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obesity, diet, exercise

Julia H Chambers, Melissa Zerofsky, Robert H Lustig, Philip Rosenthal, Emily R Perito
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of physical activity and eating behaviors on precursors of cardiovascular disease-including overweight/obesity, hypertension, low HDL, and impaired glucose tolerance-in pediatric liver transplant (LT) recipients and matched controls. METHOD: Cross-sectional study of pediatric LT recipients 8-30 years, matched to controls from NHANES. Dietary intake assessed with 24-hour recall. Physical activity assessed by standardized questionnaires...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Joel C Eissenberg
Beyond avoiding risky behavior-smoking, substance abuse, obesity-and embracing healthy habits like exercise, a balanced diet, and non-obese body weight, are there things we each do today to significantly extend our lifespan? Caloric restriction is the only behavioral intervention consistently shown to extend both mean and maximal lifespan across a wide range of species. In most cases, the lifespan extension is accompanied by a marked delay in the onset of age-associated disease and infirmity.
January 2018: Missouri Medicine
Simona Bo, Farnaz Rahimi, Ilaria Goitre, Bice Properzi, Valentina Ponzo, Giuseppe Regaldo, Stefano Boschetti, Maurizio Fadda, Giovannino Ciccone, Giovanni Abbate Daga, Giulio Mengozzi, Andrea Evangelista, Antonella De Francesco, Sara Belcastro, Fabio Broglio
OBJECTIVE: The usefulness of the rapid-induction techniques of hypnosis as an adjunctive weight-loss treatment has not been defined. This randomized controlled trial evaluated whether self-conditioning techniques (self-hypnosis) added to lifestyle interventions contributed to weight loss (primary outcome), changes in metabolic and inflammatory variables, and quality of life (QoL) improvement (secondary outcomes) in severe obesity. METHODS: Individuals (with BMI = 35-50 kg/m2 ) without organic or psychiatric comorbidity were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 60) or control arm (n = 60)...
September 2018: Obesity
F García-Rio, M J Alvarez-Puebla, I De Esteban, P Barranco, J M Olaguibel
Obesity is an asthma common comorbidity and is associated not only with its development, but also with a poorer control and higher severity of it. Recent prospective evidence supports the idea that body weight gain precedes the development of asthma, but the debate is far from over. The objective of this document is to conduct a systematic review of 3 clinical questions related to asthma and obesity: 1. Obesity and asthma: the chicken or the egg? Clinical insights from epidemiological and phenotypes studies...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
Xiao-Yan Guo, Jing Shu, Xiao-Hua Fu, Xiao-Pan Chen, Ling Zhang, Meng-Xia Ji, Xin-Mei Liu, Tian-Tian Yu, Jian-Zhong Sheng, He-Feng Huang
BACKGROUND: Diet and exercise during pregnancy have been used to prevent gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with some success. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness of lifestyle intervention on GDM prevention and to identify key effectiveness moderators to improve prevention strategy. SEARCH STRATEGY: Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane and cross-references were searched. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating lifestyle interventions during pregnancy for GDM prevention...
September 14, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Sertaç Ata Güler, Tonguç Utku Yılmaz, Turgay Şimşek, Oktay Yirmibeşoğlu, Sertaç Kırnaz, Nihat Zafer Utkan, Nuh Zafer Cantürk
OBJECTIVES: An increase in the prevelance of obesity is a worldwide problem. It many serious health problems, especially cardiovascular diseases and type-2 diabetes mellitus. Conservative therapies such as diet modification and exercise are the most preferable obesity treatments. Bariatric surgery is the most appropriate treatment in suitable patients. Several studies showed that a very low number of patients prefer bariatric surgery even though it would be appropriate. This study aimed to assess and raise awareness about the obesity level, its complications, and treatment methods, especially bariatric surgery among obese patients in Kocaeli, which is one of the most socioeconomically developed cities, as well as the leading industrial city in Turkey...
