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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791650/metabolic-syndrome-components-are-associated-with-oxidative-stress-in-overweight-and-obese-patients
#1
Nayara Rampazzo Morelli, Bruna Miglioranza Scavuzzi, Lucia Helena da Silva Miglioranza, Marcell Alysson Batisti Lozovoy, Andréa Name Colado Simão, Isaias Dichi
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the body mass index (BMI) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) parameters on oxidative and nitrosative stress in overweight and obese subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Individuals were divided into three groups: the control group (G1, n = 131) with a BMI between 20 and 24.9 kg/m2, the overweight group (G2, n = 120) with a BMI between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 and the obese group (G3, n = 79) with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2...
May 17, 2018: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791203/short-term-thermoneutral-housing-alters-glucose-metabolism-and-markers-of-adipose-tissue-browning-in-response-to-a-high-fat-diet-in-lean-mice
#2
Zachary Stephen Clayton, Carrie E McCurdy
Systemic insulin resistance and glucose intolerance occur with as little as 3 days of a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice and humans; the mechanisms that initiate acute insulin resistance are unknown. Most laboratories house mice at 22{degree sign}C, which is below their thermoneutral temperature (~30{degree sign}C). Cold stress has been shown to increase white adipose tissue (WAT) browning, alter lipid trafficking and impair immune function, while energy intake and expenditure decrease with increasing ambient temperature; importantly, dysregulation of these parameters have been strongly linked to obesity-induced insulin resistance...
May 23, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788815/effect-of-magnesium-loading-dose-on-insulin-resistance-in-patients-with-stress-induced-hyperglycemia-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#3
Zinat Heidary, Hossein Khalili, Mostafa Mohammadi, Mohammad-Taghi Beigmohammadi, Alireza Abdollahi
OBJECTIVES: There is currently no evidence that whether magnesium supplementation would improve stress-induced hyperglycemia (SIH) in critically ill patients. In this study, effects of magnesium loading dose on insulin resistance (IR) indices were evaluated in critically ill patients without diabetes having SIH. METHODS: Seventy critically ill patients with SIH were assigned to receive a loading dose of magnesium (7.5 g of magnesium sulfate in 500 mL normal saline as intravenous infusion over an 8-hour period) or placebo...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787912/high-fat-diet-induced-lipidome-perturbations-in-the-cortex-hippocampus-hypothalamus-and-olfactory-bulb-of-mice
#4
Jong Cheol Lee, Se Mi Park, Il Yong Kim, Hyerim Sung, Je Kyung Seong, Myeong Hee Moon
Given their important role in neuronal function, there has been an increasing focus on altered lipid levels in brain disorders. The effect of a high-fat (HF) diet on the lipid profiles of the cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and olfactory bulb of the mouse brain was investigated using nanoflow ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in the current study. For 8 weeks, two groups of 5-week-old mice were fed either an HF or normal diet (6 mice from each group analyzed as the F and N groups, respectively)...
May 19, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787756/fibronectin-type-iii-domain-containing-4-attenuates-hyperlipidemia-induced-insulin-resistance-via-suppression-of-inflammation-and-er-stress-through-ho-1-expression-in-adipocytes
#5
Wonjae Lee, Subin Yun, Geum Hee Choi, Tae Woo Jung
Although Fibronectin Type III Domain Containing 4 (FNDC4) has been reported to be involved in the modulation of inflammation in macrophages, its effects on inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose tissue are unknown. In the current study, we investigated the effects of FNDC4 on hyperlipidemia-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inflammation, and insulin resistance in adipocytes via the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-mediated pathway. Hyperlipidemia-induced nuclear factor κB (NFκB), inhibitory κBα (IκBα) phosphorylation, and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and MCP-1 were markedly mitigated by FNDC4...
May 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783682/heat-shock-gene-inactivation-and-protein-aggregation-with-links-to-chronic-diseases
#6
Ian James Martins
The heat shock response involved in protein misfolding is linked to the formation of toxic immunogenic proteins with heat shock proteins (HSP) as regulators of amyloid beta aggregation. The defective amyloid beta trafficking between different intracellular compartments is now relevant to HSPs and autoimmunity. Overnutrition, temperature dysregulation, and stress repress the heat shock gene Sirtuin 1 with the induction of HSP regulated amyloid beta aggregation involved in the autoimmune response. Defective circadian rhythm alterations are connected to inactivation of the peripheral sink amyloid beta clearance pathway and related to insulin resistance, protein aggregation, and autoimmune disease in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease...
May 18, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782959/targeting-central-%C3%AE-2-receptors-ameliorates-streptozotocin-induced-neuroinflammation-via-inhibition-of-glycogen-synthase-kinase3-pathway-in-mice
#7
Nora O Abdel Rasheed, Nesrine S El-Sayed, Aiman S El-Khatib
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is portrayed by progressive cognitive decline and pathological deposition of amyloid plaques as well as neurofibrillary tangles. Most of AD cases are sporadic, resulting from overlap of various environmental and genetic factors. Intra-cerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (STZ) leads to insulin resistance brain state accompanied by memory decline, oxidative stress, and neuro-degeneration which mimic the pathologies associated with sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD). In the current study, protective effects of formoterol in STZ-induced SAD were studied...
