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Drosophila mirna

Xiangrui Li, Fangmei Zhang, Brad Coates, Yunhui Zhang, Xuguo Zhou, Dengfa Cheng
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, particularly during development. In this study, 345 miRNAs were identified from the English green aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), of which 168 were conserved and 177 were S. avenae-specific. Quantitative comparison of miRNA expression levels indicated that 16 and 12 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in winged and wingless S. avenae small RNA libraries, respectively. Differential expression of these miRNAs was confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR validation...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
John G Conboy
The Rbfox genes encode an ancient family of sequence-specific RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that are critical developmental regulators in multiple tissues including skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and brain. The hallmark of Rbfox proteins is a single high-affinity RRM domain, highly conserved from insects to humans, that binds preferentially to UGCAUG motifs at diverse regulatory sites in pre-mRNA introns, mRNA 3'UTRs, and pre-miRNAs hairpin structures. Versatile regulatory circuits operate on Rbfox pre-mRNA and mRNA to ensure proper expression of Rbfox1 protein isoforms, which then act on the broader transcriptome to regulate alternative splicing networks, mRNA stability and translation, and microRNA processing...
October 17, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
Geetanjali Chawla, Arthur Luhur, Nicholas Sokol
MicroRNAs are short noncoding, ~22-nucleotide RNAs that regulate protein abundance. The growth in our understanding of this class of RNAs has been rapid since their discovery just over a decade ago. We now appreciate that miRNAs are deeply embedded within the genetic networks that control basic features of metazoan cells including their identity, metabolism, and reproduction. The Drosophila melanogaster model system has made and will continue to make important contributions to this analysis. Intended as an introductory overview, here we review the current methods and resources available for functional analysis of fly miRNAs for those interested in performing this type of analysis...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Bryan D Clifton, Pablo Librado, Shu-Dan Yeh, Edwin Solares, Daphne Real, Suvini Jayasekera, Wanting Zhang, Mijuan Shi, Ronni Park, Robert Magie, Hsiu-Ching Ma, Xiao-Qin Xia, Antonio Marco, Julio Rozas, José M Ranz
Gene clusters of recently duplicated genes are hotbeds for evolutionary change. However, our understanding of how mutational mechanisms and evolutionary forces shape the structural and functional evolution of these clusters is hindered by the high sequence identity among the copies, which typically results in their inaccurate representation in genome assemblies. The presumed testis-specific, chimeric gene Sdic originated and tandemly expanded in Drosophila melanogaster, contributing to increased male-male competition...
October 3, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Takuya Mishima, Elena Sadovsky, Margaret E Gegick, Yoel Sadovsky
Manipulation of microRNA (miRNA) levels, including overexpression of mature species, has become an important biological tool, even motivating miRNA-based therapeutics. To assess key determinants of miRNA overexpression in a mammalian system in vivo, we sought to bypass the laborious generation of a transgenic animal by exploiting placental trophoblast-specific gene manipulation using lentiviral vectors, which has been instrumental in elucidating trophoblast biology. We examined the impact of several key components of miRNA stem loops and their flanking sequences on the efficiency of mature miRNA expression in vivo...
2016: Scientific Reports
Patrick Verrando, Maria Capovilla, Roger Rahmani
Epidemiological association studies have revealed a role for pesticides in cancer occurrence, while a growing number of reports have highlighted the deleterious epigenetic modifications that can be produced by environmental factors. However, epidemiological data currently lack molecular support to unravel the epigenetic impact of pesticides on carcinogenesis. Based on epidemiological studies of melanoma, our data show for the first time that trans-nonachlor (TNC), a component of the pesticide chlordane, modulates the microRNA miR-141-3p in human melanocytic cells in vitro, with effects on melanomagenesis parameters...
August 10, 2016: Toxicology
Hua Luo, Xiao Li, Julie M Claycomb, Howard D Lipshitz
Metazoan embryos undergo a maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) during which maternal gene products are eliminated and the zygotic genome becomes transcriptionally active. During this process RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and the microRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) target maternal mRNAs for degradation. In Drosophila, the Smaug (SMG), Brain tumor (BRAT) and Pumilio (PUM) RBPs bind to and direct the degradation of largely distinct subsets of maternal mRNAs. SMG has also been shown to be required for zygotic synthesis of mRNAs and several members of the miR-309 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) during the MZT...
