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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886515/discovery-of-novel-lipid-profiles-in-pcos-do-insulin-and-androgen-oppositely-regulate-bioactive-lipid-production
#1
Shengxian Li, Qianqian Chu, Jing Ma, Yun Sun, Tao Tao, Rong Huang, Yu Liao, Jiang Yue, Jun Zheng, Lihua Wang, Xinli Xue, Mingjiang Zhu, Xiaonan Kang, Huiyong Yin, Wei Liu
CONTEXT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex syndrome showing clinical features of an endocrine/metabolic disorder, including hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their derivatives play important roles in inflammation and reproduction, and both of these are tightly linked to PCOS and obesity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate serum lipid profiles in newly diagnosed PCOS patients using lipidomics and correlate these features with the hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism associated with PCOS and obesity...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883058/role-of-ectonucleotide-pyrophosphatase-phosphodiesterase-2-in-the-midline-axis-formation-of-zebrafish
#2
Frisca Frisca, Daniel Colquhoun, Yona Goldshmit, Minna-Liisa Änkö, Alice Pébay, Jan Kaslin
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a unique bioactive lysophospholipid that induces pleiotropic effects in various cell types and organisms by acting on its specific receptors. LPA is mainly synthetised extracellularly by the ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2/autotaxin (enpp2). Altered LPA signalling is associated with embryonic abnormalities, suggesting critical roles for LPA during development. However, the role of LPA signalling during early embryogenesis is not well established. We demonstrate that enpp2/LPA signalling in the early zebrafish embryo results in altered axis and midline formation, defects in left right (L-R) patterning, ciliogenesis of the Kupffer's vesicle (KV), through the modulation of cell migration during gastrulation in a lpar1-3 Rho/ROCK-dependant manner...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883026/inhibition-of-lysophosphatidic-acid-receptors-1-and-3-attenuates-atherosclerosis-development-in-ldl-receptor-deficient-mice
#3
Eva Kritikou, Gijs H M van Puijvelde, Thomas van der Heijden, Peter J van Santbrink, Maarten Swart, Frank H Schaftenaar, Mara J Kröner, Johan Kuiper, Ilze Bot
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a natural lysophospholipid present at high concentrations within lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaques. Upon local accumulation in the damaged vessels, LPA can act as a potent activator for various types of immune cells through its specific membrane receptors LPA1/3. LPA elicits chemotactic, pro-inflammatory and apoptotic effects that lead to atherosclerotic plaque progression. In this study we aimed to inhibit LPA signaling by means of LPA1/3 antagonism using the small molecule Ki16425...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878455/structural-insight-into-binding-mode-of-9-hydroxy-aristolochic-acid-diclofenac-and-indomethacin-to-pla2
#4
Mohsen Ebrahimi, Omidreza Firuzi, Ramin Miri, Nima Razzaghi-Asl, Ahmad Ebadi
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids into arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids. Arachidonic acid is modified by cyclooxygenases into active compounds called eicosanoids that act as signaling molecules in a number of physiological processes. Excessive production of eicosanoids leads to several pathological conditions such as inflammation. In order to block the inflammatory effect of these compounds, upstream enzymes such as PLA2 are valid targets. In the present contribution, molecular dynamic analysis was performed to evaluate the binding of diclofenac, 9-hydroxy aristolochic acid (9-HAA) and indomethacin to PLA2...
November 22, 2016: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865770/effect-of-lipid-environment-on-amyloid-fibril-formation-of-human-serum-amyloid-a
#5
Masafumi Tanaka, Ayaka Nishimura, Haruka Takeshita, Hiroka Takase, Toshiyuki Yamada, Takahiro Mukai
Human serum amyloid A (SAA) is a precursor protein of AA amyloidosis and a component of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), thus it is essential to investigate the amyloid fibril formation of SAA under a lipid environment. We used synthetic fragment peptides corresponding to the N-terminal (residues 1-27) and central (residues 43-63) regions of the SAA molecule, which are known to have amyloidogenic properties. Measurements of tryptophan fluorescence in conjunction with circular dichroism showed that SAA (1-27) peptide binds to neutral and acidic lysophospholipids, whereas SAA (43-63) peptide binds only to acidic lysophospholipids...
November 16, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845199/in-vitro-toxicity-of-pirimiphos-methyl-in-atlantic-salmon-hepatocytes
#6
Pål A Olsvik, Marc H G Berntssen, Liv Søfteland
Recent screening of Atlantic salmon feeds has uncovered residues of several pesticides, including pirimiphos-methyl. Pirimiphos-methyl is an organophosphate (OP) insecticide, causing inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in target organisms. The aim of this study was to examine pirimiphos-methyl non-targeted mode of action toxicity in Atlantic salmon using in vitro exposure. Hepatocyte cells were exposed to pirimiphos-methyl (control-0.1-1.0-10-100-1000μM) for 48h. Transcriptomics (RNA-seq) and non-targeted metabolomics were used to screen for effects of the pesticide...