May 18, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766802/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-related-molecular-mechanisms-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld
#8
Lifeng Wang, Jun Ren
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has emerged as a common public health problem and a common cause of chronic liver diseases. However, the underlying mechanisms leading to the development and progression of NAFLD remain elusive. Accumulating evidence has depicted an essential role for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the development of steatosis and later progression into nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocarcinoma. With the accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER lumen, ER stress is provoked to turn on the unfolded protein response (UPR)...
May 16, 2018: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766146/the-effect-of-resveratrol-on-oxidative-stress-in-the-liver-and-serum-of-a-rat-model-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-an-experimental-study
#9
Mahnaz Ghowsi, Homayoun Khazali, Sajjad Sisakhtnezhad
Background: Studies of oxidative status in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients are limited with inconsistent results. The effects of resveratrol as a natural antioxidant on oxidative status in PCOS aren't clear. Objective: This study evaluated effects of resveratrol on oxidative stress in the liver and serum of the PCOS rats. Materials and Methods: Fifteen female Wistar rats (3 wk old) were divided into 3 groups (n=5/each e): Control group, PCO-Control group, and PCO-Resveratrol group...
March 2018: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765322/therapeutic-potential-of-ginsenosides-as-an-adjuvant-treatment-for-diabetes
#10
REVIEW
Litao Bai, Jialiang Gao, Fan Wei, Jing Zhao, Danwei Wang, Junping Wei
Ginseng, one of the oldest traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, has been used widely in China and Asia for thousands of years. Ginsenosides extracted from ginseng, which is derived from the roots and rhizomes of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, have been used in China as an adjuvant in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Owing to the technical complexity of ginsenoside production, the total ginsenosides are generally extracted. Accumulating evidence has shown that ginsenosides exert antidiabetic effects. In vivo and in vitro tests revealed the potential of ginsenoside Rg1, Rg3, Rg5, Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, compound K, Rk1, Re, ginseng total saponins, malonyl ginsenosides, Rd, Rh2, F2, protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type saponins to treat diabetes and its complications, including type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic cognitive dysfunction, type 2 diabetes mellitus with fatty liver disease, diabetic cerebral infarction, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and diabetic erectile dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760586/atorvastatin-and-diacerein-reduce-insulin-resistance-and-increase-disease-tolerance-in-rats-with-sepsis
#11
K L C da Silva, A P Camacho, F C Mittestainer, B M Carvalho, A Santos, D Guadagnini, A G Oliveira, M J A Saad
Background: Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death among hospitalized patients. At the onset of this condition, there is an over-production of pro-inflammatory mediators that contribute to organ failure and death. The excess production of pro-inflammatory mediators also impairs insulin signaling, which may be a pathophysiological tissue marker of proinflammatory cytokine action before organ failure. Statins and diacerein have pleiotropic effects, such as the blockage of inflammatory signaling pathways, suggesting that these drugs may be an attractive therapeutic or prophylactic strategy against sepsis...
2018: Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755549/evaluation-of-diabetogenic-mechanism-of-high-fat-diet-in-combination-with-arsenic-exposure-in-male-mice
#12
Akram Ahangarpour, Soheila Alboghobeish, Mohsen Rezaei, Mohammad Javad Khodayar, Ali Akbar Oroojan, Marzieh Zainvand
Obesity is a main reason of type 2 diabetes and also chronic exposure to arsenic (As) can produce diabetic symptoms. In previous studies, the association between high-fat diet and arsenic in the incidence of diabetes was found, but the role of beta cells activity, liver mitochondrial oxidative stress, and hepatic enzymes (leptin, adiponectin and beta amylase) was unclear. Thus, present study was conducted to evaluate the diabetogenic mechanism of arsenic followed by concomitant administration of high-fat diet (HFD) in male mice...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755364/early-effects-of-a-low-fat-fructose-rich-diet-on-liver-metabolism-insulin-signaling-and-oxidative-stress-in-young-and-adult-rats
#13
Raffaella Crescenzo, Luisa Cigliano, Arianna Mazzoli, Rosa Cancelliere, Rosa Carotenuto, Margherita Tussellino, Giovanna Liverini, Susanna Iossa
The increase in the use of refined food, which is rich in fructose, is of particular concern in children and adolescents, since the total caloric intake and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome are increasing continuously in these populations. Nevertheless, the effects of high fructose diet have been mostly investigated in adults, by focusing on the effect of a long-term fructose intake. Notably, some reports evidenced that even short-term fructose intake exerts detrimental effects on metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the metabolic changes induced by the fructose-rich diet in rats of different age, i...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754817/vitamin-d-switches-baf-complexes-to-protect-%C3%AE-cells
#14
Zong Wei, Eiji Yoshihara, Nanhai He, Nasun Hah, Weiwei Fan, Antonio F M Pinto, Timothy Huddy, Yuhao Wang, Brittany Ross, Gabriela Estepa, Yang Dai, Ning Ding, Mara H Sherman, Sungsoon Fang, Xuan Zhao, Christopher Liddle, Annette R Atkins, Ruth T Yu, Michael Downes, Ronald M Evans
A primary cause of disease progression in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is β cell dysfunction due to inflammatory stress and insulin resistance. However, preventing β cell exhaustion under diabetic conditions is a major therapeutic challenge. Here, we identify the vitamin D receptor (VDR) as a key modulator of inflammation and β cell survival. Alternative recognition of an acetylated lysine in VDR by bromodomain proteins BRD7 and BRD9 directs association to PBAF and BAF chromatin remodeling complexes, respectively...
