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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415945/validating-a-selective-s1p1-receptor-modulator-syl930-for-psoriasis-treatment
#1
Ming Ji, Nina Xue, Fangfang Lai, Xiaoying Zhang, Sen Zhang, Yuchen Wang, Jing Jin, Xiaoguang Chen
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by red, scaly and raised plaques. Thus far, T-cell infiltration is one of the most prominent pathogenic triggers, however, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying psoriasis have not been clearly established. Sphingolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lysophospholipid regulator modulating a variety of immune cell trafficking via interactions with its cognate receptors, S1P1-5. Activation of S1P signaling has recently emerged as a novel therapeutic avenue for psoriasis treatment...
February 7, 2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411327/gene-variants-of-the-phosphatidylcholine-synthesis-pathway-do-not-contribute-to-rds-in%C3%A2-the-chinese-population
#2
Yu-Jun Chen, Julia Meyer, Jennifer A Wambach, Kelcey DePass, Daniel J Wegner, Xin Fan, Qun-Yuan Zhang, Heins Hillary, F Sessions Cole, Aaron Hamvas
BACKGROUND: To determine population-based prevalence and disease contribution of phosphatidylcholine synthetic pathway-associated gene variants in a native southern Chinese cohort. METHODS: We used bloodspots from 2010 that were obtained from the Guangxi Neonatal Screening Center in Nannning China and included the Han (n = 443) and Zhuang (n = 313) ethnic groups. We sequenced the exons of cholinephosphate cytidylyltransferase (PCYT1B) lysophospholipid acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1), and cholinephosphotransferase (CHPT1) genes, and analyzed both rare and common exonic variants...
February 6, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390908/towards-a-better-understanding-of-the-cannabinoid-related-orphan-receptors-gpr3-gpr6-and-gpr12
#3
Paula Morales, Israa Isawi, Patricia H Reggio
GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12 are three orphan receptors that belong to the Class A family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These GPCRs share over 60% of sequence similarity among them. Because of their close phylogenetic relationship, GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12 share a high percentage of homology with other lipid receptors such as the lysophospholipid and the cannabinoid receptors. On the basis of sequence similarities at key structural motifs, these orphan receptors have been related to the cannabinoid family. However, further experimental data are required to confirm this association...
February 1, 2018: Drug Metabolism Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387000/intermittent-fasting-applied-in-combination-with-rotenone-treatment-exacerbates-dopamine-neurons-degeneration-in-mice
#4
Giuseppe Tatulli, Nico Mitro, Stefano M Cannata, Matteo Audano, Donatella Caruso, Giovanna D'Arcangelo, Daniele Lettieri-Barbato, Katia Aquilano
Intermittent fasting (IF) was suggested to be a powerful nutritional strategy to prevent the onset of age-related neurodegenerative diseases associated with compromised brain bioenergetics. Whether the application of IF in combination with a mitochondrial insult could buffer the neurodegenerative process has never been explored yet. Herein, we defined the effects of IF in C57BL/6J mice treated once per 24 h with rotenone (Rot) for 28 days. Rot is a neurotoxin that inhibits the mitochondrial complex I and causes dopamine neurons degeneration, thus reproducing the neurodegenerative process observed in Parkinson's disease (PD)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370801/expression-of-cocoa-genes-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-improves-cocoa-butter-production
#5
Yongjun Wei, David Bergenholm, Michael Gossing, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) is the main raw material for chocolate production, but CB supply is insufficient due to the increased chocolate demand and limited CB production. CB is mainly composed of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP, C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), 1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POS, C16:0-C18:1-C18:0) and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS, C18:0-C18:1-C18:0). In general, Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces TAGs as storage lipids, which consist of C16 and C18 fatty acids...
January 25, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348168/the-phospholipid-repair-system-lplt-aas-in-gram-negative-bacteria-protects-the-bacterial-membrane-envelope-from-host-phospholipase-a2-attack
#6
Yibin Lin, Mikhail Bogdanov, Shuo Lu, Ziqiang Guan, William Margolin, Jerrold P Weiss, Lei Zheng
Secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2) are potent components of mammalian innate-immunity antibacterial mechanisms. sPLA2 enzymes attack bacteria by hydrolyzing bacterial membrane phospholipids, causing membrane disorganization and cell lysis. However, most Gram-negative bacteria are naturally resistant to sPLA2. Here we report a novel resistance mechanism to mammalian sPLA2 in Escherichia coli, mediated by a phospholipid repair system consisting of the lysophospholipid transporter LplT and the acyltransferase Aas in the cytoplasmic membrane...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312587/tumour-microenvironmental-blood-flow-determines-a-metabolomic-signature-identifying-lysophospholipids-and-resolvin-d-as-biomarkers-in-endometrial-cancer-patients
#7
Núria Eritja, Mariona Jové, Kristine Eldevik Fasmer, Sònia Gatius, Manuel Portero-Otin, Jone Trovik, Camilla Krakstad, Joaquim Sol, Reinald Pamplona, Ingfrid S Haldorsen, Xavier Matias-Guiu
Purpose: We aimed to study the potential influence of tumour blood flow -obtained from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI)- in the metabolomic profiles of endometrial tumours. Methods: Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry established the metabolomic profile of endometrial cancer lesions exhibiting high (n=12) or low (n=14) tumour blood flow at DCE-MRI. Univariate and multivariate statistics (ortho-PLS-DA, a random forest (RF) classifier and hierarchical clustering) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to establish a panel for potentially discriminating tumours with high versus low blood flow...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307082/biomarkers-in-spinal-cord-injury-from-prognosis-to-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Leonardo Fonseca Rodrigues, Vivaldo Moura-Neto, Tania Cristina Leite de Sampaio E Spohr
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is considered an incurable condition, having a heterogenous recovery and uncertain prognosis. Therefore, a reliable prediction of the improvement in the acute phase could benefit patients. Physicians are unanimous in insisting that at the initial damage of the spinal cord (SC), the patient should be carefully evaluated in order to help selecting an appropriate neuroprotective treatment. However, currently, neurologic impairment after SCI is measured and classified by functional examination...
