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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864965/pharmacological-management-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Geetha Mukerji, Denice S Feig
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the setting of poor glycemic control. The initial management for GDM includes intensive lifestyle modification, which often requires behavioral and nutritional changes to optimize glycemic control. Pharmacotherapy for GDM is initiated when glycemic targets are not met. The rapid-acting bolus analogues aspart and lispro achieve postprandial targets with less hypoglycemia compared to regular insulin, with similar fetal outcomes...
September 2, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792170/consensus-on-basal-insulin-in-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes-which-when-and-how
#2
Samit Ghosal, Binayak Sinha, Anirban Majumder, Ashok Kumar Das, Awadhesh Kumar Singh, Biswajit Ghoshdastidar, Debasish Maji, Ghanshyam Goyal, Jagat Jyoti Mukherjee, Kalyan Kumar Gangopadhyay, Mathew John, Sanjay Chatterjee, Shalini Jaggi, Subir Ray, Sujoy Majumdar, Surendra Kumar Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has attained epidemic proportions and continues to increase despite the availability of a number of oral antidiabetic medications and major advances made in insulin delivery since its discovery nearly a hundred years ago. One, amongst many other reasons responsible for the inability to achieve adequate glycaemic control in a substantial proportion of T2DM patients is the delayed initiation and inappropriate intensification of insulin treatment...
July 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766502/transient-neonatal-diabetes-due-to-a-mutation-in-kcnj11-in-a-child-with-klinefelter-syndrome
#3
Amanda Dahl, Radhika Dhamija, Alaa Al Nofal, Siobhan Pittock, Frederick Schwenk, Seema Kumar
Klinefelter syndrome is the most frequent chromosomal aneuploidy in males occurring in about 1 in 660 males. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated increased risk of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes in adults with Klinefelter syndrome. There is only one previous report of neonatal diabetes in a patient with Klinefelter syndrome. We report transient neonatal diabetes due to a pathogenic heterozygous variant in KCNJ11 in a male infant with Klinefelter syndrome. A 78 day old male infant was noted to have sustained hyperglycemia with serum glucose ranging between 148 mg/dL (8...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819164/current-trends-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-in-the-united-states
#4
Brianne E Bimson, Barak M Rosenn, Sara A Morris, Elizabeth B Sasso, Rachelle A Schwartz, Lois E Brustman
OBJECTIVE: To assess current practice patterns among members of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) with respect to the diagnosis and management of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: A 38 question survey on GDM diagnosis and management was distributed to SMFM members. RESULTS: 2330 SMFM members were surveyed with a 40% response rate. Overall, 90.6% of respondents recommend a 2-step (versus a 1-step) diagnostic test. Cutoff values for the 1-h-50 g glucose challenge test vary from 130-140 mg/dL, but the majority (83%) adopts Carpenter Coustan criteria for the 3-h-100 g oral glucose tolerance test...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639606/glycemic-control-and-maternal-and-fetal-outcomes-in-pregnant-women-with-type-1-diabetes-according-to-the-type-of-basal-insulin
#5
A Chico, L Herranz, R Corcoy, O Ramírez, M M Goya, J Bellart, S González-Romero, M Codina, P Sánchez, A Cortázar, D Acosta, M J Picón, J A Rubio, A Megía, M A Sancho, M Balsells, E Solá, N L González, J López-López
OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential role of the type of basal insulin on glycemic control and maternal and foetal outcomes in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of pregnancies attended at 18 Spanish tertiary hospitals. INCLUSION CRITERIA: T1DM, singleton pregnancies, delivery between 2002-2010, and use of the same basal and prandial insulin from before pregnancy until delivery. RESULTS: A total of 1534 pregnancies were included...
November 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27145344/safety-of-insulin-analogues-as-compared-with-human-insulin-in-pregnancy
#6
REVIEW
Yoel Toledano, Eran Hadar, Moshe Hod
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes during pregnancy may lead to maternal, fetal and neonatal complications. In order to limit unwarranted outcomes, strict glycemic control is essential. In the past, human insulin was the only insulin formulation administered in pregnancy. However, insulin analogues have also been used for this indication in recent years. AREAS COVERED: This article reviews the published data regarding the safety of insulin analogue use during pregnancy. We present the qualities, advantages and pitfalls of insulin analogue use in pregnancy compared with human insulin...
