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Young colorectal cancer

Naila Younus, Mariam Abid, Atif Ali Hashmi, Saher Aijaz, Muhammad Muzzammil Edhi, Ahmareen Khalid Sheikh, Amir Khan
BACKGROUND: The rationale behind this study was to find out the frequency of dysplasia and colorectal cancer (CRC) in young patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) using histopathological examination. This facilitated early detection of dysplasia and CRC by regular endoscopic biopsies and also guided physicians on appropriate surveillance and management, thus improved outcome. METHODS: It was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted at the Department of Pathology, PIMS, Islamabad...
April 19, 2018: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Lijun Shen, Miao Mo, Leon Jia, Huixun Jia, Qingguo Li, Lei Liang, Debing Shi, Zhen Zhang, Sanjun Cai, Xinxiang Li, Ji Zhu
Purpose: To investigate the association of age and sex on survival in non-metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and to identify groups at high risk for poor outcomes. Materials and methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 5,047 non-metastatic CRC patients from 2008 to 2013. Data regarding age at diagnosis; gender; tumor site; tumor stage; differentiation; lymphatic, neural or vascular invasion; and survival outcomes were collected. Patients were stratified into 10-year age groups (≤35, 36-45, 46-55, 56-65, 66-75, >75) and then further analyzed in three age groups (≤35, 36-75, >75)...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Yong J Lee, Xinxin Song, Dae-Hee Lee, Ashok-Kumar Dilly, Young-Sun Lee, Haroon Asif Choudry, Yong Tae Kwon, David L Bartlett
Emerging evidence demonstrates that autophagy and apoptosis are interconnected and their interplay greatly affects cell death. However, the key regulators in this crosstalk remain elusive. Therefore, the role of N-terminal arginylated BiP (R-BiP)/Beclin-1/p62 complex was examined in the crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy during combination chemotherapy with mitomycin C and bortezomib using immunoblot, immunoprecipitation, and cellular imaging assays in wild-type and genetically engineered colorectal cancer cells...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Tamsin R M Lannagan, Young K Lee, Tongtong Wang, Jatin Roper, Mark L Bettington, Lochlan Fennell, Laura Vrbanac, Lisa Jonavicius, Roshini Somashekar, Krystyna Gieniec, Miao Yang, Jia Q Ng, Nobumi Suzuki, Mari Ichinose, Josephine A Wright, Hiroki Kobayashi, Tracey L Putoczki, Yoku Hayakawa, Simon J Leedham, Helen E Abud, Ömer H Yilmaz, Julie Marker, Sonja Klebe, Pratyaksha Wirapati, Siddhartha Mukherjee, Sabine Tejpar, Barbara A Leggett, Vicki L J Whitehall, Daniel L Worthley, Susan L Woods
OBJECTIVE: Serrated colorectal cancer (CRC) accounts for approximately 25% of cases and includes tumours that are among the most treatment resistant and with worst outcomes. This CRC subtype is associated with activating mutations in the mitogen-activated kinase pathway gene, BRAF , and epigenetic modifications termed the CpG Island Methylator Phenotype, leading to epigenetic silencing of key tumour suppressor genes. It is still not clear which (epi-)genetic changes are most important in neoplastic progression and we begin to address this knowledge gap herein...
April 17, 2018: Gut
Dongjun Jeong, Hyeongjoo Kim, Doyeon Kim, Seona Ban, Seunghyun Oh, Sanghee Ji, Donghuyn Kang, Hyunyong Lee, Tae Sung Ahn, Han Jo Kim, Sang Byung Bae, Moon Soo Lee, Chang-Jin Kim, Hyog Young Kwon, Moo-Jun Baek
The protein kinase, membrane‑associated tyrosine/threonine 1 (PKMYT1) is known to inhibit precocious entry into mitosis by phosphorylating CDK1 at Thr14 and Tyr15 residues. However, the functional importance of PKMYT1 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unknown. Thus, it is important to elucidate whether PKYMT1 is indispensable in the tumorigenesis of CRC. To investigate the functional importance of PKMYT1 in CRC tumorigenesis, PKMYT1 was knocked down in CRC cell lines such as SW480, SW620, HCT116 and HT29 by siRNA...
April 13, 2018: Oncology Reports
Jessica L Krok-Schoen, Michelle J Naughton, Brittany M Bernardo, Gregory S Young, Electra D Paskett
OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of and factors associated with fear of recurrence (FCR) following treatment for breast, ovarian, endometrial, and colorectal cancer among older women. METHODS: Participants were enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative WHI Life and Longevity After Cancer (LILAC) study. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the association of demographic, clinical, and quality of life variables with survivors' FCR, dichotomized as <14 (low) or ≥14 (high) using the Cancer Worry Scale...
