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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105254/disease-monitoring-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-through-metabolomics
#1
REVIEW
Asem I Fitian, Roniel Cabrera
We elucidate major pathways of hepatocarcinogenesis and accurate diagnostic metabolomic biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) identified by contemporary HCC metabolomics studies, and delineate a model HCC metabolomics study design. A literature search was carried out on Pubmed for HCC metabolomics articles published in English. All relevant articles were accessed in full text. Major search terms included "HCC", "metabolomics", "metabolomics", "metabonomic" and "biomarkers". We extracted clinical and demographic data on all patients and consolidated the lead candidate biomarkers, pathways, and diagnostic performance of metabolomic expression patterns reported by all studies in tables...
January 8, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104445/the-sh3-domain-of-caskin1-binds-to-lysophosphatidic-acid-suggesting-a-direct-role-for-the-lipid-in-intracellular-signaling
#2
Kitti Koprivanacz, Orsolya Tőke, Balázs Besztercei, Tünde Juhász, László Radnai, Balázs Merő, Judith Mihály, Mária Péter, Gábor Balogh, László Vígh, László Buday, Károly Liliom
Src homology 3 or SH3 domains constitute one of the most common protein domains in signal transduction, generally characterized by their binding to proline-rich sequences on interacting signaling proteins. Caskin1, a scaffold protein regulating cortical actin filaments, enriched in neural synapses in mammals, has an atypical SH3 domain. Key aromatic residues necessary for ligand binding that are present in canonical SH3 domains are missing from Caskin1 SH3. In concordance, proline-rich interacting partner could not be identified yet...
January 16, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100887/production-of-a-health-beneficial-food-emulsifier-by-enzymatic-partial-hydrolysis-of-phospholipids-obtained-from-the-head-of-autumn-chum-salmon
#3
A K M Azad Shah, Toshihiro Nagao, Hideyuki Kurihara, Koretaro Takahashi
Phospholipids and their partial hydrolysates, namely lysophospholipids (LPLs), have been widely used in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic products as highly efficient emulsifiers. This study was conducted to produce docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-esterified LPLs by enzymatic modification of phospholipids obtained from the head of autumn chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta). The emulsifying properties of the obtained LPLs were also evaluated. Two different types of substrates of salmon head phospholipids were prepared via silica gel and cold acetone precipitation...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100844/phospholipids-and-products-of-their-hydrolysis-as-dietary-preventive-factors-for-civilization-diseases
#4
Karol Parchem, Agnieszka Bartoszek
The results of numerous epidemiological studies indicate that phospholipids play an important role in the prevention of chronic diseases faced by contemporary society. Firstly, these compounds are responsible for the proper functioning of cell membranes, by ensuring liquidity and permeability, which is pivotal for normal activity of membrane proteins, including receptors. These mechanisms are at the core of prevention of cancer, autoimmune or neurological disorders. Secondly, structure and properties of phospholipids cause that they are highly available source of biologically active fatty acids...
December 31, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067430/editorial-process-file-includedexogenous-lysophospholipids-with-large-head-groups-perturb-clathrin-mediated-endocytosis
#5
Ieva Ailte, Anne Berit Dyve Lingelem, Audun Sverre Kvalvaag, Simona Kavaliauskiene, Andreas Brech, Gerbrand Koster, Paul Gunnar Dommersnes, Jonas Bergan, Tore Skotland, Kirsten Sandvig
In this study, we have investigated how clathrin-dependent endocytosis is affected by exogenously added lysophospholipids (LPLs). Addition of LPLs with large head groups strongly inhibits transferrin (Tf) endocytosis in various cell lines, while LPLs with small head groups do not. Electron and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (EM and TIRF) reveal that treatment with lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) with the fatty acyl group C18:0 leads to reduced numbers of invaginated clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) at the plasma membrane, fewer endocytic events per membrane area and increased lifetime of CCPs...
