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"HIV AND pregnancy"

Mona Loutfy, V Logan Kennedy, Vanessa Poliquin, Frederick Dzineku, Nicola L Dean, Shari Margolese, Alison Symington, Deborah M Money, Scot Hamilton, Tracey Conway, Sarah Khan, Mark H Yudin
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the Canadian HIV Pregnancy Planning Guidelines is to provide clinical information and recommendations for health care providers to assist Canadians affected by HIV with their fertility, preconception, and pregnancy planning decisions. These guidelines are evidence- and community-based and flexible and take into account diverse and intersecting local/population needs based on the social determinants of health. INTENDED OUTCOMES: EVIDENCE: Literature searches were conducted by a librarian using the Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Embase databases for published articles in English and French related to HIV and pregnancy and HIV and pregnancy planning for each section of the guidelines...
January 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Rachel Weinrib, Alexandra Minnis, Kawango Agot, Khatija Ahmed, Fred Owino, Kgahlisho Manenzhe, Helen Cheng, Ariane van der Straten
A multipurpose prevention technology (MPT) that combines HIV and pregnancy prevention is a promising women's health intervention, particularly for young women. However, little is known about the drivers of acceptability and product choice for MPTs in this population. This paper explores approval ratings and stated choice across three different MPT delivery forms among potential end-users. The Trio Study was a mixed-methods study in women ages 18-30 that examined acceptability of three MPT delivery forms: oral tablets, injections, and vaginal ring...
October 20, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
Kevin Zhang, Dina Demner-Fushman
Objective: To develop automated classification methods for eligibility criteria in to facilitate patient-trial matching for specific populations such as persons living with HIV or pregnant women. Materials and Methods: We annotated 891 interventional cancer trials from based on their eligibility for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients using their eligibility criteria. These annotations were used to develop classifiers based on regular expressions and machine learning (ML)...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Sergey Yegorov, Ronald M Galiwango, Aloysious Ssemaganda, Moses Muwanga, Irene Wesonga, George Miiro, David A Drajole, Kevin C Kain, Noah Kiwanuka, Bernard S Bagaya, Rupert Kaul
BACKGROUND: The malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has fallen substantially. Nevertheless, malaria remains a serious health concern, and Uganda ranks third in SSA in total malaria burden. Epidemiological studies of adult malaria in Uganda are scarce and little is known about rates of malaria in non-pregnant adult women. This pilot study assessed malaria prevalence among adult women from Wakiso district, historically a highly malaria endemic region. METHODS: Adult women using public health services were screened for malaria, HIV and pregnancy...
November 14, 2016: Malaria Journal
Abigail Harrison, Susie Hoffman, Joanne E Mantell, Jennifer A Smit, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Theresa M Exner, Zena A Stein
This pilot study evaluated a 15 session classroom intervention for HIV and pregnancy prevention among grade 8-10 boys and girls (ages 14-17) in rural South Africa, guided by gender-empowerment theory and implemented by teachers, nurses, and youth peer educators. Pre- and post-intervention surveys included 933 male and female students in two intervention and two comparison schools. MAIN OUTCOME: condom use at last sex; secondary outcomes: partner communication; gender beliefs and values; perceived peer behaviors; self-efficacy for safer sex...
2016: Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services
Amrita Rao, Stefan Baral, Nancy Phaswana-Mafuya, Andrew Lambert, Zamakayise Kose, Mfezi Mcingana, Claire Holland, Sosthenes Ketende, Sheree Schwartz
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and pregnancy intentions and safer conception knowledge among female sex workers in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. METHODS: This cross-sectional study recruited female sex workers in Port Elizabeth using respondent-driven sampling and completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire alongside HIV testing and counseling. In this secondary analysis, robust Poisson regression was used to model prevalence ratios for positive fertility intentions in this cross-sectional study...
