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obesity, diet, exercise

Stergios A Polyzos, Andrew N Margioris
Sarcopenic obesity, a chronic condition, is today a major public health problem with increasing prevalence worldwide, which is due to progressively aging populations, the increasing prevalence of obesity, and the changes in lifestyle during the last several decades. Patients usually present to healthcare facilities for obesity and related comorbidities (type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease) or for non-specific symptoms related to sarcopenia per se (e...
July 16, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Kepei Zhang, Shigao Zhou, Chunyan Wang, Hanchen Xu, Li Zhang
Objective: Acupuncture, as one of the complementary and alternative medicines, represents an efficient therapeutic option for obesity control. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the effectiveness of acupuncture in obesity and also summarized the available studies on exploring the mechanisms. Design: We searched six databases from the inception to April 2017 without language restriction. Eligible studies consisted of acupuncture with comparative controls ((1) sham acupuncture, (2) no treatment, (3) diet and exercise, and (4) conventional medicine)...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
D Barnes, R Rivera, S Gibson, C Craig, J Cragun, B Monk, D Chase
Background: Measuring QoL is essential to the field of gynecologic oncology but there seems to be limited standardized data regarding collecting QoL assessments throughout a patient's cancer treatment especially in non-clinical trial patients. The aim of this study is to explore patient characteristics that may be associated with poor quality of life (QoL) in women with gynecologic cancers at two University of Arizona Cancer Center (UACC) sites. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among English speaking women with gynecologic malignancies at the University of Arizona Cancer Centers in Phoenix and Tucson from April 2012 to July 2015...
2018: Gynecologic Oncology Research and Practice
Dorothee Volkert, Anne Marie Beck, Tommy Cederholm, Alfonso Cruz-Jentoft, Sabine Goisser, Lee Hooper, Eva Kiesswetter, Marcello Maggio, Agathe Raynaud-Simon, Cornel C Sieber, Lubos Sobotka, Dieneke van Asselt, Rainer Wirth, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition and dehydration are widespread in older people, and obesity is an increasing problem. In clinical practice, it is often unclear which strategies are suitable and effective in counteracting these key health threats. AIM: To provide evidence-based recommendations for clinical nutrition and hydration in older persons in order to prevent and/or treat malnutrition and dehydration. Further, to address whether weight-reducing interventions are appropriate for overweight or obese older persons...
June 18, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Damon L Swift, Joshua E McGee, Conrad P Earnest, Erica Carlisle, Madison Nygard, Neil M Johannsen
Obesity represents a major health problem in the United States and is associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factors. Physical activity (PA) and exercise training (ET) are associated with reduced CV risk, improved cardiometabolic risk factors, and facilitated weight loss through creating a negative energy balance. Clinicians need to counsel overweight and obese patients on how much PA/ET is needed to promote weight loss and weight loss maintenance. This will help establish realistic expectations and maximize improvements in CV risk factors...
July 9, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Sunkyu Lee, Changhee Kim, Dowan Kwon, Mi-Bo Kim, Jae-Kwan Hwang
Obesity, a metabolic disorder caused by an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, is accompanied with fat accumulation and skeletal muscle atrophy. Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker, also called black ginger, is known to increase physical fitness performance and improve energy metabolism. In this study, we investigated whether Kaempferia parviflora extract (KPE) alleviates both obesity and muscle atrophy using ob/ob mice. Wild-type C57BL/6J and ob/ob mice were provided with a normal diet ad libitum, and ob/ob mice were orally given KPE at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day or 200 mg/kg/day for eight weeks...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Adela Hruby, Harris R Lieberman, Tracey J Smith
BACKGROUND: Health behaviors and cardiometabolic disease risk factors may differ between military and civilian populations; therefore, in U.S. active duty military personnel, we assessed relationships between demographic characteristics, self-reported health behaviors, and doctor-informed medical conditions. METHODS: Data were self-reported by 27,034 active duty military and Coast Guard personnel who responded to the 2011 Department of Defense Health Related Behaviors Survey...
July 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
Ji Hye Hwang, Hyo Won Jung
RATIONALE: Obesity has become a worldwide health challenge. In elderly patients, obesity induces a decrease in skeletal muscle strength and mass, which is linked to age-related sarcopenia. These are important predictors of hospitalization and death. Herein, we report on 2 elderly male patients who were treated by pharmacopuncture with wild ginseng complex (WGC). PATIENT CONCERNS: Case 1 was that of a 62-year-old man who was mainly concerned about his appearance as his abdominal fat was steadily increasing, without any changes to his body weight...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Craig Primack
BACKGROUND: Beyond the essential but somewhat artificial conditions that typify formal clinical studies, real-world evidence (RWE) of weight loss program effectiveness is paramount for an accurate assessment of such programs and refinement of best practices. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the current state of RWE studies and publications on weight loss, identify the range of weight loss components being used in RWE programs, and to provide a general overview of the consistency or lack of consistency with regard to measuring and reporting outcomes...
July 10, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
Enrique Albert Pérez, Victoria Mateu Olivares, Rosa María Martínez-Espinosa, Mariola D Molina Vila, Manuel Reig García-Galbis
OBJECTIVE: To record which interventions produce the greatest variations in body composition in patients ≤19 years old with metabolic syndrome (MS). METHOD: search dates between 2005 and 2017 in peer reviewed journals, following the PRISMA method (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses). The selection criteria were: diagnostic for MS or at least a criterion for diagnosis; randomized clinical trials, ≤19 years of age; intervention programs that use diet and/or exercise as a tool (interventions showing an interest in body composition)...
