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obesity, diet, exercise

Ligia J Dominguez, Mario Barbagallo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Physical and cognitive frailty are interrelated and synergistic syndromes more frequently seen in old age, which represent intermediate stages between aging successfully and disability. Poor nutrition is a fundamental determinant for both conditions, while various dietary components are proposed to prevent and/or improve them. This updated review discusses the possible influence of nutritional factors on cognitive frailty and its potential mediators. RECENT FINDINGS: Oxidative stress, low-grade systemic inflammation, neuroinflammation, and altered autophagy, all associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, are proposed mechanisms to explain the influence of nutrition on cognitive health...
September 28, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Markus Sack, Jenny N Lenz, Mira Jakovcevski, Sarah V Biedermann, Claudia Falfán-Melgoza, Jan Deussing, Maximilian Bielohuby, Martin Bidlingmaier, Frederik Pfister, Günter K Stalla, Alexander Sartorius, Peter Gass, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr, Johannes Fuss, Matthias K Auer
Excessive intake of high-caloric diets as well as subsequent development of obesity and diabetes mellitus may exert a wide range of unfavorable effects on the central nervous system (CNS) in the long-term. The potentially harmful effects of such diets were suggested to be mitigated by physical exercise. Here, we conducted a study investigating early effects of a cafeteria-diet on gray and white brain matter volume by means of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. Half of the mice performed voluntary wheel running to study if regular physical exercise prevents unfavorable effects of a cafeteria-diet...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Min-Hsiung Pan, Yen-Chen Tung, Guliang Yang, Shiming Li, Chi-Tang Ho
Obesity is a serious health problem in adults and children worldwide. However, the basic strategies for the management of obesity (diet, exercise, drugs and surgery) have limitations and side effects. Therefore, many researchers have sought to identify bioactive components in food. Tea and coffee are the most frequently consumed beverages in the whole world. Their health benefits have been studied for decades, especially those of green tea. The anti-obesity effect of tea and coffee has been studied for at least ten years...
October 10, 2016: Food & Function
Chorong Oh, Byeong Hwan Jeon, Shaun Nicholas Reid Storm, Sunkug Jho, Jae-Kyung No
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the types and levels of physical activity in conjunction with protein intake and vitamin D on sarcopenia and obesity status in an elderly population. METHODS: Study participants (N = 4452) were ages ≥60 y and included 1929 men and 2523 women who completed a body composition analysis with a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and provided health and dietary data. RESULTS: Higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass/weight was observed in the non-obese group, although obese participants had greater weights...
June 23, 2016: Nutrition
Kirsten K Davison, Selma Gicevic, Alyssa Aftosmes-Tobio, Claudia Ganter, Christine L Simon, Sami Newlan, Jennifer A Manganello
BACKGROUND: The involvement of fathers in caregiving has increased substantially over the past 30 years. Yet in child and adolescent psychopathology, few studies include fathers as research participants and few present results for fathers separate from those for mothers. We test for the first time whether a similar pattern exists in research on parenting and childhood obesity. OBJECTIVES: To conduct a systematic review and quantitative content analysis of observational studies on parenting and childhood obesity to (1) document the inclusion of fathers, relative to mothers, as research participants and (2) examine characteristics of studies that did and did not include fathers...
November 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Stergios A Polyzos, Jannis Kountouras, Christos S Mantzoros
The association of obesity with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been established. Obesity has been linked not only to initial stages of the disease, i.e., simple steatosis (SS), but also to its severity. Form an epidemiologic point of view, both diseases has an increasing prevalence worldwide. From a pathogenetic point of view, obesity and its associate IR contribute to the initial fat accumulation in the hepatocyte (SS), but also to the progression of SS to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), NASH-related cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
October 6, 2016: Minerva Endocrinologica
Mesfin Yimam, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Lidia Brownell, Young-Chul Lee, Eu-Jin Hyun, Hyun-Jin Kim, Tae-Woo Kim, Jeong-Bum Nam, Mi-Ran Kim, Qi Jia
Background. Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method. Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601...
