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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424494/predictable-phenotypic-but-not-karyotypic-evolution-of-populations-with-contrasting-initial-history
#1
Pedro Simões, Inês Fragata, Sofia G Seabra, Gonçalo S Faria, Marta A Santos, Michael R Rose, Mauro Santos, Margarida Matos
The relative impact of selection, chance and history will determine the predictability of evolution. There is a lack of empirical research on this subject, particularly in sexual organisms. Here we use experimental evolution to test the predictability of evolution. We analyse the real-time evolution of Drosophila subobscura populations derived from contrasting European latitudes placed in a novel laboratory environment. Each natural population was sampled twice within a three-year interval. We study evolutionary responses at both phenotypic (life-history, morphological and physiological traits) and karyotypic levels for around 30 generations of laboratory culture...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412475/potential-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-lqfm-021-in-carrageenan-induced-inflammation-the-role-of-nitric-oxide
#2
Iziara F Florentino, Daiany P B Silva, Dayane M Silva, Carina Sofia Cardoso, André L E Moreira, Clayton L Borges, Célia M de A Soares, Pablinny M Galdino, Luciano M Lião, Paulo C Ghedini, Ricardo Menegatti, Elson A Costa
The pyrazole compound LQFM-021 exhibits vasorelaxant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. Furthermore, it has low toxicity, indicating that this compound may be considered to be a good prototype for the development of new analgesic/anti-inflammatory drugs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory activity of LQFM-021 using a model of carrageenan-induced inflammation as well as the mechanism of action and role of nitric oxide in this effect. Acute treatments with LQFM-021 (30 and 60 mg/kg p...
April 12, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391709/immune-modulation-properties-of-herbal-plant-leaves-phyllanthus-niruri-aqueous-extract-on-immune-cells-of-tuberculosis-patient-in-vitro-study
#3
Denise Utami Putri, Ning Rintiswati, Marsetyawan Hne Soesatyo, Sofia Mubarika Haryana
Disease progression in Tuberculosis (TB) is dependent on host's immune system. Phyllanthus niruri, a traditional herb, has long been used to boost immune system in Indonesian society. This study aimed to observe the potential role of P. niruri in inducing immune cells activity in TB patients by in vitro approach. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and macrophages were collected from active pulmonary TB patients. After stimulation with graded doses of P. niruri aqueous extract, cell proliferation, phagocytic activity and nitric oxide (NO) release were analysed...
April 10, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390435/inter-pregnancy-interval-and-pregnancy-outcomes-among-women-with-delayed-childbearing-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#4
Mani Asgharpour, Sofia Villarreal, Laura Schummers, Jennifer Hutcheon, Dorothy Shaw, Wendy V Norman
BACKGROUND: Women in high resource nations are increasingly delaying childbearing until their thirties. Delayed childbearing poses challenges for the spacing of a woman's pregnancies. Inter-pregnancy intervals <12 months are associated with risk for adverse pregnancy outcome, yet increased maternal age at delivery is linked with increased risk. The optimal inter-pregnancy interval for older mothers is uncertain. This systematic review will aim to assess the relation between inter-pregnancy interval and perinatal and maternal health outcomes in women who delay childbearing to age 30 and older...
April 8, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389975/assessment-of-apathy-minimising-the-effect-of-motor-dysfunctions-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-validation-study-of-the-dimensional-apathy-scale
#5
Gabriella Santangelo, Alfonsina D'Iorio, Fausta Piscopo, Sofia Cuoco, Katia Longo, Marianna Amboni, Chiara Baiano, Domenico Tafuri, Maria Teresa Pellecchia, Paolo Barone, Carmine Vitale
PURPOSE: Apathy is associated with motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD); therefore, its evaluation could be influenced by motor disability. The Dimensional Apathy Scale (DAS) evaluates apathy excluding confounding effects of motor symptoms. The present study had three major aims: (a) to explore the psychometric properties of the DAS in non-demented PD patients; (b) to determine an optimal cut-off score of the DAS to identify apathetic PD patients; and (c) to determine a specific apathy profile in PD patients as compared to healthy controls (HC)...
