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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146657/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-duodenal-jejunal-bypass-sleeve-device-endobarrier-compared-with-standard-medical-therapy-for-the-management-of-obese-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Michael Alan Glaysher, Aruchuna Mohanaruban, Christina Gabriele Prechtl, Anthony P Goldstone, Alexander Dimitri Miras, Joanne Lord, Navpreet Chhina, Emanuela Falaschetti, Nicholas Andrew Johnson, Werd Al-Najim, Claire Smith, Jia V Li, Mayank Patel, Ahmed R Ahmed, Michael Moore, Neil Poulter, Stephen Bloom, Ara Darzi, Carel Le Roux, James P Byrne, Julian P Teare
INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of obesity and obesity-related diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is increasing. Exclusion of the foregut, as occurs in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, has a key role in the metabolic improvements that occur following bariatric surgery, which are independent of weight loss. Endoscopically placed duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve devices, such as the EndoBarrier (GI Dynamics, Lexington, Massachusetts, USA), have been designed to create an impermeable barrier between chyme exiting the stomach and the mucosa of the duodenum and proximal jejunum...
November 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142011/effect-of-distinct-lifestyle-interventions-on-mobilization-of-fat-storage-pools-the-central-mri-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Yftach Gepner, Ilan Shelef, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Hila Zelicha, Lilac Tene, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Gal Tsaban, Noa Cohen, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Oded Komy, Arik Wolak, Yoash Chassidim, Rachel Golan, Hilla Avni-Hassid, Avital Bilitzky, Benjamin Sarusi, Eyal Goshen, Elad Shemesh, Yaakov Henkin, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Joachim Thiery, Uta Ceglarek, Assaf Rudich, Meir J Stampfer, Iris Shai
Background -We aimed to assess whether distinct lifestyle strategies can differentially affect specific body adipose depots. Methods -We performed an eighteen-month randomized controlled trial among 278 sedentary adults with abdominal obesity (75%) or dyslipidemia in an isolated workplace with a monitored provided lunch. Participants were randomized to iso-caloric low-fat (LF) or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet+28g walnuts/day with/without added moderate physical activity (PA;80% aerobic; supervised/free gym membership)...
November 15, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138133/effects-of-weight-loss-interventions-for-adults-who-are-obese-on-mortality-cardiovascular-disease-and-cancer-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Chenhan Ma, Alison Avenell, Mark Bolland, Jemma Hudson, Fiona Stewart, Clare Robertson, Pawana Sharma, Cynthia Fraser, Graeme MacLennan
Objective To assess whether weight loss interventions for adults with obesity affect all cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and body weight.Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using random effects, estimating risk ratios, and mean differences. Heterogeneity investigated using Cochran's Q and I(2) statistics. Quality of evidence assessed by GRADE criteria.Data sources Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and full texts in our trials' registry for data not evident in databases...
November 14, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136476/effectiveness-of-a-school-based-program-focusing-on-diet-and-health-habits-taught-through-physical-exercise
#4
Ana Pablos, Vicente Nebot, Vicente Vañó-Vicent, Diego Ceca, Laura Elvira
The global rate of obesity in childhood is becoming an epidemic and many authors have established a significant association between childhood obesity and overweight in adulthood. It is therefore necessary to seek effective strategies to reduce these levels of obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the Healthy Habits Program (HHP). The participants were 158 children from the 5th and 6th grades (Intervention Group [IG] n=82, Control Group [CG] n=76). The HHP is a school-based physical activity program focusing on promoting a healthy lifestyle...
November 14, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136159/associations-between-maternal-lifestyle-factors-and-neonatal-body-composition-in-the-screening-for-pregnancy-endpoints-cork-cohort-study
#5
Darren L Dahly, Xia Li, Hazel A Smith, Ali S Khashan, Deirdre M Murray, Mairead E Kiely, Jonathan O'B Hourihane, Fergus P McCarthy, Louise C Kenny, Patricia M Kearney
Background: Neonatal body composition likely mediates fetal influences on life long chronic disease risk. A better understanding of how maternal lifestyle is related to newborn body composition could thus inform intervention efforts. Methods: Using Cork participant data (n = 1754) from the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) cohort study [ECM5(10)05/02/08], we estimated how pre-pregnancy body size, gestational weight gain, exercise, alcohol, smoking and diet were related to neonatal fat and fat-free mass, as well as length and gestational age at birth, using quantile regression...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133220/effects-of-exercise-and-diet-in-nonobese-asthma-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Louise Lindhardt Toennesen, Howraman Meteran, Morten Hostrup, Nina Rica Wium Geiker, Camilla Bjoern Jensen, Celeste Porsbjerg, Arne Astrup, Jens Bangsbo, Debbie Parker, Vibeke Backer
BACKGROUND: Behavioral interventions focusing on exercise and healthy diet improve asthma control in obese patients with asthma, but whether these interventions can lead to improvements in nonobese patients remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: In a randomized, controlled parallel-group design, we studied the effects of an 8-week intervention of either exercise (high-intensity interval training), diet (high protein/low glycemic index), or a combination of the 2, on asthma control and clinical outcomes in nonobese patients with asthma...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128055/current-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#7
REVIEW
Chun Kit Hung, Henry C Bodenheimer
Treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is focused on patients with NASH because they are at highest risk for progressive liver disease. Current first-line treatment consists of lifestyle modifications. Patients should lose at least 7% to 10% of body weight via a combination of physical exercise and calorie restriction dieting. Surgical or endoscopic surgery for weight loss can be considered in obese patients, depending on degree of excess body weight and comorbidities...
