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Fatty acid synthesise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775920/il-33-stimulates-expression-of-the-gpr84-ex33-fatty-acid-receptor-gene-and-of-cytokine-and-chemokine-genes-in-human-adipocytes
#1
Mohamed S Zaibi, Małgorzata A Kępczyńska, Parvathy Harikumar, Suliman Y Alomar, Paul Trayhurn
Expression of GPCR fatty acid sensor/receptor genes in adipocytes is modulated by inflammatory mediators, particularly IL-1β. In this study we examined whether the IL-1 gene superfamily member, IL-33, also regulates expression of the fatty acid receptor genes in adipocytes. Human fat cells, differentiated from preadipocytes, were incubated with IL-33 at three different dose levels for 3 or 24 h and mRNA measured by qPCR. Treatment with IL-33 induced a dose-dependent increase in GPR84 mRNA at 3 h, the level with the highest dose being 13...
May 15, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579222/inhibition-of-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-by-pf-3845-alleviates-the-nitrergic-and-proinflammatory-response-in-rat-hippocampus-following-acute-stress
#2
Hsiao-Jou Cortina Chen, Jereme G Spiers, Conrad Sernia, Nickolas A Lavidis
Background: Long term exposure to stress has been demonstrated to cause neuroinflammation through a sustained overproduction of free radicals, including nitric oxide, via an increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity. We have previously demonstrated that iNOS activity and mRNA are significantly upregulated in the rat hippocampus following just 4 hours of restraint stress. Similar to nitric oxide, endocannabinoids are synthesised on demand, with preclinical observations suggesting that cannabinoid receptor agonists and endocannabinoid enhancers inhibit nitrergic activity...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499417/biochemical-transformation-of-calciprotein-particles-in-uraemia
#3
Edward R Smith, Tim D Hewitson, Eric Hanssen, Stephen G Holt
Calciprotein particles (CPP) have emerged as nanoscale mediators of phosphate-induced toxicity in Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Uraemia favors ripening of the particle mineral content from the amorphous (CPP-I) to the crystalline state (CPP-II) but the pathophysiological significance of this transformation is uncertain. Clinical studies suggest an association between CPP ripening and inflammation, vascular dysfunction and mortality. Although ripening has been modelled in vitro, it is unknown whether particles synthesised in serum resemble their in vivo counterparts...
May 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489910/systematic-review-of-palm-oil-consumption-and-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-disease
#4
Sophia Rasheeqa Ismail, Siti Khuzaimah Maarof, Syazwani Siedar Ali, Azizan Ali
BACKGROUND: The high amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) coupled with the rising availability and consumption of palm oil have lead to the assumption that palm oil contributes to the increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases worldwide. We aimed at systematically synthesising the association of palm oil consumption with cardiovascular disease risk and cardiovascular disease-specific mortality. METHODS: We systematically searched Central, Medline and Embase databases up to June 2017 without restriction on setting or language...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244725/exploring-the-glycans-of-euglena-gracilis
#5
Ellis C O'Neill, Sakonwan Kuhaudomlarp, Martin Rejzek, Jonatan U Fangel, Kathirvel Alagesan, Daniel Kolarich, William G T Willats, Robert A Field
Euglena gracilis is an alga of great biotechnological interest and extensive metabolic capacity, able to make high levels of bioactive compounds, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and β-glucan. Previous work has shown that Euglena expresses a wide range of carbohydrate-active enzymes, suggesting an unexpectedly high capacity for the synthesis of complex carbohydrates for a single-celled organism. Here, we present an analysis of some of the carbohydrates synthesised by Euglena gracilis . Analysis of the sugar nucleotide pool showed that there are the substrates necessary for synthesis of complex polysaccharides, including the unusual sugar galactofuranose...