April 7, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388482/face-proprioception-does-not-modulate-access-to-visual-awareness-of-emotional-faces-in-a-continuous-flash-suppression-paradigm
#6
Sebastian Korb, Sofia A Osimo, Tiziano Suran, Ariel Goldstein, Raffaella Ida Rumiati
An important question in neuroscience is which multisensory information, presented outside of awareness, can influence the nature and speed of conscious access to our percepts. Recently, proprioceptive feedback of the hand was reported to lead to faster awareness of congruent hand images in a breaking continuous flash suppression (b-CFS) paradigm. Moreover, a vast literature suggests that spontaneous facial mimicry can improve emotion recognition, even without awareness of the stimulus face. However, integration of visual and proprioceptive information about the face to date has not been tested with CFS...
April 4, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385278/intensive-care-nurses-experiences-of-infants-and-partners-presence-on-the-postoperative-ward-after-an-emergency-caesarean-section-an-interview-study
#7
Sofia Zwedberg, Matilda Huss, Emma Karlsson, Marie Poignant
It is evident that immediate skin-to-skin care after birth has the potential to improve breastfeeding outcomes and maternal satisfaction after a caesarean section; hence partners and infants should be present on the postoperative ward. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the intensive care nurses' experiences of having the infant and partner present on the postoperative ward after emergency caesarean sections. DESIGN: Interviews with semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using qualitative content analysis...
April 3, 2017: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382781/heteronormativity-and-prostate-cancer-a-discursive-paper
#8
Daniel Kelly, Dikaios Sakellariou, Sarah Fry, Sofia Vougioukalou
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To discuss the risks that heteronormative assumptions play in prostate cancer care and how these may be addressed. BACKGROUND: There is international evidence to support the case that LGBT cancer patients are less likely to report poor health or self-disclose sexual orientation. Gender-specific cancers, such as prostate cancer, require particular interventions in terms of supportive care. These may include advice about side-effect management (such as incontinence or erectile dysfunction), treatment choices and social and emotional issues...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367127/alterations-of-intrinsic-brain-connectivity-patterns-in-depression-and-bipolar-disorders-a-critical-assessment-of-magnetoencephalography-based-evidence
#9
REVIEW
Golnoush Alamian, Ana-Sofía Hincapié, Etienne Combrisson, Thomas Thiery, Véronique Martel, Dmitrii Althukov, Karim Jerbi
Despite being the object of a thriving field of clinical research, the investigation of intrinsic brain network alterations in psychiatric illnesses is still in its early days. Because the pathological alterations are predominantly probed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), many questions about the electrophysiological bases of resting-state alterations in psychiatric disorders, particularly among mood disorder patients, remain unanswered. Alongside important research using electroencephalography (EEG), the specific recent contributions and future promise of magnetoencephalography (MEG) in this field are not fully recognized and valued...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362260/evolution-of-substrate-specificity-in-a-retained-enzyme-driven-by-gene-loss
#10
Ana Lilia Juárez-Vázquez, Janaka E Edirisinghe, Ernesto A Verduzco-Castro, Karolina Michalska, Chenggang Wu, Lianet Noda-García, Gyorgy Babnigg, Michael Endres, Sofía Medina-Ruíz, Julián Santoyo-Flores, Mauricio Carrillo-Tripp, Hung Ton-That, Andrzej Joachimiak, Christopher S Henry, Francisco Barona-Gómez
The connection between gene loss and the functional adaptation of retained proteins is still poorly understood. We apply phylogenomics and metabolic modeling to detect bacterial species that are evolving by gene loss, with the finding that Actinomycetaceae genomes from human cavities are undergoing sizable reductions, including loss of L-histidine and L-tryptophan biosynthesis. We observe that the dual-substrate phosphoribosyl isomerase A or priA gene, at which these pathways converge, appears to coevolve with the occurrence of trp and his genes...