August 28, 2018: Turkish Journal of Surgery
David W Hudgel, Sanjay R Patel, Amy M Ahasic, Susan J Bartlett, Daniel H Bessesen, Melisa A Coaker, P Michelle Fiander, Ronald R Grunstein, Indira Gurubhagavatula, Vishesh K Kapur, Christopher J Lettieri, Matthew T Naughton, Robert L Owens, Jean-Louis D Pepin, Henri Tuomilehto, Kevin C Wilson
BACKGROUND: Overweight/obesity is a common, reversible risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea severity (OSA). The purpose of this guideline is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of overweight/obesity in patients with OSA. METHODS: The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach was used to evaluate the literature. Clinical recommendations were formulated by a panel of pulmonary, sleep medicine, weight management, and behavioral science specialists...
September 15, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Tae Woo Jung, Sung Hoon Lee, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Joon Seok Bang, A M Abd El-Aty, Ahmet Hacımüftüoğlu, Yong Kyoo Shin, Ji Hoon Jeong
Physical activity has many beneficial effects on metabolic disorders, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. Meteorin-like protein (METRNL), a novel secreted protein homologous to the neurotrophin Metrn, is induced after exercise in the skeletal muscle. Herein, we investigated the effects of METRNL on lipid-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ). Treatment with METRNL suppressed inflammatory markers, such as nuclear factor κB (NFκB) nuclear translocation, inhibitory κBα (IκBα) phosphorylation, interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as TNFα and MCP-1)...
September 13, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Hiroki Okauchi, Chiaki Hashimoto, Reiko Nakao, Katsutaka Oishi
Inappropriate eating habits such as skipping breakfast and eating late at night are associated with risk for abnormal weight-gain and adiposity. We previously reported that time-imposed feeding during the daytime (inactive phase) induces obesity and metabolic disorders accompanied by physical inactivity in mice. The present study compares metabolic changes induced in mice by time-imposed feeding under voluntary wheel-running (RW) and sedentary (SED) conditions to determine the effects of voluntary wheel-running activity on obesity induced in mice by feeding at inappropriate times...
September 13, 2018: Chronobiology International
Yun Wang, Li Wen, Shi Zhou, Yong Zhang, Xin-Hao Wang, You-Yu He, Allan Davie, Suzanne Broadbent
AIMS: The aims of this study were to determine the effects of four weeks of intermittent exposure to a moderate hypoxia environment (15% oxygen), and compare with the effects of exercise in normoxia or hypoxia, on glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, GLUT4 translocation, insulin receptor phosphorylation, Akt-dependent GSK3 phosphorylation and Akt activity in skeletal muscle of obese mice with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice that developed type 2 diabetes with a high-fat-diet (55% fat) (fasting blood glucose, FBG = 13...
2018: PloS One
Zhencheng Li, Mette Line Rasmussen, Jingwen Li, Carlos Henriquez-Olguin, Jonas Roland Knudsen, Agnete Bjerregaard Madsen, Eva Sanchez-Quant, Maximilian Kleinert, Thomas Elbenhardt Jensen
OBJECTIVE: Chronic ad libitum low protein-high carbohydrate diet (LPHC) increases health- and life-span in mice. A periodized (p) LPHC regimen would be a more practical long-term human lifestyle intervention, but the metabolic benefits of pLPHC are not known. Also, the interactions between LPHC diet and exercise training have not been investigated. Presently, we aimed to provide proof-of-concept data in mice of the efficacy of pLPHC and to explore the potential interactions with concurrent exercise training...
August 28, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Natalie D Riediger, Andrea E Bombak, Adriana Mudryj, Jackson Bensley, Samuel Ankomah
BACKGROUND: Scholars have documented presumptions regarding the relationships between diet, exercise, weight, and type 2 diabetes. However, it is unclear to what extent researchers contribute to these presumptions, and how often these relationships are thoroughly delineated within the context of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Thus, the aim was to conduct a systematic search and qualitative, thematic analysis of RCTs focusing on lifestyle interventions for diabetes prevention or management, to examine how researchers discuss body weight in 1) the rationale and design of their RCTs; and 2) their presentation and interpretation of their findings...
September 7, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Xiumin Li, Yu Xue, Liang Pang, Zhaoshui ShangGuan, Yutian Pan
Obesity is a common and increasingly prevalent human condition due to unhealthy diet and less-exercise lifestyle. Development of obesity is associated with substantial modulation of adipose tissue structure. The expansion of adipose tissue is linked to the development of its vasculature, and modulation of angiogenesis may have the potential to impair adipose tissue development. In this study, we used obesity model of zebrafish fed by egg yolk to investigate the effect of Lysimachia capillipes on the obesity...
