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Camille N Abboud, Nicole Lang, Henry Fung, Andreas Lammerich, Anton Buchner, Patrick Liu, Udo Mueller, Ruth Pettengell, Ingo J Diel, Hartmut Link, Ashutosh Pathak
PURPOSE: Recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (rG-CSFs), such as filgrastim, are administered to prevent complications in patients receiving chemotherapy. In Europe, a biosimilar to filgrastim, tevagrastim/ratiograstim/biograstim, was approved in 2008. In the USA, the same product was approved as tbo-filgrastim under a 351(a) biologic license application in 2012 with the brand name Granix®. Postmarket surveillance remains a priority for monitoring the safety of biologics and biosimilars to identify rare and immunogenicity-related events...
November 15, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Šárka Fingerhutová, Eva Jančová, Markéta Tesařová, Lenka Dvořáková, Pavla Doležalová
Autoinflammatory diseases represent a relatively new and rapidly evolving group of rare disorders associated with mutations of genes encoding proteins with a key regulatory role in inflammatory response. Gradual discovery of mechanisms that link genetic disorder with its biochemical and immunological consequences leading to continuous or episodic inflammatory stimulation has enabled introduction of directed immunotherapies. Periodic fever syndromes belong to the so far best-known entities: familial Mediterranean fever, mevalonate kinase deficiency, cryopyrinopathies and TNF-receptor associated periodic syndrome...
2018: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
Petr Klement, Jan Hřídel
218 children were admitted to paediatric clinic for acute seizures within last 5 years. Out of them, 14 children (7%) were admitted to paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with repeated or prolonged seizures. Two children were hospitalized twice. The average age of children in time of admission was 12 months, most of the children were healthy before admission, had normal psychomotor development. The most frequent seizure manifestation was asymmetric clonic seizure. Hypoventilation and/or unconsciousness was the most frequent indication for PICU admission in addition to seizures...
2018: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
Toshiaki Negishi, Guanghao Sun, He Liu, Shohei Sato, Takemi Matsui, Tetsuo Kirimoto
Infrared thermography (IRT) has been used to screen febrile passengers in international airports for over a decade. However, fever-based infection screening using IRT suffered from low sensitivity because measurements can be affected by ambient temperature, humidity, etc. In our previous study, we proposed an RGB-thermal image fusion system to measure vital signs i.e., the RGB camera detects tiny changes in color from facial skin, associated with blood flow, to estimate heart rate, and IRT senses temperature changes around the nasal area, caused by respiration, to measure respiratory rate)...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Christoph Josef Hemmer, Petra Emmerich, Micha Loebermann, Silvius Frimmel, Emil Christian Reisinger
During the last 135 years, the average temperature in Germany has increased by 1.4 °C. By 2050, a further rise by 1.5 °C is expected. This is associated with an increase of precipitation during the winter months. This climate change probably will improve both the growth conditions for mosquitoes and ticks, as well as their ability to transmit infectious diseases. Today, vectors that have not yet been present are invading into Germany. Among them is Aedes albopictus, which transmits Chikungunya, Zika, and Dengue Fever...
November 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Anant Ramaswamy, Vikas Ostwal, Kushal Gupta, Vijai Simha, Anup Toshniwal, Nitin Shetty, Chaitali Nashikkar, Sarika Mandavkar, Sudeep Gupta
Background: Modified 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin/irinotecan (mFOLFIRI) is a commonly used combination second-line chemotherapeutic regimen in advanced gastric cancer (AGC). Materials and Methods: Patients diagnosed with AGC, receiving biweekly mFOLFIRI between July 2013 and June 2016, as second-line chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed for tolerance, prognostic factors, event-free survival (EFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: Overall, 91 patients were administered a median of 6 cycles of therapy...
October 2018: South Asian Journal of Cancer
Manisha Biswal, Kamran Zaman, Vikas Suri, Harshith Rao, Abhay Kumar, Gaurav Kapur, Navneet Sharma, Ashish Bhalla, M Jayashree
Scrub typhus caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi presents as an acute febrile illness with a varied presentation from mild illness to fatal disease in the absence of appropriate antibiotic treatment. Performing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on eschar sample acts a rapid diagnostic tool in the early stage of scrub typhus when blood is negative. A total of eight patients from whom both whole blood and eschar samples were collected and tested by nested PCR targeting 56 kDa trichostatin A (TSA) gene to detect O...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Kassoum Kayentao, Lia S Florey, Jules Mihigo, Abdoul Doumbia, Aliou Diallo, Diakalia Koné, Ogobara Doumbo, Erin Eckert
BACKGROUND: Major investments have been made since 2001, with intensification of malaria control interventions after 2006. Interventions included free distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITN) to pregnant women and children under 5 years old, the introduction of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) for malaria treatment, and indoor residual spraying of insecticides. Funders include the Government of Mali, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and the US President's Malaria Initiative...