November 12, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843094/metabolomics-predicts-neuroimaging-characteristics-of-transient-ischemic-attack-patients
#7
Francisco Purroy, Serafi Cambray, Gerard Mauri-Capdevila, Mariona Jové, Jordi Sanahuja, Joan Farré, Ikram Benabdelhak, Jessica Molina-Seguin, Laura Colàs-Campàs, Robert Begue, M Isabel Gil, Reinald Pamplona, Manuel Portero-Otín
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging is essential for the diagnosis and prognosis of transient ischemic attack (TIA). The discovery of a plasmatic biomarker related to neuroimaging findings is of enormous interest because, despite its relevance, magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is not always available in all hospitals that attend to TIA patients. METHODS: Metabolomic analyses were performed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in order to establish the metabolomic patterns of positive DWI, DWI patterns and acute ischemic lesion volumes...
November 9, 2016: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819219/effect-of-lysophospholipids-in-diets-differing-in-fat-contents-on-growth-performance-nutrient-digestibility-milk-composition-and-litter-performance-of-lactating-sows
#8
P Y Zhao, Z F Zhang, R X Lan, W C Liu, I H Kim
It is well known that energy plays an important role in sow growth and development. Increasing the utilization of lipids will be beneficial to sows. Emulsifiers are substances which stabilize mixtures and prevent oil and water from separating, thereby enhancing the digestion of lipids. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary emulsifier (lysophospholipids (LPL)) supplementation in diets differing in fat contents on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and milk composition in lactating sows, as well as performance and fecal score in piglets...
November 7, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802432/characterization-of-the-anticoagulant-and-antithrombotic-properties-of-the-sphingosine-1-phosphate-mimetic-fty720
#9
Zhen Zhao, Ruixue Wang, Zhijun Huo, Chunlei Li, Zhiyong Wang
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a highly active lysophospholipid implicated in various cardiocerebrovascular events such as coagulation, myocardial infarction and stroke. However, as the functional S1P receptor antagonist, whether the S1P mimetic FTY720 can modulate coagulation and/or thrombotic formation remains largely unknown. We investigated the effects of FTY720 on adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation, coagulation parameters and thrombus formation in rats. Pretreatment with FTY720 (2...
November 2, 2016: Acta Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784781/autotaxin-expression-is-regulated-at-the-post-transcriptional-level-by-the-rna-binding-proteins-hur-and-auf1
#10
Shuhong Sun, Xiaotian Zhang, Lin Lyu, Xixi Li, Siliang Yao, Junjie Zhang
Autotaxin (ATX) is a key enzyme that converts lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) into lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a lysophospholipid mediator that regulates cellular activities through its specific G protein-coupled receptors. The ATX-LPA axis plays an important role in various physiological and pathological processes, especially in inflammation and cancer development. Although the transcriptional regulation of ATX has been widely studied, the post-transcriptional regulation of ATX is largely unknown. In this study, we identified conserved adenylate-uridylate (AU)-rich elements in the ATX mRNA 3' untranslated region (3'UTR)...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769509/the-roles-of-the-secreted-phospholipase-a2-gene-family-in-immunology
#11
M Murakami, K Yamamoto, Y Miki, R Murase, H Sato, Y Taketomi
Within the phospholipase A2 (PLA2) family that hydrolyzes phospholipids to yield fatty acids and lysophospholipids, secreted PLA2 (sPLA2) enzymes comprise the largest group containing 11 isoforms in mammals. Individual sPLA2s exhibit unique tissue or cellular distributions and enzymatic properties, suggesting their distinct biological roles. Although PLA2 enzymes, particularly cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2α), have long been implicated in inflammation by driving arachidonic acid metabolism, the precise biological roles of sPLA2s have remained a mystery over the last few decades...
2016: Advances in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746179/yor022c-protein-is-a-phospholipase-a1-that-localizes-to-the-mitochondrial-matrix
#12
Kyosei Urafuji, Manabu Arioka
In mammals, three types of intracellular phospholipase A1 (iPLA1) enzymes have been characterized and are thought to be involved in various cellular processes such as phospholipid metabolism, organelle biogenesis, and membrane trafficking. In this study we analyzed the unique iPLA1-like protein, Yor022c, in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By the mass spectrometry analysis, we demonstrate that Yor022c is actually a phospholipase displaying sn-1-specific activity toward phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidic acid, generating 2-acyl lysophospholipids...
October 13, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702570/rapid-tin-mediated-access-to-a-lysophosphatidylethanolamine-lpe-library-application-to-positional-lc-ms-analysis-for-hepatic-lpes-in-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-model-mice
#13
Takayuki Furukawa, Hirotoshi Fuda, Satoshi Miyanaga, Chinatsu Watanabe, Hitoshi Chiba, Shu-Ping Hui
Even though lysophospholipids have attracted much interest in recent years on account of their unique bioactivity, research related to lysophospholipids is usually hampered by problems associated with standard sample preparation and discrimination of regioisomers. Herein, we demonstrate a quick tin-chemistry-based synthetic route to lysophosphatidylethanolamines (LPEs) and its application in the positional analysis of hepatic LPEs in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model mice. We found that the preference of hepatic LPE regioisomer largely depends on the unsaturation of acyl chain in both control and NASH model mice...
