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Drosophila mirna

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900550/biogenesis-of-diverse-plant-phasirnas-involves-an-mirna-trigger-and-dicer-processing
#1
Reina Komiya
It has been almost 30 years since RNA interference (RNAi) was shown to silence genes via double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) in Caenorhabditis elegans (Fire et al. 1998). 20-30-nucleotide (nt) small non-coding RNAs are a key element of the RNAi machinery. Recently, phased small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs), small RNAs that are generated from a long RNA precursor at intervals of 21 to 26-nt, have been identified in plants and animals. In Drosophila, phasiRNAs are generated by the endonuclease, Zucchini (Zuc), in germlines...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893816/mir-34-modulates-innate-immunity-and-ecdysone-signaling-in-drosophila
#2
Xiao-Peng Xiong, Krishna Kurthkoti, Kung-Yen Chang, Jian-Liang Li, Xingjie Ren, Jian-Quan Ni, Tariq M Rana, Rui Zhou
microRNAs are endogenous small regulatory RNAs that modulate myriad biological processes by repressing target gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. Here we show that the conserved miRNA miR-34 regulates innate immunity and ecdysone signaling in Drosophila. miR-34 over-expression activates antibacterial innate immunity signaling both in cultured cells and in vivo, and flies over-expressing miR-34 display improved survival and pathogen clearance upon Gram-negative bacterial infection; whereas miR-34 knockout animals are defective in antibacterial defense...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883064/the-microrna-toolkit-of-insects
#3
Guillem Ylla, Bastian Fromm, Maria-Dolors Piulachs, Xavier Belles
Is there a correlation between miRNA diversity and levels of organismic complexity? Exhibiting extraordinary levels of morphological and developmental complexity, insects are the most diverse animal class on earth. Their evolutionary success was in particular shaped by the innovation of holometabolan metamorphosis in endopterygotes. Previously, miRNA evolution had been linked to morphological complexity, but astonishing variation in the currently available miRNA complements of insects made this link unclear...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872309/phosphate-binding-pocket-in-dicer-2-paz-domain-for-high-fidelity-sirna-production
#4
Suresh K Kandasamy, Ryuya Fukunaga
The enzyme Dicer produces small silencing RNAs such as micro-RNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). In Drosophila, Dicer-1 produces ∼22-24-nt miRNAs from pre-miRNAs, whereas Dicer-2 makes 21-nt siRNAs from long double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs). How Dicer-2 precisely makes 21-nt siRNAs with a remarkably high fidelity is unknown. Here we report that recognition of the 5'-monophosphate of a long dsRNA substrate by a phosphate-binding pocket in the Dicer-2 PAZ (Piwi, Argonaute, and Zwille/Pinhead) domain is crucial for the length fidelity, but not the efficiency, in 21-nt siRNA production...
December 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871832/genome-wide-mirna-screening-reveals-mir-310-family-members-negatively-regulate-the-immune-response-in-drosophila-melanogaster-via-co-targeting-drosomycin
#5
Yao Li, Shengjie Li, Ruimin Li, Jiao Xu, Ping Jin, Liming Chen, Fei Ma
Although innate immunity mediated by Toll signaling has been extensively studied in Drosophila melanogaster, the role of miRNAs in regulating the Toll-mediated immune response remains largely unknown. In this study, following Gram-positive bacterial challenge, we identified 93 differentially expressed miRNAs via genome-wide miRNA screening. These miRNAs were regarded as immune response related (IRR). Eight miRNAs were confirmed to be involved in the Toll-mediated immune response upon Gram-positive bacterial infection through genetic screening of 41 UAS-miRNA lines covering 60 miRNAs of the 93 IRR miRNAs...
November 18, 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845601/immediate-early-alcohol-responsive-mirna-expression-in-drosophila
#6
Alfredo Ghezzi, Marie Zomeno, Andrzej Z Pietrzykowski, Nigel S Atkinson
At the core of the changes characteristic of alcoholism are alterations in gene expression in the brain of the addicted individual. These changes are believed to underlie some of the neuroadaptations that promote compulsive drinking. Unfortunately, the mechanisms by which alcohol consumption produces changes in gene expression remain poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of gene expression because they can coordinately modulate the translation efficiency of large sets of specific mRNAs...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805906/interplay-between-rna-interference-and-heat-shock-response-systems-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#7
S Yu Funikov, S S Ryazansky, A A Kanapin, M D Logacheva, A A Penin, A V Snezhkina, V Yu Shilova, D G Garbuz, M B Evgen'ev, O G Zatsepina
The genome expression pattern is strongly modified during the heat shock response (HSR) to form an adaptive state. This may be partly achieved by modulating microRNA levels that control the expression of a great number of genes that are embedded within the gene circuitry. Here, we investigated the cross-talk between two highly conserved and universal house-keeping systems, the HSR and microRNA machinery, in Drosophila melanogaster We demonstrated that pronounced interstrain differences in the microRNA levels are alleviated after heat shock (HS) to form a uniform microRNA pattern...
