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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351480/mechanistically-different-effects-of-fat-and-sugar-on-insulin-resistance-hypertension-and-gut-microbiota-in-rats
#1
Sara Ramos-Romero, Mercè Hereu, Lidia Atienza, Josefina Casas, Olga Jáuregui, Susana Amézqueta, Gabriel Dasilva, Isabel Medina, Maria Rosa Nogués, Marta Romeu, Josep Lluís Torres
Insulin resistance (IR) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are the first manifestations of diet-induced metabolic alterations leading to type-2 diabetes, while hypertension is the deadliest risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The roles of dietary fat and fructose in the development of IR, IGT and hypertension are controversial. We tested the long-term effects of an excess of fat or sucrose (fructose/glucose) on healthy male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Fat affects IR and IGT earlier than fructose through low-grade systemic inflammation evidenced by liver inflammatory infiltration, increased levels of plasma interleukin-6, prostaglandin E2 and reduced levels of protective short-chain fatty acids without triggering hypertension...
January 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349632/growth-performance-and-protective-effect-of-vitamin-e-on-oxidative-stress-pufferfish-takifugu-obscurus-following-by-ammonia-stress
#2
Chang-Hong Cheng, Zhi-Xun Guo, An-Li Wang
This study was conducted to determine the effects of vitamin E on growth performance, biochemical parameters, and antioxidant capacity of pufferfish (Takifugu obscurus) exposed to ammonia stress. The experimental basal diets supplemented with vitamin E at the rates of 2.31 (control), 21.84, 40.23, 83.64, 158.93, and 311.64 mg kg-1 dry weight were fed to fish for 60 days. After the feeding trial, the fish were exposed to 100 mg L-1 ammonia-nitrogen for 48 h. The results shown that the vitamin E group significantly improved weight gain, specific growth rate, and the expression levels of growth hormone receptors and insulin-like growth factor...
January 18, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343256/the-effects-of-green-cardamom-supplementation-on-blood-glucose-lipids-profile-oxidative-stress-sirtuin-1-and-irisin-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#3
Mohadeseh Aghasi, Shohreh Ghazi-Zahedi, Fariba Koohdani, Fereydoun Siassi, Ensieh Nasli-Esfahani, Ali Keshavarz, Mostafa Qorbani, Hoorieh Khoshamal, Asma Salari-Moghaddam, Gity Sotoudeh
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hypolipidemic activities of cardamom may improve diabetes. However, the effect of this spice has not been investigated in diabetic subjects. This study was planned to determine the effects of green cardamom on blood glucose, lipids and oxidative stress status in type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS/DESIGN: Eighty overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes will be selected. They will be randomly assigned to receive 3 g/d green cardamom or placebo for 10 weeks...
January 17, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342113/mitochondria-oxidative-stress-and-the-kynurenine-system-with-a-focus-on-ageing-and-neuroprotection
#4
REVIEW
Katalin Sas, Elza Szabó, László Vécsei
In this review, the potential causes of ageing are discussed. We seek to gain insight into the main physiological functions of mitochondria and discuss alterations in their function and the genome, which are supposed to be the central mechanisms in senescence. We conclude by presenting the potential modulating role of the kynurenine pathway in the ageing processes. Mitochondrial dynamics are supposed to have important physiological roles in maintaining cell homeostasis. During ageing, a decrease in mitochondrial dynamics was reported, potentially compromising the function of mitochondria...
January 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341349/peroxiredoxin-4-prdx4-its-critical-in-vivo-roles-in-animal-models-of-metabolic-syndrome-ranging-from-atherosclerosis-to-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#5
REVIEW
Sohsuke Yamada, Xin Guo
The peroxiredoxin (PRDX) family, a new family of proteins with a pivotal antioxidative function, is ubiquitously synthesized and abundantly identified in various organisms. In contrast to the intracellular localization of other family members (PRDX1/2/3/5/6), PRDX4 is the only known secretory form and protects against oxidative damage by scavenging reactive oxygen species in both the intracellular (especially the endoplasmic reticulum) compartments and the extracellular space. We generated unique human PRDX4 (hPRDX4) transgenic (Tg) mice on a C57BL/6J background and investigated the critical and diverse protective roles of PRDX4 against diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as well as evaluated its role in the intestinal function in various animal models...
