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obesity, diet, exercise

Jun-Jun Liu, Jamileh Movassat, Bernard Portha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: So far, the tryptophan catabolites generated in the kynurenine pathway have been mainly studied in relation to oncologic and mental health disorders. The current review provides an update on the emerging biomedical interest for kynurenine pathway activity in the field of energy homeostasis and metabolic diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Kynurenine pathway enzymes are expressed in tissues relevant for energy homeostasis such as fat, skeletal muscle, liver and endocrine pancreas, blood vessel and heart, and are regulated by nutritional and inflammatory signals...
November 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Filippe Falcão-Tebas, Jujiao Kuang, Chelsea Arceri, Jarrod P Kerris, Sofianos Andrikopoulos, Evelyn C Marin, Glenn K McConell
KEY POINTS: Paternal high fat diet/obesity before mating can negatively influence the metabolism of offspring. Exercise only early in life has a remarkable effect to reprogram adult rat offspring exposed to detrimental insults before conception. Exercise only early in life normalized adult whole body and muscle insulin resistance due to having a high fat fed/obese father. Unlike the effects on the muscle, early exercise did not normalise the reduced adult pancreatic beta cell mass due to having a high fat fed/obese father...
November 8, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Rachel S Fisher, Joseph R Rausch, Amanda C Ferrante, Kemar V Prussien, Randal S Olshefski, Kathryn A Vannatta, Bruce E Compas, Cynthia A Gerhardt
OBJECTIVE: The majority of childhood cancer survivors develop at least one late effect subsequent to treatment (eg, cardiovascular disease and obesity). Consistent engagement in recommended health behaviors may mitigate some of these conditions. Researchers have identified early survivorship as a teachable moment, yet few studies have examined positive health behaviors during this period. METHODS: Families of children with cancer (ages 5-17) were initially recruited following a diagnosis or relapse of cancer...
November 6, 2018: Psycho-oncology
Manasi Soni, Violeta J Rodriguez, Suat Babayigit, Deborah L Jones, Mahendra Kumar
OBJECTIVES: Racial minorities are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and CVD is the primary cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Cocaine use also has been associated with hypertension. This study examined the contribution of lifestyle factors to systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) among people living with HIV and cocaine users from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds. METHODS: Participants (N = 401: 213 men, 188 women) aged 18 to 50 years with no history of CVD were recruited from South Florida...
November 2018: Southern Medical Journal
Vittorio Emanuele Bianchi
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation is a process sustained by the augmentation of circulating cytokines level and C-reactive protein (CRP). Adipocytes and adipose tissue infiltration with inflammatory cells, are an important source of adipokines production, and their expansion due to overnutrition is responsible for increased in inflammation. The reduction of body fat following both controlled diets or gastric surgery can be favorable in the reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. METHODS: A systematic literature search performed using PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library database screened for clinical and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using the combination of the following keywords: "weight loss, inflammation," "restricted diet, anti-inflammatory effect...
December 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Andrés Díaz-López, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Josep Basora, Montse Fitó, Dolores Corella, Luís Serra-Majem, Julia Wärnberg, Dora Romaguera, Ramon Estruch, Josep Vidal, J Alfredo Martínez, Fernando Arós, Clotilde Vázquez, Emilio Ros, Jesús Vioque, José López-Miranda, Aurora Bueno-Cavanillas, Josep A Tur, Francisco J Tinahones, Vicente Martín, José Lapetra, Xavier Pintó, Lidia Daimiel, Miguel Delgado-Rodríguez, Pilar Matía, Enrique Gómez-Gracia, Javier Díez-Espino, Nancy Babio, Olga Castañer, José V Sorlí, Miquel Fiol, María Ángeles Zulet, Mònica Bulló, Albert Goday, Miguel A Martínez-González
OBJECTIVE: The long-term impact of intentional weight loss on cardiovascular events remains unknown. We describe 12-month changes in body weight and cardiovascular risk factors in PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED)-Plus, a trial designed to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of an intensive weight-loss lifestyle intervention on primary cardiovascular prevention. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Overweight/obese adults with metabolic syndrome aged 55-75 years ( n = 626) were randomized to an intensive weight-loss lifestyle intervention based on an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet, physical activity promotion, and behavioral support (IG) or a control group (CG)...
November 2, 2018: Diabetes Care
Kohji Shirai, Michitaka Tanaka, Toru Fujita, Yuka Fujii, Masatsugu Shimomasuda, Soichi Sakai, Yoshishige Samukawa
INTRODUCTION: Orlistat is an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase and is used as an anti-obesity drug in many countries. However, there are no data available regarding the effects of orlistat on visceral fat (VF) accumulation in Japanese individuals. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the efficacy and safety of 52 weeks of orlistat administration in Japanese individuals. METHODS: Orlistat 60 mg was administered orally three times daily for 52 weeks to Japanese participants with excessive VF accumulation and without dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension (metabolic diseases)...
