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obesity, diet, exercise, longevity

Jan Martel, David M Ojcius, Chih-Jung Chang, Chuan-Sheng Lin, Chia-Chen Lu, Yun-Fei Ko, Shun-Fu Tseng, Hsin-Chih Lai, John D Young
Obesity is reaching global epidemic proportions as a result of factors such as high-calorie diets and lack of physical exercise. Obesity is now considered to be a medical condition, which not only contributes to the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer, but also negatively affects longevity and quality of life. To combat this epidemic, anti-obesogenic approaches are required that are safe, widely available and inexpensive. Several plants and mushrooms that are consumed in traditional Chinese medicine or as nutraceuticals contain antioxidants, fibre and other phytochemicals, and have anti-obesogenic and antidiabetic effects through the modulation of diverse cellular and physiological pathways...
September 16, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
María Esther Rubio-Ruiz, Ana Elena Peredo-Escárcega, Agustina Cano-Martínez, Verónica Guarner-Lans
When cardiovascular diseases are viewed from an evolutionary biology perspective, a heightened thrifty and an inflammatory design could be their mechanisms. Human ancestors confronted a greater infectious load and were subjected to the selection for proinflammatory genes and a strong inflammatory function. Ancestors also faced starvation periods that pressed for a thrifty genotype which caused fat accumulation. The pressure of sustaining gluconeogenesis during periods of poor nourishment selected individuals with insulin resistance...
2015: International Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Stephan Winnik, Johan Auwerx, David A Sinclair, Christian M Matter
Sirtuins (Sirt1-Sirt7) comprise a family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent enzymes. While deacetylation reflects their main task, some of them have deacylase, adenosine diphosphate-ribosylase, demalonylase, glutarylase, and desuccinylase properties. Activated upon caloric restriction and exercise, they control critical cellular processes in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and mitochondria to maintain metabolic homeostasis, reduce cellular damage and dampen inflammation-all of which serve to protect against a variety of age-related diseases, including cardiovascular pathologies...
December 21, 2015: European Heart Journal
R A Lobo, S R Davis, T J De Villiers, A Gompel, V W Henderson, H N Hodis, M A Lumsden, W J Mack, S Shapiro, R J Baber
Women may expect to spend more than a third of their lives after menopause. Beginning in the sixth decade, many chronic diseases will begin to emerge, which will affect both the quality and quantity of a woman's life. Thus, the onset of menopause heralds an opportunity for prevention strategies to improve the quality of life and enhance longevity. Obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, cognitive decline, dementia and depression, and cancer are the major diseases of concern...
October 2014: Climacteric: the Journal of the International Menopause Society
P T Katzmarzyk, S Barlow, C Bouchard, P M Catalano, D S Hsia, T H Inge, C Lovelady, H Raynor, L M Redman, A E Staiano, D Spruijt-Metz, M E Symonds, M Vickers, D Wilfley, J A Yanovski
The 2013 Pennington Biomedical Research Center's Scientific Symposium focused on the treatment and management of pediatric obesity and was designed to (i) review recent scientific advances in the prevention, clinical treatment and management of pediatric obesity, (ii) integrate the latest published and unpublished findings and (iii) explore how these advances can be integrated into clinical and public health approaches. The symposium provided an overview of important new advances in the field, which led to several recommendations for incorporating the scientific evidence into practice...
July 2014: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Mehmet Salih Kaya, Fahri Bayıroglu, Leyla Mis, Dide Kilinc, Bahat Comba
The exact mechanisms which contribute to longevity have not been figured out yet. Our aim was to find out a common way for prompting longevity by bringing together the well-known applications such as food restriction, exercise, and probiotic supplementing in an experimental obesity model. Experimental obesity was promoted in a total of 32 young (2 months old) and 32 aged (16 months old) male Wistar albino rats through 8-week cafeteria diet (salami, chocolate, chips, and biscuits). Old and young animals were divided into groups each consisting of eight animals and also divided into four subgroups as obese control, obese food restriction, obese probiotic-fed and obese exercise groups...
April 2014: Age (2005-)
Edda Cava, Luigi Fontana
Calorie Restriction (CR) without malnutrition slows aging and increases average and maximal lifespan in simple model organisms and rodents. In rhesus monkeys long-term CR reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer, and protects against age-associated sarcopenia and neurodegeneration. However, so far CR significantly increased average lifespan only in the Wisconsin, but not in the NIA monkey study. Differences in diet composition and study design between the 2 on-going trials may explain the discrepancies in survival and disease...
July 2013: Aging
Paula I Moreira
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent findings suggest that high-sugar diets can lead to cognitive impairment predisposing to neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. This article discusses metabolic derangements induced by high-fructose/sucrose diets and presents evidence for the involvement of insulin resistance in sporadic Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: There has been much concern regarding the role of dietary sugars (fructose/sucrose) in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
July 2013: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Christine M Porter
BACKGROUND: A 2005 Institute of Medicine report argues that "prevention of obesity in children and youth is, ultimately, about community," yet the literature lacks empirical research on what communities are doing to prevent childhood obesity. This research helps fill this gap and highlights promising practices. CASES: This research entailed exploratory analysis of three descriptive case studies of community efforts to prevent childhood obesity in the northeastern United States: Shape Up Somerville in Massachusetts, MA (urban), Whole Community Project in New York, NY (semiurban), and Eat Well Play Hard Chemung in NY (semirural)...
