Read by QxMD icon Read

Fatty acid synthesise

João Sousa-Valente, Angelika Varga, Jose Vicente Torres Perez, Agnes Jenes, John Wahba, Ken Mackie, Benjamin Cravatt, Natsuo Ueda, Kazuhito Tsuboi, Peter Santha, Gabor Jancso, Hiren Tailor, António Avelino, Istvan Nagy
Elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration induces the synthesis of N-arachydonoylethanolamine (anandamide) in a sub-population of primary sensory neurons. N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD) is the only known enzyme, which synthesises anandamide in a Ca(2+) -dependent manner. NAPE-PLD mRNA, as well as anandamide's main targets, the excitatory transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channel (TRPV1) and the inhibitory cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor and the main anandamide-hydrolysing enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) are all expressed by sub-populations of nociceptive primary sensory neurons...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Kwi Moon, Shripada C Rao, Sven M Schulzke, Sanjay K Patole, Karen Simmer
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists over whether longchain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are essential nutrients for preterm infants because they may not be able to synthesise sufficient amounts of LCPUFA to meet the needs of the developing brain and retina. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether supplementation of formula milk with LCPUFA is safe and of benefit to preterm infants. The main areas of interest were the effects of supplementation on the visual function, development and growth of preterm infants...
December 20, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Zehra Irshad, Federica Dimitri, Mark Christian, Victor A Zammit
Brown adipose tissue uptake of glucose and fatty acids is very high during nonshivering thermogenesis. Adrenergic stimulation markedly increases glucose uptake, de novo lipogenesis, and FA oxidation simultaneously. The mechanism that enables this concerted response has hitherto been unknown. Here, we find that in primary brown adipocytes and brown adipocyte-derived cell line (IMBAT-1), acute inhibition and longer-term knockdown of DGAT2 links the increased de novo synthesis of fatty acids from glucose to a pool of TAG that is simultaneously hydrolyzed, providing FA for mitochondrial oxidation...
January 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
Masato Kaneda, Kosuke Sueyoshi, Toshiaki Teruya, Hiroaki Ohno, Nobutaka Fujii, Shinya Oishi
Odoamide is a novel cyclic depsipeptide with highly potent cytotoxic activity isolated from the Okinawan marine cyanobacterium Okeania sp. It contains a 26-membered macrocycle composed of a fatty acid moiety, a peptide segment and isoleucic acid. Four possible stereoisomers of the odoamide polyketide substructure were synthesised using a chiral pool approach. The first total synthesis of odoamide was also successfully achieved. The structure of synthetic odoamide was verified by comparing its NMR spectra with those of the natural product...
September 26, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Junchao Tong, Romina Mizrahi, Sylvain Houle, Stephen J Kish, Isabelle Boileau, Jose Nobrega, Pablo M Rusjan, Alan A Wilson
In a recent clinical trial, the drug BIA 10-2474, a putative fatty acid amide hydrolase(FAAH) inhibitor, was responsible for severe adverse events (SAEs), including one death. To date, there has been little reliable information divulged about the potency of BIA 10-2474 at FAAH in the central nervous system. We synthesised BIA 10-2474 and determined its ability to inhibit FAAH ex vivo in rat brain using a FAAH selective radiotracer. BIA 10-2474 proved to be a potent FAAH inhibitor with IC50s of 50-70 µg/kg (i...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Nandita Vijayakumar, Cali Bartholomeusz, Thomas Whitford, Daniel F Hermens, Barnaby Nelson, Simon Rice, Sarah Whittle, Christos Pantelis, Patrick McGorry, Miriam R Schäfer, G Paul Amminger
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is thought to be a neurodevelopmental disorder with pathophysiological processes beginning in the brain prior to the emergence of clinical symptoms. Recent evidence from neuroimaging studies using techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging has identified white matter abnormalities that are suggestive of disrupted brain myelination and neuronal connectivity. Identifying whether such effects exist in individuals at high risk for developing psychosis may help with prevention and early intervention strategies...
