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Aspirin AND COX

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212985/nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-clinical-and-experimental-epilepsy
#1
REVIEW
Beatrice Mihaela Radu, Florin Bogdan Epureanu, Mihai Radu, Paolo Francesco Fabene, Giuseppe Bertini
Current antiepileptic drugs have limited efficacy and provide little or no benefits in 30% of the patients. Given that a role for brain inflammation in epilepsy has been repeatedly reported in recent years, the potential of anti-inflammatory drugs should be explored in depth, as they may provide new therapeutical approaches in preventing or reducing epileptogenesis. Here, we review preclinical (both in vivo and in vitro) and clinical epilepsy studies in which nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), i...
February 9, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205318/risk-of-major-bleeding-and-stroke-associated-with-the-use-of-vkas-noacs-and-aspirin-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-a-cohort-study
#2
Emilie Gieling, Hendrika A van den Ham, Hein van Onzenoort, Jacqueline Bos, Cornelis Kramers, Anthonius de Boer, Frank de Vries, Andrea M Burden
INTRODUCTION: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are now available for the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) as an alternative to vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and aspirin. The comparative effectiveness and safety in daily practice of these different drug classes is still unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of major bleeding and stroke in AF patients using NOACs, VKAs or aspirin. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted among AF patients using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (March 2008-October 2014)...
February 16, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185918/warfarin-use-and-the-risk-of-mortality-stroke-and-bleeding-in-hemodialysis-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#3
Brandon Kai, Yuliya Bogorad, Leigh-Ann N Nguyen, Su-Jau Yang, Wansu Chen, Hillard T Spencer, Albert Y-J Shen, Ming-Sum Lee
BACKGROUND: The optimal management of stroke prophylaxis in hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation is controversial. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to determine the risk of mortality, stroke, and bleeding associated with the use of warfarin in hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation. METHODS: This is a retrospective, population-based study of hemodialysis patients with atrial fibrillation between Jan 1, 2006 to Sept 30, 2015...
February 6, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139830/low-dose-aspirin-acetylates-cyclooxygenase-1-in-human-colorectal-mucosa-implications-for-the-chemoprevention-of-colorectal-cancer
#4
Paola Patrignani, Angela Sacco, Carlos Sostres, Annalisa Bruno, Melania Dovizio, Elena Piazuelo, Luigia Di Francesco, Annalisa Contursi, Mirco Zucchelli, Simone Schiavone, Stefania Tacconelli, Carlo Patrono, Angel Lanas
The mechanism of action of low-dose aspirin in the prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) remains largely hypothetical. We aimed to compare the effects of low-dose aspirin (100 mg/day for 7 days) given to 40 individuals undergoing CRC screening on the extent of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 acetylation at serine-529 (AceCOX-1), in blood platelets vs colorectal mucosa, at 7 (group 1) and 24 hours (group 2) after dosing. A significantly (P<0.01) lower %AceCOX-1 was detected in colonic and rectal mucosa (average 64%) vs platelets (average 75%) in both groups...
January 31, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139223/urinary-11-dehydro-thromboxane-b2-and-mortality-in-patients-with-stable-coronary-artery-disease
#5
Peter A McCullough, Anupama Vasudevan, Mohanakrishnan Sathyamoorthy, Jeffrey M Schussler, Carlos E Velasco, Luis R Lopez, Caren Swift, Margarita Peterson, Jenna Bennett-Firmin, Raphael Schiffmann, Teodoro Bottiglieri
Antiplatelet therapy with aspirin has been shown to reduce adverse outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Aspirin irreversibly inhibits platelet cyclooxygenase-1 and attenuates thromboxane A2 (TXA2)-mediated platelet aggregation, but there is variable suppression of cyclooxygenase-1. From a cohort of patients with stable CAD, we performed blinded, detailed chart abstraction, and measured urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 (11dhTxB2), an inactive metabolite of TxA2 from frozen samples. There were 327 men (73%) and 122 women (27%) with a mean age (±SD) of 67 ± 10 and 65 ± 10 years, respectively...