February 2018: Clinics in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125913/standardized-kaempferia-parviflora-extract-enhances-exercise-performance-through-activation-of-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#8
Mi-Bo Kim, Taeyoon Kim, Changhee Kim, Jae-Kwan Hwang
Exercise enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. Increased mitochondrial function and content can contribute to the improvement in skeletal muscle function and the benefits of exercise by increasing the response to energy demands. The effect of standardized Kaempferia parviflora extract (KPE) on exercise performance was accessed in L6 myotubes and C57BL/6J mice. KPE significantly activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and increased mitochondrial density in L6 myotubes...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124370/popular-weight-loss-strategies-a-review-of-four-weight-loss-techniques
#9
REVIEW
Jonathan Obert, Michelle Pearlman, Lois Obert, Sarah Chapin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this paper is to review the epidemiology of obesity and the most recent literature on popular fad diets and exercise regimens that are used for weight loss. The weight loss plans that will be discussed in this article include juicing or detoxification diets, intermittent fasting, the paleo diet, and high intensity training. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the growing popularity of fad diets and exercise plans for weight loss, there are limited studies that actually suggest these particular regimens are beneficial and lead to long-term weight loss...
November 9, 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124046/the-analysis-of-a-diet-for-the-human-being-and-the-companion-animal-using-big-data-in-2016
#10
Eun-Jin Jung, Young-Suk Kim, Jung-Wa Choi, Hye Won Kang, Un-Jae Chang
The purpose of this study was to investigate the diet tendencies of human and companion animals using big data analysis. The keyword data of human diet and companion animals' diet were collected from the portal site Naver from January 1, 2016 until December 31, 2016 and collected data were analyzed by simple frequency analysis, N-gram analysis, keyword network analysis and seasonality analysis. In terms of human, the word exercise had the highest frequency through simple frequency analysis, whereas diet menu most frequently appeared in the N-gram analysis...
October 2017: Clinical Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122708/combinatory-effects-of-phytoestrogens-and-exercise-on-body-fat-mass-and-lipid-metabolism-in-ovariectomized-female-rats
#11
Wenya Zheng, Jana Rogoschin, Anja Niehoff, Kristina Oden, Sabine E Kulling, Mingyong Xie, Patrick Diel
The purpose of this study was to investigate the combinatory effects of an isoflavone (ISO)-rich diet and exercise on fat mass and lipid metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Therefore the female Wistar rats were sedentary, performed an intense treadmill uphill running, received ISOs, or a combination of ISOs and running after ovariectomy. The exercise reduced visceral fat mass, adipocyte size and serum leptin in Sham animals and antagonized the increases of these parameters induced by OVX. ISOs reduced OVX induced increase of serum leptin...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120192/weight-stigma-and-health-the-mediating-role-of-coping-responses
#12
Mary S Himmelstein, Rebecca M Puhl, Diane M Quinn
OBJECTIVE: Considerable evidence has documented links between weight stigma and poor health, independent of weight. However, little research has assessed how individuals cope with weight stigma, and how stigma-specific coping responses contribute to health. The present study examined multiple stigma-specific coping responses as mediators of the relationship between experienced weight stigma and health. METHOD: A diverse national sample of 912 adults (53.9% female, Mage = 40...
November 9, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118320/nicotinamide-mononucleotide-nmn-supplementation-ameliorates-the-impact-of-maternal-obesity-in-mice-comparison-with-exercise
#13
Golam Mezbah Uddin, Neil A Youngson, Bronte M Doyle, David A Sinclair, Margaret J Morris
Maternal overnutrition increases the risk of long-term metabolic dysfunction in offspring. Exercise improves metabolism partly by upregulating mitochondrial biogenesis or function, via increased levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). We have shown that the NAD(+) precursor, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) can reverse some of the negative consequences of high fat diet (HFD) consumption. To investigate whether NMN can impact developmentally-set metabolic deficits, we compared treadmill exercise and NMN injection in offspring of obese mothers...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115682/risk-factors-for-biopsy-proven-advanced-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-the-veterans-health-administration
#14
Y A Patel, E J Gifford, L M Glass, R McNeil, M J Turner, B Han, D Provenzale, S S Choi, C A Moylan, C M Hunt
BACKGROUND: With its increasing incidence, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is of particular concern in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). AIMS: To evaluate risk factors for advanced fibrosis in biopsy-proven NAFLD in the VHA, to identify patients at risk for adverse outcomes. METHODS: In randomly selected cases from VHA databases (2005-2015), we performed a retrospective case-control study in adults with biopsy-defined NAFLD or normal liver...
