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Ayse Günes-Bayir, Abdurrahim Kocyigit, Eray Metin Güler
Phenolic compounds of essential oils from the family Lamiaceae are commonly used substances in the food industry because of their flavouring, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. In this context, it has become important to have healthy and safe products for consumers who are exposed to these phenolic compounds. The present study was aimed to investigate the toxic effects of carvacrol, thymol and their mixture on human gastric carcinoma (AGS) cells. Cells were analyzed after 24 h of exposure to different concentrations of carvacrol, thymol and their mixture by the ATP cell viability, 2',7' dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCF-DA), reducte glutatione/oxide glutathione ((GSH)/GSSG-Glo) and comet assays...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Ramachandran Rashmi, Xiaojing Huang, John M Floberg, Adnan E Elhammali, Michael L McCormick, Gary J Patti, Douglas R Spitz, Julie K Schwarz
Highly glycolytic cervical cancers largely resist treatment by cisplatin and coadministered pelvic irradiation as the present standard of care. In this study, we investigated the effects of inhibiting glycolysis and thiol redox metabolism to evaluate them as alternate treatment strategies in these cancers. In a panel of multiple cervical cancer cell lines, we evaluated sensitivity to inhibition of glycolysis (2-deoxyglucose, 2-DG) with or without simultaneous inhibition of glutathione and thioredoxin metabolism (BSO/AUR)...
March 15, 2018: Cancer Research
Fazal Khan, Tariq Jamal Khan, Gauthaman Kalamegam, Peter Natesan Pushparaj, Adeel Chaudhary, Adel Abuzenadah, Taha Kumosani, Elie Barbour, Mohammed Al-Qahtani
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for major cancer-related deaths despite current advanced therapies. Treatment and prognosis of HCC is better in patients with preserved liver function. Many natural products including ajwa dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.), are claimed to have hepatoprotective and HCC inhibitory effects, but most lack scientific validation. To prove our hypothesis, we attempted to evaluate the HCC inhibitory effects, and other beneficial properties of the aqueous extract of ajwa dates (ADE) in a rat model of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer...
August 22, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Xiu-Juan Gao, Guan-Nan Xie, Lei Liu, Zhi-Jian Fu, Zong-Wang Zhang, Liang-Zhu Teng
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of sesamol treatment on focal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the rat brain. The results demonstrated that pretreatment with sesamol seven days prior to focal cerebral I/R injury had significant positive effects, including improvements in neurological deficits (P<0.05), and a reduction in malondialdehyde content and elevation of antioxidant levels (superoxide dismutase, glutathione and glutatione peroxidase; both P<0.05). Furthermore, levels of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein and caspase-3 were significantly downregulated, whereas the level of Bcl-2 was effectively increased...
July 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Evgenii A Konorov, Mikhail A Nikitin, Kirill V Mikhailov, Sergey N Lysenkov, Mikhail Belenky, Peter L Chang, Sergey V Nuzhdin, Victoria A Scobeyeva
BACKGROUND: The world is rapidly urbanizing, and only a subset of species are able to succeed in stressful city environments. Efficient genome-enabled stress response appears to be a likely prerequisite for urban adaptation. Despite the important role ants play in the ecosytem, only the genomes of ~13 have been sequenced so far. Here, we present the draft genome assembly of the black garden ant Lasius niger - the most successful urban inhabitant of all ants - and we compare it with the genomes of other ant species, including the closely related Camponotus floridanus...
February 7, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Durgesh K Tripathi, Rohit K Mishra, Swati Singh, Samiksha Singh, Kanchan Vishwakarma, Shivesh Sharma, Vijay P Singh, Prashant K Singh, Sheo M Prasad, Nawal K Dubey, Avinash C Pandey, Shivendra Sahi, Devendra K Chauhan
The present study investigates ameliorative effects of nitric oxide (NO) against zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) phytotoxicity in wheat seedlings. ZnONPs exposure hampered growth of wheat seedlings, which coincided with reduced photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm and qP), due to increased accumulation of zinc (Zn) in xylem and phloem saps. However, SNP supplementation partially mitigated the ZnONPs-mediated toxicity through the modulation of photosynthetic activity and Zn accumulation in xylem and phloem saps...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ana C L Camargo, Sérgio A A Dos Santos, Jaqueline C Rinaldi, Flavia B Constantino, Ketlin T Colombelli, Wellerson R Scarano, Sérgio L Felisbino, Luis A Justulin
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has increased in recent years. Although the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in GDM-increased risk factors to offspring remained poorly understood, some studies suggested an association between an increase in oxidative stress induced by maternal hyperglycemia and complications for both mothers and newborns. Here, we investigated the impact of maternal hyperglycemia followed by maternal insulin replacement during lactation on the expression of antioxidant enzymes and mast cell number in offspring ventral prostate (VP) at puberty...
