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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154199/ultraviolet-b-radiation-down-regulates-ulk1-and-atg7-expression-and-impairs-the-autophagy-response-in-human-keratinocytes
#1
Xu Chen, Li Li, Song Xu, Wenbo Bu, Kun Chen, Min Li, Heng Gu
Autophagy is a self-digestive pathway that helps to maintain cellular homeostasis, and many autophagy-related gene (ATG)s involved the regulation of the autophagy process. Ultraviolet light is a common stressor of skin, but it is unclear how autophagy is regulated after ultraviolet exposure in epidermal keratinocytes. Here, we found that the mRNAs of some key ATG genes such as ULK1, ATG5 and ATG7 exhibited significantly lower levels in the skin tissues of the face and chest with solar ultraviolet exposure, compared with perineal skin...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147607/immune-signature-profiling-identified-predictive-and-prognostic-factors-for-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#2
Yuan Li, Zhiliang Lu, Yun Che, Jingnan Wang, Shouguo Sun, Jianbing Huang, Shuangshuang Mao, Yuanyuan Lei, Zhaoli Chen, Jie He
Understanding interactions between tumor and the host immune system holds great promise to uncover biomarkers for targeted therapies and clinical outcomes. However, systematical analysis of immune signatures in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains largely unstudied. In this study, immune signatures containing 708 immune related genes were curated from mRNA microarray data with tumor and paired normal tissues from 119 ESCC patients. Differential expression and survival analysis were performed with validations from Human Protein Atlas and an independent cohort of 110 ESCC patients by immunohistochemistry staining...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146913/autophagy-acts-through-traf3-and-relb-to-regulate-gene-expression-via-antagonism-of-smad-proteins
#3
Alice C Newman, Alain J Kemp, Yvette Drabsch, Christian Behrends, Simon Wilkinson
Macroautophagy can regulate cell signalling and tumorigenesis via elusive molecular mechanisms. We establish a RAS mutant cancer cell model where the autophagy gene ATG5 is dispensable in A549 cells in vitro, yet promotes tumorigenesis in mice. ATG5 represses transcriptional activation by the TGFβ-SMAD gene regulatory pathway. However, autophagy does not terminate cytosolic signal transduction by TGFβ. Instead, we use proteomics to identify selective degradation of the signalling scaffold TRAF3. TRAF3 autophagy is driven by RAS and results in activation of the NF-κB family member RELB...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143976/stat3-atg5-signal-axis-inducing-autophagy-to-alleviate-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#4
Yu-Fang Han, Yan-Bing Zhao, Jun Li, Li Li, Yong-Gan Li, Shi-Peng Li, Zhong-Dong Li
In performing our experiment, impaired autophagy increased hepatocellular damage during the reperfusion period. It was demonstrated by the effect of blocking autophagy using bafilomycin A1 or knocking Atg5 gene out reduces the anti-apoptotic effect of Stat3. Here we focus on the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) in regulating autophagy to alleviate hepatic IRI. We found that Stat3 was up-regulated during hepatic IRI and was associated with an activation of the autophagic signaling pathway...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143455/understanding-the-functional-role-of-microrna-214-3p-in-atherosclerosis-for-the-identification-of-novel-targeted-therapies-to-prevent-or-reverse-endothelial-cell-dysfunction-and-stimulate-autophagy
#5
EDITORIAL
Adriana Georgescu
The original article by Jing Wang and collaborators, entitled "MicroRNA-214-3p: A Link between Autophagy and Endothelial Cell Dysfunction in Atherosclerosis", brings new data concerning molecular mechanisms linking decreased autophagy to endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis. In this issue of Acta Physiologica, the authors concluded that microRNA-214-3p (miR-214-3p) controls oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced autophagy in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by regulating intracellular levels of autophagy-related protein 5 (ATG5), and may have a relevant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis...