July 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26851795/effect-of-insulin-and-metformin-on-methylation-and-glycolipid-metabolism-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-coactivator-1a-of-rat-offspring-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Ai-Qin Song, Li-Rong Sun, Yan-Xia Zhao, Yan-Hua Gao, Lei Chen
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the effect of insulin and metformin on a methylation and glycolipid metabolism of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1A (PPARGC1A) of rat offspring with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: A total of 45 pregnant rats received the intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to establish the pregnant rat model of GDM. A total of 21 pregnant rats with GDM were randomly divided into three groups, with 7 rats in each group, namely the insulin group, metformin group and control group...
January 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25855052/safety-of-insulin-analogs-during-pregnancy-a-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
ShiShi Lv, JiYing Wang, Yong Xu
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the safety of four insulin analogs (aspart, lispro, glargine, and detemir) for the treatment of diabetes in pregnancy. METHODS: We searched Embase, Pubmed, and the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials database through May 31, 2014. All articles were reviewed by two independent researchers, and if a discrepancy was noted, a third researcher was consulted. Results data were summarized by RevMan 5.2 software...
October 2015: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25828275/gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#9
REVIEW
Eman M Alfadhli
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common medical complication of pregnancy. It is associated with maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes. Maintaining adequate blood glucose levels in GDM reduces morbidity for both mother and baby. There is a lack of uniform strategies for screening and diagnosing GDM globally. This review covers the latest update in the diagnosis and management of GDM. The initial treatment of GDM consists of diet and exercise. If these measures fail to achieve glycemic goals, insulin should be initiated...
April 2015: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23489521/the-use-of-insulin-analogues-in-pregnancy
#10
REVIEW
K Lambert, R I G Holt
Excellent glycaemic control is essential in pregnancy to optimise maternal and foetal outcomes. The aim of this review is to assess the efficacy and safety of insulin analogues in pregnancy. Insulin lispro and insulin aspart are safe in pregnancy and may improve post-prandial glycaemic control in women with type 1 diabetes. However, a lack of data indicating improved foetal outcomes would suggest that there is no imperative to switch to a short-acting analogue where the woman's diabetes is well controlled with human insulin...
October 2013: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23211128/treatment-with-the-long-acting-insulin-analogues-detemir-or-glargine-during-pregnancy-in-women-with-type-1-diabetes-comparison-of-glycaemic-control-and-pregnancy-outcome
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Nicoline F Callesen, Julie Damm, Jonathan M Mathiesen, Lene Ringholm, Peter Damm, Elisabeth R Mathiesen
OBJECTIVE: To compare glycaemic control and pregnancy outcome in women with type 1 diabetes treated with the long-acting insulin analogues detemir or glargine. METHODS: Retrospective study of singleton pregnancies from 2007 to 2011 in women with type 1 diabetes with a single living fetus at 22 weeks using either insulin detemir (n = 67) or glargine (n = 46) from conception. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were similar in the detemir and glargine groups...
April 2013: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23110609/insulin-detemir-a-review-of-its-use-in-the-management-of-diabetes-mellitus
#12
REVIEW
Gillian M Keating
Insulin detemir (Levemir®) is a long-acting insulin analogue indicated for use as basal insulin therapy in patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus. The protracted action of insulin detemir is explained by increased self-association and reversible binding to albumin, which slows its systemic absorption from the injection site. In glucose-clamp studies, less within-patient variability in glucose-lowering effect was seen with insulin detemir than with neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin or insulin glargine in patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes...
December 3, 2012: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22685467/meta-analysis-of-maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes-associated-with-the-use-of-insulin-glargine-versus-nph-insulin-during-pregnancy
#13
Jacques Lepercq, Jay Lin, Gillian C Hall, Edward Wang, Marie-Paule Dain, Matthew C Riddle, Philip D Home
As glargine, an analog of human insulin, is increasingly used during pregnancy, a meta-analysis assessed its safety in this population. A systematic literature search identified studies of gestational or pregestational diabetes comparing use of insulin glargine with human NPH insulin, with at least 15 women in both arms. Data was extracted for maternal outcomes (weight at delivery, weight gain, 1st/3rd trimester HbA(1c), severe hypoglycemia, gestation/new-onset hypertension, preeclampsia, and cesarean section) and neonatal outcomes (congenital malformations, gestational age at delivery, birth weight, macrosomia, LGA, 5 minute Apgar score >7, NICU admissions, respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal hypoglycemia, and hyperbilirubinemia)...
