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Rabbit haemorrhagic disease

Carlos Rouco, Sacramento Moreno, Simone Santoro
Vaccination campaigns against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) are commonly used in translocation programs conducted for the purpose of recovering wild European rabbit populations in Iberian Mediterranean ecosystems. In most cases rabbits are vaccinated 'blind' (i.e. without assessing their prior immunological status) for economic and logistic reasons. However, there is conflicting evidence on the effectiveness of such an approach. We tested whether blind vaccination against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease improved rabbit survival in a rabbit translocation program where wild rabbits were kept in semi-natural conditions in three enclosures...
October 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
R Velarde, P Cavadini, A Neimanis, O Cabezón, M Chiari, A Gaffuri, S Lavín, G Grilli, D Gavier-Widén, A Lavazza, L Capucci
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a lagovirus that can cause fatal hepatitis (rabbit haemorrhagic disease, RHD) with mortality of 80-90% in farmed and wild rabbits. Since 1986, RHDV has caused outbreaks in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Europe, but never in European brown hares (Lepus europaeus, EBH). In 2010, a new RHDV-related virus, called RHDV2, emerged in Europe, causing extended epidemics because it largely overcame the immunity to RHDV present in most rabbit populations. RHDV2 also was identified in Cape hare (Lepus capensis subsp...
September 11, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Aarón Martin-Alonso, Natalia Martin-Carrillo, Katherine Garcia-Livia, Basilio Valladares, Pilar Foronda
Until the beginning of this decade, the genetic characterization of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) from Iberian Peninsula had revealed the existence of two genogroups, G1 and sporadically G6. In 2010, the new emerging rabbit haemorrhagic disease variant, RHDV2 or RHDVb, was described in France, from where it has rapidly spread throughout Europe, including Iberian Peninsula countries. Nevertheless, although cases of rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) have been reported in the Canary Islands, a Spanish archipelago located 100km off the coast of Morocco, no genetic characterization of RHDV had been carried out...
October 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Adelina Gama, Isabel Pires, Márcia Canado, Teresa Coutinho, Ana Patrícia Lopes, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Luís Cardoso, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Domenico Otranto
BACKGROUND: Thelazia callipaeda is a zoonotic nematode that affects the eyes of domestic and wild animals, including dogs, cats and red foxes. This parasitic eye worm is transmitted by Phortica variegata, which is a zoophilic fruit fly spread in Europe. Two wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) found dead in north-eastern Portugal were submitted to necropsy. RESULTS: Both animals presented gross lesions compatible with haemorrhagic viral disease. Eye examination revealed the presence of six worms (three in each animal, on both eyes)...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
J M Rosell, L F de la Fuente
In this study we determined mortality in breeding rabbits on 505 commercial farms in Spain during 2006-2014. We obtained our information by carrying out 3278 visits to 490 doe farms (127 also with males), and 877 visits to farms with males, including 132 visits to 15 artificial insemination (AI) centres. The median size of the farms was 769 does (minimum to maximum: 80-9000 does) and 44 males (minimum to maximum: 10-800 males). AI was used on 85% of the 490 doe farms. Females were serviced at 11 days postpartum on 75% of the farms...
May 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Nadya Urakova, Natalie Netzler, Andrew G Kelly, Michael Frese, Peter A White, Tanja Strive
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is a calicivirus that causes acute infections in both domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The virus causes significant economic losses in rabbit farming and reduces wild rabbit populations. The recent emergence of RHDV variants capable of overcoming immunity to other strains emphasises the need to develop universally effective antivirals to enable quick responses during outbreaks until new vaccines become available. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is a primary target for the development of such antiviral drugs...
April 2016: Viruses
Alicja Trzeciak-Ryczek, Beata Tokarz-Deptuła, Wiesław Deptuła
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a highly morbid and mortal viral infection of European rabbits. This disease is one of the main causes of death in wild rabbits, and results in large economic losses in farms of rabbits worldwide. Although the first outbreak of this disease was noted in 1984, the pathogenesis of RHD and mechanisms of RHDV (rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus) pathogenecity have still not been fully elucidated. Recent studies indicate a role of the immune response, especially peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), in the pathogenesis of this disease...