May 7, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753610/improvement-of-hyperglycemia-in-a-murine-model-of-insulin-resistance-and-high-glucose-and-inflammasome-mediated-il-1%C3%AE-expressions-in-macrophages-by-silymarin
#15
Chun-Ping Lu, Chien-Yu Huang, Szu-Hsuan Wang, Chih-Hsien Chiu, Lan-Hui Li, Kuo-Feng Hua, Tzu-Hua Wu
Macrophages and inflammasome pathway are involved in high-glucose toxicity and development of insulin resistance. Silymarin (SMR) was known to modulate glucose homeostasis and reduce inflammation. However, it is still unknown whether SMR possess anti-hyperglycemic effects in diabetic-like knockout mice (Hnf-1αkin/- /Ins.cre mice) with insulin resistance and also unclear how SMR regulates LPS induced stress markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines under stresses of high glucose (HG) or NLRP3 inflammasome activation...
May 10, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752628/correlation-between-heat-shock-proteins-adiponectin-and-t-lymphocyte-cytokine-expression-in-type-2-diabetics
#16
Fadia F Mahmoud, David Haines, Ali A Dashti, Sherief El-Shazly, Fawzia Al-Najjar
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) features insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, overproduction of inflammatory cytokines, and systemic oxidative stress. Here, heat shock proteins Hsp70 and Hsp 90, adiponectin, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, Hsp32) are profiled in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and serum from 25 T2DM patients and 25 healthy control subjects. Cells cultured with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycin were evaluated by three-color flow cytometry for immunophenotypic biomarkers...
May 11, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747118/hydroxytyrosol-ameliorates-insulin-resistance-by-modulating-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-prevents-hepatic-steatosis-in-diet-induced-obesity-mice
#17
Ningning Wang, Yang Liu, Yanan Ma, Deliang Wen
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a principal organelle responsible for energy and nutrient management. Its dysfunction has been viewed in the context of obesity and related glucolipid metabolic disorders. However, therapeutic approaches to improve ER adaptation and systemic energy balance in obesity are limited. Thus, we examined whether hydroxytyrosol (HT), an important polyphenolic compound found in virgin olive oil, could correct the metabolic impairments in diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. Here, we found that HT gavage for 10 weeks significantly ameliorated glucose homeostasis and chronic inflammation and decreased hepatic steatosis in DIO mice...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733945/the-role-of-xanthine-oxidoreductase-and-uric-acid-in-metabolic-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Maria Giulia Battelli, Massimo Bortolotti, Letizia Polito, Andrea Bolognesi
Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) could contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome through the oxidative stress and the inflammatory response induced by XOR-derived reactive oxygen species and uric acid. Hyperuricemia is strongly linked to hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. The serum level of XOR is correlated to triglyceride/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, fasting glycemia, fasting insulinemia and insulin resistance index. Increased activity of endothelium-linked XOR may promote hypertension...
May 4, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733850/chronic-intermittent-hypobaric-hypoxia-protects-vascular-endothelium-by-ameliorating-autophagy-in-metabolic-syndrome-rats
#19
Fang Cui, Yue Guan, Jing Guo, Yan-Ming Tian, Hao-Fei Hu, Xiang-Jian Zhang, Yi Zhang
AIMS: The study aimed to investigate the protective effect of chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) on endothelium function and relaxation of mesenteric artery in metabolism syndrome (MS) rats. MAIN METHODS: Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control (CON), CIHH (treated with 28-days hypobaric hypoxia simulating an altitude of 5000 m, 6 h daily), MS (induced by high fat diet and 10% fructose water feeding), and MS + CIHH groups...
May 4, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733327/peroxiredoxin2-deficiency-aggravates-aging-induced-insulin-resistance-and-declines-muscle-strength
#20
Hye-Na Cha, Soyoung Park, Yongwook Dan, Jae-Ryong Kim, So-Young Park
This study examined the role of peroxiredoxin2 (Prx2) in aging-induced insulin resistance and reduction in skeletal muscle function in young (2-month-old) and old (24-month-old) Prx2 knockout (KO) and wild-type mice. Plasma insulin levels increased with aging in Prx2 KO mice but not in wild-type mice. Insulin sensitivity in the whole-body and skeletal muscle as assessed with the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was lower in Prx2 KO mice than in wild-type mice in the old group but was not significantly different between the two genotypes in the young group...
May 4, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
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