November 16, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142990/the-chemical-chaperone-pba-reduces-er-stress-and-autophagy-and-increases-collagen-iv-%C3%AE-5-expression-in-cultured-fibroblasts-from-men-with-x-linked-alport-syndrome-and-missense-mutations
#6
Dongmao Wang, Mardhiah Mohammad, Yanyan Wang, Rachel Tan, Lydia S Murray, Sharon Ricardo, Hayat Dagher, Tom van Agtmael, Judy Savige
Introduction: X-linked Alport syndrome (OMIM 301050) is caused by COL4A5 missense variants in 40% of families. This study examined the effects of chemical chaperone treatment (sodium 4-phenylbutyrate) on fibroblast cell lines derived from men with missense mutations. Methods: Dermal fibroblast cultures were established from 2 affected men and 3 normals. Proliferation rates were examined, the collagen IV α5 chain localized with immunostaining, and levels of the intra- and extracellular chains quantitated with an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
July 2017: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142609/role-of-5-aza-cdr-in-mitomycin-c-chemosensitivity-of-t24-bladder-cancer-cells
#7
Hui-Hui Zhang, Bo Huang, You-Han Cao, Qing Li, Han-Feng Xu
Chemotherapeutic insensitivity is one of key obstacles to effectively treating muscle invasive bladder cancer. 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-CdR) has been identified as a tumor suppressive agent in various types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to identify the effects of 5-Aza-CdR on the mitomycin-C (MMC) chemosensitivity of T24 bladder cancer cells and investigate the underlying mechanisms. T24 cells were treated with a combination of MMC and 5-Aza-CdR at various concentrations. The rates of proliferation and apoptosis were assessed by an MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively...
November 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138806/effect-of-bis-hydroxymethyl-alkanoate-curcuminoid-derivative-mth-3-on-cell-cycle-arrest-apoptotic-and-autophagic-pathway-in-triple-negative-breast-adenocarcinoma-mda-mb-231-cells-an-in-vitro-study
#8
Ling-Chu Chang, Min-Tsang Hsieh, Jai-Sing Yang, Chi-Cheng Lu, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Je-Wei Tsao, Yu-Jen Chiu, Sheng-Chu Kuo, Kuo-Hsiung Lee
Curcumin has been shown to exert potential antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo involved in multiple signaling pathways. However, the application of curcumin is still limited because of its poor hydrophilicity and low bio-availability. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of a novel and water soluble bis(hydroxymethyl) alkanoate curcuminoid derivative, MTH-3, on human breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells. This study investigated the effect of MTH-3 on cell viability, cell cycle and induction of autophagy and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138276/metabolic-reprogramming-ensures-cancer-cell-survival-despite-oncogenic-signaling-blockade
#9
Hui-Wen Lue, Jennifer Podolak, Kevin Kolahi, Larry Cheng, Soumya Rao, Devin Garg, Chang-Hui Xue, Juha K Rantala, Jeffrey W Tyner, Kent L Thornburg, Ann Martinez-Acevedo, Jen-Jane Liu, Christopher L Amling, Charles Truillet, Sharon M Louie, Kimberly E Anderson, Michael J Evans, Valerie B O'Donnell, Daniel K Nomura, Justin M Drake, Anna Ritz, George V Thomas
There is limited knowledge about the metabolic reprogramming induced by cancer therapies and how this contributes to therapeutic resistance. Here we show that although inhibition of PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling markedly decreased glycolysis and restrained tumor growth, these signaling and metabolic restrictions triggered autophagy, which supplied the metabolites required for the maintenance of mitochondrial respiration and redox homeostasis. Specifically, we found that survival of cancer cells was critically dependent on phospholipase A2 (PLA2) to mobilize lysophospholipids and free fatty acids to sustain fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation...
November 14, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136784/the-alternation-of-autophagy-apoptosis-in-cd4-cd25-foxp3-tregs-on-the-developmental-stages-of-atherosclerosis
#10
Yuling Tian, Xiao Liang, Yue Wu
Naturally regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role in the regulation of T cell-mediated immune responses in atherosclerosis. However, the regulatory mechanism underlying Tregs upon long-term development of atherosclerosis remains unknown. Therefore, in this study, atherosclerotic model was induced in ApoE-/- mice by feeding fat-diet for 10 weeks. Quantification of atherosclerotic lesions was done by calculating the lesion size in the aortic sinus every 2 weeks. The lipid levels and inflammatory mediators were detected in serum sample...