September 2, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Katherine R Nesler, Emily L Starke, Nathan G Boin, Matthew Ritz, Scott A Barbee
Spaced synaptic depolarization induces rapid axon terminal growth and the formation of new synaptic boutons at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Here, we identify a novel presynaptic function for the Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent Kinase II (CamKII) protein in the control of activity-dependent synaptic growth. Consistent with this function, we find that both total and phosphorylated CamKII (p-CamKII) are enriched in axon terminals. Interestingly, p-CamKII appears to be enriched at the presynaptic axon terminal membrane...
October 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
Geetanjali Chawla, Padmini Deosthale, Sue Childress, Yen-Chi Wu, Nicholas S Sokol
Messenger RNAs (mRNAs) often contain binding sites for multiple, different microRNAs (miRNAs). However, the biological significance of this feature is unclear, since such co-targeting miRNAs could function coordinately, independently, or redundantly with one another. Here, we show that two co-transcribed Drosophila miRNAs, let-7 and miR-125, non-redundantly regulate a common target, the transcription factor Chronologically Inappropriate Morphogenesis (Chinmo). We first characterize novel adult phenotypes associated with loss of both let-7 and miR-125, which are derived from a common, polycistronic transcript that also encodes a third miRNA, miR-100...
August 2016: PLoS Genetics
Sho Niinuma, Takashi Fukaya, Yukihide Tomari
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) recruit the CCR4-NOT complex, which contains two deadenylases, CCR4 and CAF1, to promote shortening of the poly(A) tail. Although both CCR4 and CAF1 generally have a strong preference for poly(A) RNA substrates, it has been reported from yeast to humans that they can also remove non-A residues in vitro to various degrees. However, it remains unknown how CCR4 and CAF1 remove non-A sequences. Herein we show that Drosophila miRNAs can promote the removal of 3'-terminal non-A residues in an exonucleolytic manner, but only if an upstream poly(A) sequence exists...
October 2016: RNA
(no author information available yet)
Model organisms, such as rodents, monkeys, or Drosophila, have driven much of recent research in neuroscience. However, studies in other, more unusual systems have broadened the types of questions that are being asked and have revealed the diverse ways in which species tackle common problems. Cell editor Mirna Kvajo talked with Nachum Ulanovsky, Gilles Laurent, and Anthony Leonardo about their research and how studying bats, reptiles, and dragonflies informs big questions in neuroscience. An annotated excerpt of the conversation appears below, and the full conversation is available with the article online...
July 28, 2016: Cell
Ines Schmidts, Romy Böttcher, Milijana Mirkovic-Hösle, Klaus Förstemann
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) defend the organism against harmful transcripts from exogenous (e.g. viral) or endogenous (e.g. transposons) sources. Recent publications describe the production of siRNAs induced by DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in Neurospora crassa, Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster and human cells, which suggests a conserved function. A current hypothesis is that break-induced small RNAs ensure efficient homologous recombination (HR). However, biogenesis of siRNAs is often intertwined with other small RNA species, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), which complicates interpretation of experimental results...
September 30, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Huiming Yang, Mengjie Li, Xiaolong Hu, Tianchi Xin, Shu Zhang, Gengchun Zhao, Tao Xuan, Mingfa Li
The Drosophila larval ovary morphogenesis mainly involves coordinated development of somatic and germ cell lineages that is essential for forming a correct number of niche-germline stem cell (GSC) units (ovarioles) in the adult ovary. Ecdysone, Insulin, Activin, Dpp and EGFR signaling pathways form a regulatory network that orchestrates ovarian soma and germ line throughout larval development. Identification and characterization of additional genes or machineries involved in this process will provide more insights into the underlying mechanisms...
August 15, 2016: Developmental Biology
Fabio Alexis Lefebvre, Louis Philip Benoit Bouvrette, Lilyanne Perras, Alexis Blanchet-Cohen, Delphine Garnier, Janusz Rak, Éric Lécuyer
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-enclosed nanoparticles containing specific repertoires of genetic material. In mammals, EVs can mediate the horizontal transfer of various cargos and signaling molecules, notably miRNA and mRNA species. Whether this form of intercellular communication prevails in other metazoans remains unclear. Here, we report the first parallel comparative morphologic and transcriptomic characterization of EVs from Drosophila and human cellular models. Electronic microscopy revealed that human and Drosophila cells release similar EVs with diameters ranging from 30 to 200 nm, which contain complex populations of transcripts...
