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muscle mass, strength training, weight loss

Tatiana Moro, Grant Tinsley, Antonino Bianco, Giuseppe Marcolin, Quirico Francesco Pacelli, Giuseppe Battaglia, Antonio Palma, Paulo Gentil, Marco Neri, Antonio Paoli
BACKGROUND: Intermittent fasting (IF) is an increasingly popular dietary approach used for weight loss and overall health. While there is an increasing body of evidence demonstrating beneficial effects of IF on blood lipids and other health outcomes in the overweight and obese, limited data are available about the effect of IF in athletes. Thus, the present study sought to investigate the effects of a modified IF protocol (i.e. time-restricted feeding) during resistance training in healthy resistance-trained males...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
David Scott, Barbora de Courten, Peter R Ebeling
The incidence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in Australia's older adult population. Sarcopenia, the age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass, quality and function, may make a significant but under-appreciated contribution to increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes. As skeletal muscle is the largest insulin-sensitive tissue in the body, low muscle mass in sarcopenia likely results in reduced capacity for glucose disposal. Age-related declines in muscle quality, including increased mitochondrial dysfunction and fat infiltration, are also implicated in skeletal muscle inflammation and subsequent insulin resistance...
October 3, 2016: Medical Journal of Australia
Timothy J Schultz, Peter Roupas, Richard Wiechula, Debra Krause, Susan Gravier, Anthony Tuckett, Sonia Hines, Alison Kitson
BACKGROUND: Optimizing body composition for healthy aging in the community is a significant challenge. There are a number of potential interventions available for older people to support both weight gain (for those who are underweight) and weight loss (for overweight or obese people). While the benefits of weight gain for underweight people are generally clearly defined, the value of weight loss in overweight or obese people is less clear, particularly for older people. OBJECTIVES: This umbrella review aimed to measure the effectiveness of nutritional interventions for optimizing healthy body composition in older adults living in the community and to explore theirqualitative perceptions...
August 2016: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Katie R Hirsch, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Eric T Trexler, Erica J Roelofs
The purpose of this study was to evaluate event-specific body composition and muscle characteristics of track and field athletes and to assess body composition changes after 1 year. Sixty collegiate track and field athletes (mean ± SD; age = 19.2 ± 1.4 years, height = 174.6 ± 9.0 cm, and weight = 71.5 ± 12.5 kg) were stratified into 6 event groups. Total and regional body composition measurements were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. A panoramic scan of the vastus lateralis was taken with B-mode ultrasound to determine muscle cross-sectional area and echo intensity (EI)...
May 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Andy V Khamoui, Bong-Sup Park, Do-Houn Kim, Ming-Chia Yeh, Seung-Lyul Oh, Marcus L Elam, Edward Jo, Bahram H Arjmandi, Gloria Salazar, Samuel C Grant, Robert J Contreras, Won Jun Lee, Jeong-Su Kim
PURPOSE: The appropriate mode of exercise training for cancer cachexia is not well-established. Using the colon-26 (C26) mouse model of cancer cachexia, we defined and compared the skeletal muscle responses to aerobic and resistance training. METHODS: Twelve-month old Balb/c mice were initially assigned to control, aerobic training (AT; wheel running), or resistance training (RT; ladder climbing) (n=16-17/group). After 8weeks of training, half of each group was injected with C26 tumor cells, followed by 3 additional weeks of training...
May 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
G D Miller, S L Robinson
BACKGROUND: Although obesity is a recognized risk factor for impaired physical function in older adults, there is still debate on whether older obese adults should undergo intentional weight loss due to concern of loss in lean body mass, including appendicular lean soft tissue mass. This may put them at risk for worsening muscle strength and mobility. OBJECTIVES: Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a weight loss intervention on body composition and physical function in obese older women...