November 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134671/macrophage-roles-in-the-clearance-of-apoptotic-cells-and-control-of-inflammation-in-the-prostate-gland-after-castration
#11
Juliete A F Silva, Alexandre Bruni-Cardoso, Taize M Augusto, Danilo M Damas-Souza, Guilherme O Barbosa, Sérgio L Felisbino, Dagmar R Stach-Machado, Hernandes F Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation results in massive apoptosis in the prostate gland. Macrophages are actively engaged in phagocytosing epithelial cell corpses. However, it is unknown whether microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha (LC3)-associated phagocytosis (LAP) is involved and contribute to prevent inflammation. METHODS: Flow cytometry, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to characterize the macrophage subpopulation residing in the epithelial layer of the rat ventral prostate (VP) after castration...
November 14, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133525/optineurin-promotes-autophagosome-formation-by-recruiting-the-autophagy-related-atg12-5-16l1-complex-to-phagophores-containing-the-wipi2-protein
#12
Megha Bansal, Shivranjani C Moharir, S Purnima Sailasree, Kapil Sirohi, Cherukuri Sudhakar, D Partha Sarathi, B Jyothi Lakshmi, Mario Buono, Satish Kumar, Ghanshyam Swarup
Autophagy is a quality-control mechanism that helps to maintain cellular homeostasis by removing damaged proteins and organelles through lysosomal degradation. During autophagy, signaling events lead to the formation of a cup-shaped structure called the phagophore that matures into the autophagosome. Recruitment of the autophagy-associated Atg12-5-16L1 complex to wipi2-positive phagophores is crucial for producing LC3-II, which is required for autophagosome formation. Here, we explored the role of the autophagy receptor optineurin (Optn) in autophagosome formation...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131087/deferoxamine-induced-migration-and-odontoblast-differentiation-via-ros-dependent-autophagy-in-dental-pulp-stem-cells
#13
Xuan Wang, Tian Tian Wu, Long Jiang, Du Rong, Ya Qin Zhu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: As a vital degradation and recycling system, autophagy plays an essential role in regulating the differentiation of stem cells. We previously showed that iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO) could promote the repair ability of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Here, we investigated the effect of DFO in autophagy and the role of autophagy in regulating the migration and odontoblast differentiation of DPSCs. METHODS: Transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence staining and western blotting were performed to evaluate the autophagic activity of DPSCs...
November 1, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130967/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-promotes-autophagy-and-apoptosis-and-reduces-chemotherapy-resistance-in-mutant-p53-lung-cancer-cells
#14
Ping-Ping Gan, Yang-Ying Zhou, Mei-Zuo Zhong, Yun Peng, Li Li, Jian-Huang Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lung cancer (LC) continues to be one of the most prevalent cancers around the world. During this study we aimed to investigate the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in autophagy, apoptosis, and chemotherapy resistance of mutant p53 LC cells. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was employed to help determine the p53 mutation status of cancer cells from 92 primary LC patients, who were subsequently assigned to either the mutant p53 (n = 39) or wild-type p53 group (n = 53)...
November 6, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130363/antioxidant-role-of-autophagy-in-maintaining-the-integrity-of-glomerular-capillaries
#15
Jun Matsuda, Tomoko Namba, Yoshitsugu Takabatake, Tomonori Kimura, Atsushi Takahashi, Takeshi Yamamoto, Satoshi Minami, Shinsuke Sakai, Ryuta Fujimura, Jun-Ya Kaimori, Isao Matsui, Takayuki Hamano, Yoko Fukushima, Keiko Matsui, Tomoyoshi Soga, Yoshitaka Isaka
Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation system by which cytosolic materials and damaged organelles are broken down into basic components. To explore the physiological role of autophagy in glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs), we compared the autophagic flux among cells in the kidney under starvation. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine administration significantly increased the number of autophagosomes or autolysosomes in GEnCs and proximal tubular cells, but not in podocytes, suggesting that the GEnCs exhibit substantial autophagic activity...