April 12, 2018: Psycho-oncology
Sophie F Roerink, Nobuo Sasaki, Henry Lee-Six, Matthew D Young, Ludmil B Alexandrov, Sam Behjati, Thomas J Mitchell, Sebastian Grossmann, Howard Lightfoot, David A Egan, Apollo Pronk, Niels Smakman, Joost van Gorp, Elizabeth Anderson, Stephen J Gamble, Chris Alder, Marc van de Wetering, Peter J Campbell, Michael R Stratton, Hans Clevers
Every cancer originates from a single cell. During expansion of the neoplastic cell population, individual cells acquire genetic and phenotypic differences from each other. Here, to investigate the nature and extent of intra-tumour diversification, we characterized organoids derived from multiple single cells from three colorectal cancers as well as from adjacent normal intestinal crypts. Colorectal cancer cells showed extensive mutational diversification and carried several times more somatic mutations than normal colorectal cells...
April 11, 2018: Nature
Bong Kyun Kim, Se Jeong Oh, Jeong-Yoon Song, Han-Byoel Lee, Min Ho Park, Yongsik Jung, Woo-Chan Park, Jina Lee, Woo Young Sun
Purpose: Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and the second most common cancer among Korean women. The prognosis of breast cancer is poor in patients with other primary cancers. However, there have been few clinical studies regarding this issue. Therefore, we analyzed the characteristics and prognosis of patients with breast cancer with multiple primary cancers (MPCs). Methods: Data from the Korean Breast Cancer Society Registry were analyzed...
March 2018: Journal of Breast Cancer
Jae-Joon Kim, Jihoon Kang, Yong Sang Hong, Kyu-Pyo Kim, Sun Young Kim, Tae Won Kim, Jeong Eun Kim
Because the number of cytotoxic agents available for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is limited, rechallenge with the same chemotherapy agents can provide a continuum of treatment. This study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of oxaliplatin rechallenge in mCRC patients who had been previously exposed to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Patients were included if they had mCRC and evaluable disease, had remained disease-free or progression-free for at least 6 months after the last dose of prior oxaliplatin-based therapy, and were retreated with oxaliplatin therapy...
April 5, 2018: Medical Oncology
Chun Yue Mak, Helena Pui-Yee Sin, Vesta Cheuk-Ki Chan, Alvin Young
A 67-year-old Chinese man presented with acute loss of vision and pain in the left eye with hypopyon in the anterior chamber. The patient was afebrile with no systemic symptoms at presentation. Diagnosis of endogenous endophthalmitis was made with vitreous tap yielding Klebsiella pneumoniae Pars plana vitrectomy was performed twice to clear the infection. Thorough investigations showed no septic foci. Whole body positron emission tomography CT revealed a rectal tumour and biopsy showed adenocarcinoma. He was treated with neoadjuvant chemoirradiation followed by surgery to resect the tumour...
April 5, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Swati G Patel, Dennis J Ahnen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Colorectal cancer incidence has been rapidly rising in those under the age of 50 over the last 20 years. This paper will review the epidemiology, clinicopathologic, molecular features, proposed risk factors, and prevention/treatment approach for early onset CRC (EOCRC) patients. RECENT FINDINGS: EOCRC appears to have a different spectrum of clinical, pathologic, and molecular presentation compared to CRC diagnosed in older individuals. EOCRCs are disproportionately located in the distal colon; these patients tend to present with symptoms, and there is a longer interval between symptoms and diagnosis...
March 28, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Giulia Martina Cavestro, Alessandro Mannucci, Raffaella Alessia Zuppardo, Milena Di Leo, Elena Stoffel, Giovanni Tonon
Early onset colorectal cancers, defined as arising before 50 years of age, are a growing health hazard in western and eastern countries alike. The incidence of colon and rectal cancers in young individuals is projected to increase by as much as 90% and 140%, respectively, by 2030. Although several known cancer risk factors (e.g. smoking, alcohol, dietary habits) have been investigated, there is no single compelling explanation for this epidemiological trend. While some early onset colorectal cancers have been associated with germline mutations in cancer predisposition genes, genetic syndromes are implicated in only a fraction of these cancers (20%) and do not explain the rising incidence...
February 23, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
Terri Patricia McVeigh, Raghav Sundar, Nikolaos Diamantis, Stan B Kaye, Udai Banerji, Juanita S Lopez, Johann de Bono, Winette T A van der Graaf, Angela J George
INTRODUCTION: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) diagnosed with cancer between ages 15-39 years may harbour germline variants associated with cancer predisposition. Such variants represent putative therapeutic targets, as may somatic variants in the tumour. Germline and tumour molecular profiling is increasingly utilised to facilitate personalisation of cancer treatment in such individuals. AIM: Considering AYAs with advanced solid tumours managed in a specialist drug development unit (DDU), the aims of this study were to investigate the use and impact of: 1...