2016: BMC Psychiatry
Junzeng Fu, Johannes C Schoeman, Amy C Harms, Herman A van Wietmarschen, Rob J Vreeken, Ruud Berger, Bart V J Cuppen, Floris P J G Lafeber, Jan van der Greef, Thomas Hankemeier
Oxidised lipids, covering enzymatic and auto-oxidation-synthesised mediators, are important signalling metabolites in inflammation while also providing a readout for oxidative stress, both of which are prominent physiological processes in a plethora of diseases. Excretion of these metabolites via urine is enhanced through the phase-II conjugation with glucuronic acid, resulting in increased hydrophilicity of these lipid mediators. Here, we developed a bovine liver-β-glucuronidase hydrolysing sample preparation method, using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry to analyse the total urinary oxidised lipid profile including the prostaglandins, isoprostanes, dihydroxy-fatty acids, hydroxy-fatty acids and the nitro-fatty acids...
September 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Simone Lucarini, Laura Fagioli, Raffaella Campana, Hannah Cole, Andrea Duranti, Wally Baffone, Driton Vllasaliu, Luca Casettari
Sugar based surfactants conjugated with fatty acid chains are an emerging broad group of highly biocompatible and biodegradable compounds with established and potential future applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. In this work, we investigated absorption enhancing and antimicrobial properties of disaccharide lactose, monoesterified with unsaturated fatty acids through an enzymatic synthetic approach. After chemical and cytotoxicity characterizations, their permeability enhancing activity was demonstrated using intestinal Caco-2 monolayers through transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability studies...
October 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Belén Vicente, Julio López-Abán, Jose Rojas-Caraballo, Esther del Olmo, Pedro Fernández-Soto, Antonio Muro
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a water-borne disease afflicting over 261 million people in many areas of the developing countries with high morbidity and mortality. The control relies mainly on treatment with praziquantel. Fatty acid binding proteins (FABP) have demonstrated high levels of immune-protection against trematode infections. This study reports the immunoprotection induced by cross-reacting Fasciola hepatica FABP, native (nFh12) and recombinantly expressed using two different expression systems Escherichia coli (rFh15) and baculovirus (rFh15b) against Schistosoma mansoni infection...
April 18, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Sarah Usher, Richard P Haslam, Noemi Ruiz-Lopez, Olga Sayanova, Johnathan A Napier
The global consumption of fish oils currently exceeds one million tonnes, with the natural de novo source of these important fatty acids forming the base of marine foodwebs. Here we describe the first field-based evaluation of a terrestrial source of these essential nutrients, synthesised in the seeds of transgenic Camelina sativa plants via the heterologous reconstitution of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Our data demonstrate the robust nature of this novel trait, and the feasibility of making fish oils in genetically modified crops...
December 2015: Metabolic Engineering Communications
M Kalim Akhtar, Hariharan Dandapani, Kati Thiel, Patrik R Jones
The development of sustainable, bio-based technologies to convert solar energy and carbon dioxide into fuels is a grand challenge. A core part of this challenge is to produce a fuel that is compatible with the existing transportation infrastructure. This task is further compounded by the commercial desire to separate the fuel from the biotechnological host. Based on its fuel characteristics, 1-octanol was identified as an attractive metabolic target with diesel-like properties. We therefore engineered a synthetic pathway specifically for the biosynthesis of 1-octanol in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) by over-expression of three enzymes (thioesterase, carboxylic acid reductase and aldehyde reductase) and one maturation factor (phosphopantetheinyl transferase)...
December 2015: Metabolic Engineering Communications
Marion Burckhardt, Max Herke, Tobias Wustmann, Stefan Watzke, Gero Langer, Astrid Fink
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) from fish and plant sources are commonly considered as a promising non-medical alternative to improve brain functions and slow down the progression of dementia. This assumption is mostly based on findings of preclinical studies and epidemiological research. Resulting explanatory models aim at the role omega-3 PUFAs play in the development and integrity of the brain's neurons, their protective antioxidative effect on cell membranes and potential neurochemical mechanisms directly related to Alzheimer-specific pathology...
April 11, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Rhys D Evans, David Hauton
Triacylglycerols (TAGs) constitute the main energy storage resource in mammals, by virtue of their high energy density. This in turn is a function of their highly reduced state and hydrophobicity. Limited water solubility, however, imposes specific requirements for delivery and uptake mechanisms on TAG-utilising tissues, including the heart, as well as intracellular disposition. TAGs constitute potentially the major energy supply for working myocardium, both through blood-borne provision and as intracellular TAG within lipid droplets, but also provide the heart with fatty acids (FAs) which the myocardium cannot itself synthesise but are required for glycerolipid derivatives with (non-energetic) functions, including membrane phospholipids and lipid signalling molecules...