February 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Gabriela Debom, Marta Gazal, Mayara Sandrielly Pereira Soares, Carlus Augustu Tavares do Couto, Bruna Mattos, Claiton Lencina, Manuella Pinto Kaster, Gabriele Codenonzi Ghisleni, Rejane Tavares, Elizandra Braganhol, Vitor Clasen Chaves, Flávio Henrique Reginatto, Francieli Stefanello, Roselia Maria Spanevello
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of blueberry extract on oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters in a model of mania induced by ketamine administration in rats. Male rats were pretreated with blueberry extract (200mg/kg, once a day for 14days), lithium chloride (45mg/kg, mood stabilizer used as a positive control, twice a day for 14days), or vehicle. Between the 8th and 14th days, rats also received an injection of ketamine (25mg/kg) or vehicle. In the 15th day, thirty minutes after ketamine administration the hyperlocomotion of the animals was assessed in the open - field apparatus...
October 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Michela Schiavon, Chiara Berto, Mario Malagoli, Annarita Trentin, Paolo Sambo, Stefano Dall'Acqua, Elizabeth A H Pilon-Smits
Two selenium (Se) fertilization methods were tested for their effects on levels of anticarcinogenic selenocompounds in radish (Raphanus sativus), as well as other nutraceuticals. First, radish was grown on soil and foliar selenate applied 7 days before harvest at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg Se per plant. Selenium levels were up to 1200 mg Se/kg DW in leaves and 120 mg Se/kg DW in roots. The thiols cysteine and glutathione were present at 2-3-fold higher levels in roots of Se treated plants, and total glucosinolate levels were 35% higher, due to increases in glucoraphanin...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Marina Lidwine Olé Sangba, Tanguy Deketramete, Solange Patricia Wango, Mirdad Kazanji, Martin Akogbeto, Mamadou Ousmane Ndiath
BACKGROUND: In the Central African Republic, malaria is a major public health problem and the leading cause of death among children. This disease appears to be hyperendemic but no substantial entomological data, including data on Anopheles spp. susceptibility to insecticides, is available. This study evaluates, for the first time in the CAR, the status of insecticide resistance in the Anopheles funestus population, the second major vector of malaria in Africa. METHODS: WHO standard bioassay susceptibility tests were performed on the An...
April 25, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Csilla Pelyhe, Benjámin Kövesi, Erika Zándoki, Balázs Kovács, Judit Szabó-Fodor, Miklós Mézes, Krisztián Balogh
The purpose of study was to investigate the effects of T-2 toxin (4.11 mg T-2 toxin and 0.45 mg HT-2 toxin kg(-1) feed) and deoxynivalenol (5.96 and 0.33 mg 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol (DON) kg(-1) feed) in 1-year-old common carp juveniles in a 4-week feeding trial. The exposure of mycotoxins resulted in increased mortality in both groups consuming mycotoxin-contaminated diet. Parameters of lipid peroxidation were not affected during the trial, and antioxidant defence also did not show response to oxidative stress; however, glutatione peroxidase activity slightly, but significantly, decreased in the T-2 toxin group...
May 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Ana Paula Lausmann Ternes, Ana Paula Zemolin, Litiele Cezar da Cruz, Gustavo Felipe da Silva, Ana Paula Fleig Saidelles, Mariane Trindade de Paula, Caroline Wagner, Ronaldo Medeiros Golombieski, Érico Marlon de Moraes Flores, Rochele Sogari Picoloto, Antônio Batista Pereira, Jeferson Luis Franco, Thaís Posser
Embryonic animals are especially susceptible to metal exposure. Manganese (Mn) is an essential element, but in excess it can induce toxicity. In this study we used Drosophila melanogaster as an embryonic model to investigate biochemical and behavioral alterations due to Mn exposure. Flies were treated with standard medium supplemented with MnCl2 at 0.1 mM, 0.5 mM or 1 mM from the egg to the adult stage. At 0.5 mM and 1 mM Mn, newly ecloded flies showed significantly enhanced locomotor activity when assessed by negative geotaxis behavior...
2014: EXCLI Journal
Mohammed Elmowafy, Ahmed Samy, Mohamed A Raslan, Ayman Salama, Ragab A Said, Abdelaziz E Abdelaziz, Wafaa El-Eraky, Sally El Awdan, Tapani Viitala
Thymoquinone (TQ), obtained from black cumin (Nigella sativa), is a natural product with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective effects but unfortunately with poor bioavailability. Aiming to improve its poor oral bioavailability, TQ-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were prepared by high-speed homogenization followed by ultrasonication and evaluated in vitro. Bioavailability and pharmacodynamic studies were also performed. The resultant NLCs showed poor physical homogeneity in Compritol 888 ATO Pluronic F127 system which consequently produced larger particle size and polydispersity index, smaller zeta potential values, and lower short-term (30 days) physical stability than other systems...
