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Ariadna Amador, Salvador Huitron-Resendiz, Amanda J Roberts, Theodore M Kamenecka, Laura A Solt, Thomas P Burris
The circadian clock maintains appropriate timing for a wide range of behaviors and physiological processes. Circadian behaviors such as sleep and wakefulness are intrinsically dependent on the precise oscillation of the endogenous molecular machinery that regulates the circadian clock. The identical core clock machinery regulates myriad endocrine and metabolic functions providing a link between sleep and metabolic health. The REV-ERBs (REV-ERBα and REV-ERBβ) are nuclear receptors that are key regulators of the molecular clock and have been successfully targeted using small molecule ligands...
2016: PloS One
Daniel M Siegel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2016: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
Claude Touzet
Despite the predation costs, sleep is ubiquitous in the animal realm. Humans spend a third of their life sleeping, and the quality of sleep has been related to co-morbidity, Alzheimer disease, etc. Excessive wakefulness induces rapid changes in cognitive performances, and it is claimed that one could die of sleep deprivation as quickly as by absence of water. In this context, the fact that a few people are able to go without sleep for months, even years, without displaying any cognitive troubles requires explanations...
September 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Markus Glatzel, Diego Sepulveda-Falla
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 28, 2016: Brain Pathology
Matthew C Whited, Effie Olendzki, Yunsheng Ma, Molly E Waring, Kristin L Schneider, Bradley M Appelhans, Andrew M Busch, James Chesebro, Sherry L Pagoto
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether adults with obesity and metabolic syndrome who screen as high risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) lose less weight as part of a weight loss intervention than those who screen as low risk. METHOD: We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized trial comparing 2 weight loss interventions consisting of dietary counseling for adults with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Participants were screened for sleep apnea using a validated screening questionnaire...
June 13, 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Ya-Wen Hsu, Tsan-Hon Liou, Yiing Mei Liou, Hsin-Jen Chen, Li-Yin Chien
Children and adolescents tend to lose weight, which may be associated with misperceptions of weight. Previous studies have emphasized establishing correlations between eating disorders and an overestimated perception of body weight, but few studies have focused on an underestimated perception of body weight. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between misperceptions of body weight and weight-related risk factors, such as eating disorders, inactivity, and unhealthy behaviors, among overweight children who underestimated their body weight...
2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
A A Borbély
The elucidation of sleep regulation is not an easy task. On one side, there is a multitude of solid yet disparate data, on the other side, the topic is tempting for engaging in wild speculation, particularly with respect to the functions of sleep. Models may exert a moderating influence by mediating between the two extremes. However, also they navigate between the risk of banality in reformulating the obvious, and the peril of fancy in losing touch with empirical reality.
June 1995: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Muffazal Lakdawala, Peter Limas, Shilpa Dhar, Carlyne Remedios, Neha Dhulla, Amit Sood, Aparna Govil Bhasker
INTRODUCTION: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most commonly performed bariatric operation across the world, but sometimes revision is necessary. Inadequate weight loss, weight regain, and complications such as dumping syndrome are common reasons for revision. We report the 1-year outcomes of five patients who underwent laparoscopic conversion of RYGB to sleeve gastrectomy during surgical revision. METHODS: Mean age was 38.8 ± 9.1 years. Mean BMI at primary surgery was 57...
May 2016: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
Masako Watanabe, Masayuki Honda
Women with epilepsy are exposed to social stigma, and they have anxiety and lose self-confidence in their social role as a woman. Psychiatrists, especially female psychiatrists, are able to support them. Important considerations are: 1) Pre-pregnant counseling; Physicians give appropriate advice and guidance. We need to provide the latest information on the teratogenicity of AEDs, and replace them with a safer combination of AEDs BEFORE pregnancy. Folate supplementation is also recommended. 2) Management during pregnancy: Patients are advised to adhere to taking AEDs as instructed, which prevents not only seizures during pregnancy but also reduces the risk of miscarriage and premature delivery...
