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Basic airway management

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134245/esophageal-pressure-research-or-clinical-tool
#1
REVIEW
E Baedorf Kassis, S H Loring, D Talmor
Esophageal manometry has traditionally been utilized for respiratory physiology research, but clinicians have recently found numerous applications within the intensive care unit. Esophageal pressure (PEs) is a surrogate for pleural pressures (PPl), and the difference between airway pressure (PAO) and PEs provides a good estimate for the pressure across the lung also known as the transpulmonary pressure (PL). Differentiating the effects of mechanical ventilation and spontaneous breathing on the respiratory system, chest wall, and across the lung allows for improved personalization in clinical decision making...
November 13, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112511/an-anesthesiologist-s-perspective-on-the-history-of-basic-airway-management-the-progressive-era-1904-to-1960
#2
Adrian A Matioc
This third installment of the history of basic airway management discusses the transitional-"progressive"-years of anesthesia from 1904 to 1960. During these 56 yr, airway management was provided primarily by basic techniques with or without the use of a face mask. Airway maneuvers were inherited from the artisanal era: head extension and mandibular advancement. The most common maneuver was head extension, also used in bronchoscopy and laryngoscopy. Basic airway management success was essential for traditional inhalation anesthesia (ether, chloroform) and for the use of the new anesthetic agents (cyclopropane, halothane) and intravenous drugs (thiopental, curare, succinylcholine)...
November 7, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826280/severe-therapy-resistant-asthma-in-children-translational-approaches-to-uncover-sub-phenotypes
#3
Aldara Martin Alonso, Valentina Fainardi, Sejal Saglani
Paediatric severe therapy resistant asthma (STRA) affects a very small proportion of all children with asthma, but results in significant morbidity, has a high risk of mortality and utilises approximately half of all healthcare resources for childhood asthma. children with STRA need add-on 'beyond guidelines' therapies because of poor control despite maximal conventional treatments and optimisation of basic asthma management. however, STRA is heterogeneous with marked phenotypic variation between patients and mechanisms from adult severe asthma cannot be extrapolated to children...
August 21, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757767/anesthesia-for-a-patient-with-unexpected-giant-tracheobronchomegaly
#4
Chien-Ching Lee, Bor-Shyh Lin, Jen-Yin Chen, Chia-Chun Chuang
Tracheobronchomegaly (also called Mounier-Kuhn syndrome) is a rare disease characterized by flaccid and markedly dilated trachea and main bronchi on inspiration with narrowing or collapse on expiration or cough. It is associated with recurrent lower respiratory tract infection. A 75-year-old man with unexpected giant tracheomegaly had a significant peritubal air leak which impeded an operation. Lumbar epidural anesthesia was performed for a subsequent operation without any sequela. Careful evaluation with chest radiography is basic to exclude a large airway...
January 2017: Ci Ji Yi Xue za Zhi, Tzu-chi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728716/thoracic-trauma-injuries-evaluation-and-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Joseph J Platz, Loic Fabricant, Mitch Norotsky
Thoracic injury is common in high-energy and low-energy trauma, and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Evaluation requires a systematic approach prioritizing airway, respiration, and circulation. Chest injuries have the potential to progress rapidly and require prompt procedural intervention. For the diagnosis of nonemergent injuries, a careful secondary survey is essential. Although medicine and trauma management have evolved throughout the decades, the basics of thoracic trauma care have remained the same...
August 2017: Surgical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693067/-chinese-expert-consensus-for-non-antiinfective-effects-and-clinical-use-of-macrolides
#6
J T Lin, Y M Zhang, X Zhou, C Z Wang, M Huang, C T Liu, C G Wu, H Y Wan, W C Yu, Y R Dai
Important/potential value of macrolides has been proved in the management of chronic respiratory diseases by increasing basic and clinical trials.Through three face-to-face discussions, 10 experts examined important data and drafted this consensus related to macrolides: (1) mechanism of non-antiinfective effects; (2) clinical use in chronic respiratory diseases; (3) cautions of long-term use.The mechanism out of non-antiinfective effects includes anti-inflammatory effect, modifying airway secretion, immune-regulation related to antibacterial effect, corticoid saving effect and anti-viral effect...
