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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683473/toxicity-of-the-spiny-thick-foot-pachypodium
#1
Anurag A Agrawal, Aliya Ali, M Daisy Johnson, Amy P Hastings, Dylan Burge, Marjorie G Weber
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Pachypodium (Apocynaceae) is a genus of iconic stem-succulent and poisonous plants endemic to Madagascar and southern Africa. We tested hypotheses about the mode of action and macroevolution of toxicity in this group. We further hypothesized that while monarch butterflies are highly resistant to cardenolide toxins (a type of cardiac glycoside) from American Asclepias, they may be negatively affected by Pachypodium defenses, which evolved independently. METHODS: We grew 16 of 21 known Pachypodium spp...
April 23, 2018: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681435/hypothermic-preconditioning-but-not-ketamine-reduces-oxygen-and-glucose-deprivation-induced-neuronal-injury-correlated-with-downregulation-of-cox-2-expression-in-mouse-hippocampal-slices
#2
Shan Jiang, Yong Wu, De-Fang Fang, Ying Chen
Hypothermic preconditioning is an effective treatment for limiting ischemic injury, but the mechanism is poorly understood. This study was aimed to explore the effect of hypothermic and ketamine preconditioning on oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) induced neuronal injury in mouse hippocampal slices, and to investigate its possible mechanism. The population spike (PS) was recorded in the CA1 region of mouse hippocampal slices using extracellular recordings, Na+ /K+ ATPase activity in slices was determined by spectrophotometer and the expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was measured by Western blot...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679350/alleviation-mechanisms-of-selenium-on-cadmium-spiked-in-chicken-ovarian-tissue-perspectives-from-autophagy-and-energy-metabolism
#3
Shuang Wang, Zhe Xu, Hang Yin, Yahong Min, Shu Li
Cadmium (Cd) is a kind of toxic heavy metal and it can cause damage to organs and tissues. Selenium (Se) can antagonize some metal element toxicity including Cd. The present study was designed to investigate Cd-induced damage to chicken ovary by autophagy and the protective mechanism of Se on Cd-induced damage. Administration of Cd for 12 weeks led to energy metabolism disorder of the chicken ovarian tissues, which resulted in autophagy. In addition, the mRNA expression of glucose-related genes including hexokinase II (HK2), pyruvate kinase (PK), pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHX), and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and the activities of ATPase, including Na+ -K+ -ATPase, Ca2+ -ATPase, Mg2+ -ATPase, were all downregulated remarkably compared with the control...
April 21, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679284/garlic-allium-sativum-exhibits-a-cardioprotective-effect-in-experimental-chronic-renal-failure-rat-model-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-and-controlling-cardiac-na-k-atpase-activity-and-ca-2-levels
#4
Asmaa M S Gomaa, Alaa T Abdelhafez, Hazem A Aamer
Gentamicin (GNT)-induced nephrotoxicity culminates into renal failure with a possible cardiovascular impact. Garlic extract (GE) is a cardiovascular protectant with limited mechanistic data. Therefore, we assessed the disturbance in specific cardiac parameters and the potential protective effect of GE supplementation against them in a rat model of GNT-induced chronic renal failure (CRF). Adult male rats (n = 24) were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 6 each): normal controls (CON), garlic extract controls (GE; 250 mg kg-1 , orally), GNT-induced CRF (GNT; 100 mg kg-1 , i...
April 21, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673976/effect-of-ultrasonic-field-on-the-enzyme-activities-and-ion-balance-of-potential-pathogen-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#5
Junyan Liu, Lin Li, Lizhen Zhou, Bing Li, Zhenbo Xu
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at investigating the enzyme activities and ion concentrations in potential pathogen S.cerevisiae upon ultrasonic treatment. METHODS: The activities of ATPase and antioxidase were identified by ATPase, SOD, and CAT assay kits following the instructions. Extracellular Ca2+ and K+ concentrations were determined in an atomic absorption spectrometer with calcium and potassium hollow-cathode lamps as radiation sources. RESULTS: SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by relatively low ultrasonic power at early time points and reduced to lower levels...
