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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098908/protective-effects-of-ethyl-pyruvate-on-lipopolysaccharide%C3%A2-induced-acute-lung-injury-through-inhibition-of-autophagy-in-neutrophils
#1
Qingteng Zhu, Hui Wang, Hairong Wang, Yong Luo, Yang Yu, Qirong Du, Aihua Fei, Shuming Pan
Among a number of clinical factors, bacterial infection is one of the most common causes of acute lung injury (ALI), a serious complication that carries a high risk of mortality (~40%). During the process of ALI, intense local and systemic inflammation is elicited, which exacerbates the injury. Neutrophil infiltration into airspace is observed in early stage of ALI, and is required for the full development of ALI through an array of mechanisms, including the release of granule contents and the production of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, due to the overactivation of complement and cytokines...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088783/%C3%AE-asarone-blocks-7%C3%AE-hydroxycholesterol-exposed-macrophage-injury-through-blocking-elf2%C3%AE-phosphorylation-and-prompting-beclin-1-dependent-autophagy
#2
Sin-Hye Park, Min-Kyung Kang, Yean-Jung Choi, Yun-Ho Kim, Lucia Dwi Antika, Dong Yeon Kim, Eun-Jung Lee, Soon Sung Lim, Young-Hee Kang
Macrophage apoptosis is salient in advanced atherosclerotic lesions and is induced by several stimuli including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This study examined that α-asarone present in purple perilla abrogated macrophage injury caused by oxysterols via ER stress- and autophagy-mediated mechanisms. Nontoxic α-asarone at 1-20 μM attenuated 7β-hydroxycholesterol-induced activation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α in macrophages leading to C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression and apoptosis due to sustained ER stress...
January 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072480/free-fatty-acids-induce-autophagy-and-lox-1-upregulation-in-cultured-aortic-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells
#3
Cheng-I Cheng, Yueh-Hong Lee, Po-Han Chen, Yu-Chun Lin, Ming-Huei Chou, Ying-Hsien Kao
Elevation of free fatty acids (FFAs) is known to affect microvascular function and contribute to obesity-associated insulin resistance, hypertension, and microangiopathy. Proliferative and synthetic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) increase intimal thickness and destabilize atheromatous plaques. This study aimed to investigate whether saturated palmitic acid (PA) and monounsaturated oleic acid (OA) modulate autophagy activity, cell proliferation, and vascular tissue remodeling in an aortic VSMC cell line...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067409/crosstalk-of-autophagy-and-apoptosis-involvement-of-the-dual-role-of-autophagy-under-er-stress
#4
REVIEW
Shuling Song, Jin Tan, Yuyang Miao, Mengmeng Li, Qiang Zhang
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a common cellular stress response that is triggered by a variety of conditions that disturb cellular homeostasis, and induces cell apoptosis. Autophagy, an important and evolutionarily conserved mechanism for maintaining cellular homeostasis, is closely related to the apoptosis induced by ER stress. There are common upstream signaling pathways between autophagy and apoptosis induced by ER stress, including PERK/ATF4, IRE1α, ATF6 and Ca(2+) . Autophagy can not only block the induction of apoptosis by inhibiting the activation of apoptosis-associated caspase which could reduce cellular injury, but also help to induce apoptosis...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067309/the-autophagy-elongation-complex-atg5-12-16l1-positively-regulates-hcv-replication-and-is-required-for-wild-type-membranous-web-formation
#5
Ahmed M Fahmy, Patrick Labonté
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection induces intracellular membrane rearrangements, thus forming a membranous web (MW) in which HCV replication and assembly occur. The HCV-induced MW is primarily composed of double membrane vesicles (DMVs) transfused by multi-membrane vesicles. The autophagy machinery has been proposed to participate in the formation of such vesicles. However, no clear evidence has been found linking autophagy to the formation of these DMVs. In this study, we evaluated the role of the autophagy elongation complex (ATG5-12/16L1) in HCV replication and MW formation...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061438/combination-of-arsenic-trioxide-and-everolimus-rad001-synergistically-induces-both-autophagy-and-apoptosis-in-prostate-cancer-cells
#6
Sheng Tai, Lingfan Xu, Ming Xu, Ligang Zhang, Yangyang Zhang, Kaipin Zhang, Li Zhang, Chaozhao Liang
The inhibitor of PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway, such as Rad001, has not shown therapeutic efficacy as a single agent in prostate cancer. Arsenic trioxide induces the autophagic pathway in prostate cancer cells. We identified Arsenic trioxide can synergize with Rad001 to induce cytotoxicity of prostate cancer cells. Moreover, we identified synergistic induction of autophagy and apoptosis as the underlying mechanism. This enhanced autophagic cell death is accompanied by increased Beclin1 mRNA stability as well as upregulation of ATG5-ATG12 conjugate, Beclin1, and LC3-2...