January 17, 2018: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337057/heterogeneity-of-autophagic-status-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-under-metabolic-stress
#6
Mai Kamitani, Takeshi Miyatsuka, Masaki Miura, Kosuke Azuma, Luka Suzuki, Miwa Himuro, Takehiro Katahira, Yuya Nishida, Yoshio Fujitani, Hirotaka Watada
Autophagy in β cells has been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in cellular homeostasis and the progression of glucose intolerance. Although autophagic activity is affected by metabolic stress both in vivo and in vitro, it remains unclear as to what extent the autophagic status in each β cell is different from its neighboring cells. To address this question, GFP-LC3 reporter mice, which can visualize the autophagic status of each β cell as green-fluorescent puncta, were crossed with obese diabetic db/db mice...
January 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336982/il-6-receptor-blockade-ameliorates-diabetic-nephropathy-via-inhibiting-inflammasome-in-mice
#7
Rui Wu, Xuanchen Liu, Jianyong Yin, Huijuan Wu, Xiulei Cai, Niansong Wang, Youcun Qian, Feng Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Interleukin 6 (IL-6) has been identified as a key mediator in inflammation, immune responses and glucose metabolism. In this study, we assessed the effects of an IL-6 receptor antibody on diabetic nephropathy in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Twelve week old male db/db mice were treated with Tocilizumab (an IL-6 receptor antibody), normal IgG1 control antibody, insulin or normal saline for 12 weeks. Renal injury, inflammation and insulin resistance were assessed...
January 11, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329795/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-adipose-tissue-biology
#8
REVIEW
Ondrej Kuda, Martin Rossmeisl, Jan Kopecky
This review provides evidence for the importance of white and brown adipose tissue (i.e. WAT and BAT) function for the maintenance of healthy metabolic phenotype and its preservation in response to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFA), namely in the context of diseased states linked to aberrant accumulation of body fat, systemic low-grade inflammation, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. More specifically, the review deals with (i) the concept of immunometabolism, i.e. how adipose-resident immune cells and adipocytes affect each other and define the immune-metabolic interface; and (ii) the characteristic features of "healthy adipocytes" in WAT, which are relatively small fat cells endowed with a high capacity for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, triacylglycerol/fatty acid (TAG/FA) cycling and de novo lipogenesis (DNL)...
January 9, 2018: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328028/-skin-pathology-in-diabetes-mellitus-clinical-and-pathophysiological-correlations-review
#9
K Kochet, I Lytus, I Svistunov, O Sulaieva
Skin pathology is registered in vast majority of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Despite the abundance of publications on dermatological problems in DM, there is still a number of gaps to be discussed in terms of pathophysiological mechanisms. The goal of this review was to assess the mechanisms of development of different skin pathologies under DM. One of the key pathogenic mechanisms of skin lesions in diabetes is hyperglycemia and the effects of the advanced glycation end products, inducing oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation; that in its turn can accelerate the mechanisms of skin aging, the development of diabetic dermopathy and scleredema diabeticorum...
December 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327118/effect-of-cpap-therapy-on-liver-disease-in-patients-with-osa-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Xin Liu, Yuyang Miao, Fan Wu, Tingting Du, Qiang Zhang
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may play an important role in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).The effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment, the first-line therapy for OSA, on liver disease in OSA patients is still debated. We provide this review of previous studies to summarize the effects of CPAP treatment on liver disease in OSA patients in aspects of liver function, liver steatosis, fibrosis, and incidence of liver disease. CPAP treatment may be beneficial to liver disease in subjects with OSA independent of metabolic risk factors, but a sufficiently long therapeutic duration (perhaps greater than 3 months) may be needed to achieve these positive effects...
