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obesity, diet, exercise

Hammam A Alotaibi
Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the skin and joints. It typically presents as abnormal skin patches characterized by red, scaly, and very itchy spots. It affects patients in different manners with different severities ranging from small spots or spots that cover a larger area of the skin. Due to the negative impact psoriasis has on the quality of life, many patients are exploring other options that can help improve their symptoms. Among those is weight reduction. This review is aimed at providing an overview of the published clinical literature to give physicians an indication of what the answer could be...
October 24, 2018: Curēus
Faith Borgan, Owen O'Daly, Karen Hoang, Mattia Veronese, Dominic Withers, Rachel Batterham, Oliver Howes
Importance: Schizophrenia is associated with a reduced life expectancy of 15 to 20 years owing to a high prevalence of cardiometabolic disorders. Obesity, a key risk factor for the development of cardiometabolic alterations, is more prevalent in individuals with schizophrenia. Although obesity is linked to the altered reward processing of food cues, no studies have investigated this link in schizophrenia without the confounds of antipsychotics and illness chronicity. Objective: To investigate neural responsivity to food cues in first-episode psychosis without the confounds of antipsychotic medication or illness chronicity...
January 4, 2019: JAMA network open
Filipe M Ribeiro, Camila F A Ribeiro, Ana Cláudia M G, Alinne P Castro, Jeeser A Almeida, Octavio L Franco, Bernardo A Petriz
Several studies have indicated that diet and exercise may modulate the gut microbiota in obese subjects. Both interventions were shown to alter the microbiota orthogonally. However, this relationship has not been fully explored. This study analyzed the effects of low-to-moderate aerobic training on the fecal microbiota of mice subjected to a high-fat diet (HFD). Here, 40 male mice (C57Bl/6) were divided into two groups with standard diet (SD; 12.4% lipid) and HFD (60.3% lipid) for four months. These groups were divided into four, named SD control, HF control, SD trained and HF trained...
January 11, 2019: Nutrients
Russell Emmons, Matthew Ngu, Guanying Xu, Diego Hernández-Saavedra, Hong Chen, Michael De Lisio
INTRODUCTIONThe late effects of radiation therapy can have significant consequences for the health and quality of life of long-term cancer survivors. Radiation induces persistent alterations in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and the bone marrow environment; however, how relevant host factors such as obesity and exercise differentially regulate HSPC content and the bone marrow environment following radiation exposure remains unknown. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate how the combination of obesity and exercise training modulate HSPCs and their niche following sub-lethal radiation exposure in mice...
January 10, 2019: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Gwendolyn Patience Mensah, Dalena R M van Rooyen, Wilma Ten Ham-Baloyi
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance that is observed in the beginning of, or first acknowledged during pregnancy. The prevalence of GDM is estimated to be approximately 15% globally and is expected to increase due to growing numbers of overweight and obesity in women in their reproductive age. The nursing management of GDM in terms of lifestyle modifications (exercise, diet and nutrition) and the taking of diabetes medication, if required, and adherence thereto is crucial to prevent maternal and neonatal-perinatal complications...
January 4, 2019: Midwifery
Yeukai Tm Mangwiro, Jessica F Briffa, Sogand Gravina, Dayana Mahizir, Kristina Anevska, Tania Romano, Karen M Moritz, James Sm Cuffe, Mary E Wlodek
Fetal growth and development are dependent on adequate placental nutrient transfer. The surface area of the placental villous network is a key determinant of nutrient exchange, which is regulated by vasculogenic and angiogenic factors. These factors are altered by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and maternal obesity in both the first (F1) and second (F2) generations. We investigated the impact of endurance exercise in IUGR dams fed a High-fat diet on placental vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Uteroplacental insufficiency (Restricted) or sham (Control) surgery was induced on embryonic day (E) 18 in Wistar-Kyoto rats...
December 15, 2018: Placenta
Maurizio G Abrignani, Iris Parrini, Daniele Grosseto, Chiara Lestuzzi, Marinella Mistrangelo, Bruno Passaretti
Although commonly thought of as two separate disease entities, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, the leading causes of death, possess various possible interactions, including a number of similar risk factors (e.g. obesity, diabetes, chronic inflammation). Each cardiologist should provide counseling for a correct lifestyle (diet, physical exercise, avoiding smoking and alcohol abuse); doing so, not only cardiovascular diseases, but also cancer could be prevented. Besides, intervention on diet, physical activity and smoking has been shown to be effective even in patients with known cancers...