2012: Obstetrics and Gynecology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22639778/-drug-therapy-for-diabetes-mellitus-during-pregnancy-and-breastfeeding-in-the-beginning-of-21-century-status-quo-and-new-challenges
#14
REVIEW
M Zhelyazkova-Savova
Diabetes mellitus is frequent during pregnancy and is associated with substantial risks both for the mother and the newborn. An adequate therapy ensures the normal course of pregnancy and delivery and postnatal development of the baby. Insulin, for its well known safety record, has long been considered the drug of first choice for achieving optimal glycemic control in pregnant women. Pregnancy is an indication for intensive insulin therapy. The pre-mixed insulins are not recommended due to their inability to provide the needed therapeutic flexibility during the different periods of pregnancy...
2012: Akusherstvo i Ginekologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21613047/insulin-glargine-use-during-pregnancy
#15
REVIEW
Kevin M Pantalone, Charles Faiman, Leann Olansky
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature regarding the use of insulin glargine during pregnancy, specifically addressing the issues and concerns surrounding mitogenicity, placental transfer, and maternal and fetal safety. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search using MEDLINE and BIOSIS Previews up to March 2011. Additional studies were identified by hand-searching reference lists from original articles. Inclusion was limited to studies and abstracts in the English language...
May 2011: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21205954/safety-of-insulin-glargine-use-in-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Erika Pollex, Myla E Moretti, Gideon Koren, Denice S Feig
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes in women of childbearing age is increasing. As such, the number of pregnancies complicated by diabetes will inevitably increase. New insulin analogues such as the long-acting analogue insulin glargine may represent beneficial treatment options in pregnancy by ensuring that patients achieve excellent glycemic control without risk of maternal hypoglycemia. OBJECTIVE: To determine the fetal safety of insulin glargine use in the treatment of diabetes in pregnancy compared with NPH insulin therapy...
January 2011: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21186142/insulin-during-pregnancy-labour-and-delivery
#17
REVIEW
Harold W de Valk, Gerard H A Visser
Optimal glycaemic control is of the utmost importance to achieve the best possible outcome of a pregnancy complicated by diabetes. This holds for pregnancies in women with preconceptional type 1 or type 2 diabetes as well as for pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes. Glycaemic control is conventionally expressed in the HbA1c value but the HbA1c value does not completely capture the complexity of glycaemic control. The daily glucose profile measured by the patients themselves through measurements performed in capillary blood obtained by finger stick provides valuable information needed to adjust insulin therapy...
February 2011: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20378197/glargine-vs-nph-insulin-therapy-in-pregnancies-complicated-by-diabetes-an-observational-cohort-study
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Carlos A Negrato, Alex Rafacho, Giovana Negrato, Marcio F Teixeira, César A R Araújo, Leila Vieira, César A Silva, Sueli K Date, Ana C Demarchi, Marilia B Gomes
AIMS: The effects of glargine insulin therapy in pregnancies are not well established. We compared maternal and neonatal outcomes of women with pregestational and gestational diabetes treated with glargine or NPH insulin. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted analyzing outcomes from 56 women with pregestational and 82 with gestational diabetes treated with either insulin regimen. RESULTS: Comparisons were performed among 138 women: 56 with pregestational and 82 with gestational diabetes...
July 2010: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20188617/use-of-insulin-glargine-throughout-pregnancy-in-102-women-with-type-1-diabetes
#19
MULTICENTER STUDY
J Lepercq, S Jacqueminet, S Hieronimus, J Timsit, A Grimaldi
AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the safety of insulin glargine during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). METHODS: This retrospective multicentre study involved women with T1DM treated with insulin glargine before conception and throughout pregnancy. The main investigated parameters were HbA(1c) during the first and third trimesters, major congenital malformations, and perinatal mortality and complications. RESULTS: For the 102 women with T1DM in the study, HbA(1c) during the first and third trimesters was 6...
June 2010: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20170025/-diabetes
#20
M Egli, J Ruiz
In 2009 a novel screening strategy for diabetes based on the level of glycated hemoglobin has been proposed by the main international organizations, with a diagnostic threshold of 6.5%. The preventive efficacy of multiple risk factor control in type 2 diabetes reflected by the low rate of cardiac events in the DIAD 2 study calls for a revision of the current recommendations for coronary disease screening. In gestational diabetes, the linear correlation between degree of hyperglycemia and risk of associated complications in the HAPO study strenghtens the therapeutic targets for this frequent condition, which identifies women at high future risk of diabetes...
January 20, 2010: Revue Médicale Suisse
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