January 9, 2017: Traffic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063500/cellular-assays-for-evaluating-calcium-dependent-translocation-of-cpla2%C3%AE-to-membrane
#6
B Yun, C C Leslie
The group IVA phospholipase A2, commonly called cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α), is a widely expressed enzyme that hydrolyzes membrane phospholipid to produce arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids, which are precursors for a number of bioactive lipid mediators. Arachidonic acid is metabolized through the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways for production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes that regulate normal physiological processes and contribute to disease pathogenesis. cPLA2α is composed of an N-terminal C2 domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain that contains the Ser-Asp catalytic dyad...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063487/secreted-phospholipase-a2-specificity-on-natural-membrane-phospholipids
#7
K Yamamoto, Y Miki, H Sato, R Murase, Y Taketomi, M Murakami
The secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) family contains 10 catalytically active isoforms. Current in vitro biochemical studies have shown that individual sPLA2s have distinct substrate selectivity in terms of the polar head groups or sn-2 fatty acids of their substrate phospholipids. Importantly, transgenic or knockout mice for distinct sPLA2s display nonoverlapping phenotypes, arguing that they do act on different phospholipid substrates and mobilize unique lipid metabolites in vivo. In an effort to comprehensively understand lipid metabolism driven by individual sPLA2s under pathophysiological conditions, we took advantages of mass spectrometric lipidomics technology to monitor the spatiotemporal changes in phospholipids (substrates) and products (fatty acids, lysophospholipids, and their metabolites) in tissues or cells of sPLA2-transgenic or knockout mice...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017639/selective-coupling-of-the-s1p3-receptor-subtype-to-s1p-mediated-rhoa-activation-and-cardioprotection
#8
Bryan S Yung, Cameron S Brand, Sunny Y Xiang, Charles B B Gray, Christopher K Means, Hugh Rosen, Jerold Chun, Nicole H Purcell, Joan Heller Brown, Shigeki Miyamoto
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lysophospholipid, is generated and released at sites of tissue injury in the heart and can act on S1P1, S1P2, and S1P3 receptor subtypes to affect cardiovascular responses. We established that S1P causes little phosphoinositide hydrolysis and does not induce hypertrophy indicating that it does not cause receptor coupling to Gq. We previously demonstrated that S1P confers cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion by activating RhoA and its downstream effector PKD...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007846/different-origins-of-lysophospholipid-mediators-between-coronary-and-peripheral-arteries-in-acute-coronary-syndrome
#9
Makoto Kurano, Kuniyuki Kano, Tomotaka Dohi, Hirotaka Matsumoto, Koji Igarashi, Masako Nishikawa, Ryunosuke Ohkawa, Hitoshi Ikeda, Katsumi Miyauchi, Hiroyuki Daida, Junken Aoki, Yutaka Yatomi
Lysophosphatidic acids (LysoPA) and lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS) are emerging lipid mediators proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In this study, we attempted to elucidate how LysoPA and LysoPS become elevated in ACS using human blood samples collected simultaneously from culprit coronary arteries and peripheral arteries in ACS subjects. We found that (1) the plasma LysoPA, LysoPS, and lysophosphatidylglycerol levels were not different, while the lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC), lysophosphatidylinositol, and lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LysoPE) levels were significantly lower in the culprit coronary arteries; (2) the serum ATX level was lower and the serum PS-PLA1 level was higher in the culprit coronary arteries; (3) the LysoPE and ATX levels were significant explanatory factors for the mainly elevated species of LysoPA, except for 22:6 LysoPA, in the peripheral arteries, while the LysoPC and LysoPE levels, but not the ATX level, were explanatory factors in the culprit coronary arteries; and (4) 18:0 and 18:1 LysoPS were significantly correlated with PS-PLA1 only in the culprit coronary arteries...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991764/high-troughput-lipidomic-and-transcriptomic-analysis-to-compare-sp2-0-cho-and-hek-293-mammalian-cell-lines
#10
Yue Zhang, Deniz Baycin Hizal, Amit Kumar, Joseph Priola, Michelle Bahri, Kelley M Heffner, Miao Wang, Xianlin Han, Michael A Bowen, Michael J Betenbaugh
A combined lipidomics and transcriptomics analysis was performed on mouse myeloma SP2/0, Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) and Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) cells in order to compare widely used mammalian expression systems. Initial thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis indicated phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) were the major lipid components with lower amounts of sphingomyelin (SM) in SP2/0 compared to CHO and HEK, which was subsequently confirmed and expounded upon following mass spectrometry (MS) analysis...