January 2019: Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia
Ryota Usui, Daisuke Yabe, Yutaka Seino
Unimolecular peptide-based dual agonists against glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR) have been gaining much attention recently as novel anti-diabetic agents that can potentially control glycaemia and bodyweight. While glucagon-like Peptide (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) both enhance insulin secretion and subsequently ameliorate postprandial glucose excursion, most research has focused on GLP-1R as a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes...
January 13, 2019: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Britany Klenofsky, Anna Pace, Lauren R Natbony, Huma U Sheikh
Migraine is a common neurologic disorder. This article will discuss a few factors that influence migraine (mostly episodic) and its treatment, such as sleep, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), obesity, and affective disorders, as well as autoimmune diseases. Practitioners must be aware of these coexisting conditions (comorbidities) as they affect treatment. It is noted in literature that both the quantity (too much or too few hours) and the quality (OSA related) of sleep may worsen migraine frequency. An associated risk factor for OSA, obesity also increases migraine frequency in episodic migraine cases...
January 12, 2019: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Tirza Z Tamin, Nyoman Murdana, Yupitri Pitoyo, Eka D Safitri
BACKGROUND: obesity and osteoarthritis have strong inter-relationship with multi-factorial mechanism that caused pain and leads to decreased quality of life. Exercise has been identified as prevention and management against obesity and joint pain. This systematic review aims to assess the effect between exercises compared to diet group for chronic pain management, physical and mental function in obese patients with chronic musculoskeletal problem. METHODS: we performed a systematic search of Randomized Control Trial studies from Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EBSCO; SCIENCEDIRECT (Elsevier); SCOPUS, grey literature, trial registry, ongoing study for published studies, and from the ClinicalTrial...
October 2018: Acta Medica Indonesiana
Emily M Heiston, Natalie Z M Eichner, Nicole M Gilbertson, Julian M Gaitán, Sibylle Kranz, Arthur Weltman, Steven K Malin
PURPOSE: No short-term exercise data exist testing whether training intensity modifies hormonal and perceived appetite in obese adults with prediabetes. Therefore, we compared the effects of short-term moderate continuous (CONT) vs. high-intensity interval (INT) training on appetite regulation. METHODS: Twenty-eight obese adults (Age: 61.3±1.5yr; BMI: 33.2±1.1) with prediabetes were randomized to work-matched CONT (n=14) or INT (n=14) training for 2 weeks. Plasma acylated ghrelin (AG), des-acylated ghrelin (dAG), active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and insulin were measured at 0, 30 and 60min of a 75g OGTT before and after training...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Applied Physiology
Hiwa Omer Ahmed, Rajan Fuad Ezzat
Background: Health-related quality of life of obese patients, before and after weight loss by insertion of BioEnterics Intra-gastric Balloon is studied widely. But the quality of life not related to comorbidity of the obese patients like mood, satisfaction with relationships, achieved goals, self-concepts, and self-perceived ability to cope with one's daily life is not studied on a wide scale. Aim: To evaluates the effect of the obesity on different aspects of life, and to evaluate the influence of weight loss after BIB insertion or Atkins diet on the quality of life regarding mood, satisfaction with relationships, achieved goals, self-concepts, and self-perceived ability to cope with one's daily life...
January 2019: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Lucile Dollet, Juleen R Zierath
Disruption of circadian rhythmicity induced by prolonged light exposure, altered sleep patterns and shift work is associated with the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. White and brown adipose tissue activity shows circadian rhythmicity, with daily variations in the regulation of metabolic processes such as lipolysis, glucose and lipid uptake, and adipokine secretion. The role of the circadian clock in the regulation of the energy homeostasis has raised interest in clock-related strategies to mitigate metabolic disturbances associated with type 2 diabetes, including "resynchronizing" metabolism through diet or targeting a particular time of a day to potentiate the effect of a pharmacological or physiological treatment...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Physiology
Adithya Hari, Ciaràn Fealy, Thomas P J Solomon, Jacob M Haus, Karen R Kelly, Hope Barkoukis, John P Kirwan
AIMS: Glucose effectiveness (GE) refers to the ability of glucose to influence its own metabolism through insulin-independent mechanisms. Diminished GE is a predictor of progression to type 2 diabetes. Exercise training improves GE, however, little is known about how dietary interventions, such as manipulating the glycemic index of diets, interact with exercise-induced improvements in GE in at-risk populations. METHODS: We enrolled 33 adults with obesity and pre-diabetes (17 males, 65...
