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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273061/neanderthal-behaviour-diet-and-disease-inferred-from-ancient-dna-in-dental-calculus
#1
Laura S Weyrich, Sebastian Duchene, Julien Soubrier, Luis Arriola, Bastien Llamas, James Breen, Alan G Morris, Kurt W Alt, David Caramelli, Veit Dresely, Milly Farrell, Andrew G Farrer, Michael Francken, Neville Gully, Wolfgang Haak, Karen Hardy, Katerina Harvati, Petra Held, Edward C Holmes, John Kaidonis, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Marco de la Rasilla, Antonio Rosas, Patrick Semal, Arkadiusz Soltysiak, Grant Townsend, Donatella Usai, Joachim Wahl, Daniel H Huson, Keith Dobney, Alan Cooper
Recent genomic data have revealed multiple interactions between Neanderthals and modern humans, but there is currently little genetic evidence regarding Neanderthal behaviour, diet, or disease. Here we describe the shotgun-sequencing of ancient DNA from five specimens of Neanderthal calcified dental plaque (calculus) and the characterization of regional differences in Neanderthal ecology. At Spy cave, Belgium, Neanderthal diet was heavily meat based and included woolly rhinoceros and wild sheep (mouflon), characteristic of a steppe environment...
March 8, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207311/prevalence-of-salmonella-in-cashews-hazelnuts-macadamia-nuts-pecans-pine-nuts-and-walnuts-in-the-united-states
#2
Guodong Zhang, Lijun Hu, David Melka, Hua Wang, Anna Laasri, Eric W Brown, Errol Strain, Marc Allard, Vincent K Bunning, Steven M Musser, Rhoma Johnson, Sofia M Santillana Farakos, Virginia N Scott, Régis Pouillot, Jane M Van Doren, Thomas S Hammack
Nuts have been identified as a vector for salmonellosis. The objective of this project was to estimate the prevalence and contamination level of Salmonella in raw tree nuts (cashews, pecans, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, pine nuts, and walnuts) at retail markets in the United States. A total of 3,656 samples of six types of tree nuts were collected from different types of retail stores and markets nationwide between October 2014 and October 2015. These samples were analyzed using a modified version of the Salmonella culture method from the U...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199023/analysis-of-%C3%AE-helix-unfolding-in-the-pine-nut-peptide-lys-cys-his-lys-pro-induced-by-pulsed-electric-field
#3
Jie Xing, Sitian Zhang, Mingdi Zhang, Songyi Lin
BACKGROUND: A variety of analytical techniques were applied to explore the effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) on the α-helix structural changes in the novel antioxidant peptide Lys-Cys-His-Lys-Pro (KCHKP, 611.76 Da). RESULTS: The relative α-helix content of the KCHKP peptide was significantly altered from 100% to 89.91 ± 0.97% when the electric pulse frequency was 1800 Hz and the field intensity was 10 kV cm(-1) . Moreover, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis diammonium salt (ABTS) radical-scavenging activities of PEF-treated KCHKP were increased from 56...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198188/pinolenic-acid-in-structured-triacylglycerols-exhibits-superior-intestinal-lymphatic-absorption-as-compared-to-pinolenic-acid-in-natural-pine-nut-oil
#4
Min-Yu Chung, Hyunjoon Woo, Juyeon Kim, Daecheol Kong, Hee-Don Choi, In-Wook Choi, In-Hwan Kim, Sang K Noh, Byung Hee Kim
The positional distribution pattern of fatty acids (FAs) in the triacylglycerols (TAGs) affects intestinal absorption of these FAs. The aim of this study was to compare lymphatic absorption of pinolenic acid (PLA) present in structured pinolenic TAG (SPT) where PLA was evenly distributed on the glycerol backbone, with absorption of pine nut oil (PNO) where PLA was predominantly positioned at the sn-3 position. SPT was prepared via the nonspecific lipase-catalyzed esterification of glycerol with free FA obtained from PNO...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892597/a-multicenter-study-on-anaphylaxis-caused-by-peanut-tree-nuts-and-seeds-in-children-and-adolescents
#5
K Jeong, S-Y Lee, K Ahn, J Kim, H-R Lee, D I Suh, B-Y Pyun, T K Min, J-W Kwon, K-E Kim, K W Kim, M H Sohn, Y H Kim, T W Song, J H Kwon, Y H Jeon, H Y Kim, J H Kim, Y M Ahn, S Lee
Peanut (PN) and tree nuts (TNs) are common causes of anaphylaxis in Western countries, but no information is available in Korea. To feature clinical characteristics of anaphylaxis caused by PN, TNs, and seeds, a retrospective medical record review was performed in 14 university hospitals in Korea (2009-2013). One hundred and twenty-six cases were identified, with the mean age of 4.9 years. PN, walnut (WN), and pine nut accounted for 32.5%, 41.3%, and 7.1%, respectively. The median values of specific IgE (sIgE) to PN, WN, and pine nut were 10...
