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Imrul Mosaddek Ahmed, Umme Aktari Nadira, Cheng-Wei Qiu, Fangbin Cao, Guoping Zhang, Paul Holford, Feibo Wu
Aluminum (Al) toxicity and drought are two major constraints on plant growth in acidic soils, negatively affecting crop performance and yield. Genotypic differences in the effects of Al/low pH and polyethyleneglycol (PEG) induced drought stress, applied either individually or in combination, were studied in Tibetan wild (XZ5, drought-tolerant; XZ29, Al-tolerant) and cultivated barley (Al-tolerant Dayton; drought-tolerant Tadmor). Tibetan wild barley XZ5 and XZ29 had significantly higher H⁺-ATPase, Ca2+ Mg2+ -ATPase, and Na⁺K⁺-ATPase activities at pH 4...
November 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marisol Sampedro Castañeda, Edmar Zanoteli, Renata S Scalco, Vinicius Scaramuzzi, Vitor Marques Caldas, Umbertina Conti Reed, Andre Macedo Serafim da Silva, Benjamin O'Callaghan, Rahul Phadke, Enrico Bugiardini, Richa Sud, Samuel McCall, Michael G Hanna, Hanne Poulsen, Roope Männikkö, Emma Matthews
Hypokalaemic periodic paralysis is a rare genetic neuromuscular disease characterized by episodes of skeletal muscle paralysis associated with low serum potassium. Muscle fibre inexcitability during attacks of paralysis is due to an aberrant depolarizing leak current through mutant voltage sensing domains of either the sarcolemmal voltage-gated calcium or sodium channel. We report a child with hypokalaemic periodic paralysis and CNS involvement, including seizures, but without mutations in the known periodic paralysis genes...
November 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Cristina Corbetta, Natalia Di Ianni, Maria Grazia Bruzzone, Monica Patanè, Bianca Pollo, Gabriele Cantini, Manuela Cominelli, Ileana Zucca, Federica Pisati, Pietro Luigi Poliani, Gaetano Finocchiaro, Serena Pellegatta
In glioma patients, high levels of glutamate can cause brain edema and seizures. GLAST, a glutamate-aspartate transporter expressed by astrocytes with a role in glutamate uptake, is highly expressed on the plasma membrane of glioblastoma (GBM) cells, and its expression significantly correlates with shortened patient survival. Here, it was demonstrated that inhibition of GLAST expression limited the progression and invasion of GBM xenografts. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure glutamate in GLAST-expressing gliomas showing that these tumors exhibit increased glutamate concentration compared to GLAST-depleted glioma...
November 12, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Ning Liu, Zhaolai Dai, Yunchang Zhang, Jingqing Chen, Ying Yang, Guoyao Wu, Patrick Tso, Zhenlong Wu
L-Proline (proline) in amniotic fluid was markedly increased during pregnancy in both pigs and sheep. However, in vivo data to support a beneficial effect of proline on fetal survival are not available. In this study, pregnant C57BL/6J mice were fed a purified diet supplemented with or without 0.50% proline from embryonic day 0.5 (E0.5) to E12.5 or term. Results indicated that dietary supplementation with proline to gestating mice enhanced fetal survival, reproductive performance, the concentrations of proline, arginine, aspartic acid, and tryptophan in plasma and amniotic fluid, while decreasing the concentrations of ammonia and urea in plasma and amniotic fluid...
November 10, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Santiago Enrique Faraj, Mercedes Centeno, Rolando Carlos Rossi, Mónica Raquel Montes
Metal-fluoride complexes have been used to induce E2P-like states with the aim of studying the events that occur during E2P hydrolysis in P-type ATPases. In the present work, we compared the E2P-like state induced by a beryllium fluoride complex (BeFx ) with the actual E2P state formed through backdoor phosphorylation of the Na,K-ATPase. Formation of E2P and E2P-like states were investigated employing the styryl dye RH421. We found that BeFx is the only fluorinated phosphate analog that, like Pi, increases the RH421 fluorescence...
November 6, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Biomembranes
Nan Guo, Caina Li, Quan Liu, Shuainan Liu, Yi Huan, Xing Wang, Guoliang Bai, Miaomiao Yang, Sujuan Sun, Caimin Xu, Zhufang Shen
SCOPE: Maltol (3-hydroxy-2-methy-4-pyrone), a potent antioxidative agent, typically is used to enhance flavor and preserve food. This study evaluated its effects on preventing diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and explored its mechanisms. METHODS AND RESULTS: We intraperitoneally injected Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with STZ (65 mg kg-1, ip) and treated the rats with different doses of maltol after 4 weeks of injection...