January 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052003/mir-138-5p-suppresses-autophagy-in-pancreatic-cancer-by-targeting-sirt1
#7
She Tian, Xingjun Guo, Chao Yu, Chengyi Sun, Jianxin Jiang
The role of microRNA in the aberrant autophagy that occurs in pancreatic cancer remains controversial. Because hypoxia is known to induce autophagy, we screened for differentially expressed microRNAs using a miRNA microarray with pancreatic cancer cells cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. We found that miR-138-5p was among the most downregulated miRNA in hypoxia-stimulated cells, and that overexpression of miR-138-5p substantially reduced expression of autophagy markers. In addition, western blot and immunofluorescence analyses and electron microscopy revealed that miR-138-5p inhibited autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells and blocked serum starvation-induced autophagic flux independently of the typical autophagic signaling pathway...
December 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042876/the-chk1-inhibitor-mk-8776-increases-the-radiosensitivity-of-human-triple-negative-breast-cancer-by-inhibiting-autophagy
#8
Zhi-Rui Zhou, Zhao-Zhi Yang, Shao-Jia Wang, Li Zhang, Ju-Rui Luo, Yan Feng, Xiao-Li Yu, Xing-Xing Chen, Xiao-Mao Guo
MK-8776 is a recently described inhibitor that is highly selective for checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1), which can weaken the DNA repair capacity in cancer cells to achieve chemo-sensitization. A number of studies show that MK-8776 enhances the cytotoxicity of hydroxyurea and gemcitabine without increasing normal tissue toxicities. Thus far, there is no evidence that MK-8776 can be used as a radiotherapy sensitization agent. In this study, we investigated the effects of MK-8776 on the radiosensitivity of 3 human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines MDA-MB-231, BT-549 and CAL-51...
January 2, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041982/4-nonylphenol-induces-autophagy-and-attenuates-mtor-p70s6k-4ebp1-signaling-by-modulating-ampk-activation-in-sertoli-cells
#9
Peng Duan, Chunhui Hu, Chao Quan, Tingting Yu, Wenting Huang, Wei Chen, Sha Tang, Yuqin Shi, Francis L Martin, Kedi Yang
The estrogenic chemical 4-nonylphenol (NP) is known to impair testicular devolopment and spermatogenesis in rodents. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of NP on autophagy induction and AMPK-mTOR signaling pathway in Sertoli cells (SCs), which are the "nursemaid cells" for meiosis of spermatocytes. In this study we exposed 7-week-old male rats to NP by intra-peritoneal injection at 0, 20, 50 or 100mg/kg body weight/2days for 20 consecutive days. Our results showed that exposure to NP dose-dependently induces the formation of autophagosomes in SCs, increases the expression of Beclin-1, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and the mRNA expression of Atg3, Atg5, Atg7 and Atg12 in testis, and these effects are concomitant with the activation of AMPK, and the suppression of TSC2-mTOR-p70S6K/4EBP1 signaling cascade in testis...