April 16, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664060/specialized-pro-resolving-mediators-regulate-alveolar-fluid-clearance-during-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Qian Wang, Song-Fan Yan, Yu Hao, Sheng-Wei Jin
Objective: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute and lethal clinical syndrome that is characterized by the injury of alveolar epithelium, which impairs active fluid transport in the lung, and impedes the reabsorption of edema fluid from the alveolar space. This review aimed to discuss the role of pro-resolving mediators on the regulation of alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) in ARDS. Data Sources: Articles published up to September 2017 were selected from the PubMed, with the keywords of "alveolar fluid clearance" or "lung edema" or "acute lung injury" or "acute respiratory distress syndrome", and "specialized pro-resolving mediators" or "lipoxin" or "resolvin" or "protectin" or "maresin" or "alveolar epithelial cells" or "aspirin-triggered lipid mediators" or "carbon monoxide and heme oxygenase" or "annexin A1"...
April 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660609/aflatoxin-b-1-contaminated-diet-disrupts-the-blood-brain-barrier-and-affects-fish-behavior-involvement-of-neurotransmitters-in-brain-synaptosomes
#7
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Carla Cristina Zeppenfeld, Sharine N Descovi, Karen Luise S Moreira, Maria Izabel U M da Rocha, Marcelo L da Veiga, Aleksandro S da Silva, Bernardo Baldisserotto
It is known that the cytotoxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) in endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are associated with behavioral dysfunction. However, the effects of a diet contaminated with AFB1 on the behavior of silver catfish remain unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether an AFB1 -contaminated diet (1177 ppb kg feed-1 ) impaired silver catfish behavior, as well as whether disruption of the BBB and alteration of neurotransmitters in brain synaptosomes are involved...
April 4, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659949/emc10-governs-male-fertility-via-maintaining-sperm-ion-balance
#8
Yuchuan Zhou, Fei Wu, Man Zhang, Zuquan Xiong, Qianqian Yin, Yanfei Ru, Huijuan Shi, Jinsong Li, Shanhua Mao, Yanliang Li, Xinyi Cao, Renming Hu, Chong Wee Liew, Qiang Ding, Xuanchun Wang, Yonglian Zhang
Infertility is a severe public health problem worldwide that prevails up to 15% in reproductive-age couples, and male infertility accounts for half of total infertility. Studies on genetically modified animal models have identified lots of genes involved in the pathogenesis of male infertility. The underlying causes, however, remain largely unclear. In this study, we provide evidence that EMC10, one subunit of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein complex (EMC), is required for male fertility. EMC10 is significantly decreased in spermatozoa from patients with asthenozoospermia and positively associated with human sperm motility...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653366/bufalin-inhibits-glioblastoma-growth-by-promoting-proteasomal-degradation-of-the-na-k-atpase-%C3%AE-1-subunit
#9
Yu-Long Lan, Xun Wang, Jia-Cheng Lou, Jin-Shan Xing, Zhen-Long Yu, Hongjin Wang, Shuang Zou, Xiaochi Ma, Bo Zhang
Chansu is a traditional Chinese medicine that is generally recognized as a specific inhibitor of Na+ /K+ -ATPase. Bufalin, an active component of Chansu, is an endogenous steroid hormone with great potential as a cancer treatment. However, the mechanism by which it exerts its antitumor activity requires further research. Currently, the α1 subunit of Na+ /K+ -ATPase (ATP1A1) is known to exert important roles in tumorigenesis, and the precise mechanisms underlying the effect of Bufalin on the Na+ /K+ -ATPase α1 subunit was therefore investigated in this study to determine its role in glioblastoma treatments...