October 2016: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805016/derepressing-muscleblind-expression-by-mirna-sponges-ameliorates-myotonic-dystrophy-like-phenotypes-in-drosophila
#8
Estefania Cerro-Herreros, Juan M Fernandez-Costa, María Sabater-Arcis, Beatriz Llamusi, Ruben Artero
Myotonic Dystrophy type 1 (DM1) originates from alleles of the DMPK gene with hundreds of extra CTG repeats in the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR). CUG repeat RNAs accumulate in foci that sequester Muscleblind-like (MBNL) proteins away from their functional target transcripts. Endogenous upregulation of MBNL proteins is, thus, a potential therapeutic approach to DM1. Here we identify two miRNAs, dme-miR-277 and dme-miR-304, that differentially regulate muscleblind RNA isoforms in miRNA sensor constructs. We also show that their sequestration by sponge constructs derepresses endogenous muscleblind not only in a wild type background but also in a DM1 Drosophila model expressing non-coding CUG trinucleotide repeats throughout the musculature...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802174/neural-specificity-of-the-rna-binding-protein-elav-is-achieved-by-post-transcriptional-repression-in-non-neural-tissues
#9
Piero Sanfilippo, Peter Smibert, Hong Duan, Eric C Lai
Drosophila Elav is the founding member of the conserved family of Hu RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), which play crucial and diverse roles in post-transcriptional regulation. Elav has long served as the canonical neuronal marker. Surprisingly, although Elav has a well-characterized neural cis-regulatory module, we find endogenous Elav is also ubiquitously transcribed and post-transcriptionally repressed in non-neural settings. Mutant clones of multiple miRNA pathway components derepress ubiquitous Elav protein...
December 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762301/comparative-profiling-of-micrornas-in-the-winged-and-wingless-english-grain-aphid-sitobion-avenae-f-homoptera-aphididae
#10
Xiangrui Li, Fangmei Zhang, Brad Coates, Yunhui Zhang, Xuguo Zhou, Dengfa Cheng
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short single-stranded non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, particularly during development. In this study, 345 miRNAs were identified from the English green aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), of which 168 were conserved and 177 were S. avenae-specific. Quantitative comparison of miRNA expression levels indicated that 16 and 12 miRNAs were significantly up-regulated in winged and wingless S. avenae small RNA libraries, respectively. Differential expression of these miRNAs was confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR validation...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748060/developmental-regulation-of-rna-processing-by-rbfox-proteins
#11
John G Conboy
The Rbfox genes encode an ancient family of sequence-specific RNA binding proteins (RBPs) that are critical developmental regulators in multiple tissues including skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and brain. The hallmark of Rbfox proteins is a single high-affinity RRM domain, highly conserved from insects to humans, that binds preferentially to UGCAUG motifs at diverse regulatory sites in pre-mRNA introns, mRNA 3'UTRs, and pre-miRNAs hairpin structures. Versatile regulatory circuits operate on Rbfox pre-mRNA and mRNA to ensure proper expression of Rbfox1 protein isoforms, which then act on the broader transcriptome to regulate alternative splicing networks, mRNA stability and translation, and microRNA processing...
October 17, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730576/analysis-of-microrna-function-in-drosophila
#12
Geetanjali Chawla, Arthur Luhur, Nicholas Sokol
MicroRNAs are short noncoding, ~22-nucleotide RNAs that regulate protein abundance. The growth in our understanding of this class of RNAs has been rapid since their discovery just over a decade ago. We now appreciate that miRNAs are deeply embedded within the genetic networks that control basic features of metazoan cells including their identity, metabolism, and reproduction. The Drosophila melanogaster model system has made and will continue to make important contributions to this analysis. Intended as an introductory overview, here we review the current methods and resources available for functional analysis of fly miRNAs for those interested in performing this type of analysis...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702774/rapid-functional-and-sequence-differentiation-of-a-tandemly-repeated-species-specific-multigene-family-in-drosophila
#13
Bryan D Clifton, Pablo Librado, Shu-Dan Yeh, Edwin S Solares, Daphne A Real, Suvini U Jayasekera, Wanting Zhang, Mijuan Shi, Ronni V Park, Robert D Magie, Hsiu-Ching Ma, Xiao-Qin Xia, Antonio Marco, Julio Rozas, José M Ranz
Gene clusters of recently duplicated genes are hotbeds for evolutionary change. However, our understanding of how mutational mechanisms and evolutionary forces shape the structural and functional evolution of these clusters is hindered by the high sequence identity among the copies, which typically results in their inaccurate representation in genome assemblies. The presumed testis-specific, chimeric gene Sdic originated, and tandemly expanded in Drosophila melanogaster, contributing to increased male-male competition...