December 19, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981605/hepatocyte-autotaxin-expression-promotes-liver-fibrosis-and-cancer
#11
Eleanna Kaffe, Aggeliki Katsifa, Nikos Xylourgidis, Ioanna Ninou, Markella Zannikou, Vaggelis Harokopos, Pelagia Foka, Alexios Dimitriadis, Kostas Evangelou, Anargyros N Moulas, Urania Georgopoulou, Vassilis G Gorgoulis, George N Dalekos, Vassilis Aidinis
: Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted lysophospholipase D catalyzing the production of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a pleiotropic growth factor-like lysophospholipid. Increased ATX expression has been detected in various chronic inflammatory disorders and different types of cancer; however little is known about its role and mode of action in liver fibrosis and cancer. Here, increased ATX expression was detected in chronic liver diseases (CLDs) patients of different etiologies, associated with shorter overall survival...
December 16, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979195/untargeted-metabolomic-analysis-of-human-serum-samples-associated-with-different-levels-of-red-meat-consumption-a-possible-indicator-of-type-2-diabetes
#12
Daniel Carrizo, Olivier P Chevallier, Jayne V Woodside, Sarah F Brennan, Marie M Cantwell, Geraldine Cuskelly, Christopher T Elliott
Red meat consumption has been associated with negative health effects. A study to identify biomarkers of meat consumption was undertaken using serum samples collected from combining high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTof-MS) and chemometrics. Using orthogonal partial last-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), multivariate models were created for both modes of acquisition (ESI-/ESI+) and red meat intake classes (YES/NO). In the serum samples, a total 3280 and 3225 ions of interest were detected in positive and negative modes, respectively...
April 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956138/biogenesis-transport-and-remodeling-of-lysophospholipids-in-gram-negative-bacteria
#13
REVIEW
Lei Zheng, Yibin Lin, Shuo Lu, Jiazhe Zhang, Mikhail Bogdanov
Lysophospholipids (LPLs) are metabolic intermediates in bacterial phospholipid turnover. Distinct from their diacyl counterparts, these inverted cone-shaped molecules share physical characteristics of detergents, enabling modification of local membrane properties such as curvature. The functions of LPLs as cellular growth factors or potent lipid mediators have been extensively demonstrated in eukaryotic cells but are still undefined in bacteria. In the envelope of Gram-negative bacteria, LPLs are derived from multiple endogenous and exogenous sources...
December 9, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886515/discovery-of-novel-lipid-profiles-in-pcos-do-insulin-and-androgen-oppositely-regulate-bioactive-lipid-production
#14
Shengxian Li, Qianqian Chu, Jing Ma, Yun Sun, Tao Tao, Rong Huang, Yu Liao, Jiang Yue, Jun Zheng, Lihua Wang, Xinli Xue, Mingjiang Zhu, Xiaonan Kang, Huiyong Yin, Wei Liu
CONTEXT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex syndrome showing clinical features of an endocrine/metabolic disorder, including hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their derivatives play important roles in inflammation and reproduction, and both of these are tightly linked to PCOS and obesity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate serum lipid profiles in newly diagnosed PCOS patients using lipidomics and correlate these features with the hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism associated with PCOS and obesity...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883058/role-of-ectonucleotide-pyrophosphatase-phosphodiesterase-2-in-the-midline-axis-formation-of-zebrafish
#15
Frisca Frisca, Daniel Colquhoun, Yona Goldshmit, Minna-Liisa Änkö, Alice Pébay, Jan Kaslin
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a unique bioactive lysophospholipid that induces pleiotropic effects in various cell types and organisms by acting on its specific receptors. LPA is mainly synthetised extracellularly by the ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2/autotaxin (enpp2). Altered LPA signalling is associated with embryonic abnormalities, suggesting critical roles for LPA during development. However, the role of LPA signalling during early embryogenesis is not well established. We demonstrate that enpp2/LPA signalling in the early zebrafish embryo results in altered axis and midline formation, defects in left right (L-R) patterning, ciliogenesis of the Kupffer's vesicle (KV), through the modulation of cell migration during gastrulation in a lpar1-3 Rho/ROCK-dependant manner...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883026/inhibition-of-lysophosphatidic-acid-receptors-1-and-3-attenuates-atherosclerosis-development-in-ldl-receptor-deficient-mice