November 28, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765232/identification-of-novel-peptides-from-3-to-10kda-pine-nut-pinus-koraiensis-meal-protein-with-an-exploration-of-the-relationship-between-their-antioxidant-activities-and-secondary-structure
#6
Ruiwen Yang, Xingfang Li, Songyi Lin, Zuoming Zhang, Feng Chen
In the present study, two novel peptides Lys-Trp-Phe-Cys-Thr (KWFCT) and Gln-Trp-Phe-Cys-Thr (QWFCT) were purified and identified from 3 to 10kDa pine nut (Pinus koraiensis) meal protein. Their cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities in vitro were determined. Additionally, pulsed electric field technology, antioxidant activities, and circular dichroism were used together to investigate the relationship between antioxidant activities and secondary structure. The results showed that neither peptide demonstrated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698954/korean-pine-nut-oil-replacement-decreases-intestinal-lipid-uptake-while-improves-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-mice
#7
Shuang Zhu, Soyoung Park, Yeseo Lim, Sunhye Shin, Sung Nim Han
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Consumption of pine nut oil (PNO) was shown to reduce weight gain and attenuate hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The aim of this study was to examine the effects of PNO on both intestinal and hepatic lipid metabolism in mice fed control or HFD. MATERIALS/METHODS: Five-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed control diets containing 10% energy fat from either Soybean Oil (SBO) or PNO, or HFD containing 15% energy fat from lard and 30% energy fat from SBO or PNO for 12 weeks...
October 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664625/determination-of-acrylamide-in-dried-fruits-and-edible-seeds-using-quechers-extraction-and-lc-separation-with-ms-detection
#8
Eleonora Laura De Paola, Giuseppe Montevecchi, Francesca Masino, Davide Garbini, Martino Barbanera, Andrea Antonelli
Acrylamide is a carcinogenic and neurotoxic process contaminant that is generated from food components during heat treatment, while it is absent in raw foodstuffs. Its level in food arouses great concern. A method for acrylamide extraction and determination in dried fruits (dried prunes and raisins) and edible seeds (almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) using a QuEChERS-LC-ESI-MS-Triple Quadrupole approach was set up. Linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the method were satisfactory...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475159/-fake-gemination-in-suffixed-words-and-compounds-in-english-and-german
#9
Sandra Kotzor, Benjamin J Molineaux, Elanor Banks, Aditi Lahiri
In languages with an underlying consonantal length contrast, the most salient acoustic cue differentiating singletons and geminates is duration of closure. When concatenation of identical phonemes through affixation or compounding produces "fake" geminates, these may or may not be realized phonetically as true geminates. English and German no longer have a productive length contrast in consonants, but do allow sequences of identical consonants in certain morphological contexts, e.g., suffixation (green-ness; zahl-los "countless") or compounding (pine nut; Schul-leiter "headmaster")...