April 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Reece D Pedler, Robert Brandle, John L Read, Richard Southgate, Peter Bird, Katherine E Moseby
Funding for species conservation is insufficient to meet the current challenges facing global biodiversity, yet many programs use expensive single-species recovery actions and neglect broader management that addresses threatening processes. Arid Australia has the world's worst modern mammalian extinction record, largely attributable to competition from introduced herbivores, particularly European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and predation by feral cats (Felis catus) and foxes (Vulpes vulpes). The biological control agent rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) was introduced to Australia in 1995 and resulted in dramatic, widespread rabbit suppression...
August 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Jinggang Zhang, Wei Xing, Jie Chen, Liang Pan, Xiaoxia Xu, Tingting Zha, Haitao Lu, Shijun Xing
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) could diagnose the early changes of renal IRI in vivo by modeling the renal ischemia-reperfusion (IRI) of rabbit. METHODS: Thrity four New Zealand white rabbits were chosen, the vesseles of the left kidney of rabbits were ligated for 60 minutes, then the renal ischemia-reperfusion model was established. Respectively, the rabbits before ligation, 0.5, 24 and 48 h after the ligation, were examined with MR, then the signal of the cortex and medulla was analyzed in SWI and T2WI, the imaging features were compared with histopathology...
October 20, 2015: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
A Kovitvadhi, F Gai, S Dabbou, I Ferrocino, L Rotolo, M Falzone, C Vignolini, M S Gennero, S Bergagna, Daniela Dezzutto, R Barbero, P Nebbia, S Rosati, L Cocolin, I Zoccarato, L Gasco
Echinacea pallida (EPAL), a herbaceous flowering plant with immunomodulatory properties, has been chosen to determine the pre- and post-supplementary effects on the growth performances, bacterial community, blood parameters and immunity of growing rabbits. The same Grimaud does (14-week-old) from the studied in the first part of this study were randomly divided into two groups (n=50/group). The first group was fed a basal diet without supplementation (Control group, C) while the another group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 3 g EPAL/kg diet (Echinacea group, E)...
July 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Yanhua Song, Fang Wang, Zhiyu Fan, Bo Hu, Xing Liu, Houjun Wei, Jiabin Xue, Weizhong Xu, Rulong Qiu
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease, caused by rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), results in the death of millions of adult rabbits worldwide, with a mortality rate that exceeds 90%. The sole capsid protein, VP60, is divided into shell (S) and protruding (P) domains, and the more exposed P domain likely contains determinants for cell attachment and antigenic diversity. Nine mAbs against VP60 were screened and identified. To map antigenic epitopes, a set of partially overlapping and consecutive truncated proteins spanning VP60 were expressed...
February 2016: Journal of General Virology
Juan Bárcena, Beatriz Guerra, Iván Angulo, Julia González, Félix Valcárcel, Carlos P Mata, José R Castón, Esther Blanco, Alí Alejo
In 2010 a new Lagovirus related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) emerged in France and has since rapidly spread throughout domestic and wild rabbit populations of several European countries. The new virus, termed RHDV2, exhibits distinctive genetic, antigenic and pathogenic features. Notably, RHDV2 kills rabbits previously vaccinated with RHDV vaccines. Here we report for the first time the generation and characterization of RHDV2-specific virus-like particles (VLPs). Our results further confirmed the differential antigenic properties exhibited by RHDV and RHDV2, highlighting the need of using RHDV2-specific diagnostic assays to monitor the spread of this new virus...
2015: Veterinary Research
Margarida Duarte, Carina Carvalho, Susana Bernardo, Sílvia Vanessa Barros, Sandra Benevides, Lídia Flor, Madalena Monteiro, Isabel Marques, Margarida Henriques, Sílvia C Barros, Teresa Fagulha, Fernanda Ramos, Tiago Luís, Miguel Fevereiro
Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2) is widespread in several countries of Western Europe, but it has not been introduced to other continents. However, between late 2014 and early 2015, the presence of RHDV2 was confirmed outside of the European continent, in the Azores, initially in the islands of Graciosa, Flores, S. Jorge and Terceira. In this study we report the subsequent detection of RHDV2 in wild rabbits from the islands of Faial, St. Maria and S. Miguel, and display the necropsy and microscopic examination data obtained, which showed lesions similar to those induced by classical strains of RHDV, with severe affection of lungs and liver...
October 2015: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
S Katoch, L Verma, M Sharma, R K Asrani, S Kumar, R Chahota, S Verma
The increased frequency of isolation of Pasteurella multocida capsular type B from rabbitries in north-western India prompted this investigation into the role of this organism in inducing disease in rabbits. Ten rabbits were divided into two groups of five animals. Group I rabbits were infected intranasally (IN) with 1 ml of inoculum containing 2 × 10(5) colony forming units/ml, while rabbits in group II were given 1 ml phosphate buffered saline IN. The rabbits in group I developed respiratory distress, increased rectal temperature and severe dyspnoea, with death occurring 24-48 h post infection...