January 5, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119386/survival-prospects-after-acute-myocardial-infarction-in-the-uk-a-matched-cohort-study-1987-2011
#6
Lisanne A Gitsels, Elena Kulinskaya, Nicholas Steel
OBJECTIVES: Estimate survival after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the general population aged 60 and over and the effect of recommended treatments. DESIGN: Cohort study in the UK with routinely collected data between January 1987 and March 2011. SETTING: 310 general practices that contributed to The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. PARTICIPANTS: 4 cohorts who reached the age of 60, 65, 70, or 75 years between 1987 and 2011 included 16 744, 43 528, 73 728, and 76 392 participants, respectively...
January 24, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108308/role-of-cyclooxygenase-in-the-vascular-response-to-locally-delivered-acetylcholine-in-caucasian-and-african-descent-individuals
#7
Matthew J Maley, James R House, Michael J Tipton, Clare M Eglin
INTRODUCTION: Individuals of African descent (AFD) are more susceptible to non-freezing cold injury (NFCI) compared with Caucasian individuals (CAU). Vasodilatation to acetylcholine (ACh) is lower in AFD compared with CAU in the non-glabrous foot and finger skin sites; the reason for this is unknown. Prostanoids are responsible, in part, for the vasodilator response to ACh, however it is not known whether the contribution differs between ethnicities. METHODS: 12 CAU and 12 AFD males received iontophoresis of ACh (1 w/v%) on non-glabrous foot and finger skin sites following placebo and then aspirin (600mg, single blinded)...
January 17, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102731/microfluidic-whole-blood-testing-of-platelet-response-to-pharmacological-agents
#8
Ruizhi Li, Tilo Grosser, Scott L Diamond
Platelets present a number of intracellular and transmembrane targets subject to pharmacological modulation, either for cardiovascular disease reduction or as an unintended drug response. Microfluidic devices allow human blood to clot on a defined surface under controlled hemodynamic and pharmacological conditions. The potencies of a number of antiplatelet and anticancer drugs have been tested with respect to platelet deposition on collagen under flow. Inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) reduce platelet deposition, either when added ex vivo to blood or ingested orally by patients prior to testing...
January 19, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097001/mag-dpa-curbs-inflammatory-biomarkers-and-pharmacological-reactivity-in-cytokine-triggered-hyperresponsive-airway-models
#9
Rayan Khaddaj-Mallat, Roddy Hiram, Chantal Sirois, Marco Sirois, Edmond Rizcallah, Sofia Marouan, Caroline Morin, Éric Rousseau
Bronchial inflammation contributes to a sustained elevation of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in asthma. Conversely, omega-3 fatty acid derivatives have been shown to resolve inflammation in various tissues. Thus, the effects of docosapentaenoic acid monoacylglyceride (MAG-DPA) were assessed on inflammatory markers and reactivity of human distal bronchi as well as in a cultured model of guinea pig tracheal rings. Human bronchi were dissected and cultured for 48 h with 10 ng/mL TNF-α or IL-13. Guinea pig tracheas were maintained in organ culture for 72 h which was previously shown to trigger spontaneous AHR...
December 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095326/additive-antithrombotic-effect-of-asp6537-a-selective-cyclooxygenase-cox-1-inhibitor-in-combination-with-clopidogrel-in-guinea-pigs
#10
Chinatsu Sakata, Ken-Ichi Suzuki, Yoshiaki Morita, Tomihisa Kawasaki
Clopidogrel (Plavix(®), Sanofi-Aventis), the adenosine diphosphate P2Y12 receptor antagonist, is reported to be effective in the prevention of cardiovascular events and is often used in combination with aspirin, particularly in high-risk patients. ASP6537 is a reversible cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 inhibitor that is under investigation as an anti-platelet agent. First, we investigated the reversibility of the antiplatelet effect of ASP6537 and its interaction with ibuprofen to compare the usability of ASP6537 with that of aspirin...