July 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27383800/improvement-of-milk-fatty-acid-composition-for-production-of-functional-milk-by-dietary-phytoncide-oil-extracted-from-discarded-pine-nut-cones-pinus-koraiensis-in-holstein-dairy-cows
#10
Min Jeong Kim, U Suk Jung, Seung Woo Jeon, Jae Sung Lee, Won Seob Kim, Sang Bum Lee, Youn Chil Kim, Bae Young Kim, Tao Wang, Hong Gu Lee
This study was conducted to examine the effects of adding phytoncide oil extracted from Korean pine nut cone byproduct to the diet of dairy cows on milk yield and compositions, fatty acid characteristics, complete blood count and stress response. A total of 74 Holstein cows were used for 30 days and divided into two groups. Each group was given a basal diet (C) or an experimental diet containing phytoncide additives at 0.016% (T) in feed. The results showed that phytoncide feeding had no effect on milk yield...
December 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27289053/pyrolysis-polygeneration-of-pine-nut-shell-quality-of-pyrolysis-products-and-study-on-the-preparation-of-activated-carbon-from-biochar
#11
Dengyu Chen, Xiaojuan Chen, Jun Sun, Zhongcheng Zheng, Kexin Fu
A lab-scale pyrolysis reactor was utilized to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature (300-700°C) on the yield, quality, and energy distribution of products issued from the pyrolysis polygeneration of pine nut shells. Afterward, activated carbon was prepared from biochar using the steam activation method. Pyrolysis temperatures ranging from 500 to 600°C were found to be optimal in inducing products with improved properties, such as higher heating values of non-condensable gas, lower water content and elevated heating values of bio-oil, and substantial fixed carbon content and greater specific surface area of biochar...
September 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27211622/pin-p-1-is-a-major-allergen-in-pine-nut-and-the-first-food-allergen-described-in-the-plant-group-of-gymnosperms
#12
Beatriz Cabanillas, Jesus F Crespo, Soheila J Maleki, Julia Rodriguez, Natalija Novak
This study aimed to report the complete sequence of a 2S albumin purified from pine nut and to analyze its allergenic properties. Individual recognition of this protein by serum IgE from pine nut-allergic patients was assessed. IgE cross-linking capacity was analyzed in a basophil activation test. Inhibition of IgE-binding and stability to heating was also assessed. The complete nucleotide sequence was obtained and a phylogenetic study was carried out. 2S albumin from pine nut (registered as Pin p 1.0101) was recognized by IgE of 75% of sera...
November 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27161292/toxic-and-essential-elements-in-five-tree-nuts-from-hangzhou-market-china
#13
Zhanglin Ni, Fubin Tang, Qing Yu, Yihua Liu
In this study, a total of 35 tree nut samples of walnut, pecan, pine seed, hickory nut and torreya were obtained from 5 farm product markets in Hangzhou, China, and investigated for essential (Cr, Mn, Fe, Mo, Cu, Zn, Se and Sr) and toxic (Al, As, Cd and Pb) elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. Mean elemental concentrations of different tree nuts were in the following ranges: Cr 0.26-0.78 mg kg(-1), Mn 42.1-174 mg kg(-1), Fe 33.7-43.9 mg kg(-1), Mo 0.11-0.48 mg kg(-1), Cu 10.3-17...
December 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27084371/pinolenic-acid-downregulates-lipid-anabolic-pathway-in-hepg2-cells
#14
Ah Ron Lee, Sung Nim Han
Pine nut oil (PNO) was reported to reduce lipid accumulation in the liver. However, the specific effect of pinolenic acid (18:3, all-cis-Δ5,9,12), a unique component of PNO, on lipid metabolism has not been studied. We hypothesized that pinolenic acid downregulates the lipid anabolic pathway in HepG2 cells. HepG2 cells were incubated in serum-free medium supplemented with 50 μM bovine serum albumin (BSA), palmitic acid, oleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, pinolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), or α-linolenic acid for 24 h...