January 11, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321950/manifestations-of-renal-impairment-in-fructose-induced-metabolic-syndrome
#11
Kameliya Bratoeva, George S Stoyanov, Albena Merdzhanova, Mariya Radanova
Introduction International studies show an increased incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). It is assumed that the major components of MS - obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension - are linked to renal damage through the systemic release of several pro-inflammatory mediators, such as uric acid (UA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and generalized oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent of kidney impairment and manifestations of dysfunction in rats with fructose-induced MS...
November 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321684/leptin-and-the-maintenance-of-elevated-body-weight
#12
REVIEW
Warren W Pan, Martin G Myers
Obesity represents the single most important risk factor for early disability and death in developed societies, and the incidence of obesity remains at staggering levels. CNS systems that modulate energy intake and expenditure in response to changes in body energy stores serve to maintain constant body adiposity; the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin and its receptor (LEPR) represent crucial regulators of these systems. As in the case of insulin resistance, a variety of mechanisms (including feedback inhibition, inflammation, gliosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress) have been proposed to interfere with leptin action and impede the systems that control body energy homeostasis to promote or maintain obesity, although the relative importance and contribution of each of these remain unclear...
January 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317435/skeletal-muscle-specific-deletion-of-mkp-1-reveals-a-p38-mapk-jnk-akt-signaling-node-that-regulates-obesity-induced-insulin-resistance
#13
Ahmed Lawan, Kisuk Min, Lei Zhang, Alberto Canfran-Duque, Michael J Jurczak, Joao Paulo G Camporez, Yaohui Nie, Timothy P Gavin, Gerald I Shulman, Carlos Hernandez-Fernando, Anton M Bennett
Stress responses promote obesity and insulin resistance, in part, by activating the stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), p38 MAPK and c-Jun NH2 kinase (JNK). Stress also induces expression of MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), which inactivates both JNK and p38 MAPK. However, the equilibrium between JNK/p38 MAPK and MKP-1 signaling in the development of obesity and insulin resistance is unclear. Skeletal muscle is a major tissue involved in energy expenditure and glucose metabolism. In skeletal muscle, MKP-1 is upregulated in high fat-diet fed mice and in skeletal muscle of obese humans...
January 9, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316965/decreased-microglial-activation-through-gut-brain-axis-by-prebiotics-probiotics-or-synbiotics-effectively-restored-cognitive-function-in-obese-insulin-resistant-rats
#14
Titikorn Chunchai, Wannipa Thunapong, Sakawdaurn Yasom, Keerati Wanchai, Sathima Eaimworawuthikul, Gabrielle Metzler, Anusorn Lungkaphin, Anchalee Pongchaidecha, Sasithorn Sirilun, Chaiyavat Chaiyasut, Wasana Pratchayasakul, Parameth Thiennimitr, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
BACKGROUND: Chronic high-fat diet (HFD) consumption caused not only obese-insulin resistance, but also cognitive decline and microglial hyperactivity. Modified gut microbiota by prebiotics and probiotics improved obese-insulin resistance. However, the effects of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics on cognition and microglial activity in an obese-insulin resistant condition have not yet been investigated. We aimed to evaluate the effect of prebiotic (Xyloolidosaccharide), probiotic (Lactobacillus paracasei HII01), or synbiotics in male obese-insulin resistant rats induced by a HFD...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316632/excessive-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-correlates-with-impaired-mitochondrial-dynamics-mitophagy-and-apoptosis-in-liver-and-adipose-tissue-but-not-in-muscles-in-ems-horses
#15
Krzysztof Marycz, Katarzyna Kornicka, Jolanta Szlapka-Kosarzewska, Christine Weiss
Nowadays, endocrine disorders have become more frequent in both human and veterinary medicine. In horses, reduced physical activity combined with carbohydrate and sugar overload may result in the development of the so-called equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). EMS is characterized by insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, elevated blood triglyceride concentrations and usually obesity. Although the phenotypic features of EMS individuals are well known, the molecular mechanism underlying disease development remains elusive...