July 1, 2017: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594858/factors-associated-with-delayed-defibrillation-in-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-a-prospective-simulation-study
#7
Christoph Castan, Alexander Münch, Moritz Mahling, Leopold Haffner, Jan Griewatz, Anne Hermann-Werner, Reimer Riessen, Jörg Reutershan, Nora Celebi
INTRODUCTION: Early defibrillation is an important factor of survival in cardiac arrest. However, novice resuscitators often struggle with cardiac arrest patients. We investigated factors leading to delayed defibrillation performed by final-year medical students within a simulated bystander cardiac arrest situation. METHODS: Final-year medical students received a refresher lecture and basic life support training before being confronted with a simulated cardiac arrest situation in a simulation ambulance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553418/analysis-of-the-literature-on-chronic-cough-in-children
#8
REVIEW
Marcello Bergamini, Ahmad Kantar, Renato Cutrera, Italian Pediatric Cough Interest Group
Throughout childhood, various developmental phenomena influence the cough reflex. Among these are the modifications in the anatomy and functions of the respiratory tract and the central and peripheral nervous systems. Moreover, after birth, the immunological response undergoes progressive transformations with the acquisition of immune memory processes. These conditions make infections and airway abnormalities the overwhelming cause of chronic cough in children and infants. In children, chronic cough should be treated on the basis of etiology...
2017: Open Respiratory Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511807/does-the-novel-lateral-trauma-position-cause-more-motion-in-an-unstable-cervical-spine-injury-than-the-logroll-maneuver
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Per Kristian Hyldmo, MaryBeth Horodyski, Bryan P Conrad, Sindre Aslaksen, Jo Røislien, Mark Prasarn, Glenn R Rechtine, Eldar Søreide
OBJECTIVE: Prehospital personnel who lack advanced airway management training must rely on basic techniques when transporting unconscious trauma patients. The supine position is associated with a loss of airway patency when compared to lateral recumbent positions. Thus, an inherent conflict exists between securing an open airway using the recovery position and maintaining spinal immobilization in the supine position. The lateral trauma position is a novel technique that aims to combine airway management with spinal precautions...
November 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482805/management-of-potentially-life-threatening-emergencies-at-74-primary-level-hospitals-in-mongolia-results-of-a-prospective-observational-multicenter-study
#10
Naranpurev Mendsaikhan, Davaa Gombo, Ganbold Lundeg, Christian Schmittinger, Martin W Dünser
BACKGROUND: While the capacities to care for and epidemiology of emergency and critically ill patients have been reported for secondary and tertiary level hospitals in Mongolia, no data exist for Mongolian primary level hospitals. METHODS: In this prospective, observational multicenter study, 74 primary level hospitals of Mongolia were included. We determined the capacities of these hospitals to manage medical emergencies. Furthermore, characteristics of patients presenting with potentially life-threatening emergencies to these hospitals were evaluated during a 6 month period...
May 8, 2017: BMC Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409648/assessment-of-simulated-emergency-scenarios-are-trained-observers-necessary
#11
Juliane Noveanu, Felix Amsler, Wolfgang Ummenhofer, Thomas von Wyl, Mathias Zuercher
OBJECTIVES: Simulation-based medical training is associated with superior educational outcomes and improved cost efficiency. Self- and peer-assessment may be a cost-effective and flexible alternative to expert-led assessment. We compared accuracy of self- and peer-assessment of untrained raters using basic evaluation tools to expert assessment using advanced validation tools including validated questionnaires and post hoc video-based analysis. METHODS: Twenty-eight simulated emergency airway management scenarios were observed and video-recorded for further assessment...
July 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403406/comparison-of-effectiveness-of-two-commonly-used-two-handed-mask-ventilation-techniques-on-unconscious-apnoeic-obese-adults
#12
M Fei, J L Blair, M J Rice, D A Edwards, Y Liang, M A Pilla, M S Shotwell, Y Jiang
Background.: Mask ventilation and tracheal intubation are basic techniques for airway management and mutually inclusive rescue measures to restore ventilation. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of mask ventilation between two commonly used techniques of two-handed mask ventilation in obese unconscious apnoeic adults. Methods.: Eighty-one obese adults received mask ventilation after induction using C-E clamp and modified V-E clamp techniques in a randomized crossover manner...
April 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390510/acute-management-of-moderate-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#13
REVIEW
Wittstatt Alexandra Whitaker-Lea, Alex B Valadka
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) continues to be a major public health problem. Proposed treatments have not withstood testing in clinical trials because of failure to account for different types of TBI and other weaknesses in trial design. Management goals continue to be prevention and prompt treatment of secondary insults (hypotension, hypoxia, and other physiologic derangements). This goal is best accomplished by careful attention to airway, breathing, circulation, and basic principles of intensive care unit management...