December 15, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976228/effect-of-palmitic-acid-on-the-mitigation-of-milk-fat-depression-syndrome-caused-by-trans-10-cis-12-conjugated-linoleic-acid-in-grazing-dairy-cows
#6
Lorenzo Danilo Granados-Rivera, Omar Hernández-Mendo, Sergio Segundo González-Muñoz, Juan Andrés Burgueño-Ferreira, German David Mendoza-Martínez, Carlos Manuel Arriaga-Jordán
The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of adding protected palmitic acid (PA) to the ration of grazing dairy cows supplemented with protected conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on milk production, chemical composition and fat profile. Six cows were used, 3/4 American Swiss × Zebu, under a rotational grazing system in a mixed sward with Cynodon plectostachyus, Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria brizantha. Furthermore, each cow received daily 4 kg concentrates and 8 kg sorghum silage, which made up the basal diet...
October 4, 2017: Archives of Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634391/two-alternative-pathways-for-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-22-6n-3-biosynthesis-are-widespread-among-teleost-fish
#7
Angela Oboh, Naoki Kabeya, Greta Carmona-Antoñanzas, L Filipe C Castro, James R Dick, Douglas R Tocher, Oscar Monroig
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) plays important physiological roles in vertebrates. Studies in rats and rainbow trout confirmed that DHA biosynthesis proceeds through the so-called "Sprecher pathway", a biosynthetic process requiring a Δ6 desaturation of 24:5n-3 to 24:6n-3. Alternatively, some teleosts possess fatty acyl desaturases 2 (Fads2) that enable them to biosynthesis DHA through a more direct route termed the "Δ4 pathway". In order to elucidate the prevalence of both pathways among teleosts, we investigated the Δ6 ability towards C24 substrates of Fads2 from fish with different evolutionary and ecological backgrounds...
June 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583876/enhanced-expression-of-lipase-i-from-galactomyces-geotrichum-by-codon-optimisation-in-pichia-pastoris
#8
Hanzhen Qiao, Wenfei Zhang, Wutai Guan, Fang Chen, Shihai Zhang, Zixiao Deng
Relatively poor heterologous protein yields have limited the commerical applications of Galactomyces geotrichum lipase I (GGl I) efficacy trials. To address this, we have redesigned the GGl I gene to preferentially match codon frequencies of Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) while retaining the same amino acid sequence. The wild type and codon optimised GGl I (GGl I-wt and GGl I-op) were synthesised and cloned into pPICZαA with an N-terminal 6 × His tag sequence and expressed in P. pastoris X 33. The hydrolytic activity of GGl I-op was 150 U/mL, whereas the activity of the GGl I-wt could not be detected...
October 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578538/phospholipids-of-new-zealand-edible-brown-algae
#9
Mikhail Vyssotski, Kirill Lagutin, Andrew MacKenzie, Kevin Mitchell, Dawn Scott
Edible brown algae have attracted interest as a source of beneficial allenic carotenoid fucoxanthin, and glyco- and phospholipids enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. Unlike green algae, brown algae contain no or little phosphatidylserine, possessing an unusual aminophospholipid, phosphatidyl-O-[N-(2-hydroxyethyl) glycine], PHEG, instead. When our routinely used technique of 31 P-NMR analysis of phospholipids was applied to the samples of edible New Zealand brown algae, a number of signals corresponding to unidentified phosphorus-containing compounds were observed in total lipids...
July 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521794/in-vitro-synthesis-of-9-10-dihydroxyhexadecanoic-acid-using-recombinant-escherichia-coli
#10
Anees Kaprakkaden, Preeti Srivastava, Virendra Swarup Bisaria
BACKGROUND: Hydroxy fatty acids are widely used in food, chemical and cosmetic industries. A variety of dihydroxy fatty acids have been synthesized so far; however, no studies have been done on the synthesis of 9,10-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid. In the present study recombinant E. coli has been used for the heterologous expression of fatty acid hydroxylating enzymes and the whole cell lysate of the induced culture was used for in vitro production of 9,10-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid. RESULTS: A first of its kind proof of principle has been successfully demonstrated for the production of 9,10-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid using three different enzymes viz...