October 1, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690753/cytochrome-p450-2w1-cyp2w1-ready-for-use-as-the-biomarker-and-drug-target-for-cancer
#14
Pan Yan, Chin Eng Ong
1. This article aims to evaluate the potentials of using cytochrome P450 2W1 (CYP2W1) as a biomarker as well as a drug target of cancer because of its characteristic cancer-specific expression. 2. Discrepant findings comparing the expression levels of CYP2W1 in cancer and non-cancer samples were reported. In general, the expression followed a developmental pattern. The demethylation status of CpG island and the expression levels of CYP2W1 genes was positively correlated. 3. CYP2W1 was able to activate several procarcinogens, anti-cancer pro-drugs, and to metabolise many endogenous substances including fatty acids and lysophospholipids...
October 3, 2016: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683614/sphingosine-1-phosphate-is-involved-in-the-occlusive-arteriopathy-of-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#15
Salina Gairhe, Sachindra R Joshi, Mrigendra M Bastola, Jared M McLendon, Masahiko Oka, Karen A Fagan, Ivan F McMurtry
Despite several advances in the pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), its pathogenesis is not completely understood. Current therapy improves symptoms but has disappointing effects on survival. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lysophospholipid synthesized by sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) and SphK2. Considering the regulatory roles of S1P in several tissues leading to vasoconstriction, inflammation, proliferation, and fibrosis, we investigated whether S1P plays a role in the pathogenesis of PAH...
September 2016: Pulmonary Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682325/differences-between-serum-polar-lipid-profiles-of-male-and-female-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-in-response-to-glucocorticoid-treatment
#16
Junzeng Fu, Bart V J Cuppen, Paco M J Welsing, Herman van Wietmarschen, Amy C Harms, Ruud Berger, Slavik Koval, Ruth D E Fritsch-Stork, Johannes W J Bijlsma, Thomas Hankemeier, Jan van der Greef, Floris P J G Lafeber
OBJECTIVE: As there are pharmacological differences between males and females, and glucocorticoid (GC) treatment is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality rate in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, it is important to study serum polar lipid profiles of male and female patients in response to GC therapy. Gender differences may require an adjustment to the treatment strategy for a selection of patients. METHODS: Serum samples from 281 RA patients were analysed using a targeted lipidomics platform...
September 28, 2016: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681620/structure-guided-enzymology-of-the-lipid-a-acyltransferase-lpxm-reveals-a-dual-activity-mechanism
#17
Dustin Dovala, Christopher M Rath, Qijun Hu, William S Sawyer, Steven Shia, Robert A Elling, Mark S Knapp, Louis E Metzger
Gram-negative bacteria possess a characteristic outer membrane, of which the lipid A constituent elicits a strong host immune response through the Toll-like receptor 4 complex, and acts as a component of the permeability barrier to prevent uptake of bactericidal compounds. Lipid A species comprise the bulk of the outer leaflet of the outer membrane and are produced through a multistep biosynthetic pathway conserved in most Gram-negative bacteria. The final steps in this pathway involve the secondary acylation of lipid A precursors...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681040/miltefosine-suppresses-hepatic-steatosis-by-activating-ampk-signal-pathway
#18
Ru Fang, Xudong Zhu, Yaqin Zhu, Xing Tong, Kexue Li, Hui Bai, Xiaoyu Li, Jingjing Ben, Hanwen Zhang, Qing Yang, Qi Chen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It has been accepted that AMPK (Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) activation exhibits many beneficial effects on glucolipid metabolism. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is an important lysophospholipid which can improve blood glucose levels in diabetic mice and attenuate inflammation by activating AMPK signal pathway in macrophages. Synthetic alkylphospholipids (ALPs), such as miltefosine, is used as an alternate of LPC for the clinical application...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668490/effects-of-lipid-supplements-on-tear-biochemistry-in-contact-lens-wearers
#19
Athira Rohit, Mark D P Willcox, Fiona Stapleton
PURPOSE: To establish the effect of lipid supplements on tear lipid biochemistry and their influence on lens wear comfort in habitual lens wearers. METHODS: Forty habitual soft contact lens wearers were recruited to a double-masked, randomized crossover trial. An emulsion drop containing phosphatidylglycerol (Systane Balance; Alcon) and a liposomal spray containing phosphatidylcholine (Tears again; BioRevive) along with saline placebos were used three times a day for 14 days with 48 hours of washout between each intervention...
October 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650501/polarization-of-macrophages-towards-m2-phenotype-is-favored-by-reduction-in-ipla2%C3%AE
#20
Jason W Ashley, William D Hancock, Alexander J Nelson, Robert N Bone, Hubert M Tse, Mary Wohltmann, John Turk, Sasanka Ramanadham
Macrophages are important in innate and adaptive immunity. Macrophage participation in inflammation or tissue repair is directed by various extracellular signals and mediated by multiple intracellular pathways. Activation of group VIA phospholipase A2 (iPLA2β) causes accumulation of arachidonic acid, lysophospholipids, and eicosanoids that can promote inflammation and pathologic states. We examined the role of iPLA2β in peritoneal macrophage immune function by comparing WT and iPLA2β-/- mouse macrophages...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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