December 29, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040056/the-regulatory-effects-of-autophagy-to-the-cne2-cells-radio-sensitization
#10
B-X Li, X-F Cao, C-Y Weng, X-S Fang, H-B Mao, M-M Guan, G-L Liu
To investigate the effects of autophagy activator and autophagy inhibitor on the CNE2 radiation sensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. RNA interference technology was used to silence the atg5 gene and autophagy inhibition cell model was constructed. Rapamycin and chloroquine were treated respectively on cells with X-ray 5Gy irradiation. Cells' growth status were observed for 8 days and control group was set. The cell viability was detected by MTT assay and colony formation assay, and the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry...
November 30, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038427/autophagy-regulates-turnover-of-lipid-droplets-via-ros-dependent-rab25-activation-in-hepatic-stellate-cell
#11
Zili Zhang, Shifeng Zhao, Zhen Yao, Ling Wang, Jiangjuan Shao, Anping Chen, Feng Zhang, Shizhong Zheng
Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a pivotal event in liver fibrosis, characterized by dramatic disappearance of lipid droplets (LDs). Although LD disappearance has long been considered one of the hallmarks of HSC activation, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we sought to investigate the role of autophagy in the process of LD disappearance, and to further examine the underlying mechanisms in this molecular context. We found that LD disappearance during HSC activation was associated with a coordinate increase in autophagy...
December 21, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035061/cordycepin-induces-autophagy-mediated-c-flipl-degradation-and-leads-to-apoptosis-in-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells
#12
Xinghui Yu, Jianya Ling, Xianfang Liu, Sen Guo, Yidan Lin, Xiangguo Liu, Ling Su
Cordycepin, a main active composition extracted from Cordyceps militaris, has been reported to exert anti-tumor activity in a broad spectrum of cancer types. However, the function of cordycepin on human non-small cell lung cancer cells is still obscure. Our present work showed that cordycepin inhibited cell growth by inducing apoptosis and autophagy in human NSCLC cells. Further study revealed that cordycepin triggered extrinsic apoptosis associated with down-regulation of c-FLIPL which suppresses the activity of caspase-8...
December 27, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031105/-xinfeng-capsule-improves-pulmonary-function-of-rats-with-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-via-regulating-the-expressions-of-autophagy-related-proteins
#13
Lei Wan, Jian Liu, Chuanbing Huang, Xiaojun Zhang, Yali Wang, Yue Sun, Lei Liu
Objective To observe the effect of Xinfeng Capsule (XFC) on autophagy related gene (ATG), microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3II (LC3-II), beclin 1 in the rat model of adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA). Methods Rats were divided for four groups: normal control (NC) group, model control (MC) group, leflunomide (LEF) group, and XFC group, with 10 rats in each group. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA, 0.1 mL) was injected into the right foot plantar skin of all rats except for the NC group. To enhance the immune response, 0...
January 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011320/autophagy-deficient-kupffer-cells-promote-tumorigenesis-by-enhancing-mtros-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-il1%C3%AE-%C3%AE-dependent-inflammation-and-fibrosis-during-the-preneoplastic-stage-of-hepatocarcinogenesis
#14
Kai Sun, Lingyun Xu, Yingying Jing, Zhipeng Han, Xiaojing Chen, Chenlei Cai, Peipei Zhao, Xue Zhao, Liqun Yang, Lixin Wei
As a cellular degradation mechanism, autophagy exerts crucial and complicated effects on HCC development. Liver non-parenchymal cells, including hepatic resident macrophage Kupffer cells, also play important roles in this process. However, most associated studies have focused on the influence of the autophagy level in hepatic cells and HCC cells, but not liver non-parenchymal cells. Based on our previous study, we confirmed that Atg5 silence in the liver during the preneoplastic stage facilitated liver fibrosis, inflammation and, ultimately, tumorigenesis...
December 20, 2016: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010924/upregulation-of-nrf2-through-autophagy-erk-1-2-ameliorates-ionizing-radiation-induced-cell-death-of-human-osteosarcoma-u-2-os
#15
Ni Chen, Rui Zhang, Teruaki Konishi, Jun Wang
The antioxidative response mediated by transcription factor NRF2 is thought to be a pivotal cellular defense system against various extrinsic stresses. It has been reported that activation of the NRF2 pathway confers cells with resistance to ionizing radiation-induced damage. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In the current research, it was found that α-particle radiation has the ability to stimulate NRF2 expression in human osteosarcoma U-2 OS cells. Knockdown of cellular NRF2 level by shRNA-mediated gene silencing decreased the survival rate, increased the micronucleus formation rate and apoptosis rate in irradiated cells...