July 6, 2018: Nutrients
Arne Astrup, Susanne Bügel
Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent throughout the world and can adversely affect the nutritional status of individuals. Studies have shown that many people with obesity have inadequate intake of iron, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, folate and vitamins A and B12 , likely as a result of poor diet quality. Nutritional inadequacies or deficiencies may also occur due to altered pharmacokinetics in the individual with obesity and due to interactions in those with overweight or obesity with various pharmaceuticals...
July 6, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Klodian Dhana, Jess Haines, Gang Liu, Cuilin Zhang, Xiaobin Wang, Alison E Field, Jorge E Chavarro, Qi Sun
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between an overall maternal healthy lifestyle (characterized by a healthy body mass index, high quality diet, regular exercise, no smoking, and light to moderate alcohol intake) and the risk of developing obesity in offspring. DESIGN: Prospective cohort studies of mother-child pairs. SETTING: Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII) and Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: 24 289 GUTS participants aged 9-14 years at baseline who were free of obesity and born to 16 945 NHSII women...
July 4, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Li-Ly Kang, Ha-Nui Kim, Young-Ah Jung, Hwan-Sik Hwang, Hoon-Ki Park, Kye-Yeung Park
Background: This study aimed to identify and examine the effects of weight control behaviors correlated with weight loss in obese individuals who attempted to lose weight within the past year. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data from 9,461 obese individuals were collected from the fifth and sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2014). Three of nine verified methods of weight control suggested in the survey were selected: diet therapy (reduced food intake), exercise therapy (exercise), and medication therapy (prescribed weight loss medications)...
July 5, 2018: Korean Journal of Family Medicine
José M Grisolía, Alberto Longo, George Hutchinson, Frank Kee
The growing rate of obesity has recently required governments to divert considerable resources in the promotion of healthy lifestyles. We explored the relative effectiveness in inducing healthy behaviour change of three different communication strategies about the benefits of an intervention that reduces the mortality risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and encourages respondents to embrace healthier lifestyles. We designed a Discrete Choice Experiments questionnaire to analyse the trade-off between lifestyles, defined in terms of diet and exercise, and reduction in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality risk...
June 19, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Yeukai Tm Mangwiro, James Sm Cuffe, Jessica F Briffa, Dayana Mahizir, Kristina Anevska, Andrew J Jefferies, Sogand Hosseini, Tania Romano, Karen M Moritz, Mary E Wlodek
The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system regulates fetoplacental growth and plays a role in disease programming. Dysregulation of the IGF-system is implicated in several pregnancy perturbations associated with altered fetal growth, including intrauterine growth restriction and maternal obesity. Limited human studies have demonstrated that maternal exercise enhances fetoplacental growth and decreases cord IGF ligands, which may restore the placental IGF-system in complicated pregnancies. This study investigated the impact maternal exercise has on the placental IGF-system in placentae from mothers born growth restricted and if these outcomes are dependent on maternal diet or fetal sex...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Alice S Ryan
The purpose of this study was to compare systemic inflammation in older women with a history of gestational diabetes (GDM) who developed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or type 2 diabetes (T2DM) to that in those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and to determine, in these women, the effect of weight loss (WL) induced by diet and exercise training on systemic inflammation and adipokine levels. This was a longitudinal clinical investigation of overweight/obese (BMI: 32 ± 1 kg/m2 ) women (59 ± 1 years) with a GDM history ( n = 19) who had normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 7) or IGT/T2DM ( n = 12)...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
M R Jospe, R C Brown, S M Williams, M Roy, K A Meredith-Jones, R W Taylor
Objectives: Although monitoring is considered a key component of effective behaviour change, the development of apps has allowed consumers to constantly evaluate their own diet, with little examination of what this might mean for eating behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-monitoring of diet using the app MyFitnessPal or daily self-weighing increases the reported occurrence of eating disorders in adults with overweight/obesity following a weight loss programme...
June 2018: Obesity Science & Practice
Christina N Katsagoni, George V Papatheodoridis, Panagiota Ioannidou, Melanie Deutsch, Alexandra Alexopoulou, Nikolaos Papadopoulos, Maria-Vasiliki Papageorgiou, Elizabeth Fragopoulou, Meropi D Kontogianni
Lifestyle interventions remain the cornerstone therapy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This randomised controlled single-blind clinical trial investigated the effect of Mediterranean diet (MD) or Mediterranean lifestyle, along with weight loss, in NAFLD patients. In all, sixty-three overweight/obese patients (50 (sd 11) years, BMI=31·8 (sd 4·5) kg/m2, 68 % men) with ultrasonography-proven NAFLD (and elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and/or γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) levels) were randomised to the following groups: (A) control group (CG), (B) Mediterranean diet group (MDG) or (C) Mediterranean lifestyle group (MLG)...
July 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Susan A Speer, Rebecca McPhillips
OBJECTIVES: Effective clinical communication is fundamental to tackling overweight and obesity. However, little is known about how weight is discussed in non-weight-specific settings where the primary purpose of the interaction concerns clinical matters apparently unrelated to weight. This study explores how mental health clinicians initiate discussions about a patient's possible weight problem in the non-weight-specific setting of a UK NHS Gender Identity Clinic (GIC), where weight is topicalized during discussions about the risks of treatment...
June 26, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
Susan G Woods, Allen Knehans, Sandra Arnold, Carol Dionne, Leah Hoffman, Peggy Turner, Jonathan Baldwin
Background: Research on aging in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is limited, although people with PWS are living longer. Individuals with PWS present with high fat mass, low lean mass, and low levels of physical activity (PA). Previous reports in children and young adults with PWS show inadequate nutrient intake and body fat percentage indicating obesity. Previous studies in PWS rarely included individuals beyond young adulthood, especially studies conducted in the United States. This study includes adults from 18 to 62 years of age, and includes 19 of the estimated 60 adult individuals with PWS in Oklahoma...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
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