July 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Purnima Madhivanan, Dudith Pierre-Victor, Soumyadeep Mukherjee, Prasad Bhoite, Brionna Powell, Naomie Jean-Baptiste, Rachel Clarke, Tenesha Avent, Karl Krupp
CONTEXT: Some parents believe human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination increases the chance of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents. This review summarizes the evidence available on adolescent girls and women engaging in risky sexual activity following HPV vaccination. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Systematic review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines was conducted in 2014 and updated in 2015. Literature was searched for articles published between 2004 and 2015 in MEDLINE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane Database, Web of Science, and EMBASE without language limits...
September 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
María de la Paz Bermúdez, Ludgleydson Fernandes de Araújo, Antonio Ortega Reyes, José Hernández-Quero, Inmaculada Teva
The wider availability of anti-retroviral treatment has brought about an improvement in the immunological situation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals, which in turn has led to significant reductions in AIDS-related morbidity and mortality and better quality of life for patients. However, the rate of diagnosis of new cases of HIV among the adult population is on the increase due to high-risk sexual behavior practices, particularly not using condoms, sexual relations with a large number of partners and starting sexual relations at a younger age, with unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV...
July 2016: AIDS Care
Elissa Meites, Charlotte A Gaydos, Marcia M Hobbs, Patricia Kissinger, Paul Nyirjesy, Jane R Schwebke, W Evan Secor, Jack D Sobel, Kimberly A Workowski
Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection, affecting an estimated 3.7 million women and men in the United States. Health disparities are prominent in the epidemiology of this infection, which affects 11% of women aged ≥40 years and a disproportionately high percentage of black women. Particularly high prevalences have been identified among sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients and incarcerated individuals. This article reviews and updates scientific evidence in key topic areas used for the development of the 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
December 15, 2015: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
John Santelli, Sanyukta Mathur, Xiaoyu Song, Tzu Jung Huang, Ying Wei, Tom Lutalo, Fred Nalugoda, Ron H Gray, David M Serwadda
BACKGROUND: Poverty, family stability, and social policies influence the ability of adolescents to attend school. Likewise, being enrolled in school may shape an adolescent's risk for HIV and pregnancy. We identified trends in school enrollment, factors predicting school enrollment (antecedents), and health risks associated with staying in or leaving school (consequences). METHODS: Data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS) were examined for adolescents 15-19 years (n=21,735 person-rounds) from 1994 to 2013...
June 2015: Global Social Welfare: Research, Policy & Practice
Andrea Swartzendruber, Jessica M Sales, Jennifer L Brown, Ralph J DiClemente, Eve S Rose
African American female adolescents have a disproportionate risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other adverse sexual health outcomes. Both alcohol and marijuana use have been shown to predict sexual risk among young African American women. However, no studies have attempted to differentiate alcohol and marijuana typologies use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes exclusively among adolescents who use these substances. This study compared recent alcohol and/or marijuana use as predictors of sexual risk outcomes over 18 months among 182 African American female adolescents...
January 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Céline Schurmans, Irith De Baetselier, Evelyne Kestelyn, Vicky Jespers, Thérèse Delvaux, Stephen K Agaba, Harry van Loen, Joris Menten, Janneke van de Wijgert, Tania Crucitti
BACKGROUND: Research is ongoing to develop multipurpose vaginal rings to be used continuously for contraception and to prevent Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Contraceptive vaginal rings (CVRs) are available in a number of countries and are most of the time used intermittently i.e. three weeks out of a 4-week cycle. Efficacy trials with a dapivirine-containing vaginal ring for HIV prevention are ongoing and plans to develop multi-purpose vaginal rings for prevention of both HIV and pregnancy have been elaborated...
April 10, 2015: BMC Public Health
Cynthia Woodsong, Jonathon D S Holt
This paper reviews key issues found to affect acceptability and preferences for vaginal products to prevent HIV infection or HIV and pregnancy. We focus on the interplay between the biological and physico-chemical aspects of formulation and the social and behavioral issues that may affect use. The need for an HIV prevention product that women can use is driven by women's increased biological and social vulnerability to HIV infection, and thus social and behavioral research on microbicide acceptability has been conducted alongside, as well as separate from, the earliest product development efforts...