2016: Journal of Obesity
Sílvia Rocha-Rodrigues, Amaia Rodríguez, Alexandra M Gouveia, Inês O Gonçalves, Sara Becerril, Beatriz Ramírez, Jorge Beleza, Gema Frühbeck, António Ascensão, José Magalhães
AIMS: Exercise-stimulated myokine secretion into circulation may be related with browning in white adipose tissue (WAT), representing a positive metabolic effect on whole-body fat mass. However, limited information is yet available regarding the impact of exercise on myokine-related modulation of adipocyte phenotype in WAT from obese rats. MAIN METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n=60) were divided into sedentary and voluntary physical activity (VPA) groups and fed with standard (35kcal% fat) or high-fat (HFD, 71kcal% fat)-isoenergetic diets...
September 27, 2016: Life Sciences
Afrozul Haq, Sunil J Wimalawansa, Pawel Pludowski, Fatme Al Anouti
In the UAE and the Gulf region in general, there are several intricate public health issues in the context of vitamin D deficiency that needs to be addressed. Changes in lifestyle such as diet, lack of exercise, cultural habits, avoiding sun exposure due to excessive heat, and other risk factors predispose those who live in GULF countries, such as Emiratis likely to becoming vitamin D deficient. Consequently, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is high, and new guidelines are needed to overcome this major public health issue...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Gregory Lacraz, Volatiana Rakotoarivelo, Sebastien M Labbé, Mathieu Vernier, Christophe Noll, Marian Mayhue, Jana Stankova, Adel Schwertani, Guillaume Grenier, André Carpentier, Denis Richard, Gerardo Ferbeyre, Julie Fradette, Marek Rola-Pleszczynski, Alfredo Menendez, Marie-France Langlois, Subburaj Ilangumaran, Sheela Ramanathan
OBJECTIVE: IL-15 is an inflammatory cytokine secreted by many cell types. IL-15 is also produced during physical exercise by skeletal muscle and has been reported to reduce weight gain in mice. Contrarily, our findings on IL-15 knockout (KO) mice indicate that IL-15 promotes obesity. The aim of this study is to investigate the mechanisms underlying the pro-obesity role of IL-15 in adipose tissues. METHODS: Control and IL-15 KO mice were maintained on high fat diet (HFD) or normal control diet...
2016: PloS One
Raffaela Pero, Lorena Coretti, Francesca Lembo
Rapid growth of the overweight population and the number of obese individuals in recent decades suggests that current strategies based on diet, exercise, and pharmacological knowledge are not sufficient to address this epidemic. Obesity is the result of a high caloric intake and energy storage, not counterbalanced by an equally important energy expense. Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) use is rapidly expanding to include treatment of a variety of ophthalmological, gastrointestinal, urological, orthopedic, dermatological, secretory, painful, and cosmetic disorders...
2016: Toxins
S Kamil, N Finer, W P T James, I D Caterson, C Andersson, C Torp-Pedersen
AIMS: Weight loss is expected to improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes or at high risk hereof. Sibutramine causes weight loss and is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in high risk patients. We examined the impact of sibutramine induced weight loss on glycemic control. METHODS AND RESULTS: 8192 obese patients with diabetes were randomized to sibutramine or placebo plus diet and exercise after a preliminary 6 weeks in which all patients received sibutramine...
September 27, 2016: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
Julien Feurer
OBJECTIVE: Obesity, being a world epidemic, is responsible for an increased risk of mortality and various comorbidities. The loss of weight, particularly of body fat, would lower this risk. This is why we have developed an aerobic, resistance and interval training program over a 6-week period whose main goal is to reduce body fat by 5%. MATERIAL/PATIENTS AND METHODS: We have assessed the evolution of body fat by bioelectrical impedance analysis, of [Formula: see text] by a cardiac stress test on a cycle ergometer, of leg muscular strength, of quality of life by the SF-36 health survey, in 20 sedentary, moderately to severely obese patients between the age of 18 and 70years old, before and after a 6-week training program mixing aerobic, resistance and interval training exercises for 45minutes, twice daily and 5days per week, with a food rebalancing with normocaloric diet...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
F-D Desgorces, C Breuillard, C Police, N Neveux, C-H Cottart, M-C Blanc, J F Toussaint, P Noirez
The present study focused on rapid responses of inflammation markers and insulin resistance to dietary restriction and exercise in inactive patients. 13 obese women were included during a 5-day time frame during which decreases in food intake (-1 378±298 kcal) were associated with 2 exercise sessions (80 and 40 min). Circulating inflammatory biomarkers, insulin resistance index and muscle soreness were measured in fasted conditions. Fasting plasma concentrations of CRP and insulin resistance index decreased over the period (respectively, p=0...