May 18, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493444/impact-of-hyperlipidaemia-on-intermediary-metabolism-faecal-microbial-metabolites-and-urinary-characteristics-of-lipoprotein-lipase-deficient-vs-normal-cats
#11
N Paßlack, J Zentek, J A Larsen, J L Westropp, A J Fascetti
Findings in humans and rats indicate that hyperlipidaemia may be associated with enhanced endogenous oxalate (Ox) synthesis, which may be relevant for calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith formation. Moreover, changes in lipid metabolism are proposed to negatively affect gut microbiota. This study aimed to investigate those potential interactions in hyperlipidaemic cats. Therefore, 10 normal control cats and seven lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-deficient cats were fed a low-fat diet for seven weeks. During the last week of the study, cats were housed in metabolic cages to collect urine and faeces...
February 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398950/a-ketone-ester-drink-increases-postexercise-muscle-glycogen-synthesis-in-humans
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
David A Holdsworth, Peter J Cox, Tom Kirk, Huw Stradling, Samuel G Impey, Kieran Clarke
INTRODUCTION: Physical endurance can be limited by muscle glycogen stores, in that glycogen depletion markedly reduces external work. During carbohydrate restriction, the liver synthesizes the ketone bodies, D-β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetoacetate from fatty acids. In animals and in the presence of glucose, D-β-hydroxybutyrate promotes insulin secretion and increases glycogen synthesis. Here we determined whether a dietary ketone ester, combined with plentiful glucose, can increase postexercise glycogen synthesis in human skeletal muscle...
September 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380280/alcohol-acyl-transferase-1-links-two-distinct-volatile-pathways-that-produce-esters-and-phenylpropenes-in-apple-fruit
#13
Yar-Khing Yauk, Edwige J F Souleyre, Adam J Matich, Xiuyin Chen, Mindy Y Wang, Blue Plunkett, Andrew P Dare, Richard V Espley, Sumathi Tomes, David Chagné, Ross G Atkinson
Fruit accumulate a diverse set of volatiles including esters and phenylpropenes. Volatile esters are synthesised via fatty acid degradation or from amino acid precursors, with the final step being catalysed by alcohol acyl transferases (AATs). Phenylpropenes are produced as a side branch of the general phenylpropanoid pathway. Major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on apple (Malus × domestica) linkage group (LG)2 for production of the phenylpropene estragole and volatile esters (including 2-methylbutyl acetate and hexyl acetate) both co-located with the MdAAT1 gene...
July 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351529/analysis-of-the-regulation-of-surfactant-phosphatidylcholine-metabolism-using-stable-isotopes
#14
REVIEW
Joost Brandsma, Anthony D Postle
The pathways and mechanisms that regulate pulmonary surfactant synthesis, processing, secretion and catabolism have been extensively characterised using classical biochemical and analytical approaches. These have constructed a model, largely in experimental animals, for surfactant phospholipid metabolism in the alveolar epithelial cell whereby phospholipid synthesised on the endoplasmic reticulum is selectively transported to lamellar body storage vesicles, where it is subsequently processed before secretion into the alveolus...
May 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281303/long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-in-infants-born-at-term
#15
REVIEW
Bonny Jasani, Karen Simmer, Sanjay K Patole, Shripada C Rao
BACKGROUND: The long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are considered essential for maturation of the developing brain, retina and other organs in newborn infants. Standard infant milk formulae are not supplemented with LCPUFA; they contain only alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid, from which formula-fed infants must synthesise their own DHA and AA, respectively. Over the past few years, some manufacturers have added LCPUFA to formula milk and have marketed these products as providing an advantage for the overall development of full-term infants...