2015: Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi, Psychiatria et Neurologia Japonica
Clemens Speth, Jana Speth
We lose waking consciousness spontaneously and regularly over the circadian cycle. It seems that every time we fall asleep, reflective thinking gradually gives way to our interactions with an imaginary, hallucinatory world that brings multimodal experiences in the absence of adequate external stimuli. The present study investigates this transition, proposing a new measure of hallucinatory states. Reflective thinking and motor imagery were quantified in 150 mentation reports provided by 16 participants after forced awakenings from different physiology-monitored time intervals after sleep onset...
April 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Yan Wang, Qingchan Yang, Jing Feng, Jie Cao, Baoyuan Chen
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a common sleep-related breathing disorder. Hypertension is frequently a concomitant disorder in patients with OSAHS. PURPOSE: This study investigates the prevalence and clinical features of hypertension in patients with OSAHS and explores the related nursing strategies. METHODS: Three thousand six hundred seven patients were included in this study. Subjects were divided into four groups that were categorized according to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) scores as follows: control group (control, n = 354) with AHI < 5, mild OSAHS (mild, n = 658) with 5 ≤ AHI < 15, moderate OSAHS (moderate, n = 753) with 15 ≤ AHI < 30, and severe OSAHS (severe, n = 1842) with AHI ≥ 30...
March 2016: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
A Tremblay, H Arguin, S Panahi
Capsaicin is the molecule that is responsible for the pungency of hot peppers. It stimulates the sympathoadrenal system that mediates the thermogenic and anorexigenic effects of capsaicinoids. Capsaicinoids have been found to accentuate the impact of caloric restriction on body weight loss. Some studies have also shown that capsinoids, the non-pungent analogs of capsaicinoids, increase energy expenditure. Capsaicin supplementation attenuates or even prevents the increase in hunger and decrease in fullness as well as the decrease in energy expenditure and fat oxidation, which normally result from energy restriction...
August 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Esmael Habtamu, Tariku Wondie, Sintayehu Aweke, Zerihun Tadesse, Mulat Zerihun, Zebideru Zewudie, Wondimu Gebeyehu, Kelly Callahan, Paul M Emerson, Hannah Kuper, Robin L Bailey, David C W Mabey, Saul N Rajak, Sarah Polack, Helen A Weiss, Matthew J Burton
BACKGROUND: Trachomatous trichiasis is thought to have a profound effect on quality of life (QoL), however, there is little research in this area. We measured vision and health-related QoL in a case-control study in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recruited 1000 adult trichiasis cases and 200 trichiasis-free controls, matched to every fifth trichiasis case on age (+/- two years), sex and location. Vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were measured using the WHO/PBD-VF20 and WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires...
November 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Evan B Katzel, Sameer Shakir, Sanjay Naran, Zoe MacIsaac, Liliana Camison, Matthew Greives, Jesse A Goldstein, Lorelei J Grunwaldt, Matthew D Ford, Joseph E Losee
BACKGROUND: Velopharyngeal insufficiency affects as many as one in three patients after cleft palate repair. Correction using a posterior pharyngeal flap (PPF) has been shown to improve clinical speech symptomatology; however, PPFs can be complicated by hyponasality and obstructive sleep apnea. The goal of this study was to assess if speech outcomes revert after clinically indicated PPF takedown. METHODS: The cleft-craniofacial database of the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center was retrospectively queried to identify patients with a diagnosis of velopharyngeal insufficiency treated with PPF who ultimately required takedown...
October 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Eti Ben Simon, Noga Oren, Haggai Sharon, Adi Kirschner, Noam Goldway, Hadas Okon-Singer, Rivi Tauman, Menton M Deweese, Andreas Keil, Talma Hendler
Sleep deprivation has been shown recently to alter emotional processing possibly associated with reduced frontal regulation. Such impairments can ultimately fail adaptive attempts to regulate emotional processing (also known as cognitive control of emotion), although this hypothesis has not been examined directly. Therefore, we explored the influence of sleep deprivation on the human brain using two different cognitive-emotional tasks, recorded using fMRI and EEG. Both tasks involved irrelevant emotional and neutral distractors presented during a competing cognitive challenge, thus creating a continuous demand for regulating emotional processing...