March 31, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360073/patient-participation-in-general-practice-based-undergraduate-teaching-a-focus-group-study-of-patient-perspectives
#11
Sophie E Park, Caroline Allfrey, Melvyn M Jones, Jasprit Chana, Ciara Abbott, Sofia Faircloth, Nicola Higgins, Laila Abdullah
BACKGROUND: Patients make a crucial contribution to undergraduate medical education. Although a national resource is available for patients participating in research, none is as yet available for education. AIM: This study aimed to explore what information patients would like about participation in general practice based undergraduate medical education, and how they would like to obtain this information. DESIGN AND SETTING: Two focus groups were conducted in London-based practices involved in both undergraduate and postgraduate teaching...
April 2017: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351404/longitudinal-10-year-changes-in-dietary-intake-and-associations-with-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors-in-the-northern-sweden-health-and-disease-study
#12
Anna Winkvist, Sofia Klingberg, Lena Maria Nilsson, Maria Wennberg, Frida Renström, Göran Hallmans, Kurt Boman, Ingegerd Johansson
BACKGROUND: Dietary risks today constitute the largest proportion of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) globally and in Sweden. An increasing number of people today consume highly processed foods high in saturated fat, refined sugar and salt and low in dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. It is important that dietary trends over time are monitored to predict changes in disease risk. METHODS: In total, 15,995 individuals with two visits 10 (±1) years apart in the population-based Västerbotten Intervention Programme 1996-2014 were included...
March 28, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344519/assessment-of-repli-g-multiple-displacement-whole-genome-amplification-wga-techniques-for-metagenomic-applications
#13
Sofia Ahsanuddin, Ebrahim Afshinnekoo, Jorge Gandara, Mustafa Hakyemezoğlu, Daniela Bezdan, Samuel Minot, Nick Greenfield, Christopher E Mason
Amplification of minute quantities of DNA is a fundamental challenge in low-biomass metagenomic and microbiome studies because of potential biases in coverage, guanine-cytosine (GC) content, and altered species abundances. Whole genome amplification (WGA), although widely used, is notorious for introducing artifact sequences, either by amplifying laboratory contaminants or by nonrandom amplification of a sample's DNA. In this study, we investigate the effect of REPLI-g multiple displacement amplification (MDA; Qiagen, Valencia, CA, USA) on sequencing data quality and species abundance detection in 8 paired metagenomic samples and 1 titrated, mixed control sample...
April 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Techniques: JBT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337072/precision-metagenomics-rapid-metagenomic-analyses-for-infectious-disease-diagnostics-and-public-health-surveillance
#14
Ebrahim Afshinnekoo, Chou Chou, Noah Alexander, Sofia Ahsanuddin, Audrey N Schuetz, Christopher E Mason
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have ushered in the era of precision medicine, transforming the way we treat cancer patients and diagnose disease. Concomitantly, the advent of these technologies has created a surge of microbiome and metagenomic studies over the last decade, many of which are focused on investigating the host-gene-microbial interactions responsible for the development and spread of infectious diseases, as well as delineating their key role in maintaining health. As we continue to discover more information about the etiology of infectious diseases, the translational potential of metagenomic NGS methods for treatment and rapid diagnosis is becoming abundantly clear...
April 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Techniques: JBT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334619/investigation-on-metal-tolerance-and-phytoremoval-activity-in-the-poplar-hybrid-clone-monviso-under-cu-spiked-water-potential-use-for-wastewater-treatment
#15
Fabrizio Pietrini, Daniela Di Baccio, Valentina Iori, Sofia Veliksar, Natalia Lemanova, Liudvika Juškaitė, Audrius Maruška, Massimo Zacchini
A serious concern for the environmental and human health is represented by the increasing copper (Cu) occurrence in agricultural soils and waters, because of the possible food contamination and bioaugmentation along the trophic chain. The request for the decontamination of different matrices with an environmentally sustainable technology as the phytoremediation should be addressed by selecting plant materials with improved pollutant tolerance and removal capability. With this purpose, plants of the hybrid poplar clone "Monviso" (Populus×generosa A...
