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Deepika Singh, Ekta Yadav, Neha Falls, Vikas Kumar, Manvendra Singh, Amita Verma
Oxidative stress and inflammation play a pivotal role in the expansion and progression of hepatic cancer. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery can quickly enhance the restorative capability of hepatic cancer. Silver nanoparticles synthesized from plant source are of great importance due to their small size, economic, non-hazardous and different biomedical applications. In the current study, we have evaluated the impacts of oxidative stress and proinflammatory markers of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles of Phyllanthus emblica (PE) leaves against diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in wistar rats till 16 weeks with its underlying mechanism...
September 15, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
Süleyman Atalay, Belkıs Soylu, Aslı Aykaç, Ayliz Velioğlu Öğünç, Şule Çetinel, Naziye Özkan, Can Erzik, Ahmet Özer Şehirli
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate possible protective effects of St. John's wort in the hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The hepatic artery, portal vein, and bile duct were all clamped for 45 minutes to induce ischemia in rats, and after that reperfusion for 1 hour. SJW was administrated orally, once a day for 3 days before ischemia/reperfusion. The aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin levels were measured in the serum samples...
August 28, 2018: Turkish Journal of Surgery
Hesamedin Hakimjavadi, Cory A Stiner, Tatiana L Radzyukevich, Jerry B Lingrel, Natalie Norman, Julio A Landero Figueroa, Judith A Heiny
The potassium affinities of Na,K-ATPase isozymes are important determinants of their physiological roles in skeletal muscle. This study measured the apparent K⁺ and Rb⁺ affinities of the Na,K-ATPase α₁ and α₂ isozymes in intact, dissociated myofibers obtained from WT and genetically altered mice (α₁S/S α₂R/R and skα₂-/- ). It also validates a new method to quantify cations in intact, dissociated myofibers, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our findings were that: (1) The extracellular substrate sites of Na,K-ATPase bind Rb⁺ and K⁺ with comparable apparent affinities; however; turnover rate is reduced when Rb⁺ is the transported ion; (2) The rate of Rb⁺ uptake by the Na,K-ATPase is not constant but declines with a half-time of approximately 1...
September 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Taye Jemilat Lasisi, Shehu-Tijani Toyin Shittu, Akinola Rasak Alada
Kwashiorkor, a form of malnutrition has been shown to cause impaired salivary secretion. However, there is dearth of information on mechanism that underlies this complication. Also, whether returning to normal-diet after kwashiorkor will reverse these complications or not is yet to be discerned. Thus, this study aimed at assessing the mechanisms that underlie kwashiorkor-induced salivary impairments and to evaluate the effects of switching back to normal-diet on kwashiorkor-induced salivary impairments. Weaning rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (control, kwashiorkor, re-fed kwashiorkor) of 7 rats each...
September 13, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Lizzy M Brewster
We hypothesized that human variation in the activity of the ATP regenerating enzyme creatine kinase (CK) activity affects hypertension and cardiovascular disease risk. CK is tightly bound close to ATP-utilizing enzymes including Ca2+ -ATPase, myosin ATPase, and Na+ /K+ -ATPase, where it rapidly regenerates ATP from ADP, H+ , and phosphocreatine. Thus, relatively high CK was thought to enhance ATP-demanding processes including resistance artery contractility and sodium retention, and reduce ADP-dependent functions...
August 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
Evgeny P Barykin, Irina Y Petrushanko, Sergey A Kozin, Georgy B Telegin, Alexander S Chernov, Olga D Lopina, Sergey P Radko, Vladimir A Mitkevich, Alexander A Makarov
The triggers of late-onset sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) are still poorly understood. Impairment of protein phosphorylation with age is well-known; however, the role of the phosphorylation in β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is not studied sufficiently. Zinc-induced oligomerization of Aβ represents a potential seeding mechanism for the formation of neurotoxic Aβ oligomers and aggregates. Phosphorylation of Aβ by Ser8 (pS8-Aβ), localized inside the zinc-binding domain of the peptide, may significantly alter its zinc-induced oligomerization...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
E A Dergousova, Y M Poluektov, E A Klimanova, I Y Petrushanko, V A Mitkevich, A A Makarov, O D Lopina
We found earlier that Na,K-ATPase is purified from duck salt glands in partially glutathionylated state (up to 13 of the 23 cysteine residues of the Na,K-ATPase catalytic α-subunit can be S-glutathionylated). To determine the effect of glutathionylation on the enzyme conformation, we have analyzed the products of trypsinolysis of Na,K-ATPase α-subunit in different conformations with different extent of glutathionylation. Incubation of the protein in the E1 conformation with trypsin produced a large fragment with a molecular mass (MM) of 80 kDa with the following formation of smaller fragments with MM 40, 35...