November 13, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128638/ulk1-regulated-autophagy-a-mechanism-in-cellular-protection-for-aldh2-against-hyperglycemia
#16
Min Liu, Songhe Lu, Wei He, Le Zhang, Ying Ma, Ping Lv, Meijuan Ma, Wenjun Yu, Jiaxing Wang, Mingming Zhang, Yingmei Zhang, Yan Li
Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), an important enzyme in the elimination of toxic aldehydes, is involved in cardioprotection against diabetes mellitus. This study was designed to examine the mechanism behind ALDH2-offered protection against high glucose exposure with a focus on autophagy. H9C2 cells were cultured with normal or high glucose medium in the presence or absence of the ALDH2 agonist Alda-1. GFP-LC3 puncta and immunofluorescence were employed to assess autophagosome formation. Western blotting was applied to evaluate autophagy protein markers Atg5, LC3, p62, ULK1 phosphorylation and ALDH2...
November 8, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125860/autophagy-pathway-induced-by-a-plant-virus-facilitates-viral-spread-and-transmission-by-its-insect-vector
#17
Yong Chen, Qian Chen, Manman Li, Qianzhuo Mao, Hongyan Chen, Wei Wu, Dongsheng Jia, Taiyun Wei
Many viral pathogens are persistently transmitted by insect vectors and cause agricultural or health problems. Generally, an insect vector can use autophagy as an intrinsic antiviral defense mechanism against viral infection. Whether viruses can evolve to exploit autophagy to promote their transmission by insect vectors is still unknown. Here, we show that the autophagic process is triggered by the persistent replication of a plant reovirus, rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV) in cultured leafhopper vector cells and in intact insects, as demonstrated by the appearance of obvious virus-containing double-membrane autophagosomes, conversion of ATG8-I to ATG8-II and increased level of autophagic flux...
November 10, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123982/decreased-grip-strength-muscle-pain-and-atrophy-occur-in-rats-following-long-term-exposure-to-excessive-repetitive-motion
#18
Mitsuhiro Fujiwara, Masahiro Iwata, Takayuki Inoue, Yosuke Aizawa, Natsumi Yoshito, Kazuhiro Hayashi, Shigeyuki Suzuki
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) are caused by the overuse of muscles in the workplace. Performing repetitive tasks is a primary risk factor for the development of WMSD. Many workers in highly repetitive jobs exhibit muscle pain and decline in handgrip strength, yet the mechanisms underlying these dysfunctions are poorly understood. In our study, rats performed voluntary repetitive reaching and grasping tasks (Task group), while Control group rats did not perform these activities. In the Task group, grip strength and forearm flexor withdrawal threshold declined significantly from week 2 to week 6, compared with these values at week 0 (P < 0...
November 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114222/ginsenoside-rb1-enhances-atherosclerotic-plaque-stability-by-improving-autophagy-and-lipid-metabolism-in-macrophage-foam-cells
#19
Lei Qiao, Xue Zhang, Minghao Liu, Xiaoling Liu, Mei Dong, Jing Cheng, Xinyu Zhang, Chungang Zhai, Yu Song, Huixia Lu, Wenqiang Chen
Atherosclerosis (AS) is a lipid-driven disease in which macrophage foam cells play a critical role by increasing vascular lipid accumulation and contributing to plaque instability. Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), the most abundant active component of ginseng, has been found potently to promote lipid metabolism and attenuate lipid accumulation. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the effects of Rb1 on lipid accumulation and plaque stability were investigated both in vitro and in vivo by using primary peritoneal macrophages isolated from C57BL/6 mice and an AS model in ApoE(-/-) mice...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108912/autophagy-activation-is-required-for-influenza-a-virus-induced-apoptosis-and-replication
#20
B Yeganeh, S Ghavami, Md N Rahim, T Klonisch, A J Halayko, K M Coombs
Autophagy and apoptosis are two major interconnected host cell responses to viral infection, including influenza A virus (IAV). Thus, delineating these events could facilitate the development of better treatment options and provide an effective anti-viral strategy for controlling IAV infection. We used A549 cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) to study the role of virus-induced autophagy and apoptosis, the cross-talk between both pathways, and their relation to IAV infection [ATCC strain A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1) (hereafter; PR8)]...
November 3, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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