#16
Eva Kritikou, Gijs H M van Puijvelde, Thomas van der Heijden, Peter J van Santbrink, Maarten Swart, Frank H Schaftenaar, Mara J Kröner, Johan Kuiper, Ilze Bot
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a natural lysophospholipid present at high concentrations within lipid-rich atherosclerotic plaques. Upon local accumulation in the damaged vessels, LPA can act as a potent activator for various types of immune cells through its specific membrane receptors LPA1/3. LPA elicits chemotactic, pro-inflammatory and apoptotic effects that lead to atherosclerotic plaque progression. In this study we aimed to inhibit LPA signaling by means of LPA1/3 antagonism using the small molecule Ki16425...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878455/structural-insight-into-binding-mode-of-9-hydroxy-aristolochic-acid-diclofenac-and-indomethacin-to-pla2
#17
Mohsen Ebrahimi, Omidreza Firuzi, Ramin Miri, Nima Razzaghi-Asl, Ahmad Ebadi
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phospholipids into arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids. Arachidonic acid is modified by cyclooxygenases into active compounds called eicosanoids that act as signaling molecules in a number of physiological processes. Excessive production of eicosanoids leads to several pathological conditions such as inflammation. In order to block the inflammatory effect of these compounds, upstream enzymes such as PLA2 are valid targets. In the present contribution, molecular dynamic analysis was performed to evaluate the binding of diclofenac, 9-hydroxy aristolochic acid (9-HAA) and indomethacin to PLA2...
November 22, 2016: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865770/effect-of-lipid-environment-on-amyloid-fibril-formation-of-human-serum-amyloid-a
#18
Masafumi Tanaka, Ayaka Nishimura, Haruka Takeshita, Hiroka Takase, Toshiyuki Yamada, Takahiro Mukai
Human serum amyloid A (SAA) is a precursor protein of AA amyloidosis and a component of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), thus it is essential to investigate the amyloid fibril formation of SAA under a lipid environment. We used synthetic fragment peptides corresponding to the N-terminal (residues 1-27) and central (residues 43-63) regions of the SAA molecule, which are known to have amyloidogenic properties. Measurements of tryptophan fluorescence in conjunction with circular dichroism showed that SAA (1-27) peptide binds to neutral and acidic lysophospholipids, whereas SAA (43-63) peptide binds only to acidic lysophospholipids...
November 16, 2016: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845199/in-vitro-toxicity-of-pirimiphos-methyl-in-atlantic-salmon-hepatocytes
#19
Pål A Olsvik, Marc H G Berntssen, Liv Søfteland
Recent screening of Atlantic salmon feeds has uncovered residues of several pesticides, including pirimiphos-methyl. Pirimiphos-methyl is an organophosphate (OP) insecticide, causing inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in target organisms. The aim of this study was to examine pirimiphos-methyl non-targeted mode of action toxicity in Atlantic salmon using in vitro exposure. Hepatocyte cells were exposed to pirimiphos-methyl (control-0.1-1.0-10-100-1000μM) for 48h. Transcriptomics (RNA-seq) and non-targeted metabolomics were used to screen for effects of the pesticide...
March 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843094/metabolomics-predicts-neuroimaging-characteristics-of-transient-ischemic-attack-patients
#20
Francisco Purroy, Serafi Cambray, Gerard Mauri-Capdevila, Mariona Jové, Jordi Sanahuja, Joan Farré, Ikram Benabdelhak, Jessica Molina-Seguin, Laura Colàs-Campàs, Robert Begue, M Isabel Gil, Reinald Pamplona, Manuel Portero-Otín
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging is essential for the diagnosis and prognosis of transient ischemic attack (TIA). The discovery of a plasmatic biomarker related to neuroimaging findings is of enormous interest because, despite its relevance, magnetic resonance diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is not always available in all hospitals that attend to TIA patients. METHODS: Metabolomic analyses were performed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in order to establish the metabolomic patterns of positive DWI, DWI patterns and acute ischemic lesion volumes...
December 2016: EBioMedicine
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