November 14, 2018: Malaria Journal
Chris Edens, Kathryn A Haass, Melissa Cumming, Anthony Osinski, Lynne O'Hearn, Kelly Passanisi, Lynn Eaton, Paul Visintainer, Alexandra Savinkina, Matthew J Kuehnert, Sridhar V Basavaraju, Chester Andrzejewski
INTRODUCTION: The National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) Hemovigilance Module (HM) collects data on the frequency, severity, and imputability of transfusion-associated adverse events. These events contribute to significant morbidity and mortality among transfusion patients. We report results from the first systematic assessment of eight attributes of the HM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Standard methods were used to assess the HM. Evaluation data included training materials, system modification history, and facility survey information...
November 14, 2018: Transfusion
Jaya Shankar Kaushik, Rajni Farmania
Surface electroencephalography (EEG) is a useful electrophysiological investigation for evaluating a paroxysmal event in children. It measures the electro potential difference between two points on the scalp. It is a non-invasive tool that analyzes neuronal maturation and abnormal cortical excitability. EEG helps in differentiating epileptic from non-epileptic clinical event and focal seizures from generalized seizure. This review is to discuss the rational use of interictal scalp EEG in diagnosis of epilepsy and different types of epilepsy syndromes in children...
October 15, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
Megha Raj Banjara, Murari Lal Das, Chitra Kumar Gurung, Vivek Kumar Singh, Anand Ballabh Joshi, Greg Matlashewski, Axel Kroeger, Piero Olliaro
Nepal has completed the attack phase of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) elimination and now needs active case detection (ACD) and vector control methods that are suitable to the consolidation and maintenance phases. We evaluated different ACD approaches and vector control methods in Saptari district. We assessed 1) mobile teams deployed in villages with VL cases in 2015 to conduct combined camps for fever and skin lesions to detect VL/PKDL (post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis) and other infections; 2) an incentive approach by trained female community health volunteers (FCHVs) in villages with no VL cases in 2015...
November 12, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Rimi Chowdhury, Sayan Das, Atri Ta, Santasabuj Das
Typhoid is a life-threatening febrile illness, which affects ~24.2 million people worldwide and is caused by the intracellular bacteria, Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi). Intestinal epithelial invasion by S. Typhi is essential for the establishment of successful infection and is traditionally believed to depend on Salmonella Pathogenicity Island (SPI1) encoded Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS-1). We had previously reported that bacterial outer membrane protein T2942/STIV functions as a standalone invasin and contributes to pathogenesis of S...
November 13, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Linda Kalilani, Xuezheng Sun, Barbara Pelgrims, Matthias Noack-Rink, Vicente Villanueva
OBJECTIVE: The definition of drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) affects case identification and treatment, and impacts prevalence or incidence estimates and health burden estimation in epidemiology. The objective of this systematic review is to evaluate the consistency between definitions of DRE in the literature and the official definition in the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) guidelines, and to estimate the incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for DRE. METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for observational studies of DRE published between January 1980 and July 2015...
November 13, 2018: Epilepsia
Daudi Omari Simba, Deodatus Kakoko, Tumaini Nyamhanga, Zakayo Mrango, Phare Mujinja
Purpose: Improving access to malaria treatment in rural remote areas remains a major challenge facing innovative strategies, such as Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets (ADDOs) and Community Health Workers (CHWs) programs in Tanzania. This study tested the effectiveness of a financial benefit approach to motivate CHWs to improve prompt access to malaria treatment. Patients and methods: We applied a quasi-experimental study design in rural-remote areas in Kilosa district, Tanzania...