January 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008822/autophagy-activated-by-duck-enteritis-virus-infection-positively-affects-its-replication
#16
Lili Zhao, Hai-Chang Yin, Si-Qi Li, Yin-Jie Niu, Xin-Jie Jiang, Li-Jing Xu, Tao-Feng Lu, Ling-Xia Han, Sheng-Wang Liu, Hong-Yan Chen
Duck enteritis virus (DEV) is an acute, septic, sexually transmitted disease that occurs in ducks, geese, and other poultry. Autophagy is an evolutionarily ancient pathway that is important in many viral infections. Despite extensive study, the interplay between DEV and autophagy of host cells is not clearly understood. In this study, we found that DEV infection triggers autophagy in duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells, as demonstrated by the appearance of autophagosome-like double or single-membrane vesicles in the cytoplasm of host cells and the numbers of GFP-LC3 dots...
December 23, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007903/autophagy-activators-suppress-cystogenesis-in-an-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-model
#17
Ping Zhu, Cynthia J Sieben, Xiaolei Xu, Peter C Harris, Xueying Lin
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is caused by mutations in either PKD1 or PKD2 It is one of the most common heritable human diseases with eventual development of renal failure; however, effective treatment is lacking. While inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) effectively slows cyst expansions in animal models, results from clinical studies are controversial, prompting further mechanistic studies of mTOR-based therapy. Here, we aim to establish autophagy, a downstream pathway of mTOR, as a new therapeutic target for PKD...
December 22, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998869/-role-of-autophagy-in-fasudil-induced-rho-kinase-inhibition-for-protection-against-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#18
Hong-Wei Ye, Ting-Ting Fang, Xiao-Yu Gu, Ya Wang, Guang-Yu Zhu, Ying Yu, Qin Gao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes of autophagy in ischemic myocardium of rats treated with fasudil for inhibiting Rho kinase. METHODS: The hearts isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 30 min of occlusion of the left anterior descending artery followed by 120 min of reperfusion with or without treatment with fasudil or fasudil+Wort. The left ventricular hemodynamics were continuously recorded, and the coronary effluent was collected during the reperfusion to determine lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels...
December 20, 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974437/a-high-copy-suppressor-screen-for-autophagy-defects-in-saccharomyces-arl1%C3%AE-and-ypt6%C3%AE-strains
#19
Shu Yang, Anne Rosenwald
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arl1 and Ypt6, two small GTP-binding proteins that regulate membrane traffic in the secretory and endocytic pathways, are also necessary for autophagy. To gain information about potential partners of Arl1 and Ypt6 specifically in autophagy, we carried out a high copy number suppressor screen to identify genes that when overexpressed suppress the rapamycin sensitivity phenotype of arl1Δ and ypt6Δ strains at 37°C. From the screen results, we selected COG4, SNX4, TAX4, IVY1, PEP3, SLT2 and ATG5, either membrane traffic or autophagy regulators, to further test whether they can suppress the specific autophagy defects of arl1Δ and ypt6Δ strains...
December 14, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973558/carbamylated-low-density-lipoprotein-cldl-mediated-induction-of-autophagy-and-its-role-in-endothelial-cell-injury
#20
Chhanda Bose, Sudhir V Shah, Oleg K Karaduta, Gur P Kaushal
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have high risk of cardiovascular complications. Plasma levels of carbamylated proteins produced by urea-derived isocyanate or thiocyanate are elevated in CKD patients and that they are significant predictors of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Carbamylated LDL (cLDL) has pro-atherogenic properties and is known to affect major biological processes relevant to atherosclerosis including endothelial cell injury. The underlying mechanisms of cLDL-induced endothelial cell injury are not well understood...
2016: PloS One
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