November 9, 2018: Food & Function
Naoki Makino, Paul Ganguly, Vijayan Elimban, Naranjan S Dhalla
Following heterotopic transplantation, the rat heart undergoes atrophy and exhibits delayed cardiac relaxation without any changes in contraction and systolic Ca 2+ transients. Furthermore, the sarcoplasmic reticular Ca 2+ uptake and release activities were reduced and Ca 2+ influx through L-type Ca 2+ channels was increased in the atrophied heart. Since Ca 2+ movements at sarcolemma are intimately involved in the regulation of intracellular Ca 2+ concentration, the present study was undertaken to test if sarcolemma plays any role to maintain cardiac function in the atrophied heart...
December 2018: International Journal of Angiology: Official Publication of the International College of Angiology, Inc
Christian P Roenn, Melody Li, Vivien R Schack, Ian C Forster, Rikke Holm, Mads S Toustrup-Jensen, Jens Peter Andersen, Steven Petrou, Bente Vilsen
The CAPOS (cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss) syndrome is caused by the single mutation E818K of the α3-isoform of Na+ ,K+ -ATPase. Here, using biochemical and electrophysiological approaches, we examined the functional characteristics of E818K as well as of E818Q and E818A mutants. We found that these amino acid substitutions reduce the apparent Na+ affinity at the cytoplasmic-facing sites of the pump protein and that this effect is more pronounced for the lysine and glutamine substitutions (3- to 4-fold) than for the alanine substitution...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Shenglan Hu, Xuefang Cao, Yanping Wu, Xiaoqiang Mei, Han Xu, Yang Wang, Xiaoping Zhang, Li Gong, Weifen Li
The previous study in our team found that supplementation of probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (Ba) instead of antibiotics promote growth performance of piglets. Hence, the present study was carried out to further demonstrate the effect of Ba replacement of antibiotics on digestive and absorption enzyme activity and intestinal microbiota population of piglets. A total of 90 piglets were selected and divided into three groups: G1 group was fed with basal diet supplemented with 150 mg/Kg aureomycin, G2 group was fed with 1 × 108 cfu/Kg Ba and half dose of aureomycin, G3 group was used the diet with 2 × 108 cfu/Kg Ba replaced aureomycin...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Karan R Chadda, Charlotte E Edling, Haseeb Valli, Shiraz Ahmad, Christopher L-H Huang, Kamalan Jeevaratnam
Increases in the prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome has led to the increase of atrial fibrillation (AF) cases in the developed world. These AF risk factors are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, previously modelled using peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) coactivator-1 ( Pgc-1 )-deficient murine cardiac models. We explored gene and protein expression profiles of selected molecular targets related to electrophysiological function in murine Pgc-1α-/- atria...
November 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Dehong Xu, Xiaochao Tang, Xinzhou Wu, Dianmei Yu, Pingping Tang, Xianchun Wang
As a black widow spider, Latrodectus tredecimguttatus has poisonous components not only in venomous glands but also in eggs. Our previous work had carried out a transcriptome analysis of the spider eggs in an attempt to probe into the molecular basis of the egg toxicity. A proteinaceous toxin, named Latroeggtoxin-V, was mined from the identified transcriptome. In this study, the gene of Latroeggtoxin-V was cloned and heterologously expressed, and the anticancer activity of the recombinant Latroeggtoxin-V (rLatroeggtoxin-V) was characterized...
November 2, 2018: Toxins
Ian Monroe, Simon Wentworth, Katrina Thede, Varsha Aravindabose, Jeffrey Garvin, Randall K Packer
Fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, are found throughout the continental United States in waters in which salinity can change with tides and temperatures vary seasonally. They have been used extensively in studies of environmental toxicology and are commercially important. In a very recent study in our labs RNA Seq was used to assemble transcriptomes from the gills of fatheads acclimated to either 5° or 22 °C. By comparison with published genomes, transcripts were identified for a number of ion transporters, ion channels, and signal molecule receptors, as well as enzymes that generate ammonia...
October 31, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Karl P Schlingmann, Sascha Bandulik, Cherry Mammen, Maja Tarailo-Graovac, Rikke Holm, Matthias Baumann, Jens König, Jessica J Y Lee, Britt Drögemöller, Katrin Imminger, Bodo B Beck, Janine Altmüller, Holger Thiele, Siegfried Waldegger, William Van't Hoff, Robert Kleta, Richard Warth, Clara D M van Karnebeek, Bente Vilsen, Detlef Bockenhauer, Martin Konrad
Over the last decades, a growing spectrum of monogenic disorders of human magnesium homeostasis has been clinically characterized, and genetic studies in affected individuals have identified important molecular components of cellular and epithelial magnesium transport. Here, we describe three infants who are from non-consanguineous families and who presented with a disease phenotype consisting of generalized seizures in infancy, severe hypomagnesemia, and renal magnesium wasting. Seizures persisted despite magnesium supplementation and were associated with significant intellectual disability...