May 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372825/trauma-care-in-india-a-review-of-the-literature
#14
Hadley K H Wesson, Mimmie Kwong
BACKGROUND: We reviewed the published literature related to prehospital and hospital trauma care in India to identify how trauma care is defined in the literature and what factors limit the delivery of appropriate trauma care. In summarizing the evidence and recommendations regarding trauma care, this review identifies essential research and development goals to address the burden of injury in India. METHODS: A review of the literature was conducted between August 2014 and September 2014...
March 31, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319487/videolaryngoscopy-in-neonates-infants-and-children
#15
Onur Balaban, Joseph D Tobias
Airway management is vital during anesthetic care and during resuscitative efforts in the PICU, the emergency department, and the delivery room. Given specific anatomic and physiologic differences, neonates and infants may be more prone to complications during airway management. Videolaryngoscopy may offer an alternative to or advantages over direct laryngoscopy in specific clinical scenarios. The following article reviews some of the basic types of videolaryngoscopy and discusses their potential applications in the pediatric population...
May 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314465/data-capture-and-communication-during-transfers-to-definitive-care-in-an-inclusive-trauma-system
#16
Nori L Bradley, Naisan Garraway, Nathaniel Bell, Nasira Lakha, S Morad Hameed
INTRODUCTION: Background trauma survivors in rural areas transferred to urban centers have higher mortality than trauma patients admitted directly to urban centers. Transfer data in trauma registries is important for injury control. Prehospital and early physiologic data may reflect processes of pre-hospital care. British Columbia currently has no standardized process for trauma patient data transfer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective data analysis for major trauma patients (ISS>15) transferred to a Level I trauma center over a 1year period (n=243)...
November 5, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138763/-haemoptysis-intensive-care-management-of-pulmonary-hemorrhage
#17
J H Ficker, W M Brückl, J Suc, A Geise
There is a wide spectrum of severities in patients with pulmonary bleeding with a range from mild haemoptysis to severe bleeding with an acute risk of asphyxiation. For the management of acute pulmonary haemorrhage, it is essential to identify the underlying cause in order to initiate a target-oriented or causal therapy. The most common causes of localized pulmonary bleeding are lung cancer as well as infections, anticoagulant therapy or bronchiectasis. Diffuse alveolar haemorrhage is mostly due to pulmonary vasculitis or connective tissue disease, but may also occur in pulmonary metastasis, congestive heart failure, coagulation disorders and from many other causes...
March 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079564/an-anesthesiologist-s-perspective-on-the-history-of-basic-airway-management-the-artisanal-anesthetic-era-1846-to-1904
#18
Adrian A Matioc
This second installment of the history of basic airway management covers the early-artisanal-years of anesthesia from 1846 to 1904. Anesthesia was invented and practiced as a supporting specialty in the context of great surgical and medical advances. The current-day anesthesia provider tends to equate the history of airway management with the history of intubation, but for the first 58 yr after the introduction of ether anesthesia, airway management was provided by basic airway techniques with or without the use of a face mask...
March 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079556/cardiac-arrest-obstetric-cpr-acls
#19
Benjamin Cobb, Steven Lipman
In contrast with other high-resource countries, maternal mortality has seen an increase in the United States. Caring for pregnant women in cardiac arrest may prove uniquely challenging given the rarity of the event coupled by the physiological changes of pregnancy. Optimization of resuscitative efforts warrants special attention as described in the 2015 American Heart Association's "Scientific Statement on Maternal Cardiac Arrest." Current recommendations address a variety of topics ranging from the basic components of chest compressions and airway management to some of the logistical complexities and operational challenges involved in maternal cardiac arrest...
June 2017: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066624/practical-anesthetic-considerations-in-patients-undergoing-tracheobronchial-surgeries-a-clinical-review-of-current-literature
#20
REVIEW
Sanchit Ahuja, Barak Cohen, Jochen Hinkelbein, Pierre Diemunsch, Kurt Ruetzler
Tracheobronchial surgeries require close cooperation and extensive communication between the anesthesia providers and the surgeons. Anesthetic management of tracheal and bronchial pathologies differ basically from regular upper airways management, due access to the patients airway is limited, mostly even practically impossible for the anesthesia providers. As a consequence, the surgeon overtakes responsibility for the airway access from the anesthesia provider in the variety of the cases. Preoperative recognition of a difficult airway, detailed planning and being aware of plan B and plan C are the elementary keys to success...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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