January 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316242/sustained-high-fat-diet-modulates-inflammation-insulin-signalling-and-cognition-in-mice-and-a-modified-xenin-peptide-ameliorates-neuropathology-in-a-chronic-high-fat-model
#16
Paul Denver, Victor A Gault, Paula L McClean
AIMS: Metabolic disease increases risk of Alzheimer's disease and cognitive dysfunction. Chronic high fat diet (HFD) feeding leads to cognitive impairment and neuroinflammation. This study demarcated pathological events in brain as a result of short-term to chronic HFD feeding. Efficacy of Xenin-25[Lys(13)PAL] was assessed in chronic HFD-fed mice. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD or normal diet for 18 days, 34 days, 10 and 21 weeks. Cognition was assessed using novel object recognition and Morris water maze...
January 5, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311488/role-of-supplementary-selenium-on-the-induction-of-insulin-resistance-and-oxidative-stress-in-nsy-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#17
Koichi Murano, Hirofumi Ogino, Tomofumi Okuno, Tomohiro Arakawa, Hitoshi Ueno
The role of supplementary selenium on the induction of insulin resistance and oxidative stress in a diabetic mouse model was investigated in NSY mice on a high fat diet (HFD) and administered seleno-L-methionine (SeMet)-containing water for 12 weeks. Significant increases in oral glucose tolerance-tested (OGTT), insulin tolerance-tested, and non-fasting blood glucose levels were observed in mice on a HFD, as well as the significant increases in OGTT and non-fasting plasma insulin levels. Mice on a HFD had decreased plasma adiponectin levels and increased free fatty acid (FFA) levels...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307112/the-influences-of-chromium-supplementation-on-glycemic-control-markers-of-cardio-metabolic-risk-and-oxidative-stress-in-infertile-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-women-candidate-for-in-vitro-fertilization-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#18
Mehri Jamilian, Shahrzad Zadeh Modarres, Mehrnush Amiri Siavashani, Maryam Karimi, Alireza Mafi, Vahidreza Ostadmohammadi, Zatollah Asemi
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of chromium intake on glycemic control, markers of cardio-metabolic risk, and oxidative stress in infertile polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women candidate for in vitro fertilization (IVF). This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was done among 40 subjects with infertile PCOS candidate for IVF, aged 18-40 years old. Individuals were randomly allocated into two groups to take either 200 μg/day of chromium (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) for 8 weeks...
January 6, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306246/hyperbolic-relation-between-beta-cell-function-and-insulin-sensitivity-for-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-malaria-influenza-helicobacter-pylori-chlamydia-pneumoniae-and-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-induced-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-temporary-insulin-resistance
#19
Jean Bosco Kasiam Lasi On'kin, Benjamin Longo-Mbenza, Venant Tchokonte-Nana, Augustin Nge Okwe, Nelly Kangola Kabangu
Background/aim: We calculated the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) for estimating insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in normal, healthy nondiabetics with infections (malaria, influenza, HIV, Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and hepatitis C virus), type 2 diabetic black patients, and healthy controls from Kinshasa, DR Congo. Materials and methods: A case-control study was carried out between 2006 and 2007 for black Central African participants managed for HOMA.Results: In total, 219 patients and 110 healthy controls were matched for sex and age...
December 19, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305434/modulation-of-the-il-33-il-13-axis-in-obesity-by-il-13r%C3%AE-2
#20
Jennifer Duffen, Melvin Zhang, Katherine Masek-Hammerman, Angela Nunez, Agnes Brennan, Jessica E C Jones, Jeffrey Morin, Karl Nocka, Marion Kasaian
In obesity, IL-13 overcomes insulin resistance by promoting anti-inflammatory macrophage differentiation in adipose tissue. Endogenous IL-13 levels can be modulated by the IL-13 decoy receptor, IL-13Rα2, which inactivates and depletes the cytokine. In this study, we show that IL-13Rα2 is markedly elevated in adipose tissues of obese mice. Mice deficient in IL-13Rα2 had high expression of IL-13 response markers in adipose tissue, consistent with increased IL-13 activity at baseline. Moreover, exposure to the type 2 cytokine-inducing alarmin, IL-33, enhanced serum and tissue IL-13 concentrations and elevated tissue eosinophils, macrophages, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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