January 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088656/low-dose-aspirin-use-and-survival-in-breast-cancer-patients-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#11
Úna C Mc Menamin, Chris R Cardwell, Carmel M Hughes, Liam J Murray
BACKGROUND: Preclinical evidence from breast cancer cell lines and animal models suggest that aspirin could have anti-cancer properties. In a large breast cancer patient cohort, we investigated whether post-diagnostic low-dose aspirin use was associated with a reduction in the risk of breast cancer-specific mortality. METHODS: We identified 15,140 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients within the Scottish Cancer Registry. Linkages to the Scottish Prescribing Information System provided data on dispensed medications and breast cancer-specific deaths were identified from National Records of Scotland Death Records...
January 12, 2017: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072768/effect-of-low-dose-aspirin-use-on-survival-of-patients-with-gastrointestinal-malignancies-an-observational-study
#12
M A Frouws, E Bastiaannet, R E Langley, W K Chia, M P P van Herk-Sukel, V E P P Lemmens, H Putter, H H Hartgrink, B A Bonsing, C J H Van de Velde, J E A Portielje, G J Liefers
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested a relationship between aspirin use and mortality reduction. The mechanism for the effect of aspirin on cancer outcomes remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate aspirin use and survival in patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer. METHODS: Patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer diagnosed between 1998 and 2011 were included. The population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry was linked to drug-dispensing data from the PHARMO Database Network...
January 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068952/interaction-among-cox-2-p2y1-and-gpiiia-gene-variants-is-associated-with-aspirin-resistance-and-early-neurological-deterioration-in-chinese-stroke-patients
#13
Xingyang Yi, Chun Wang, Qiang Zhou, Jing Lin
BACKGROUND: The effect of genetic variants on aspirin resistance (AR) remains controversial. We sought to assess the association of genetic variants with AR and early clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke (IS). METHODS: A total of 850 acute IS patients were consecutively enrolled. Platelet aggregation was measured before and after a 7-10 day aspirin treatment. The sequences of 14 variants of COX-1, COX-2, GPIb, GPIIIa, P2Y1 and P2Y12 were determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry...
January 9, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067282/gastroprotective-6-gingerol-aspirinate-as-a-novel-chemopreventive-prodrug-of-aspirin-for-colon-cancer
#14
Yingdong Zhu, Fang Wang, Yantao Zhao, Pei Wang, Shengmin Sang
A growing body of research suggests daily low-dose aspirin (ASA) reduces heart diseases and colorectal cancers. However, the major limitation to the use of aspirin is its side effect to cause ulceration and bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract. Preclinical studies have shown that ginger constituents ameliorate ASA-induced gastric ulceration. We here report the design and synthesis of a novel prodrug of aspirin, [6]-gingerol aspirinate (GAS). Our data show that GAS exerts enhanced anti-cancer properties in vitro and superior gastroprotective effects in mice...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051316/phytochemical-investigations-of-three-rhodocodon-hyacinthaceae-sensu-apg-ii-species
#15
Sianne Schwikkard, Alaa Alqahtani, Walter Knirsch, Wolfgang Wetschnig, Andrius Jaksevicius, Elizabeth I Opara, Moses K Langat, Jackie L Andriantiana, Dulcie A Mulholland
The genus Rhodocodon (Hyacinthaceae sensu APG II) is endemic to Madagascar, and its phytochemistry has not been described previously. The phytochemistry of three species in this genus has been investigated, and eight compounds, including three bufadienolides (compounds 1, 4, and 5), a norlignan (2), and four homoisoflavonoids (compounds 3 and 6-8), have been isolated and identified. Compounds 1-3 and 6-8 have not been described previously. The COX-2 inhibitory activity of compound 6 and compound 7 acetate (compound 7A) was investigated on isolated colorectal cancer cells...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019050/electrocardiographic-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-predicts-atrial-fibrillation-independent-of-left-ventricular-mass
#16
Nikhil Patel, Wesley T O'Neal, S Patrick Whalen, Elsayed Z Soliman
BACKGROUND: Although left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) detected by electrocardiography (ECG-LVH) and echocardiography (echo-LVH) independently predict cardiovascular disease events, it is unclear if ECG-LVH and echo-LVH independently predict atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: This analysis included 4,904 participants (40% male; 85% white) from the Cardiovascular Health Study who were free of baseline AF and major intraventricular conduction delays. ECG-LVH was defined by Minnesota Code Classification from baseline ECG data...