November 1, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Sharnice A Koek, Jack Hammond
Intragastric balloons are used as a temporary restrictive method in obesity to induce weight loss. They are typically recommended when patients have mild obesity and have failed traditional first line treatments of diet, exercise and behaviour modification. We report a case of a 45-year-old female who presented with nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain two weeks following an uncomplicated insertion of an intragastric balloon. Following investigation, she was found to have a gastric outlet obstruction which required endoscopic removal of the balloon...
October 2018: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
Willem T Peppler, Logan K Townsend, Grace M Meers, Matthew R Panasevich, Rebecca Ek MacPherson, R Scott Rector, David C Wright
Obesity can lead to impairments in hepatic glucose and insulin homeostasis, and although exercise is an effective treatment, the molecular targets remain incompletely understood. As interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an exercise-inducible cytokine, we aimed to identify if IL-6 itself influences hepatic glucose and insulin homeostasis, and if this response differs during obesity. In vivo, male mice were fed a low fat diet (LFD, 10% kcal) or high fat diet (HFD, 60% kcal) for 7 weeks, which induced obesity and hepatic lipid accumulation...
November 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Tassia Braga, Luiz G Kraemer-Aguiar, Neil Docherty, Carel Le Roux
INTRODUCTION: Prediabetes is the subclinical impairment in fasting plasma glucose, impaired glucose tolerance or both. The degree of impairment is between euglycemia and the hyperglycemia of Type 2 Diabetes. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Prediabetes is not considered benign, because it is a risk factor for Type 2 Diabetes but is also associated with micro and macrovascular complications. Lifestyle interventions including diet and exercise are first-line treatments. Medications can also play a role, as randomized controlled trials of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (Acarbose), inhibitors of pancreatic lipase (Orlistat), PPAR-gamma agonists (Rosiglitazone, Pioglitazone), meglitinides (Nateglinide) and GLP-1 receptor agonists (Liraglutide) have all shown benefits...
October 29, 2018: Minerva Medica
Nina Brandt, Dorota Kotowska, Caroline M Kristensen, Jesper Olesen, Ditte O Lützhøft, Jens F Halling, Martin Hansen, Waleed A Al-Soud, Lars Hansen, Pia Kiilerich, Henriette Pilegaard
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exercise training and dietary supplementation of resveratrol on the composition of gut microbiota and to test the hypothesis that exercise training and resveratrol can prevent high-fat diet (HFD)-induced changes in the gut microbiota. Mice fed a HFD supplemented with resveratrol (4 g/kg food) were protected against diet-induced obesity, while exercise trained HFD-fed animals (running on average 50 km/week) were not. Dietary resveratrol supplementation induced changes predominantly in the low-abundant bacteria, while exercise training induced changes in the high-abundant bacteria in the gut as analyzed by ADONIS test with Weighted UniFrac distances...
October 2018: Physiological Reports
Yong Zhang, Jianyong Wan, Zhen Xu, Tianmiao Hua, Qingyan Sun
Exercise is an effective therapy for insulin resistance. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Previous research demonstrated that TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK1)-dependent signaling plays a crucial character in hepatic insulin resistance. Hepatic ubiquitin specific protease 4 (USP4), USP18, and dual-specificity phosphatases 14 (DUSP14) can suppress TAK1 phosphorylation, besides tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) and tripartite motif 8 (TRIM8) promote its phosphorylation...
October 26, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Caroline Buff Gouveia Passone, Paula Lage Pasqualucci, Ruth Rocha Franco, Simone Sakura Ito, Larissa Baldini Farjalla Mattar, Celia Priszkulnik Koiffmann, Leticia Azevedo Soster, Jorge David Aivazoglou Carneiro, Hamilton Cabral Menezes-Filho, Durval Damiani
OBJECTIVE: To carry out a review about Prader-Willi Syndrome based on the most recent data about the subject and to give recommendation for the general pediatricians for early diagnoses and follow-up. DATA SOURCES: Scientific articles in the PubMed and SciELO databases. The research was not limited to a specific time period and included all articles in such databases. DATA SYNTHESIS: The Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a rare genetic disorder resulting from the loss of imprinted gene expression within the paternal chromosome 15q11-q13...