2013: Journal of Frailty & Aging
Sameh Ghroubi, Wassia Kossemtini, Sawssan Mahersi, Wafa Elleuch, Mokhtar Chaabene, Mohamed Habib Elleuch
AIMS: Our objective was to evaluate the specific effect of isokinetic muscle strength enhancement in the rehabilitation of obese subjects by comparing two groups (isokinetic muscle exercising associated with aerobic exercising or only aerobic exercising). PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a randomized, prospective study from January 2008 to December 2009 involving 40 obese patients randomized into two groups. The first group G1 (n=20) followed a program of aerobic training and isokinetic exercising of the extensor and flexor muscles of lower limbs and spine...
April 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Vanessa M McDonald, Peter G Gibson, Hayley A Scott, Penelope J Baines, Michael J Hensley, Jeffrey J Pretto, Lisa G Wood
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Obesity is an established risk factor for poor health outcomes, but paradoxically in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), it is associated with improved survival and lung function. A major evidence gap exisits to inform treatment recommendations for patients with COPD who are obese. We aimed to determine the effect of weight reduction involving a low-energy diet utilizing a partial meal replacement plan, coupled with resistance exercise training in obese COPD patients...
July 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Joel Edionwe, Cameron Hess, Javier Fernandez-Rio, David N Herndon, Clark R Andersen, Gordon L Klein, Oscar E Suman, William E Amonette
BACKGROUND: Loss of bone mass, muscle mass, and strength leads to significant disability in severely burned children. We assessed the effects of exercise combined with whole-body vibration (WBV) on bone mass, lean mass (LM), and muscle strength in children recovering from burns. METHODS: Nineteen burned children (≥30% total body surface area [TBSA] burns) were randomly assigned to a 6-week exercise regimen either alone (EX; n=10) or in combination with a 6-week WBV training regimen (EX+WBV; n=9)...
May 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Wesley David Dudgeon, Elizabeth Page Kelley, Timothy Paul Scheett
BACKGROUND: Athletes and active adults many times have the goal of improving/maintaining fitness while losing weight and this is best achieved by caloric restriction in combination with exercise. However, this poses a risk for lean tissue loss, which can limit performance. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplement, in conjunction with heavy resistance training and a carbohydrate caloric-restricted "cut diet" on body composition and muscle fitness...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
S A Mohamed, N Lamya, N Olfa, M Hamda
BACKGROUND: regular exercise is one of the factors determining weight reduction and fat loss, and at the same time it is associated with important health benefits. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 2 different modalities of exercise on changes in body composition, physical fitness, and CVR factors in healthy overweight and obese women. METHODS: Thirty-two women were randomly assigned in 2 groups: High impact aerobics group (HIA, n=16) and Low- impact aerobics combined with a strength training program group (LIAS, n=16)...
November 26, 2015: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Kyle Levers, Ryan Dalton, Elfego Galvan, Chelsea Goodenough, Abigail O'Connor, Sunday Simbo, Nicholas Barringer, Susanne U Mertens-Talcott, Christopher Rasmussen, Mike Greenwood, Steven Riechman, Stephen Crouse, Richard B Kreider
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine whether short-term ingestion of a powdered tart cherry supplement prior to and following intense resistance-exercise attenuates muscle soreness and recovery strength loss, while reducing markers of muscle damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy, resistance-trained men (20.9 ± 2.6 yr, 14.2 ± 5.4% body fat, 63.9 ± 8.6 kg FFM) were matched based on relative maximal back squat strength, age, body weight, and fat free mass...
2015: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Lynae J Hanks, Tina Simpson, Kenneth McCormick, Krista Casazza
Current pediatric obesity interventions have collectively yielded relatively unsuccessful results. In this Field of Vision, we present plausible physiologic underpinnings fostering ineffectiveness of conventional strategies grounded in requisite induction of negative energy imbalance. Moreover, such recommendations exacerbate the underlying metabolic dysfunction by further limiting metabolic fuel availability, lowering energy expenditure, and increasing hunger (recapitulating the starvation response amid apparent nutritional adequacy) which precede and promote obesity during growth and development...
November 8, 2015: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
Liang Tang, Xiaohang Gao, Xiaoying Yang, Chentao Liu, Xudan Wang, Yanqi Han, Xinjuan Zhao, Aiping Chi, Lijun Sun
Resistance exercise has been proved to be effective in improving bone quality in both animal and human studies. However, the issue about whether resistance exercise can inhibit obesity-induced bone loss has not been previously investigated. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of ladder-climbing training, one of the resistance exercises, on bone mechanical properties and microarchitecture in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese rats. Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned to the Control, HF + sedentary (HF-S) and HF + ladder-climbing training (HF-LCT) groups...