October 3, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27627961/determinants-of-effective-lentivirus-driven-microrna-expression-in-vivo
#14
Takuya Mishima, Elena Sadovsky, Margaret E Gegick, Yoel Sadovsky
Manipulation of microRNA (miRNA) levels, including overexpression of mature species, has become an important biological tool, even motivating miRNA-based therapeutics. To assess key determinants of miRNA overexpression in a mammalian system in vivo, we sought to bypass the laborious generation of a transgenic animal by exploiting placental trophoblast-specific gene manipulation using lentiviral vectors, which has been instrumental in elucidating trophoblast biology. We examined the impact of several key components of miRNA stem loops and their flanking sequences on the efficiency of mature miRNA expression in vivo...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27616325/trans-nonachlor-decreases-mir-141-3p-levels-in-human-melanocytes-in-vitro-promoting-melanoma-cell-characteristics-and-shows-a-multigenerational-impact-on-mir-8-levels-in-drosophila
#15
Patrick Verrando, Maria Capovilla, Roger Rahmani
Epidemiological association studies have revealed a role for pesticides in cancer occurrence, while a growing number of reports have highlighted the deleterious epigenetic modifications that can be produced by environmental factors. However, epidemiological data currently lack molecular support to unravel the epigenetic impact of pesticides on carcinogenesis. Based on epidemiological studies of melanoma, our data show for the first time that trans-nonachlor (TNC), a component of the pesticide chlordane, modulates the microRNA miR-141-3p in human melanocytic cells in vitro, with effects on melanomagenesis parameters...
August 10, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591754/the-smaug-rna-binding-protein-is-essential-for-microrna-synthesis-during-the-drosophila-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#16
Hua Luo, Xiao Li, Julie M Claycomb, Howard D Lipshitz
Metazoan embryos undergo a maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) during which maternal gene products are eliminated and the zygotic genome becomes transcriptionally active. During this process RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and the microRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC) target maternal mRNAs for degradation. In Drosophila, the Smaug (SMG), Brain tumor (BRAT) and Pumilio (PUM) RBPs bind to and direct the degradation of largely distinct subsets of maternal mRNAs. SMG has also been shown to be required for zygotic synthesis of mRNAs and several members of the miR-309 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) during the MZT...
September 2, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567686/presynaptic-camkii-regulates-activity-dependent-axon-terminal-growth
#17
Katherine R Nesler, Emily L Starke, Nathan G Boin, Matthew Ritz, Scott A Barbee
Spaced synaptic depolarization induces rapid axon terminal growth and the formation of new synaptic boutons at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Here, we identify a novel presynaptic function for the Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent Kinase II (CamKII) protein in the control of activity-dependent synaptic growth. Consistent with this function, we find that both total and phosphorylated CamKII (p-CamKII) are enriched in axon terminals. Interestingly, p-CamKII appears to be enriched at the presynaptic axon terminal membrane...
October 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508495/a-let-7-to-mir-125-microrna-switch-regulates-neuronal-integrity-and-lifespan-in-drosophila
#18
Geetanjali Chawla, Padmini Deosthale, Sue Childress, Yen-Chi Wu, Nicholas S Sokol
Messenger RNAs (mRNAs) often contain binding sites for multiple, different microRNAs (miRNAs). However, the biological significance of this feature is unclear, since such co-targeting miRNAs could function coordinately, independently, or redundantly with one another. Here, we show that two co-transcribed Drosophila miRNAs, let-7 and miR-125, non-redundantly regulate a common target, the transcription factor Chronologically Inappropriate Morphogenesis (Chinmo). We first characterize novel adult phenotypes associated with loss of both let-7 and miR-125, which are derived from a common, polycistronic transcript that also encodes a third miRNA, miR-100...
August 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484313/ccr4-and-caf1-deadenylases-have-an-intrinsic-activity-to-remove-the-post-poly-a-sequence
#19
Sho Niinuma, Takashi Fukaya, Yukihide Tomari
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) recruit the CCR4-NOT complex, which contains two deadenylases, CCR4 and CAF1, to promote shortening of the poly(A) tail. Although both CCR4 and CAF1 generally have a strong preference for poly(A) RNA substrates, it has been reported from yeast to humans that they can also remove non-A residues in vitro to various degrees. However, it remains unknown how CCR4 and CAF1 remove non-A sequences. Herein we show that Drosophila miRNAs can promote the removal of 3'-terminal non-A residues in an exonucleolytic manner, but only if an upstream poly(A) sequence exists...
October 2016: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471958/brain-exploration-off-the-beaten-path
#20
(no author information available yet)
Model organisms, such as rodents, monkeys, or Drosophila, have driven much of recent research in neuroscience. However, studies in other, more unusual systems have broadened the types of questions that are being asked and have revealed the diverse ways in which species tackle common problems. Cell editor Mirna Kvajo talked with Nachum Ulanovsky, Gilles Laurent, and Anthony Leonardo about their research and how studying bats, reptiles, and dragonflies informs big questions in neuroscience. An annotated excerpt of the conversation appears below, and the full conversation is available with the article online...
July 28, 2016: Cell
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