April 2013: Childhood Obesity
Niva Shapira
Women's evolution for nurturing and fat accumulation, which historically yielded health and longevity advantages against scarcity, may now be counteracted by increasing risks in the obesogenic environment, recently shown by narrowing gender health gap. Women's differential metabolism/disease risks, i.e. in fat accumulation/distribution, exemplified during puberty/adolescence, suggest gender dimorphism with obesity outcomes. Women's higher body fat percentage than men, even with equal body mass index, may be a better risk predictor...
2013: EPMA Journal
Sarah A McNaughton, David Crawford, Kylie Ball, Jo Salmon
BACKGROUND: Nutrition and physical activity are major determinants of health and quality of life; however, there exists little research focusing on determinants of these behaviours in older adults. This is important, since just as these behaviours vary according to subpopulation, it is likely that the determinants also vary. An understanding of the modifiable determinants of nutrition and physical activity behaviours among older adults to take into account the specific life-stage context is required in order to develop effective interventions to promote health and well-being and prevent chronic disease and improve quality of life...
2012: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
D R Meldrum, J C Gambone, M A Morris, K Esposito, D Giugliano, L J Ignarro
Oxidative stress and inflammation, which disrupt nitric oxide (NO) production directly or by causing resistance to insulin, are central determinants of vascular diseases including ED. Decreased vascular NO has been linked to abdominal obesity, smoking and high intakes of fat and sugar, which all cause oxidative stress. Men with ED have decreased vascular NO and circulating and cellular antioxidants. Oxidative stress and inflammatory markers are increased in men with ED, and all increase with age. Exercise increases vascular NO, and more frequent erections are correlated with decreased ED, both in part due to stimulation of endothelial NO production by shear stress...
March 2012: International Journal of Impotence Research
Joe Nocera, Thomas W Buford, Todd M Manini, Kelly Naugle, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Marco Pahor, Michael G Perri, Stephen D Anton
A primary focus of longevity research is to identify prognostic risk factors that can be mediated by early treatment efforts. To date, much of this work has focused on understanding the biological processes that may contribute to aging process and age-related disease conditions. Although such processes are undoubtedly important, no current biological intervention aimed at increasing health and lifespan exists. Interestingly, a close relationship between mobility performance and the aging process has been documented in older adults...
2011: Journal of Aging Research
Helen Zoe Veit
Life expectancy and chronic disease rates both rose dramatically in the United States during the first third of the twentieth century. As a result of this concurrence, Americans in this era increasingly thought about things they could do to extend their own lives, especially eating less, exercising more, and limiting stress, all factors thought to reduce chronic disease. New recognition of the correlation between daily physical habits and long lives made longevity look like a sign of virtue. At the same time, amidst discussions about the relationship between individual longevity and national vitality, this correlation also contributed to Americans' moralization of diet, exercise, and emotional self-control...
June 2011: Endeavour
Richard Kones
A recent explosion in the amount of cardiovascular risk and incipient, undetected subclinical cardiovascular pathology has swept across the globe. Nearly 70% of adult Americans are overweight or obese; the prevalence of visceral obesity stands at 53% and continues to rise. At any one time, 55% of the population is on a weight-loss diet, and almost all fail. Fewer than 15% of adults or children exercise sufficiently, and over 60% engage in no vigorous activity. Among adults, 11%-13% have diabetes, 34% have hypertension, 36% have prehypertension, 36% have prediabetes, 12% have both prediabetes and prehypertension, and 15% of the population with either diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidemia are undiagnosed...
2011: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Bernard M Y Cheung
Obesity is a major health problem worldwide. It is associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and decreased longevity. In managing obesity, diet and exercise are essential; pharmacological therapy may be added for obese patients or overweight patients with cardiovascular risk factors. Sibutramine is a serotonergic and adrenergic drug that reduces food intake and increases thermogenesis. It reduces bodyweight by about 4.2 kg after 12 months, and improves blood glucose and lipids; however, it can increase heart rate and blood pressure...
August 1, 2011: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Syed Sufyan Hussain, Stephen Robert Bloom
Obesity is a pandemic with many complications that increase the societal disease burden and cost of health care, and decrease longevity and quality of life. Currently, 1 in 3 adults in the United States is obese. Physicians must therefore regularly confront obesity and its consequent diseases, and develop strategies for effective treatment and management. This article summarizes current lifestyle modifications, pharmacological treatment, and surgical options for the management of obesity and discusses the benefits, limitations, and risks of each...
January 2011: Postgraduate Medicine
M D Sanborn, S R Manske, R P Schlegel
Obesity is a common condition which has important effects on health status and longevity. This review examines the efficacy of treatments for both moderate and severe obesity. A plan of treatment combining diet, exercise, and behavioral strategies is outlined. Surgery and its complications are reviewed. Eight management issues, including rate of weight loss, self-help groups, and fringe therapies, are presented. Management recommendations are based on a critical review of the weight loss literature.
March 1983: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Masood A Shammas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There has been growing evidence that lifestyle factors may affect the health and lifespan of an individual by affecting telomere length. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of telomeres in human health and aging and to summarize possible lifestyle factors that may affect health and longevity by altering the rate of telomere shortening. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies indicate that telomere length, which can be affected by various lifestyle factors, can affect the pace of aging and onset of age-associated diseases...
January 2011: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Arch G Mainous, Charles J Everett, Vanessa A Diaz, Richard Baker, Massimo Mangino, Veryan Codd, Nilesh J Samani
BACKGROUND: being unmarried is associated with worse health and increased mortality risk. Telomere length has emerged as a marker for biological ageing but it is unclear how telomere length relates to marital status. OBJECTIVE: to examine the relationship between telomere length and marital status in a sample of middle-aged adults. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: cross-sectional analysis among 321 adults aged 40-64 years. METHODS: telomere length was measured by PCR (T/S ratio)...
January 2011: Age and Ageing
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