August 2015: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Tereza Almeida, Ana M Lopes, Maria J Magalhães, Fabiana Neves, Ana Pinheiro, David Gonçalves, Manuel Leitão, Pedro J Esteves, Joana Abrantes
Previous genetic characterization of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) from Azores, Portugal, revealed the presence of genogroup 3-5 (G3-G5) like strains. These strains differed from the genogroup 1 (G1) strains circulating in mainland Portugal, suggesting an independent evolution of RHDV in Azores. More recently, the new variant RHDV (RHDVb) was detected in Azores. In mainland Portugal, current circulating strains resulted from recombination events between RHDVb and non-pathogenic or pathogenic G1 strains...
August 2015: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Nadya Urakova, Michael Frese, Robyn N Hall, June Liu, Markus Matthaei, Tanja Strive
The intracellular replication and molecular virulence mechanisms of Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) are poorly understood, mainly due to the lack of an effective cell culture system for this virus. To increase our understanding of RHDV molecular biology, the subcellular localisation of recombinant non-structural RHDV proteins was investigated in transiently transfected rabbit kidney (RK-13) cells. We provide evidence for oligomerisation of p23, and an ability of the viral protease to cleave the p16:p23 junction in trans, outside the context of the nascent polyprotein chain...
October 2015: Virology
Alicja Trzeciak-Ryczek, Beata Tokarz-Deptuła, Wiesław Deptuła
RHDV (rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus) is an etiologic factor of RHD (rabbit haemorrhagic disease), which is highly morbid and mortal viral infection of an adult European rabbit. Although three decades have passed since the first outbreak of rabbit haemorrhagic disease, the pathogenesis of RHD has still not been fully elucidated. It is known that RHDV replicates in the liver within the first hours following infection, causing necrotic and apoptotic cell death of hepatocytes. Anatomopathological changes are also observed in other organs of infected rabbits, i...
2015: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Antonio Lavazza, Patrizia Cavadini, Ilaria Barbieri, Paolo Tizzani, Ana Pinheiro, Joana Abrantes, Pedro J Esteves, Guido Grilli, Emanuela Gioia, Mariagrazia Zanoni, Pier Meneguz, Jean-Sébastien Guitton, Stéphane Marchandeau, Mario Chiari, Lorenzo Capucci
The eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) is an American lagomorph. In 1966, it was introduced to Italy, where it is currently widespread. Its ecological niche is similar to those of native rabbits and hares and increasing overlap in distribution brings these species into ever closer contact. Therefore, cottontails are at risk of infection with the two lagoviruses endemically present in Italy: Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease virus (RHDV) and European Brown Hare Syndrome Virus (EBHSV). To verify the susceptibility of Sylvilagus to these viruses, we analyzed 471 sera and 108 individuals from cottontail populations in 9 provinces of north-central Italy from 1999 to 2012...
2015: Veterinary Research
Konstans Wells, Barry W Brook, Robert C Lacy, Greg J Mutze, David E Peacock, Ron G Sinclair, Nina Schwensow, Phillip Cassey, Robert B O'Hara, Damien A Fordham
Infectious diseases can exert a strong influence on the dynamics of host populations, but it remains unclear why such disease-mediated control only occurs under particular environmental conditions. We used 16 years of detailed field data on invasive European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Australia, linked to individual-based stochastic models and Bayesian approximations, to test whether (i) mortality associated with rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is driven primarily by seasonal matches/mismatches between demographic rates and epidemiological dynamics and (ii) delayed infection (arising from insusceptibility and maternal antibodies in juveniles) are important factors in determining disease severity and local population persistence of rabbits...
February 6, 2015: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Nina I Schwensow, Brian Cooke, John Kovaliski, Ron Sinclair, David Peacock, Joerns Fickel, Simone Sommer
In Australia, the rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been used since 1996 to reduce numbers of introduced European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) which have a devastating impact on the native Australian environment. RHDV causes regular, short disease outbreaks, but little is known about how the virus persists and survives between epidemics. We examined the initial spread of RHDV to show that even upon its initial spread, the virus circulated continuously on a regional scale rather than persisting at a local population level and that Australian rabbit populations are highly interconnected by virus-carrying flying vectors...
November 2014: Evolutionary Applications
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