January 6, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301359/identification-of-conserved-and-diverse-metabolic-shift-of-the-stylar-intermediate-and-peduncular-segments-of-cucumber-fruit-during-development
#9
Chaoyang Hu, Huiyu Zhao, Wen Wang, Mingfei Xu, Jianxin Shi, Xiangbo Nie, Guiling Yang
Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) is one of the most important vegetables and contains a high content of nutritionally beneficial metabolites. However, little is known about the metabolic variations among different parts of cucumber fruit and their kinetics during growth. In this study, the dynamic metabolic profiles in the stylar end, the intermediate segment and the peduncular end of cucumber fruit during the development were investigated by employing a non-targeted metabolomics approach, where 238 metabolites were identified...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258184/lysophospholipid-related-diseases-and-ppar%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#10
REVIEW
Tamotsu Tsukahara, Yoshikazu Matsuda, Hisao Haniu
The nuclear receptor superfamily includes ligand-inducible transcription factors that play diverse roles in cell metabolism and are associated with pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) belongs to a family of lipid mediators. LPA and its naturally occurring analogues interact with G protein-coupled receptors on the cell surface and an intracellular nuclear hormone receptor. In addition, several enzymes that utilize LPA as a substrate or generate it as a product are under its regulatory control...
December 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249870/effects-of-fty720-on-lung-injury-induced-by-hindlimb-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats
#11
Liangrong Wang, Feifei Chen, Yafei Pan, Lina Lin, Xiangqing Xiong
Background: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a biologically active lysophospholipid mediator involved in modulating inflammatory process. We investigated the effects of FTY720, a structural analogue of S1P after phosphorylation, on lung injury induced by hindlimb ischemia reperfusion (IR) in rats. Methods: Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups SM, IR, F3, F5, and F10. Group SM received sham operation, and bilateral hindlimb IR was established in group IR...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239275/activation-of-lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor-3-inhibits-megakaryopoiesis-in-human-hematopoietic-stem-cells-and-zebrafish
#12
Kuan-Hung Lin, Meng-Wei Li, Ya-Chi Chang, Yu-Nung Lin, Ya-Hsuan Ho, Wei-Chun Weng, Chang-Jen Huang, Bei-En Chang, Chao-Ling Yao, Hsinyu Lee
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a membrane-derived lysophospholipid that exists in the plasma and platelets. It exerts its functions through activation of various LPA receptors (LPARs), which belong to the family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Activation of LPARs has important roles in stem cell differentiation. However, how LPA affects human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) differentiation remains elusive. In our previous studies, we have suggested that LPA receptor 2 (LPA<sub>2</sub>) and LPA receptor 3 (LPA<sub>3</sub>) play opposing roles, and may act as a molecular switch during megakaryocytic differentiation in K562 cells...
December 14, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237272/bioactive-lipids-and-redox-signaling-molecular-mechanism-and-disease-pathogenesis
#13
Pin Lan Li, Erich Gulbins
SIGNIFICANCE: The actions of bioactive lipids and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are usually coupled and their interplay is a common and important mechanism mediating tissue injury, inflammation and other pathologies. Understanding the interplay of ROS and lipid mediators will extend horizons for researchers to clarify the pathogenesis of different diseases and help identify therapeutic targets for treatment of these diseases. Recent Advances: Some bioactive lipids are converted into oxidized lipids during cell or tissue oxidative stress such as isoprostanes and isoketals, which are even more bioactive compared to their precursors...