December 25, 2016: Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009648/platelet-aggregation-and-the-risk-of-stent-thrombosis-or-bleeding-in-elective-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-patients
#17
Krzysztof Kukula, Mariusz Klopotowski, Pawel Kunicki, Jacek Jamiolkowski, Artur Debski, Pawel Bekta, Zbigniew Chmielak, Adam Witkowski
Platelet aggregation monitoring in patients after stent implantation is a promising way of preventing stent thrombosis and bleeding. The aim of the study was to verify whether clopidogrel (ADPtest) and aspirin (ASPItest) response measured by Multiplate (Dynabyte, Munich, Germany) analyzer in elective percutaneous coronary implantation patients predict the risk of stent thrombosis or other ischemic adverse events and bleeding. In this prospective, observational study 697 elective percutaneous coronary implantation patients were analyzed...
December 22, 2016: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005558/residual-thromboxane-activity-and-oxidative-stress-influence-on-mortality-in-patients-with-stable-coronary-artery-disease
#18
Anupama Vasudevan, Teodoro Bottiglieri, Kristen M Tecson, Mohanakrishnan Sathyamoorthy, Jeffrey M Schussler, Carlos E Velasco, Luis R Lopez, Caren Swift, Margarita Peterson, Jeanna Bennett-Firmin, Raphael Schiffmann, Peter A McCullough
BACKGROUND: Aspirin use is effective in the prevention of cardiovascular disease; however, not all patients are equally responsive to aspirin. Oxidative stress reflected by F2-isoprostane [8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α (8-IsoPGF2α)] is a potential mechanism of failure of aspirin to adequately inhibit cyclooxygenase-1. The objective was to examine the relation between all-cause mortality and the concentrations of urinary 11-dehydro thromboxane B2 (11dhTxB2) and 8-IsoPGF2α in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD)...
December 21, 2016: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999568/potential-antifungal-targets-against-a-candida-biofilm-based-on-an-enzyme-in-the-arachidonic-acid-cascade-a-review
#19
REVIEW
Xinning Liu, Decai Wang, Cuixiang Yu, Tao Li, Jianqiao Liu, Shujuan Sun
Candida is an important opportunistic fungal pathogen, especially in biofilm associated infections. The formation of a Candida biofilm can decrease Candida sensitivity to antifungal drugs and cause drug resistance. Although many effective antifungal drugs are available, their applications are limited due to their high toxicity and cost. Seeking new antifungal agents that are effective against biofilm-associated infection is an urgent need. Many research efforts are underway, and some progress has been made in this field...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998883/unlocking-aspirin-s-chemopreventive-activity-role-of-irreversibly-inhibiting-platelet-cyclooxygenase-1
#20
Lenard M Lichtenberger, Dexing Fang, Roger J Bick, Brian J Poindexter, Tri Phan, Angela L Bergeron, Subhashree Pradhan, Elizabeth J Dial, K Vinod Vijayan
The mechanism by which aspirin consumption is linked to significant reductions in the incidence of multiple forms of cancer and metastatic spread to distant tissues, resulting in increased cancer patient survival is not well understood. In this study, using colon cancer as an example, we provide both in vitro (cell culture) and in vivo (chemically induced mouse model of colon cancer) evidence that this profound antineoplastic action may be associated with aspirin's ability to irreversibly inhibit COX-1-mediated platelet activation, thereby blocking platelet-cancer cell interactions, which promote cancer cell number and invasive potential...
February 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
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