August 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Ruiliang Bai, Charles S Springer, Dietmar Plenz, Peter J Basser
PURPOSE: fMRI is widely used to study brain activity. Unfortunately, conventional fMRI methods assess neuronal activity only indirectly, through hemodynamic coupling. Here, we show that active, steady-state transmembrane water cycling (AWC) could serve as a basis for a potential fMRI mechanism for direct neuronal activity detection. METHODS: AWC and neuronal actitivity in rat organotypic cortical cultures were simultaneously measured with a hybrid MR-fluorescence system...
September 8, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Wilson Sebastian, Sandhya Sukumaran, P U Zacharia, A Gopalakrishnan
The present study reports the complete sequences of Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) gene and partial sequences of genes, Sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-1 (Na/K-ATPase α1 subunit), Osmotic Stress Transcription Factor 1 (OSTF1), Transcription Factor II B (TFIIB), Heat Shock Cognate 71 (HSC71) and Heat Shock Protein 90 (HSP90) obtained from mRNA and genomic DNA of Etroplus suratensis. They are candidate genes involved in stress responses of fishes. AQP1 gene was 2163 bp long. Its mRNA sequence has 55 bp 5' UTR, 783 bp open reading frame (ORF), 119 bp 3' UTR, three intronic regions and 90% identity with AQP1 of Oreochromis niloticus...
September 7, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Daizhen Zhang, Jun Liu, Tingting Qi, Baoming Ge, Qiuning Liu, Senhao Jiang, Huabin Zhang, Zhengfei Wang, Ge Ding, Boping Tang
Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir japonica sinensis) are catadromous, spending most of their lives in fresh water, but moving to a mixed salt-fresh water environment for reproduction. The characteristics of this life history might imply a rapidly evolutionary transition model for adaptation to marine from freshwater habitats. In this study, transcriptome-wide identification and differential expression on Chinese mitten crab groups were analysed. Results showed: clean reads that were obtained totalled 93,833,096 (47,440,998 in Group EF, the reference, and 46,392,098 in Group ES, the experimental) and 14...
2018: PloS One
Kayode Ezekiel Adewole, Joseph Oluwatope Adebayo
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of cysteine-stabilized peptide fraction (CSPF) of Morinda lucida leaf on selected kidney function indices in mice. METHODS: Sixty mice were assigned into six groups. Group A served as the control while groups B, C, D, E and F received 31.25, 61.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg body weight of CSPF respectively for 7 or 28 days. RESULTS: Administration of CSPF for 7 and 28 days caused no significant (p>0...
September 20, 2018: Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine
Daizhen Zhang, Tingting Qi, Jun Liu, Qiuning Liu, Senhao Jiang, Huabin Zhang, Zhengfei Wang, Ge Ding, Boping Tang
Desalination of marine species has become an important development direction for aquaculture in China and other countries. However, that how to regulate the salt balance to adapt to new freshwater habitats is a serious challenge for marine species in desalination of aquaculture. In the study, Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir japonica sinensis) was selected to analyse the adaptively differential expression in salinity changes for their novel characteristics of life history. The results showed that gill was the most relevant tissue in osmoregulation that was validated by biomarkers (Na+ /K+ -ATP, V-type H+ -ATPase) with qPCR...
September 4, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sumana Ghosh, Sandeep Sheth, Kelly Sheehan, Debashree Mukherjea, Asmita Dhukhwa, Vikrant Borse, Leonard P Rybak, Vickram Ramkumar
Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB2R) in the rat cochlea which was induced by cisplatin. In an organ of Corti-derived cell culture model, it was also shown that an agonist of the CB2R protected these cells against cisplatin-induced apoptosis. In the current study, we determined the distribution of CB2R in the mouse and rat cochleae and examined whether these receptors provide protection against cisplatin-induced hearing loss. In a knock-in mouse model expressing the CB2R tagged with green fluorescent protein, we show distribution of CB2R in the organ of Corti, stria vascularis, spiral ligament and spiral ganglion cells...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Ke Deng, Jiawei Shen, Wei Wang, Ming Li, Hong Li, Cheng Chen, Huan Zhao, Mei Zhang, Tian Xue, Qingsong Liu, Vivian Wai Yan Lui, Bo Hong, Wenchu Lin
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a malignant neuroendocrine tumor with very high mortality. Effective new therapy for advanced SCLC patients is urgently needed. By screening a FDA-approved drug library, we identified a cardiac glycoside (CG), namely digoxin (an inhibitor of cellular Na+ /K+ ATPase pump), which was highly effective in inhibiting SCLC cell growth. Intriguing findings showed that NaCl supplement markedly enhanced the anti-tumor activities of digoxin in both in vitro and in vivo models of SCLC...