January 2016: Calcified Tissue International
Sabine Goisser, Wolfgang Kemmler, Simone Porzel, Dorothee Volkert, Cornel Christian Sieber, Leo Cornelius Bollheimer, Ellen Freiberger
One of the many threats to independent life is the age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle function commonly referred to as sarcopenia. Another important health risk in old age leading to functional decline is obesity. Obesity prevalence in older persons is increasing, and like sarcopenia, severe obesity has been consistently associated with several negative health outcomes, disabilities, falls, and mobility limitations. Both sarcopenia and obesity pose a health risk for older persons per se, but in combination, they synergistically increase the risk for negative health outcomes and an earlier onset of disability...
2015: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Stephan von Haehling
Sarcopenia (muscle wasting) and cachexia share some pathophysiological aspects. Sarcopenia affects approximately 20 %, cachexia <10 % of ambulatory patients with heart failure (HF). Whilst sarcopenia means loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength that predominantly affects postural rather than non-postural muscles, cachexia means loss of muscle and fat tissue that leads to weight loss. The wasting continuum in HF implies that skeletal muscle is lost earlier than fat tissue and may lead from sarcopenia to cachexia...
November 2015: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
B Bajer, M Vlcek, A Galusova, R Imrich, A Penesova
Obesity management for achieving an effective weight loss includes dietary modification and exercise [resistance (strength), endurance (cardiovascular) or intervals training (high-intensity intermittent exercise)]. Regular exercise acutely increases fat oxidation, which induces loss of fat mass and increases energy expenditure. Moreover, it has a positive effect on the physical (improved insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, etc.) and mental health (mood, cognition, memory, sleep, etc.). Endocrine responses to muscle actions are affected by many factors, including the exercise muscle groups (lower and upper body), load/volume, time-under tension, and rest-period intervals between sets, training status, gender, and age...
July 2015: Endocrine Regulations
David Scott, Robin M Daly, Kerrie M Sanders, Peter R Ebeling
Due to their differing etiologies and consequences, it has been proposed that the term "sarcopenia" should revert to its original definition of age-related muscle mass declines, with a separate term, "dynapenia", describing muscle strength and function declines. There is increasing interest in the interactions of sarcopenia and dynapenia with obesity. Despite an apparent protective effect of obesity on fracture, increased adiposity may compromise bone health, and the presence of sarcopenia and/or dynapenia ("sarcopenic obesity" and "dynapenic obesity") may exacerbate the risk of falls and fracture in obese older adults...
August 2015: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Sussi F Buhl, Aino L Andersen, Jens R Andersen, Ove Andersen, Jens-Erik B Jensen, Anne Mette L Rasmussen, Mette M Pedersen, Lars Damkjær, Hanne Gilkes, Janne Petersen
BACKGROUND & AIM: Stress metabolism is associated with accelerated loss of muscle that has large consequences for the old medical patient. The aim of this study was to investigate if an intervention combining protein and resistance training was more effective in counteracting loss of muscle than standard care. Secondary outcomes were changes in muscle strength, functional ability and body weight. METHODS: 29 acutely admitted old (>65 years) patients were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 14) or to standard care (n = 15)...
February 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Barbara J Nicklas, Elizabeth Chmelo, Osvaldo Delbono, J Jeffrey Carr, Mary F Lyles, Anthony P Marsh
BACKGROUND: Resistance training (RT) improves muscle strength and overall physical function in older adults. RT may be particularly important in the obese elderly who have compromised muscle function. Whether caloric restriction (CR) acts synergistically with RT to enhance function is unknown. OBJECTIVE: As the primary goal of the Improving Muscle for Functional Independence Trial (I'M FIT), we determined the effects of adding CR for weight loss on muscle and physical function responses to RT in older overweight and obese adults...
May 2015: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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