November 1, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
Yu-Pu Jing, Hongli An, Shanjing Zhang, Ningbo Wang, Shutang Zhou
In oviparous animals, vitellogenesis is prerequisite to egg production and embryonic growth after oviposition. For success insect vitellogenesis and oogenesis, vitellogenin (Vg) synthesized in the fat body (homologue to vertebrate liver and adipose tissue) must pass through the intercellular channels, a condition known as patency in the follicular epithelium to reach the surface of oocytes. This process is controlled by juvenile hormone (JH) in many insect species, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Tomohiro Osanai, Makoto Tanaka, Kasumi Mikami, Maiko Kitajima, Toshiko Tomisawa, Koji Magota, Hirofumi Tomita, Ken Okumura
Diet-induced metabolic acidosis is associated with the impairment of bone metabolism and an increased risk of a number of chronic noncommunicable diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Low serum bicarbonate is associated with high mortality in healthy older individuals. Recently, we demonstrated that both coupling factor 6 (CF6)-overexpressing transgenic (TG) and high salt-fed mice which had sustained intracellular acidosis, due to enhanced proton import through ecto-F1 Fo complex and/or reduced proton export through Na+ -K+ ATPase inhibition, displayed shortened lifespan and early senescence-associated phenotypes such as signs of hair greying and alopecia, weight loss, and/or reduced organ mass...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Erin L Damsteegt, Matthew J Wylie, Alvin N Setiawan
Silvering has been associated with advancing osmoregulatory ability. Given the demonstrated role of 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) in mediating many of the silvering-related changes, we investigated the role of 11KT in driving this advanced osmoregulatory ability in the New Zealand short-finned eel (Anguilla australis). Yellow (non-migratory) eels with or without 11KT implants and blank-implanted silver (migratory) eels, either held in freshwater or subjected to seawater challenge, were sampled to determine serum [Na+ ] and [Cl- ], pituitary prolactin mRNA levels, gill Na+ /K+ -ATPase activity and gill mRNA levels for Na+ /K+ -ATPase-α1 subunit and for Na+ /K+ /2Cl- co-transporter-1α-subunit...
December 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
E R Gomes, M V M Novais, I T Silva, A L B Barros, E A Leite, J Munkert, A C M Frade, G D Cassali, F C Braga, R M Pádua, M C Oliveira
Cancer is an important public health problem, being one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Most antineoplastic agents cause severe toxic effects and some types of cancer do not respond or are resistant to the existing pharmacotherapy, necessitating the research and development of new therapeutic strategies. Cardenolides have shown significant antitumor activity due to their ability to inhibit the Na+ K+ ATPase enzyme, and the expression of this enzyme is increased in tumor cells. Glucoevatromonoside containing peracetylated glucose hydroxyl groups (GEVPG) is a cardenolide derivative that has low solubility in aqueous media, which constitutes a barrier to its potential biological applications...
October 1, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
J P Breves
This study examined the branchial epithelium of stenohaline zebrafish Danio rerio, Na+ -Cl- cotransporter-like 2 (Slc12a10.2)-expressing ionocytes [Na+ -Cl- cotransporter (Ncc)-cells], which mediate the active uptake of ions from freshwater environments. The study assessed whether the pituitary hormone prolactin (Prl) stimulates the expression of messenger (m)RNAs encoding a Clc Cl- channel family member (clcn2c) and a Na+ -K+ -ATPase α1 subunit (atp1a1a.2) expressed in Ncc-cells. Branchial clcn2c, but not atp1a1a...
October 27, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Tao Wang, Xin Wen, Yadong Hu, Xinyu Zhang, Dan Wang, Shaowu Yin
Copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) are a new pollutant in aquaculture, representing a hazard to aquatic organisms. We investigated the effects of Cu NPs exposure on oxidative stress, apoptosis and immune response in an economically important model species, Takifugu fasciatus. The juvenile fish were exposed to control, 20 or 100 μg Cu NPs/L for 30 days. The growth of T. fasciatus was inhibited after Cu NPs exposure. Copper accumulation in liver increased with increasing Cu NPs dose. Oxidative stress indicators [malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH)], apoptosis index and activities of caspases (caspase-3, caspase-9) were all increased with the increase of Cu NPs concentration in liver...
October 23, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Brian Roland Larsen, Anca Stoica, Nanna MacAulay
Neuronal activity induces fluctuation in extracellular space volume, [K+ ]o , and pHo , the management of which influences neuronal function The neighbor astrocytes buffer the K+ and pH and swell during the process, causing shrinkage of the extracellular space Here, we report the developmental rise of the homeostatic control of the extracellular space dynamics, the regulation of which becomes tighter with maturation and is thus proposed to ensure efficient synaptic transmission in the mature animals The extracellular space dynamics of volume, [K+ ]o , and pHo evolve independently with developmental maturation, and while all are inextricably tied to neuronal activity, they do not couple directly ABSTRACT: Neuronal activity in the mammalian central nervous system associates with transient extracellular space (ECS) dynamics involving elevated K+ and pH and shrinkage of the ECS...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Physiology
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