September 7, 2018: Drug Research
Lucien Nadeau, Céline Aguer
Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a cytokine with important immunological functions. This cytokine is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and is believed to be a myokine. This hypothesis is supported by the rapid increase in circulating levels of IL-15 in response to exercise. Treatment with high doses of IL-15 results in metabolic adaptations such as improved insulin sensitivity, whole-body fatty acid oxidation and protection from high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. IL-15 secreted by contracting muscle may therefore act as an endocrine factor to improve adiposity and energy metabolism in different tissues...
September 6, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Matteo Zago, Paolo Capodaglio, Cristina Ferrario, Marco Tarabini, Manuela Galli
OBJECTIVE: (i) to determine the outcomes of whole-body vibration training (WBVT) on obese individuals, and the intervention settings producing such effects; (ii) identify potential improper or harmful use of WBVT. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, PEDro and Scielo until July 2018. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Full papers evaluating the effect of WBVT on body composition, cardiovascular status and functional performance in obese adults...
2018: PloS One
Ijaz Ul Haq, Zahula Mariyam, Min Li, Xiaojia Huang, Pan Jiang, Falak Zeb, Xiaoyue Wu, Qing Feng, Ming Zhou
University students tend to have poor dietary practices, which ultimately affect their nutritional status. International students are becoming more prevalent in China. The current study aimed to compare the nutritional status, knowledge attitude and practices (KAP) and dietary intake between international and Chinese students in China. A comparative study was conducted in undergraduate students of Nanjing Medical University aged 17⁻31 years including 308 international and 393 Chinese students. Data was collected by self-administered questionnaire...
September 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jenica N Upshaw
Patients with breast cancer have higher rates of cardiovascular disease than age-matched controls. Anthracyclines and trastuzumab increase the risk of heart failure (HF) and radiation increases the risk of ischemic heart disease, valvular disease and HF. Older age, low normal ejection fraction, history of coronary artery disease (CAD), cardiac risk factors, higher cumulative anthracycline exposure, combination anthracycline and trastuzumab and/or radiation all increase the risk of cardiac events post treatment...
August 2018: Gland Surgery
Duck-Pil Ok, Kangeun Ko, Ju Yong Bae
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to analyze the effect of exercise and/or dietary change on improvement of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in chronic high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. METHODS: Forty male C57BL/6 (8 weeks old) mice were divided into normal diet (CO, n = 8) and high-fat diet (HF, n = 32) groups. The HF group was fed with 60% fat chow for 16 weeks to induce obesity. After the obesity induction period, the HF group was subdivided into HFD + sedentary (n = 8), HFD + training (HFT, n = 8), dietary change to normal-diet + sedentary (HFND, n = 8), and dietary change to normal-diet + training (HFNDT, n = 8) groups, and the mice in the training groups underwent treadmill training for 8 weeks, 5 times per week, 40 min per day...
September 1, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Masaki Asano, Yui Iwagaki, Saeko Sugawara, Mamoru Kushida, Ran Okouchi, Kazushi Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi Tsuduki
OBJECTIVES: In our previous study, we showed that among Japanese diets from different time periods, the 1975 Japanese diet has the greatest health benefits and is the most effective to prevent obesity. In addition, exercise is also effective to reduce obesity. Therefore, we conducted a human clinical trial combining the 1975 Japanese diet and exercise and, as a result, found a reduction in body weight, visceral fat, and serum lipids. However, the mechanism of this phenomenon was not determined...
June 19, 2018: Nutrition
A V Mashanskaya, A V Pogodina, T A Astakhova, E E Khramova, O V Kravtsova, A V Vlasenko, L V Zurbanova, L V Rychkova
BACKGROUND: To-day, obesity spreads dramatically fast all over the world not only among the adults but also among the children. According to the data available from the scientific literature, the number of adolescents suffering from obesity in Russia increased more than 1.5 times during the period from 2006 till 2015. The combination of non-drug therapeutic measures (including diet therapy, therapeutic physical exercises, and psychophysiological technologies) constitutes the basis for the treatment of obesity...
2018: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
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