June 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Farooq Ahmad, Xiaoyi Liu, Ying Zhou, Hongzhou Yao
The broad spectrum applications of CoFe2O4 NPs have attracted much interest in medicine, environment and industry, resulting in exceedingly higher exposures to humans and environmental systems in succeeding days. Their health effects and potential biological impacts need to be determined for risk assessment. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of nano-CoFe2O4 (mean diameter of 40nm) with a concentration range of 10-500μM for 96h. Acute toxic end points were evaluated by survival rate, malformation, hatching delay, heart dysfunction and tail flexure of larvae...
September 2015: Aquatic Toxicology
Mariana Carneiro, Bruno Reis, Joana Azevedo, Alexandre Campos, Hugo Osório, Vítor Vasconcelos, José Carlos Martins
A multi-method approach was employed to compare the responses of Glutatione Transferases (GSTs) in the gills and hepatopancreas of Venerupis philippinarum to microcystins (MCs) toxicity. In this way, using the cytosolic fraction, the enzymatic activity of GSTs, superoxide dismutase (SOD), serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PPP2) along with the gene expression levels of four GST isoforms (pi, mu, sigma1, sigma2) were investigated in both organs of the clams exposed for 24 h to 10, 50 and 100 μg L(-1) of MC-LR...
June 9, 2015: Toxins
DanDan Huang, Lang Bao
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) persists within immature phagosomes by preventing their maturation into phagolysosomes. Although the early secretory antigenic target 6 (ESAT-6) system 1 (ESX-1) secretion-associated protein B (EspB) of Mtb is strongly linked to immunogenicity and virulence of this organism, its mechanism of action remains largely unclear. This study aimed to investigate EspB effects on autophagy in murine ANA-1 macrophage cells. METHODS: EspB gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from Mtb H37Rv genomic DNA to express recombinant EspB protein...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Masayo Adachi-Hayama, Akihiko Adachi, Natsuki Shinozaki, Tomoo Matsutani, Takaki Hiwasa, Masaki Takiguchi, Naokatsu Saeki, Yasuo Iwadate
BACKGROUND: Glioma is the most common primary malignant central nervous system tumor in adult, and is usually not curable due to its invasive nature. Establishment of serum biomarkers for glioma would be beneficial both for early diagnosis and adequate therapeutic intervention. Filamins are an actin cross-linker and filamin C (FLNC), normally restricted in muscle tissues, offers many signaling molecules an essential communication fields. Recently, filamins have been considered important for tumorigenesis in cancers...
2014: BMC Cancer
H Diesperger, H Sandermann
Epicotyl and primary leaves of pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L., var. Alaska) were found to contain soluble and microsomal enzymes catalyzing the addition of glutathione to the olefinic double bond of cinnamic acid. Glutathione S-cinnamoyl transfer was also obtained with enzyme preparations from potato slices and cell suspension cultures of parsley and soybean.The pea transferases had pH-optima between pH 7.4 and 7.8 Km-values were 0.1-0.4 mM and 1-4 mM for cinnamic acid and glutathione, respectively. V-values were between 2-15 nmol mg(-1) protein x min...
October 1979: Planta
Mercedes Martín-Rufián, Renata Nascimento-Gomes, Ana Higuero, Amanda R Crisma, José A Campos-Sandoval, María C Gómez-García, Carolina Cardona, Tzuling Cheng, Carolina Lobo, Juan A Segura, Francisco J Alonso, Monika Szeliga, Jan Albrecht, Rui Curi, Javier Márquez, Alison Colquhoun, Ralph J Deberardinis, José M Matés
UNLABELLED: Mitochondrial glutaminase (GA) plays an essential role in cancer cell metabolism, contributing to biosynthesis, bioenergetics, and redox balance. Humans contain several GA isozymes encoded by the GLS and GLS2 genes, but the specific roles of each in cancer metabolism are still unclear. In this study, glioma SFxL and LN229 cells with silenced isoenzyme glutaminase KGA (encoded by GLS) showed lower survival ratios and a reduced GSH-dependent antioxidant capacity. These GLS-silenced cells also demonstrated induction of apoptosis indicated by enhanced annexin V binding capacity and caspase 3 activity...
March 2014: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
Guangzhi Zhang, Richard Ducatelle, Frank Pasmans, Katharina D'Herde, Liping Huang, Annemieke Smet, Freddy Haesebrouck, Bram Flahou
Helicobacter (H.) suis colonizes the stomach of the majority of pigs as well as a minority of humans worldwide. Infection causes chronic inflammation in the stomach of the host, however without an effective clearance of the bacteria. Currently, no information is available about possible mechanisms H. suis utilizes to interfere with the host immune response. This study describes the effect on various lymphocytes of the γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) from H. suis. Compared to whole cell lysate from wild-type H...
2013: PloS One
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