March 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318843/development-of-a-conceptual-etiological-model-of-treatment-regimen-fatigue-among-patients-engaged-in-hiv-care-a-qualitative-study
#16
Kasey Claborn, Mary Beth Miller, Ellen Meier, Sofia Carbone
Treatment regimen fatigue (TRF) is a decreased desire and motivation to maintain vigilance in adhering to treatment, and little is known about TRF in people living with HIV. We aimed to develop a conceptual framework of TRF. Five focus groups were conducted in 2014. Eligible participants were (a) HIV infected, (b) at least 18 years of age, (c) prescribed antiretroviral therapy, and (d) fluent in English. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Analyses revealed these themes: patient experiences of TRF; etiological factors at the systems, provider, and patient levels; strategies to manage TRF; consequences of TRF; and protective factors that prevent the occurrence of TRF...
March 3, 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297338/epid-based-in-vivo-dosimetry-system-clinical-experience-and-results
#17
Sofia Celi, Emilie Costa, Claas Wessels, Alejandro Mazal, Alain Fourquet, Pascal Francois
Mandatory in several countries, in vivo dosimetry has been recognized as one of the next milestones in radiation oncology. Our department has implemented clinically an EPID based in vivo dosimetry system, EPIgray, by DOSISOFT S.A., since 2006. An analysis of the measurements per linac and energy over a two-year period was performed, which included a more detailed examination per technique and treatment site over a six-month period. A comparison of the treatment planning system doses and the doses estimated by EPIgray shows a mean of the differences of 1...
May 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279731/precuneus-proportions-and-cortical-folding-a-morphometric-evaluation-on-a-racially-diverse-human-sample
#18
Emiliano Bruner, Ana Sofia Pereira-Pedro, Xu Chen, James K Rilling
Recent analyses have suggested that the size and proportions of the precuneus are remarkably variable among adult humans, representing a major source of geometrical difference in midsagittal brain morphology. The same area also represents the main midsagittal brain difference between humans and chimpanzees, being more expanded in our species. Enlargement of the upper parietal surface is a specific feature of Homo sapiens, when compared with other fossil hominids, suggesting the involvement of these cortical areas in recent modern human evolution...
March 6, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279251/oral-anticoagulants-for-primary-prevention-treatment-and-secondary-prevention-of-venous-thromboembolic-disease-and-for-prevention-of-stroke-in-atrial-fibrillation-systematic-review-network-meta-analysis-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis
#19
Jonathan Ac Sterne, Pritesh N Bodalia, Peter A Bryden, Philippa A Davies, Jose A López-López, George N Okoli, Howard Hz Thom, Deborah M Caldwell, Sofia Dias, Diane Eaton, Julian Pt Higgins, Will Hollingworth, Chris Salisbury, Jelena Savović, Reecha Sofat, Annya Stephens-Boal, Nicky J Welton, Aroon D Hingorani
BACKGROUND: Warfarin is effective for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF), but anticoagulation is underused in clinical care. The risk of venous thromboembolic disease during hospitalisation can be reduced by low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH): warfarin is the most frequently prescribed anticoagulant for treatment and secondary prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Warfarin-related bleeding is a major reason for hospitalisation for adverse drug effects. Warfarin is cheap but therapeutic monitoring increases treatment costs...
March 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264829/translation-of-the-international-outcome-inventory-for-hearing-aids-into-portuguese-from-portugal
#20
Sofia M M Paiva, João F C P M Simões, António M Diogo Paiva, Francisco J F Castro E Sousa, Jean-Pierre Bébéar
OBJECTIVE: To translate the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) Questionnaire from English to Portuguese (from Portugal) and to validate this instrument of study on the Portuguese population. DESIGN: In this prospective study, a translation from English into Portuguese of the IOI-HA was performed, and linguistic adaptation and counter translation were also accomplished. The data were analysed for internal consistency testing for correlations between each individual item and the total score of the IOI-HA, assessing the Cronbach α and performing test-retest analysis...
March 6, 2017: BMJ Open
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