2018: Research and Reports in Tropical Medicine
Paul L Aronson, Marie E Wang, Eugene D Shapiro, Samir S Shah, Adrienne G DePorre, Russell J McCulloh, Christopher M Pruitt, Sanyukta Desai, Lise E Nigrovic, Richard D Marble, Rianna C Leazer, Sahar N Rooholamini, Laura F Sartori, Fran Balamuth, Christopher Woll, Mark I Neuman
: media-1vid110.1542/5840460609001PEDS-VA_2018-1879 Video Abstract OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the Rochester and modified Philadelphia criteria for the risk stratification of febrile infants with invasive bacterial infection (IBI) who do not appear ill without routine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing. METHODS: We performed a case-control study of febrile infants ≤60 days old presenting to 1 of 9 emergency departments from 2011 to 2016. For each infant with IBI (defined as a blood [bacteremia] and/or CSF [bacterial meningitis] culture with growth of a pathogen), controls without IBI were matched by site and date of visit...
November 13, 2018: Pediatrics
Yongjin Qiu, Ryo Nakao, Bernard Mudenda Hang'ombe, Kozue Sato, Masahiro Kajihara, Sharon Kanchela, Katendi Changula, Yoshiki Eto, Joseph Ndebe, Michihito Sasaki, May June Thu, Ayato Takada, Hirohumi Sawa, Chihiro Sugimoto, Hiroki Kawabata
Background: Relapsing fever is an infectious disease previously neglected in Africa, which imposes a large public health burden in the country. We aimed to investigate and report on a case of relapsing fever borreliosis in Zambia. Methods: A previously unknown Borrelia species was isolated from the blood of a febrile patient. Investigations of the presumptive vector ticks and natural hosts for the Borrelia species were conducted by culture isolation and/or DNA detection by Borrelia-specific polymerase chain reaction...
November 13, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Yoenten Phuentshok, Kezang Dorji, Tandin Zangpo, Silas A Davidson, Ratree Takhampunya, Tenzinla Tenzinla, Chencho Dorjee, Roger S Morris, Peter D Jolly, Sithar Dorjee, Joanna S McKenzie
Rodents are well-known reservoirs and vectors of many emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, but little is known about their role in zoonotic disease transmission in Bhutan. In this study, a cross-sectional investigation of zoonotic disease pathogens in rodents was performed in Chukha district, Bhutan, where a high incidence of scrub typhus and cases of acute undifferentiated febrile illness had been reported in people during the preceding 4-6 months. Twelve rodents were trapped alive using wire-mesh traps...
October 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Masayoshi Abe, Koshi Kinoshita, Kenta Matsuoka, Takahito Nakada, Kimiaki Miura, Yukiko Hata, Naoki Nishida, Toshihide Tabata
SCN5A encodes the main subunit of the NaV1.5 channel, which mediates the fast Na+ current responsible for generating cardiac action potentials. The single nucleotide polymorphism SCN5A(R1193Q), which results in an amino acid replacement in the subunit, is common in East Asia. SCN5A(R1193Q) is often identified in patients with type 3 long QT syndrome and Brugada syndrome. However, its linkage to arrhythmic disorders is under debate. Previous electrophysiological studies performed at room temperature inconsistently reported the gain- or loss-of-function effect of SCN5A(R1193Q) on the NaV1...
2018: PloS One
Frances Alexandria Kavanagh, Paul Anthony Heaton, Anna Cannon, Siba Prosad Paul
Febrile convulsions (FCs) are characterised by convulsions associated with fever in children aged between 6 months and 6 years. FCs are relatively common and affect 3-4% of children in western countries. This is the most common seizure disorder seen in children. The cause of febrile illness in FC is usually benign and most frequently due to acute viral infection. Convulsions secondary to an intracranial infection (e.g. meningitis, encephalitis) or from acute electrolyte imbalance should not be labelled as FCs...
November 8, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Shun Tezuka, Makoto Ueno, Satoshi Kobayashi, Manabu Morimoto, Shinichi Ohkawa, Akane Hirotani, Yuichiro Tozuka, Satoshi Moriya, Yoshiyasu Nakamura, Yohei Miyagi, Makoto Sugimori, Shin Maeda
The platinum-based chemotherapy regimen FOLFIRINOX (leucovorin, fluorouracil, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin) is currently used as a standard treatment for patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. FOLFIRINOX is associated with severe toxicities, including neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, and anorexia; however, there are currently no reliable biomarkers to predict its efficacy and safety. Several studies of patients with various cancers have shown that tumor expression of excision repair cross-complementing (ERCC) proteins and glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTPi) correlates with the response to platinum-based chemotherapies...
2018: American Journal of Cancer Research
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