September 15, 2015: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Mary van der Riet, Tamaryn Jane Nicholson
Individuals' perceptions of risk have implications for whether and how they engage with protective strategies. This study investigated how sexual risk, specifically HIV and pregnancy and responsibility for these risks were constructed in discussions across five groups of youth in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The qualitative study used focus groups and interviews with a sample of 28 tertiary level students and 7 peri-urban youth. The constructions of risk intersected with raced and gendered narratives around sexual risk and responsibility...
2014: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Meghan Donnelly, Jill K Davies
Contemporary management of HIV in pregnancy remains a moving target. With the development of newer antiretroviral agents with lower side-effect profiles and laboratory methods for detection and monitoring of HIV, considerable progress has been made. This review examines key concepts in the pathophysiology of HIV and pregnancy with emphasis on perinatal transmission and reviews appropriate screening and diagnostic testing for HIV during pregnancy. Current recommendations for medical, pharmacologic, and obstetric management of women newly diagnosed with HIV during pregnancy and for those women with preexisting infection are discussed...
December 2014: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
C Woodsong, P Musara, A Chandipwisa, E Montgomery, P Alleman, M Chirenje, T Chipato, F Martinson, I Hoffman
OBJECTIVE: The pipeline of vaginal microbicides for HIV prevention has expanded to include products for multipurpose prevention, but the interests of potential users and those advising on use have not been sufficiently investigated. Rather, assumptions about interest in multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) are inferred from what is known about acceptability and use of microbicides or contraceptives. DESIGN AND SETTING: This paper presents data on concerns and preferences for multipurpose prevention of HIV and pregnancy...
October 2014: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Jessica A Cohen, Anna C Mastroianni, Ruth Macklin
Multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs) designed to simultaneously prevent pregnancy and HIV could provide urgently needed tools to address unmet sexual and reproductive health needs of women worldwide. Late-stage clinical trials will be complex given the need to demonstrate efficacy for HIV and contraceptive indications simultaneously from a single product. Currently, HIV and pregnancy prevention trials have distinctive design features that will need to be reconciled in MPT trials. This article identifies several ethical issues uniquely associated with this research that will benefit from future deliberation and guidance to ensure that this globally important research can proceed efficiently and expeditiously...
November 2014: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Vineeta Bansal Zweifel, Christoph Berger, David Nadal, Claudia Grawe
The use and success of antiretroviral treatment in HIV-positive people has led to a reduction of vertical transmission of HIV. Pregnancy in HIV-positive women became more common. The success of prophylactic measures has led to a dramatic change in care of HIV-positive women. Today, a HIV-positive mother giving birth to a HIV-negative child is standard of care in industrialized countries. We describe the impact of an HIV-infection in pregnancy and outline the most important diagnostic and therapeutic aspects...
August 2014: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
L Mandelbrot, A Berrébi, S Matheron, S Blanche, R Tubiana, C Rouzioux, P Faucher, M Partisani, V Boyer, C Taeron, A Faye, L Bujan, F Dabis, J Warszawski, P Morlat
With effective antiretroviral therapy, the risk of mother to child transmission (MTCT) is now under 1%. The 2013 French guidelines emphasize early antiretroviral lifelong antiretroviral therapy. Thus, the current trend for women living with HIV is to take antiretroviral therapy before, during and after their pregnancies. A major issue today is the choice of antiretroviral drugs, to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of fetal exposure. This requires interdisciplinary care. The use of effective therapies permits gradual but profound changes in obstetric practice...
September 2014: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
N Govender, J Moodley, P Gathiram, T Naicker
INTRODUCTION: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are the commonest direct cause of maternal deaths in South Africa, 83% being attributed to pre-eclampsia. Elevated placental sFlt-1 levels are linked with angiogenic disruption and subsequent pre-eclampsia development. The impact of HIV infection on pre-eclampsia is controversial. Its effect on angiogenic imbalance in both normotensive and pre-eclamptic pregnancies remains unknown. METHODS: We examined the immunolocalisation of both membrane bound and soluble forms of Flt-1, within placentae of HIV negative and positive normotensive and pre-eclamptic pregnancies at term using immunohistochemistry and immuno-electron microscopy...
August 2014: Placenta
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