July 2018: Revista Paulista de Pediatria: Orgão Oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo
Eliane Aparecida Castro, Ana Belén Peinado, Pedro Jose Benito, Mercedes Galindo, Marcela González-Gross, Rocío Cupeiro
Background: Increased peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak ) can reduce cardiovascular risks associated with obesity. Our aim was to analyze the effect of a weight loss program on cardiovascular fitness in overweight (W) and obese (O) subjects. Methods: One hundred and sixty-seven subjects (77 males and 90 females), aged 18-50 years, performed a modified Bruce protocol before (pre) and after (post) a weight loss program of 24 weeks. This program combined physical training (strength, S; endurance, E; combined strength + endurance, SE; or physical activity recommendation, PA) 3 times per week, with a 25%-30% caloric restriction diet...
December 2017: Journal of Sport and Health Science
Alice E Kane, David A Sinclair
The sirtuin family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacylases (SIRT1-7) are thought to be responsible, in large part, for the cardiometabolic benefits of lean diets and exercise and when upregulated can delay key aspects of aging. SIRT1, for example, protects against a decline in vascular endothelial function, metabolic syndrome, ischemia-reperfusion injury, obesity, and cardiomyopathy, and SIRT3 is protective against dyslipidemia and ischemia-reperfusion injury. With increasing age, however, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide levels and sirtuin activity steadily decrease, and the decline is further exacerbated by obesity and sedentary lifestyles...
September 14, 2018: Circulation Research
Zi-Lun Lai, Ching-Hung Tseng, Hsiu J Ho, Cynthia K Y Cheung, Jian-Yong Lin, Yi-Ju Chen, Fu-Chou Cheng, Yao-Chun Hsu, Jaw-Town Lin, Emad M El-Omar, Chun-Ying Wu
Diet and exercise are conventional methods for controlling body weight and are linked to alterations in gut microbiota. However, the associations of diet, exercise, and gut microbiota in the control of obesity remain largely unknown. In the present study, using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), normal fat diet (NFD), exercise and their combination resulted in improved metabolic profiles in comparison to sedentary lifestyle with high fat diet (HFD). Moreover, diet exerted more influence than exercise in shaping the gut microbiota...
October 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Levi Buchan, Chaheyla R St Aubin, Amy L Fisher, Austin Hellings, Monica Castro, Layla Al-Nakkash, Tom L Broderick, Jeffrey H Plochocki
OBJECTIVE: We tested the effect of exercise training and genistein treatment on splenomegaly in mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet (HFSD). RESULTS: Male and female C57BL6 mice fed HFSD containing 60% fat along with drinking water containing 42 g/L sugar (55% sucrose/45% fructose) for 12 weeks exhibited significant obesity, hyperglycemia, and elevated plasma IL-6 levels. This was accompanied by splenomegaly characterized by spleen weights 50% larger than mice fed standard chow (P < 0...
October 22, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Jun-Won Heo, Su-Zi Yoo, Mi-Hyun No, Dong-Ho Park, Ju-Hee Kang, Tae-Woon Kim, Chang-Ju Kim, Dae-Yun Seo, Jin Han, Jin-Hwan Yoon, Su-Jeen Jung, Hyo-Bum Kwak
Obesity is characterized by the induction of skeletal muscle remodeling and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Exercise has been reported as a positive regulator of skeletal muscle remodeling and apoptosis. However, the effects of exercise on skeletal muscle remodeling and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in obese skeletal muscles have not been clearly elucidated. Four-week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into four groups: control (CON), control plus exercise (CON + EX), high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD plus exercise groups (HFD + EX)...
October 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jinkyung Cho, Donghyun Kim, Jungmoon Jang, Jeonghyeon Kim, Hyunsik Kang
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of treadmill running on D2R deficiency related susceptibility to high fat diet (HFD )-induced obesity and its metabolic complications. METHODS: D2R-/- and +/- mice were obtained by backcrossing D2R+/- heterozygotes on wild type (WT) littermates (C57BL/6J background) for >10 generations. Mice were randomly assigned to 1) WT mice with standard chow (SC) (WT+SC); 2) WT mice with high-fat diet (WT+HFD); 3) WT mice with high-fat diet plus exercise (WT+HFD+EX), 4) heterozygous (HET) D2R mice with SC (HET+SC); 5) heterozygous D2R mice with HFD (HET+HFD); and 6) heterozygous D2R mice with HFD plus exercise (HET+HFD+EX)...
September 30, 2018: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
Mukaddes Demir Acar, Meral Bayat
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted in Turkey as an empirical study in randomized, controlled, and time series design for the purpose of evaluating the effects of the Diet-Exercise trainings with creative drama method provided to overweight/obese teenagers. METHODS: This study was designed to highlight the effect of interactive education provided to slightly overweight/obese teenagers through creative drama on modifiable factors that caused obesity. Seventy-six overweight/obese teenagers studying at sixth and seventh grades of upper primary education were included in the study (38 participants in the Study Group and 38 participants in the Control Group)...
October 19, 2018: Childhood Obesity
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