September 5, 2018: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Haim Mayan, Zvi Farfel, Steven J D Karlish
This article examines the central role of Na,K-ATPase (α1β1FXYD2) in renal Mg handling, especially in distal convoluted tubule (DCT), the segment responsible for final regulation of Mg balance. By considering effects of Na,K-ATPase on intracellular Na and K concentrations, and driving forces for Mg transport, we propose a consistent rationale explaining basal Mg reabsorption in DCT and altered Mg reabsorption in some human diseases. FXYD2 (γ subunit) is a regulatory subunit that adapts functional properties of Na,K-ATPase to cellular requirements...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Per Gunnar Fjelldal, Rüdiger Schulz, Tom O Nilsen, Eva Andersson, Birgitta Norberg, Tom Johnny Hansen
We present data from two experiments that examined how the developmental processes of smoltification and sexual maturation proceed in parallel in domesticated Atlantic salmon. Onset of maturation and smoltification was stimulated using temperature and photoperiod. Our observations on gonadosomatic index (GSI), spermatogenic activity, gill Na+, K+-ATPase enzyme (NKA) activity, and plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), Na, Cl, and Ca show that smoltification and maturation were both triggered and developed in parallel in male Atlantic salmon, but that the progressing maturation impaired hypoosmoregulation...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Alina Miron, Daniele Spinozzi, Marieke Bruinsma, Jessica T Lie, Rénuka S Birbal, Lamis Baydoun, Silke Oellerich, Gerrit R J Melles
PURPOSE: To investigate in vitro central and peripheral corneal endothelial cell (EC) migration from Quarter-Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (Quarter-DMEK) grafts. METHODS: Quarter-DMEK grafts were obtained from 10 corneas ineligible for transplantation but with intact and viable ECs. Ten Quarter-DMEK grafts were 'sandwiched' between two glass slides and cultured over 1 week in a humidified atmosphere at 37 °C and 5% CO2 . Cell migration was evaluated by light microscopy at standardized time intervals...
August 31, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
Zhiguo He, Julie Gueudry, David Toubeau, Philippe Gain, Gilles Thuret, Marc Muraine
Our aim was to measure the endothelial quality of prestripped Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) 48 h after preparation in an eye bank with the Muraine technique and shipping in a distant center. Ten pairs of human corneas with similar eye bank endothelial cell density (ebECD) were stored in organ-culture (OC) for 25 days (20, 28) [median (10-90 percentiles)]. One cornea was then randomized to DMEK preparation using the Moria Muraine trephine, the other served as control. The grafts were left attached to the center of the cornea, immersed in the OC medium (without Dextran) and shipped to a distant center...
August 31, 2018: Cell and Tissue Banking
Lingjun Si, Luqing Pan, Hongdan Wang, Xin Zhang
In Portunus trituberculatus , a full-length cDNA of Rhesus-like glycoprotein (Rh protein), the whole 478 amino acids, has been identified in gills, which plays an essential role in ammonia (NH3 /NH4 + ) excretion. Phylogenetic analysis of the Rh-like proteins from crabs was clustered, showing high conservation of the ammonium transporter domain and transmembrane segments essential to the function of Rh protein. Rh protein of P. trituberculatus ( Pt Rh) was detected in all tested tissues, and showed the highest expression in gills...
August 31, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Fei Hua, Zhiyuan Wu, Xiaofei Yan, Jin Zheng, Haijian Sun, Xu Cao, Jin-Song Bian
Previous studies have shown that the activity and expression of Na+ /K+ -ATPase (NKA) are down-regulated in the failing hearts, and that an antibody against the DR-region of NKA (DR-Ab) can stimulate its activity. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of this antibody against cardiac injury and the underlying mechanisms. We found that DR-Ab improved cardiac function, alleviated cardiac hypertrophy and reduced oxidative stress in isoproterenol-treated mice. In AC16 human cardiomyocytes, DR-Ab increased cell viability and attenuated apoptosis under oxidative stress...
August 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
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