September 23, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Carol A Janney, Amy M Kilbourne, Anne Germain, Zongshan Lai, Katherine D Hoerster, David E Goodrich, Elizabeth A Klingaman, Lilia Verchinina, Caroline R Richardson
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) on weight loss in overweight/obese veterans enrolled in MOVE!, a nationally implemented behavioral weight management program delivered by the National Veterans Health Administration health system. METHODS: This observational study evaluated weight loss by SDB status in overweight/obese veterans enrolled in MOVE! from May 2008-February 2012 who had at least two MOVE! visits, baseline weight, and at least one follow-up weight (n = 84,770)...
January 2016: Sleep
Abdulaziz Mohammed, Taiwo Lateef Sheikh, Saheed Gidado, Gabriele Poggensee, Patrick Nguku, Adebola Olayinka, Chima Ohuabunwo, Ndadilnasiya Waziri, Faisal Shuaib, Joseph Adeyemi, Ogbonna Uzoma, Abubakar Ahmed, Funmi Doherty, Sarah Beysolow Nyanti, Charles Kyalo Nzuki, Abdulsalami Nasidi, Akin Oyemakinde, Olukayode Oguntimehin, Ismail Adeshina Abdus-Salam, Reginald O Obiako
BACKGROUND: By September 2014, an outbreak of Ebola Viral Disease (EVD) in West African countries of Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Senegal and Nigeria, had recorded over 4500 and 2200 probable or confirmed cases and deaths respectively. EVD, an emerging infectious disease, can create fear and panic among patients, contacts and relatives, which could be a risk factor for psychological distress. Psychological distress among this subgroup could have public health implication for control of EVD, because of potential effects on patient management and contact tracing...
2015: BMC Public Health
Claude Touzet
Sleep is ubiquitous among the animal realm, and represents about 30% of our lives. Despite numerous efforts, the reason behind our need for sleep is still unknown. The Theory of neuronal Cognition (TnC) proposes that sleep is the period of time during which the local inhibitory synapses (in particular the cortical ones) are replenished. Indeed, as long as the active brain stays awake, hebbian learning guarantees that efficient inhibitory synapses lose their efficiency – just because they are efficient at avoiding the activation of the targeted neurons...
September 2015: Medical Hypotheses
Tabyta T Sabchuk, Juliana R Silva, Francielle O Marx, Ananda P Felix, Alex Maiorka, Simone G Oliveira
Dietary fibre may promote satiety and reduce energy consumption per gram of food. Associated with feeding management, dietary fibre may contribute to reduce anxiety in dogs submitted to food restriction to lose weight. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the food intake and the behaviour of dogs fed diets without soya hulls (0SH) or with soya hulls (16SH) once (1×) or twice (2×) daily. Eight adult Beagle dogs, with 11·3 (se 1·6) kg body weight (BW), 4·1 (se 0·1) years of age and body condition score between 4 and 7, were distributed in 4 × 4 Latin square design (n 8/treatment, 5 d/period) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (0SH v...
2014: Journal of Nutritional Science
Takashi Asai
Special care is required for airway management of patients undergoing emergency Cesarean section. Although the incidence of difficult intubation and difficult ventilation is similar between pregnant and non-pregnant women, the severity of complications in pregnant patients would be much greater than in non-pregnant patients, if tracheal intubation is found to be difficult: increased risk of pulmonary aspiration, hypoxia, airway obstruction due to laryngeal edema, and a "sleeping baby" being taken out. Rapid-sequence induction of anesthesia is generally indicated to a patient undergoing emergency Cesarean section under general anesthesia...
December 2015: Journal of Anesthesia
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