2016: Scientific Reports
Masafumi Nozawa, Mai Fujimi, Chie Iwamoto, Kanako Onizuka, Nana Fukuda, Kazuho Ikeo, Takashi Gojobori
How newly generated microRNA (miRNA) genes are integrated into gene regulatory networks during evolution is fundamental in understanding the molecular and evolutionary bases of robustness and plasticity in gene regulation. A recent model proposed that after the birth of a miRNA, the miRNA is generally integrated into the network by decreasing the number of target genes during evolution. However, this decreasing model remains to be carefully examined by considering in vivo conditions. In this study, we therefore compared the number of target genes among miRNAs with different ages, combining experiments with bioinformatics predictions...
2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
Mandy Yu Theng Lim, Alvin Wei Tian Ng, Yuting Chou, Teck Por Lim, Amanda Simcox, Greg Tucker-Kellogg, Katsutomo Okamura
In Drosophila, Dicer-1 binds Loquacious-PB (Loqs-PB) as its major co-factor. Previous analyses indicated that loqs mutants only partially impede miRNA processing, but the activity of minor isoforms or maternally deposited Loqs was not eliminated in these studies. We addressed this by generating a cell line from loqs-null embryos and found that only ∼40% of miRNAs showed clear Loqs dependence. Genome-wide comparison of the hairpin structure and Loqs dependence suggested that Loqs substrates are influenced by base-pairing status at the dicing site...
May 24, 2016: Cell Reports
Yuanwei Zhang, Qiguang Zang, Bo Xu, Wei Zheng, Rongjun Ban, Huan Zhang, Yifan Yang, Qiaomei Hao, Furhan Iqbal, Ao Li, Qinghua Shi
UNLABELLED: : Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology has revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) are capable of exhibiting frequent differences from their corresponding mature reference sequences, generating multiple variants: the isoforms of miRNAs (isomiRs). These isomiRs mainly originate via the imprecise and alternative cleavage during the pre-miRNA processing and post-transcriptional modifications that influence miRNA stability, their sub-cellular localization and target selection...
July 1, 2016: Bioinformatics
Kitti Csályi, Dávid Fazekas, Tamás Kadlecsik, Dénes Türei, Leila Gul, Balázs Horváth, Dezső Módos, Amanda Demeter, Nóra Pápai, Katalin Lenti, Péter Csermely, Tibor Vellai, Tamás Korcsmáros, Máté Varga
Understanding living systems requires an in-depth knowledge of the signaling networks that drive cellular homeostasis, regulate intercellular communication, and contribute to cell fates during development. Several resources exist to provide high-throughput data sets or manually curated interaction information from human or invertebrate model organisms. We previously developed SignaLink, a uniformly curated, multi-layered signaling resource containing information for human and for the model organisms nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster...
April 20, 2016: Zebrafish
Stephanie M Rainey, Julien Martinez, Melanie McFarlane, Punita Juneja, Peter Sarkies, Aleksei Lulla, Esther Schnettler, Margus Varjak, Andres Merits, Eric A Miska, Francis M Jiggins, Alain Kohl
The intracellular endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia can protect insects against viral infection, and is being introduced into mosquito populations in the wild to block the transmission of arboviruses that infect humans and are a major public health concern. To investigate the mechanisms underlying this antiviral protection, we have developed a new model system combining Wolbachia-infected Drosophila melanogaster cell culture with the model mosquito-borne Semliki Forest virus (SFV; Togaviridae, Alphavirus). Wolbachia provides strong antiviral protection rapidly after infection, suggesting that an early stage post-infection is being blocked...
April 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Haitao Guan, Zhijun Dai, Yuguang Ma, Zhongwei Wang, Xiaoxu Liu, Xijing Wang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) regulate gene expression by negatively modulating the stability or translational efficiency of their target genes by targeting the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR). Aberrant miRNA expression has been reported in various types of cancer; miRNAs can function as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in cancer. In this study, we examined the expression level of miR‑101 in breast cancer tissues and cell lines by RT-qPCR, and found that miR‑101 expression was downregulated in breast cancer tissues and cell lines; indeed, in 6 of the 28 tissue samples, miR‑101 could not be detected...
June 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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