April 10, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644470/ruthenium-ii-n-alkyl-phenothiazine-complexes-as-potential-anticancer-agents
#10
Andreja Leskovac, Sandra Petrovic, Tamara Lazarevic-Pasti, Milena Krstic, Vesna Vasic
In recent years, the search for effective anticancer compounds based on transition metal complexes has been the focus of medical investigations. The synergy between the ruthenium(II) and N-alkylphenothiazine counter-ions (chlorpromazine hydrochloride, thioridazine hydrochloride and trifluoperazine dihydrochloride, respectively) through the formation of three different complexes (1-3) was investigated. We explored whether the selected counter-ions and complexes might affect redox homeostasis and genome integrity of normal human blood cells, and induce an inhibition of Na+ /K+ -ATPase and AChE at pharmacologically relevant doses...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643996/selective-lysis-of-breast-carcinomas-by-simultaneous-stimulation-of-sodium-channels-and-blockade-of-sodium-pumps
#11
Harry J Gould, Jack Norleans, T David Ward, Chasiti Reid, Dennis Paul
Sodium influx through voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) coupled with balanced removal of sodium ions via Na+ , K+ -ATPase is a major determinant of cellular homeostasis and intracellular ionic concentration. Interestingly, many metastatic carcinomas express high levels of these channels. We hypothesized that if excess VGSCs are activated and Na+ , K+ -ATPase is simultaneously blocked, the intracellular Na+ concentration should increase, resulting in water movement into the cell, causing swelling and lytic cell death...
March 20, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627325/shifts-in-the-relationship-between-mrna-and-protein-abundance-of-gill-ion-transporters-during-smolt-development-and-seawater-acclimation-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#12
Arne K Christensen, Amy M Regish, Stephen D McCormick
Smolting Atlantic salmon exhibit a seasonal increase in seawater tolerance that is associated with changes in the abundance of major gill ion-transporter transcripts and proteins. In the present study, we investigate how the transcript and protein abundance of specific ion-transporter isoforms relate to each other during smolt development and seawater acclimation, and how each correlates to seawater tolerance. We show that during smolt development both mRNA and protein abundance of gill Na+ /K+ -ATPase α1a subunit (NKAα1a) decreased but the decrease in the mRNA was five-times greater than that of the protein...
April 5, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618300/comparative-action-of-cardiotonic-steroids-on-intracellular-processes-in-rat-cortical-neurons
#13
A V Lopachev, O M Lopacheva, K A Nikiforova, I S Filimonov, T N Fedorova, E E Akkuratov
Binding to Na+,K+-ATPase, cardiotonic steroids (CTS) activate intracellular signaling cascades that affect gene expression and regulation of proliferation and apoptosis in cells. Ouabain is the main CTS used for studying these processes. The effects of other CTS on nervous tissue are practically uncharacterized. Previously, we have shown that ouabain affects the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinases) ERK1/2, p38, and JNK. In this study, we compared the effects of digoxin and bufalin, which belong to different subclasses of CTS, on primary culture of rat cortical cells...
February 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616225/toxicological-effects-of-berberine-and-sanguinarine
#14
REVIEW
Nitika Singh, Bechan Sharma
Berberine and Sanguinarine alkaloids belong to a group of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral or weakly acidic properties. Alkaloids are produced by a large number of organisms including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. Berberine and Sanguinarine both are isoquinoline derivatives and belong to protoberberine and benzophenanthridines, respectively. Tyrosine or phenylalanine is common precursor for the biosynthesis of both...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605472/interactive-effects-of-salinity-and-temperature-acclimation-on-gill-morphology-and-gene-expression-in-threespine-stickleback
#15
Taylor C Gibbons, Tara L McBryan, Patricia M Schulte
Colonization of freshwater habitats from marine environments exposes organisms to novel combinations of temperature and salinity, but little is known about physiological responses to the interactive effects of these stressors. Here, we examined the effects of temperature (14 versus 4 °C) and salinity (11 versus 0.3 ppt) on gill gene expression in marine, anadromous, and freshwater populations of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Expression of the epithelial calcium channel was not affected by temperature or salinity, but had significantly higher expression in the freshwater ecotype...