March 10, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131860/biosynthesis-of-enantiopure-s-3-hydroxybutyrate-from-glucose-through-the-inverted-fatty-acid-%C3%AE-oxidation-pathway-by-metabolically-engineered-escherichia-coli
#16
Andrey Yu Gulevich, Alexandra Yu Skorokhodova, Alexey V Sukhozhenko, Vladimir G Debabov
Enantiomers of 3-hydroxybutyric acid (3-HB) can be used as the chiral precursors for the production of various optically active fine chemicals, including drugs, perfumes, and pheromones. In this study, Escherichia coli was engineered to produce (S)-3-HB from glucose through the inverted reactions of the native aerobic fatty acid β-oxidation pathway. Expression of only specific genes encoding enzymes responsible for the conversion of acetyl-CoA to acetoacetyl-CoA, reduction of acetoacetyl-CoA to 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA and subsequent hydrolysis of 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA to 3-HB was directly upregulated in an engineered strain...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106181/in-vitro-kinetic-study-of-the-squalestatin-tetraketide-synthase-dehydratase-reveals-the-stereochemical-course-of-a-fungal-highly-reducing-polyketide-synthase
#17
Emma Liddle, Alan Scott, Li-Chen Han, David Ivison, Thomas J Simpson, Christine L Willis, Russell J Cox
Six potential diketide substrates for the squalestatin tetraketide synthase (SQTKS) dehydratase (DH) domain were synthesised as N-acetyl cysteamine thiolesters (SNAC) and tested in kinetic assays as substrates with an isolated DH domain. 3R-3-hydroxybutyryl SNAC 3R-16 was turned over by the enzyme, but its enantiomer was not. Of the four 2-methyl substrates only 2R,3R-2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl SNAC 2R,3R-8 was a substrate. Combined with stereochemical information from the isolated SQTKS enoyl reductase (ER) domain, our results provide a near complete stereochemical description of the first cycle of beta-modification reactions of a fungal highly reducing polyketide synthase (HR-PKS)...
February 4, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103313/mycobacterium-marinum-degrades-both-triacylglycerols-and-phospholipids-from-its-dictyostelium-host-to-synthesise-its-own-triacylglycerols-and-generate-lipid-inclusions
#18
Caroline Barisch, Thierry Soldati
During a tuberculosis infection and inside lipid-laden foamy macrophages, fatty acids (FAs) and sterols are the major energy and carbon source for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacteria can be found both inside a vacuole and the cytosol, but how this impacts their access to lipids is not well appreciated. Lipid droplets (LDs) store FAs in form of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and are energy reservoirs of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Using the Dictyostelium discoideum/Mycobacterium marinum infection model we showed that M...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997038/inflammation-of-peripheral-tissues-and-injury-to-peripheral-nerves-induce-differing-effects-in-the-expression-of-the-calcium-sensitive-n-arachydonoylethanolamine-synthesizing-enzyme-and-related-molecules-in-rat-primary-sensory-neurons
#19
João Sousa-Valente, Angelika Varga, Jose Vicente Torres-Perez, Agnes Jenes, John Wahba, Ken Mackie, Benjamin Cravatt, Natsuo Ueda, Kazuhito Tsuboi, Peter Santha, Gabor Jancso, Hiren Tailor, António Avelino, Istvan Nagy
Elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration induces the synthesis of N-arachydonoylethanolamine (anandamide) in a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons. N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) is the only known enzyme that synthesizes anandamide in a Ca(2+) -dependent manner. NAPE-PLD mRNA as well as anandamide's main targets, the excitatory transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channel (TRPV1), the inhibitory cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor, and the main anandamide-hydrolyzing enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), are all expressed by subpopulations of nociceptive primary sensory neurons...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995607/longchain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-in-preterm-infants
#20
REVIEW
Kwi Moon, Shripada C Rao, Sven M Schulzke, Sanjay K Patole, Karen Simmer
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists over whether longchain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are essential nutrients for preterm infants because they may not be able to synthesise sufficient amounts of LCPUFA to meet the needs of the developing brain and retina. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether supplementation of formula milk with LCPUFA is safe and of benefit to preterm infants. The main areas of interest were the effects of supplementation on the visual function, development and growth of preterm infants...
December 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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