November 8, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113510/interrelationship-of-canonical-and-non-canonical-wnt-signalling-pathways-in-chronic-metabolic-diseases
#15
Ian Ackers, Ramiro Malgor
Chronic diseases account for approximately 45% of all deaths in developed countries and are particularly prevalent in countries with the most sophisticated and robust public health systems. Chronic metabolic diseases, specifically lifestyle-related diseases pertaining to diet and exercise, continue to be difficult to treat clinically. The most prevalent of these chronic metabolic diseases include obesity, diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease and will be the focus of this review...
November 1, 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108205/-investigation-and-analysis-of-the-knowledge-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-among-residents-in-hebei-province-china
#16
Q F Liang, Y D Wang, C Y Zhao
Objective: To investigate the knowledge of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among medical staff and general population in Hebei Province, China, understand the degree of awareness of NAFLD among residents, standardize the diagnosis and treatment of NAFLD, improve the correct awareness of NAFLD among general population, promote the establishment of a reasonable lifestyle, and scientifically and effectively control the incidence and mortality rates of NAFLD. Methods: The investigation was performed in 30 hospitals and neighboring schools and communities in Hebei Province, and a questionnaire survey on the knowledge of NAFLD was performed for 1 300 medical workers and 2 000 persons from the general population...
October 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107291/absence-of-the-kinase-s6k1-mimics-the-effect-of-chronic-endurance-exercise-on-glucose-tolerance-and-muscle-oxidative-stress
#17
C Binsch, T Jelenik, A Pfitzer, M Dille, S Müller-Lühlhoff, S Hartwig, S Karpinski, S Lehr, D G Kabra, A Chadt, M Roden, H Al-Hasani, T R Castañeda
OBJECTIVE: Ribosomal protein S6 Kinase-1 (S6K1) has been linked to resistance exercise-mediated improvements in glycemia. We hypothesized that S6K1 may also play a role in regulating glycemic control in response to endurance exercise training. METHODS: S6k1-knockout (S6K1KO) and WT mice on a 60 cal% high-fat diet were trained for 4 weeks on treadmills, metabolically phenotyped, and compared to sedentary controls. RESULTS: WT mice showed improved glucose tolerance after training...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091740/comparison-between-pre-exercise-casein-peptide-and-intact-casein-supplementation-on-glucose-tolerance-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#18
Yutaka Matsunaga, Yuki Tamura, Yasuyuki Sakata, Yudai Nonaka, Noriko Saito, Hirohiko Nakamura, Takashi Shimizu, Yasuhiro Takeda, Shin Terada, Hideo Hatta
We hypothesized that along with exercise, casein peptide supplementation would have a higher impact on improving glucose tolerance than intact casein. Male six-week-old ICR mice were provided a high-fat diet to induce obesity and glucose intolerance. The mice were randomly divided into four treatment groups: control (Con), endurance training (Tr), endurance training with intact casein supplementation (Cas+Tr), and endurance training with casein peptide supplementation (CP+Tr). The mice in each group were orally administrated water, intact casein, or casein peptide (1...
November 1, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081799/swim-training-attenuates-inflammation-and-improves-insulin-sensitivity-in-mice-fed-with-a-high-fat-diet
#19
Guangzeng Zhang, Pengfei Yu, Xiaomeng Liu
Exercise could afford multiple beneficial effects on obesity-related metabolic disorders. To address this issue, C57BL/6J mice were used to investigate the effects of 13 weeks of swim training on HFD-induced obesity and related insulin resistance and inflammation. Our results show that swim training can significantly prevent HFD-induced weight gain and increase resting energy expenditure without affecting food intake. The insulin sensitivity was enhanced in the HFD + swim group than in the HFD + sedentary group...
2017: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080342/cross-talk-between-bile-acids-and-gastro-intestinal-and-thermogenic-clues-from-bariatric-surgery
#20
Gabriella Garruti, Agostino Di Ciaula, Helen H Wang, David Q-H Wang, Piero Portincasa
Obesity is rapidly increasing and has reached epidemic features worldwide. It´s linked to insulin resistance, systemic low-grade inflammation and common pathogenic pathways with a number of comorbidities (including cancer), leading to high mortality rates. Besides change of lifestyles (diet and physical exercise) and pharmacological therapy, bariatric surgery is able to rapidly improve several metabolic and morphologic features associated with excessive fat storage, and currently represents an in vivo model to study the pathogenic mechanisms underlying obesity and obesity-related complications...
October 28, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
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