March 29, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603743/inhibition-of-na-k-atpase-and-k-ir-channels-abolishes-hypoxic-hyperaemia-in-resting-but-not-contracting-skeletal-muscle-of-humans
#16
Matthew L Racine, Anne R Crecelius, Gary J Luckasen, Dennis G Larson, Frank A Dinenno
Exercise hyperaemia in hypoxia is augmented relative to the same exercise intensity in normoxia. During moderate-intensity handgrip exercise, endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) and vasodilating prostaglandins (PGs) contribute to ∼50% of the augmented forearm blood flow (FBF) response to hypoxic exercise (HypEx), but the mechanism(s) underlying the remaining response are unclear. We hypothesized that combined inhibition of NO, PGs, Na+ /K+ -ATPase, and inwardly rectifying potassium (KIR ) channels would abolish the augmented hyperaemic response in HypEx...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603099/selenium-rich-yeast-protects-against-aluminum-induced-renal-inflammation-and-ionic-disturbances
#17
Changyu Cao, Junchong Luo, Xiaowen Li, Mengdan Zhang, Haoji Zhang, Jipei Zhang, Kai Wang
The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of SeY (selenium-rich yeast) against Al (aluminum)-induced inflammation and ionic imbalances. Male Kunming mice were treated with Al (10 mg/kg) and/or SeY (0.1 mg/kg) by oral gavage for 28 days. The degree of inflammation was assessed by mRNA expression of inflammatory biomarkers. Ionic disorders were assessed by determining the Na+ , K+ , and Ca2+ content, as well as the alteration in ATP-modifying enzymes (ATPases), including Na+ K+ -ATPase, Ca2+ -ATPase, Mg2+ -ATPase, Ca2+ Mg2+ -ATPase, and the mRNA levels of ATPase's subunits in kidney...
March 30, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600656/-characterization-and-pathophysiological-changes-of-cerebral-infarction-rat-model-with-qi-deficiency-and-blood-stasis-syndrome
#18
Ying Li, Lei-Sha Wang, Jian-Xun Liu, Wen-Ting Song, Li Xu, Hong-Hai Li, Jun-Mei Li, Bin Yang, Xiao-Xia Dong, Guang-Rui Wang, Ming-Jiang Yao, Cheng-Ren Lin
This study aimed to observe the general state and changes in pathophysiological indexes of multiple cerebral infarction rat model with Qi-deficienty and Blood-stasis syndrome. Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups(with 30 in each group): the normal group, the sham group, the model group and the Yiqi Huoxue recipe group. Rats in the model group and Yiqi Huoxue group were provided with interruptable sleep deprivation for 7 days before the multiple cerebral infarction operation, and followed by another 4 weeks of sleep deprivation; rats in the Yiqi Huoxue group were intragastrically administrated with drug at a dose of 26 g·kg⁻¹, once a day for 4 weeks...
February 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600647/-effect-of-paeoniflorin-and-menthol-on-membrane-fluidity-na%C3%A2-%C2%BA-k%C3%A2-%C2%BA-atpase-activity-and-ca%C3%A2-%C3%A2-%C2%BA-atpase-activity-during-transport-of-puerarin-in-calu-3-cell
#19
Lin Zhang, Ting Wang, Shou-Ying Du, Yang Lu, Zhi-Heng Fan, Jun-Ming Ma, Jia-Wei Tan, Yu-Tao Xue
The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of paeoniflorin and menthol on the physiological function of Calu-3 cell membrane during the transport of puerarin. Calu-3 cell was used as the in vitro cell model to simulate nasal mucosa tissues, and the cell membrane fluidity, Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase activity and Ca²⁺-ATPase activity were detected by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching(FRAP) and ultramicro enzyme activity testing, in order to explore the mechanism of compatible drugs on promoting puerarin transport...
February 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593850/systemic-delivery-of-selective-ep1-and-ep3-receptor-antagonists-attenuates-pentylenetetrazole-induced-seizures-in-mice
#20
Cristina R Reschke, Alice B Poersch, Cíntia J Masson, Ana C Jesse, Joseane R Marafiga, Quéli F Lenz, Mauro S Oliveira, David C Henshall, Carlos F Mello
Neuroinflammation plays a major role in brain excitability and may contribute to the development of epilepsy. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) is a direct mediator of inflammatory responses and, through EP receptors, plays an important role in neuronal excitability. Pharmacological evidence supports that centrally-administered EP1 and EP3 receptor antagonists reduced acutely evoked seizures in rats. Translation of these findings would benefit from evidence of efficacy with a more clinically relevant route of delivery and validation in another species...
2018: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
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