December 14, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209219/differential-effects-of-inhibitor-combinations-on-lysophosphatidic-acid-mediated-chemokine-secretion-in-unprimed-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-primed-synovial-fibroblasts
#14
Weili Hui, Chenqi Zhao, Sylvain G Bourgoin
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a pleiotropic bioactive lysophospholipid involved in inflammatory mediator synthesis. Signaling through p38MAPK, ERK, Rho kinase, and MSK-CREB contributes to LPA-mediated IL-8 production in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. The study was undertaken to investigate how LPA activates MSKs and how signaling crosstalk between TNFα and LPA contributes to the super-production of cytokines/chemokines. RAFLS pretreated or not with TNFα were stimulated with LPA...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208119/comparative-analysis-of-the-burkholderia-cenocepacia-k56-2-essential-genome-reveals-cell-envelope-functions-that-are-uniquely-required-for-survival-in-species-of-the-genus-burkholderia
#15
April S Gislason, Keith Turner, Mike Domaratzki, Silvia T Cardona
Burkholderia cenocepacia K56-2 belongs to the Burkholderia cepacia complex, a group of Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens that have large and dynamic genomes. In this work, we identified the essential genome of B. cenocepacia K56-2 using high-density transposon mutagenesis and insertion site sequencing (Tn-seq circle). We constructed a library of one million transposon mutants and identified the transposon insertions at an average of one insertion per 27 bp. The probability of gene essentiality was determined by comparing of the insertion density per gene with the variance of neutral datasets generated by Monte Carlo simulations...
November 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199411/the-phospholipid-linoleoylglycerophosphocholine-as-a-biomarker-of-directly-measured-insulin-resistance
#16
Maria Camila Pérez-Matos, Martha Catalina Morales-Álvarez, Freddy Jean Karlo Toloza, Maria Laura Ricardo-Silgado, Jose Oscar Mantilla-Rivas, Jairo Arturo Pinzón-Cortes, Maritza Perez-Mayorga, Elizabeth Jiménez, Edwin Guevara, Carlos O Mendivil
BACKGROUND: Plasma concentrations of some lysophospholipids correlate with metabolic alterations in humans, but their potential as biomarkers of insulin resistance (IR) is insufficiently known. We aimed to explore the association between plasma linoleoylglycerophosphocholine (LGPC) and objective measures of IR in adults with different metabolic profiles. METHODS: We studied 62 men and women, ages 30 to 69 years, (29% normal weight, 59% overweight, 12% obese). Participants underwent a 5-point oral glucose tolerance test (5p-OGTT) from which we calculated multiple indices of IR and insulin secretion...
December 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196633/lysophosphatidylcholine-acyltransferase-4-is-involved-in-chondrogenic-differentiation-of-atdc5-cells
#17
Shirou Tabe, Hisako Hikiji, Wataru Ariyoshi, Tomomi Hashidate-Yoshida, Hideo Shindou, Takao Shimizu, Toshinori Okinaga, Yuji Seta, Kazuhiro Tominaga, Tatsuji Nishihara
Glycerophospholipids have important structural and functional roles in cells and are the main components of cellular membranes. Glycerophospholipids are formed via the de novo pathway (Kennedy pathway) and are subsequently matured in the remodeling pathway (Lands' cycle). Lands' cycle consists of two steps: deacylation of phospholipids by phospholipases A2 and reacylation of lysophospholipids by lysophospholipid acyltransferases (LPLATs). LPLATs play key roles in the maturation and maintenance of the fatty acid composition of biomembranes, and cell differentiation...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167338/inhibition-of-cytosolic-phospholipase-a2%C3%AE-impairs-an-early-step-of-coronavirus-replication-in-cell-culture
#18
Christin Müller, Martin Hardt, Dominik Schwudke, Benjamin W Neuman, Stephan Pleschka, John Ziebuhr
Coronavirus replication is associated with intracellular membrane rearrangements in infected cells, resulting in the formation of double membrane vesicles (DMV) and other membranous structures that are referred to as replicative organelles (RO). The latter provide a structural scaffold for viral replication/transcription complexes (RTC) and help to sequester RTC components from recognition by cellular factors involved in antiviral host responses. There is increasing evidence that plus-strand (+) RNA virus replication, including RO formation and virion morphogenesis, affects cellular lipid metabolism and critically depends on enzymes involved in lipid synthesis and processing...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150677/phosphatidylserine-decarboxylase-ct699-lysophospholipid-acyltransferase-ct775-and-acyl-acp-synthase-ct776-provide-membrane-lipid-diversity-to-chlamydia-trachomatis
#19
Eric Soupene, Frans A Kuypers
De novo lipid synthesis and scavenging of fatty acids (FA) are processes essential for the formation of the membrane of the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t.). Host FA are assimilated via esterification by the bacterial acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase AasC but inhibitors of the host acyl-CoA synthetase enymes ACSL also impaired growth of C.t. in human cells. In E. coli, activity of AasC was sensitive to triacsin C and rosiglitazone G. The absence of a triacsin C-insensitive pathway and the increased inhibition by rosiglitazone G confirmed the sensitivity of the bacterial acyl-ACP synthase to these drugs in infected human cells...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149234/calcium-dependent-hydrolysis-of-supported-planar-lipids-was-triggered-by-honey-bee-venom-phospholipase-a2-with-the-right-orientation-at-the-interface
#20
Siqi Kai, Xu Li, Bolin Li, Xiaofeng Han, Xiaolin Lu
Hydrolysis of planar phospholipids catalyzed by honey bee venom phospholipase A2 (bvPLA2) was studied. Experiments demonstrated that Ca(2+) ions mediated between the lipids and bvPLA2, induced reorientation of bvPLA2, and activated hydrolysis. One of the hydrolysis products, fatty acids, was desorbed, and the other one, lysophospholipids, self-organized at the interface.
November 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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