March 31, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Jae Myung Cha, Mina Suh, Min Seob Kwak, Na Young Sung, Kui Son Choi, Boyoung Park, Jae Kwan Jun, Sang-Hyun Hwang, Do-Hoon Lee, Byung Chang Kim, You Kyoung Lee, Dong Soo Han
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of seasonal variations in climate on the performance of the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) in screening for colorectal cancer in the National Cancer Screening Program in Korea. METHODS: Data were extracted from the National Cancer Screening Program databases for participants who underwent FIT between 2009 and 2010. We compared positivity rates, cancer detection rates, interval cancer rates, positive predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity for FIT during the spring, summer, fall, and winter seasons in Korea...
April 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Hye Young Shin, Mina Suh, Kui Son Choi, Sang-Hyun Hwang, Jae Kwan Jun, Dong Soo Han, You Kyoung Lee, Jae Hwan Oh, Chan Wha Lee, Do-Hoon Lee
BACKGROUND: Identifying preferences for stool collection devices may help increase uptake rates for colorectal cancer screening via fecal immunochemical test (FIT). This study surveyed satisfaction with different devices utilized to collect stool samples for FIT: a conventional container and a sampling bottle (Eiken OC-Sensor). METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the National Cancer Center, Korea. Participants aged 50-74 years who used either a conventional container or a sampling bottle to collect a stool sample for FIT were asked to complete a questionnaire designed to survey their satisfaction with the stool collection process and their intentions to undergo FIT in subsequent screening rounds...
April 2, 2018: BMC Cancer
D I Givens
Social and health care provision have led to substantial increases in life expectancy. In the UK this has become higher than 80 years with an even greater proportional increase in those aged 85 years and over. The different life stages give rise to important nutritional challenges and recent reductions in milk consumption have led to sub-optimal intakes of calcium by teenage females in particular when bone growth is at its maximum and of iodine during pregnancy needed to ensure that supply/production of thyroid hormones to the foetus is adequate...
April 2, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Ji-Ye Kee, Yo-Han Han, Jeong-Geon Mun, Jae-Young Um, Seung-Heon Hong
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The pharmacological effect derived from herb-herb interaction is important to constitute the prescription especially in traditional oriental medicine. The relationship of two medicinal herbs is called "couplet medicinals" which is used in pair for the purpose of enhancing the therapeutic effect, reducing the toxic effect or the adverse effect. The "Eighteen Incompatible Medicaments" constitute one of the contents in the incompatibility of traditional oriental drugs in a prescription...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Sam Li-Sheng Chen, Chen-Yang Hsu, Amy Ming-Fang Yen, Graeme P Young, Sherry Yueh-Hsia Chiu, Jean Ching-Yuan Fann, Yi-Chia Lee, Han-Mo Chiu, Shu-Ti Chiou, Tony Hsiu-Hsi Chen
BACKGROUND: Despite age and sex differences in fecal hemoglobin (fHb) concentrations, most fecal immunochemical tests (FIT) screening programs use population-average cut-points for test positivity. The impact of age-/sex-specific threshold on FIT accuracy and colonoscopy demand for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening are unknown. METHODS: Using data from 723,113 participants enrolled in a Taiwanese population-based CRC screening with single FIT between 2004 and 2009, sensitivity and specificity were estimated for various fHb thresholds for test positivity...
March 28, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Dai Shida, Yuka Ahiko, Taro Tanabe, Takefumi Yoshida, Shunsuke Tsukamoto, Hiroki Ochiai, Atsuo Takashima, Narikazu Boku, Yukihide Kanemitsu
BACKGROUND: The incidence of colorectal cancer in adolescent and young adult patients is increasing. However, survival and clinical features of young patients, especially those with stage IV disease, relative to adult patients remain unclear. METHODS: This retrospective single-institution cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care cancer center. Subjects were 861 consecutive patients who were diagnosed with stage IV colorectal cancer at the age of 15 to 74 years and who were referred to the division of surgery or gastrointestinal oncology at the National Cancer Center Hospital from 1999 to 2013...
March 27, 2018: BMC Cancer
Jane M Young, Ivana Durcinoska, Katie DeLoyde, Michael J Solomon
BACKGROUND: The incidence and survival rates for colorectal cancer in Australia are among the highest in the world. With population growth and ageing there are increasing numbers of colorectal cancer survivors in the community, yet little is known of their ongoing follow up and survivorship care experiences. This study investigated patterns and predictors of follow up and survivorship care received and recommended for adults with colorectal cancer in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis within the NSW Bowel Cancer Care Survey, a population-based cohort of adults diagnosed with colorectal cancer between April 2012 and May 2013 in NSW...
March 27, 2018: BMC Cancer
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