October 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jia-Sui Zhang, Jie-Ping Lei, Guo-Qing Wei, Hui Chen, Chao-Ying Ma, He-Zhong Jiang
Context Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is the only mammalian enzyme to catalyse the synthesis of fatty acid. The expression level of FAS is related to cancer progression, aggressiveness and metastasis. In recent years, research on natural FAS inhibitors with significant bioactivities and low side effects has increasingly become a new trend. Herein, we present recent research progress on natural fatty acid synthase inhibitors as potent therapeutic agents. Objective This paper is a mini overview of the typical natural FAS inhibitors and their possible mechanism of action in the past 10 years (2004-2014)...
September 2016: Pharmaceutical Biology
Mohammad F Hassan, Abdul Rauf, Asif Sherwani, Mohammad Owais
Herein we report saturated and unsaturated fatty acid derivatives of 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3H)-one and tetrahydropyridazine-3,6-dione as new potential anticancer agents. All the synthesised compounds were characterised by IR, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and mass spectral data. The relative sensitivity of three cancer cell lines varied depending on the nature of the compound. Among the most effective anticancer compounds studied, 3b and 6b displayed remarkable anticancer activity against the MDA-MB-231 and KCL-22 lines, respectively...
July 2015: Scientia Pharmaceutica
M B Betancor, R E Olsen, D Solstorm, O F Skulstad, D R Tocher
The natural food for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in freshwater has relatively lower levels of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) than found in prey for post-smolt salmon in seawater. Land-locked salmon such as the Gullspång population feed exclusively on freshwater type lipids during its entire life cycle, a successful adaptation derived from divergent evolution. Studying land-locked populations may provide insights into the molecular and genetic control mechanisms that determine and regulate n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis and retention in Atlantic salmon...
March 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Maksims Yevglevskis, Guat L Lee, Jenny Sun, Shiyi Zhou, Xiaolong Sun, Gabriele Kociok-Köhn, Tony D James, Timothy J Woodman, Matthew D Lloyd
α-Methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR; P504S) catalyses a key step in the degradation of branched-chain fatty acids and is important for the pharmacological activation of Ibuprofen and related drugs. Levels of AMACR are increased in prostate and other cancers, and it is a drug target. Development of AMACR as a drug target is hampered by lack of a convenient assay. AMACR irreversibly catalyses the elimination of HF from 3-fluoro-2-methylacyl-CoA substrates, and this reaction was investigated for use as an assay...
January 14, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Jeffrey D Nanson, Zainab Himiari, Crystall M D Swarbrick, Jade K Forwood
Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic, pneumonic, and septicaemic plague, remains a major public health threat, with outbreaks of disease occurring in China, Madagascar, and Peru in the last five years. The existence of multidrug resistant Y. pestis and the potential of this bacterium as a bioterrorism agent illustrates the need for new antimicrobials. The β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthases, FabB, FabF, and FabH, catalyse the elongation of fatty acids as part of the type II fatty acid biosynthesis (FASII) system, to synthesise components of lipoproteins, phospholipids, and lipopolysaccharides essential for bacterial growth and survival...
2015: Scientific Reports
Michelle Rudden, Konstantina Tsauosi, Roger Marchant, Ibrahim M Banat, Thomas J Smyth
Rhamnolipids (RLs) are synthesised as a complex mixture of congeners comprising either one or two molecules of rhamnose glycosidically linked to a dimer of 3-hydroxy fatty acids varying in chain length and degree of saturation. Currently, HPLC-MS/MS is the most precise and accurate method for RL determination, while accurate quantification is limited. In this study, a rapid ultra pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the rapid and quantification of individual RL congeners...
November 2015: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Tatiana Cucu, Bruno De Meulenaer
Sucrose esters (E 473) are emulsifiers used in foods to improve different technological properties. They should conform to the specifications laid down in Commission Regulation No. 231/2012 and be used at amounts not exceeding the maximal ones set by Commission Regulation No. 1129/2011. In order to be able to characterise commercial sucrose ester formulations and to evaluate whether they are used correctly by the food industry, a quantitative GC-FID method was developed. Standards of monoesters and diesters were isolated from commercial additive preparations because no commercial ones were available...
2015: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"