January 5, 2019: Acta Diabetologica
Shehab M Abd El-Kader, Osama H Al-Jiffri
Background: Recently, about 2.35% of the world populations are estimated to be chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Previous cohort studies indicated that obesity increases risk of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in non-diabetic patients with chronic hepatitis C infection due to diminished response to anti-viral therapy and as a result obesity is considered as an important factor in the progression of chronic HCV. However, there is a strong association between BMI and the human immune system among HCV patients...
June 2018: African Health Sciences
C Klein, W Jonas, P Wiedmer, S Schreyer, L Akjüz, J Spranger, R Hellweg, B Steiner
The hypothalamus has emerged as a novel neurogenic niche in the adult brain during the past decade. However, little is known about its regulation and the role hypothalamic neurogenesis might play in body weight and appetite control. High-fat diet (HFD) has been demonstrated to induce an inflammatory response and to alter neurogenesis in the hypothalamus and functional outcome measures, e.g. body weight. Such modulation poses similarities to what is known from adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which is highly responsive to lifestyle factors, such as nutrition or physical exercise...
December 29, 2018: Neuroscience
Andrew J Szabo
The prevalence of adult and childhood obesity are increasing. Most of the human newborn's body fat accumulates in the last half of intrauterine life. Fat in the fetus was thought to be mostly synthesized from glucose, but now it is commonly accepted that the bulk of it is the product of placental transfer of maternal fatty acids. Transported fatty acids originate in maternal plasma "free" fatty acids, fatty acids hydrolyzed from maternal plasma triglycerides, and the poly-unsaturated fatty acid component of maternal phospholipids...
January 2019: Medical Hypotheses
Dae Yong Yi, Soon Chul Kim, Ji Hyuk Lee, Eun Hye Lee, Jae Young Kim, Yong Joo Kim, Ki Soo Kang, Jeana Hong, Jung Ok Shim, Yoon Lee, Ben Kang, Yeoun Joo Lee, Mi Jin Kim, Jin Soo Moon, Hong Koh, JeongAe You, Young-Sook Kwak, Hyunjung Lim, Hye Ran Yang
The Committee on Pediatric Obesity of the Korean Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition newly developed the first Korean Guideline on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Obesity in Children and Adolescents to deliver an evidence-based systematic approach to childhood obesity in South Korea. The following areas were systematically reviewed, especially on the basis of all available references published in South Korea and worldwide, and new guidelines were established in each area with the strength of recommendations based on the levels of evidence: 1) definition and diagnosis of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents; 2) principles of treatment of pediatric obesity; 3) behavioral interventions for children and adolescents with obesity, including diet, exercise, lifestyle, and mental health; 4) pharmacotherapy; and 5) bariatric surgery...
December 27, 2018: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Velosha Naidoo, Merusha Naidoo, Meenu Ghai
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycaemia, which can cause micro- and macrovascular complications. Chronic inflammation may be the cause and result of T2DM, and its related complications as an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines can affect immune functions. Apart from genetic changes occurring within the body resulting in inflammation in T2DM, epigenetic modifications can modify gene expression in response to environmental cues such as an unhealthy diet, lack of exercise and obesity...
December 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Jerlinda G C Ross, Veronica Escamilla, Nita Karnik Lee, S Diane Yamada, Stacy Tessler Lindau
OBJECTIVE: To examine endometrial cancer survivors' access to recommended obesity-related self-care resources. METHODS: Participants included women treated 2010-2015 for endometrial cancer at an academic medical center who lived in the surrounding 16 ZIP code area on Chicago's South Side. Demographic and health data were abstracted from medical records. A socioeconomic status (SES) score (SES-1 = low, SES-5 = high) was generated for each patient using census block group-level data...
December 20, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
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