level of genes involved in lipid production was also evaluated in mutants...
May 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414710/using-the-pimeloyl-coa-synthetase-adenylation-fold-to-synthesize-fatty-acid-thioesters
#18
Menglu Wang, Lucile Moynié, Peter J Harrison, Van Kelly, Andrew Piper, James H Naismith, Dominic J Campopiano
Biotin is an essential vitamin in plants and mammals, functioning as the carbon dioxide carrier within central lipid metabolism. Bacterial pimeloyl-CoA synthetase (BioW) acts as a highly specific substrate-selection gate, ensuring the integrity of the carbon chain in biotin synthesis. BioW catalyzes the condensation of pimelic acid (C7 dicarboxylic acid) with CoASH in an ATP-dependent manner to form pimeloyl-CoA, the first dedicated biotin building block. Multiple structures of Bacillus subtilis BioW together capture all three substrates, as well as the intermediate pimeloyl-adenylate and product pyrophosphate (PPi), indicating that the enzyme uses an internal ruler to select the correct dicarboxylic acid substrate...
June 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410665/impact-of-dietary-precursor-ala-versus-preformed-dha-on-fatty-acid-profiles-of-eggs-liver-and-adipose-tissue-and-expression-of-genes-associated-with-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-laying-hens
#19
M Neijat, P Eck, J D House
Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), including alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and preformed longer chain PUFA (LCPUFA, particularly docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) differ in their egg LCPUFA enrichment efficiency. However, mechanisms leading to these differences are unclear. To this end, omega-3 PUFA contents in different lipid classes, including triacylglycerol (TAG) and total phospholipid (PL) in yolk, liver and adipose, as well as the expression of key hepatic enzymes in lipid metabolism were evaluated in laying hens in response to changes in dietary supply...
April 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407230/acyl-coa-synthetase-short-chain-family-member-2-acss2-is-regulated-by-srebp-1-and-plays-a-role-in-fatty-acid-synthesis-in-caprine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#20
Huifen Xu, Jun Luo, Gongzhen Ma, Xueying Zhang, Dawei Yao, Ming Li, Juan J Loor
Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) is well-known as the master regulator of lipogenesis in rodents. Acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2) plays a key role in lipogenesis by synthesizing acetyl-CoA from acetate for lipogenesis. ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) catalyzes the conversion of citrate and coenzyme A to acetyl-CoA, hence, it is also important for lipogenesis. Although ACSS2 function in cancer cells has been elucidated, its essentiality in ruminant mammary lipogenesis is unknown...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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