September 27, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Young-Min Park, Jaume Padilla, Jill A Kanaley, Terese Zidon, Rebecca J Welly, Steven L Britton, Lauren G Koch, John P Thyfault, Frank W Booth, Victoria J Vieira-Potter
INTRODUCTION: Ovariectomy and high fat diet (HFD) worsen obesity and metabolic dysfunction associated with low aerobic fitness. Exercise training mitigates metabolic abnormalities induced by low aerobic fitness, but whether the protective effect is maintained following ovariectomy and HFD is unknown. PURPOSE: This study determined whether, following ovariectomy and HFD, exercise training improves metabolic function in rats bred for low intrinsic aerobic capacity...
September 23, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
H Brochard, C Boudebesse, C Henry, O Godin, M Leboyer, B Étain
OBJECTIVE: To examine the pathophysiologic mechanisms that may link circadian disorder and metabolic syndrome in bipolar disorder (BP). METHOD: A systematic review of the literature was conducted from January 2013 to January 2015, using the Medline and Cochrane databases, using the keywords "metabolic syndrome", "obesity", "leptin" and "circadian disorders", "sleeping disorders" and cross-referencing them with "bipolar disorder". The following types of publications were candidates for review: (i) clinical trials; (ii) studies involving patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder; (iii) studies involving patients with sleeping disorder; or (iv) data about metabolic syndrome...
September 20, 2016: L'Encéphale
Hannah Loher, Roland Kreis, Chris Boesch, Emanuel Christ
In addition to the subcutaneous and the visceral fat tissue, lipids can also be stored in non-adipose tissue such as in hepatocytes (intrahepatocellular lipids; IHCL), skeletal (intramyocellular lipids; IMCL) or cardiac muscle cells (intracardiomyocellular lipids; ICCL). Ectopic lipids are flexible fuel stores that can be depleted by physical exercise and repleted by diet. They are related to obesity and insulin resistance. Quantification of IMCL was initially performed invasively, using muscle biopsies with biochemical and/or histological analysis...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Raffaele Bruno, Elisabetta Petrella, Valentina Bertarini, Giulia Pedrielli, Isabella Neri, Fabio Facchinetti
This study aims to determine whether the prescription of a detailed lifestyle programme in overweight/obese pregnant women influences the occurrence of gestational diabetes (GDM), and if this kind of prescription increases the adherence to a healthier lifestyle in comparison to standard care. The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial, with open allocation, enrolling women at 9-12 weeks of pregnancy with a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) . The women assigned to the Intervention group (I = 96) received a hypocaloric, low-glycaemic, low-saturated fat diet and physical activity recommendations...
September 19, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
David John Webb
Treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH) is defined as the failure to achieve an office BP target of <140/90 mmHg (<130/80 mmHg in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or diabetes) in patients with hypertension (HT), despite adherence to at least 3 antihypertensive medications at optimal tolerated doses, ideally including a diuretic (Calhoun et al., Circulation 2008). TRH identifies patients with hard-to-treat HT, who might benefit from specialist investigation and treatment. Although some studies put the prevalence of TRH as >10%, these levels may be inflated by white-coat hypertension and poor adherence...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
John A Batsis, Lydia E Gill, Rebecca K Masutani, Anna M Adachi-Mejia, Heather B Blunt, Pamela J Bagley, Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, Stephen J Bartels
OBJECTIVES: To identify geriatric obesity interventions that can guide clinical recommendations. DESIGN: Systematic review using Medline (PubMed), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, CINAHL, EMBASE (Ovid), and PsycINFO (Proquest) from January 1, 2005, to October 12, 2015, to identify English-language randomized controlled trials. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 60 and older (mean age ≥65) and classified as having obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) )...
September 19, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
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