July 2016: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27006225/bioavailability-assessment-of-essential-and-toxic-metals-in-edible-nuts-and-seeds
#15
Jorge Moreda-Piñeiro, Paloma Herbello-Hermelo, Raquel Domínguez-González, Pilar Bermejo-Barrera, Antonio Moreda-Piñeiro
Bioavailability of essential and toxic metals in edible nuts and seeds has been assessed by using an in vitro dialyzability approach. The samples studied included walnuts, Brazil nuts, Macadamia nuts, pecans, hazelnuts, chestnuts, cashews, peanuts, pistachios and seeds (almond, pine, pumpkin and sunflower). Metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry in dialyzates and also in samples after a microwave assisted acid digestion pre-treatment. Low dialyzability percentages were found for Al, Fe and Hg; moderate percentages were found for Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, P, Pb, Se, Sr, Tl and Zn; and high dialyzability ratios were found for As, Cr and Ni...
August 15, 2016: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26948687/identification-and-characterization-of-dc-sign-binding-glycoproteins-in-allergenic-foods
#16
M Kamalakannan, L M Chang, G Grishina, H A Sampson, M Masilamani
BACKGROUND: DC-SIGN (dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin) is a C-type lectin receptor expressed on macrophages and dendritic cells. DC-SIGN has high affinity for fucosylated glycans in several plant glycoproteins and pathogens. DC-SIGN is thought to be crucial for the development of allergic sensitization. However, the precise role of DC-SIGN in food allergy pathogenesis is not yet understood. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize DC-SIGN-binding glycoproteins in a panel of allergenic and non-allergenic foods...
August 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26893179/mutagenicity-assessment-of-aerosols-in-emissions-from-domestic-combustion-processes
#17
Nuno Canha, Isabel Lopes, Estela Domingos Vicente, Ana M Vicente, Benjamin A Musa Bandowe, Susana Marta Almeida, Célia A Alves
Domestic biofuel combustion is one of the major sources of regional and local air pollution, mainly regarding particulate matter and organic compounds, during winter periods. Mutagenic and carcinogenic activity potentials of the ambient particulate matter have been associated with the fraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their oxygenated (OPAH) and nitrogenated (NPAH) derivatives. This study aimed at assessing the mutagenicity potential of the fraction of this polycyclic aromatic compound in particles (PM10) from domestic combustion by using the Ames assays with Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100...
June 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26805879/korean-pine-nut-oil-attenuated-hepatic-triacylglycerol-accumulation-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#18
Soyoung Park, Sunhye Shin, Yeseo Lim, Jae Hoon Shin, Je Kyung Seong, Sung Nim Han
Korean pine nut oil (PNO) has been reported to influence weight gain and lipid metabolism. We examined whether PNO replacement in a high-fat diet (HFD) can ameliorate HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. Five-week-old male C57BL mice were fed control diets containing 10% of the energy from fat from PNO or soybean oil (SBO) (PC, SC) or HFDs with 45% of the energy from fat, with 10% from PNO or SBO and 35% from lard (PHFD, SHFD), for 12 weeks. Body weight gain and amount of white adipose tissue were lower in PHFD (10% and 18% lower, respectively) compared with SHFD...
January 21, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26801495/inhibition-in-clark-s-nutcrackers-nucifraga-columbiana-results-of-a-detour-reaching-test
#19
A Vernouillet, J Anderson, D Clary, D M Kelly
Inhibition (i.e. the ability to restrain ineffective responses to a given stimulus) is a good indicator of complex cognitive abilities in animals. Inhibition has been demonstrated in a broad range of mammals with foraging style and social group size identified as potential influences of this ability. Whether these ecological factors also apply to birds has not been well studied. Corvids, a family of birds well known for being able to accomplish difficult cognitive tasks often requiring inhibition, are a good model for studying inhibitory control...
May 2016: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26727761/allergic-reactions-to-pine-nut-a-review
#20
REVIEW
B Cabanillas, N Novak
Pine nut is a nutrient-rich food with a beneficial impact on human health. The many bioactive constituents of pine nut interact synergistically to affect human physiology in a favorable way. However, pine nut can trigger dangerous allergic reactions. Severe anaphylactic reactions to pine nut accounted for most of the 45 cases reported in the scientific literature. Pine nut allergy seems to be characterized by low IgE cross-reactivity with other commonly consumed nuts and a high monosensitization rate. The present review provides updated information on allergic reactions to pine nut, molecular characterization of its allergens, and potential homologies with other nut allergens...
2015: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
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