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Aspirin AND COX

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905988/lack-of-bioequivalence-among-low-dose-enteric-coated-aspirin-preparations
#1
Dermot Cox, Desmond Fitzgerald
Low-dose aspirin (75 mg or 81 mg) is considered to be the lowest effective dose for cardiovascular protection, however, the use of enteric preparations has created a source of variability in bioavailability. As part of regulatory requirements we carried out bioequivalence tests for two 75 mg enteric-coated aspirin preparations (Caprin and Protek) using Nu-Seals 75 mg aspirin as the comparator. The primary endpoint was serum thromboxane levels after 14 days of treatment. Protek failed to meet bioequivalence, as it was significantly less effective than Nu-Seals...
September 14, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881293/the-anti-tumor-effect-of-aspirin-what-we-know-and-what-we-expect
#2
REVIEW
Ji Ma, Zhonglin Cai, Hongliang Wei, Xinlan Liu, Qingli Zhao, Tao Zhang
Aspirin has been widely used as an antipyretic analgesic drug. More and more evidences have shown that aspirin may be play some role on anti-tumor. In this article, we reviewed the research history of aspirin in the treatment and prevention of cancer. Many epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that aspirin can reduce the risk of a variety of malignant tumors and reduce cancer mortality. In addition, we discuss the specific mechanisms of aspirin in the anti-tumor effects. It has been found that aspirin mainly depends on the COX pathway and non-COX pathway to inhibit tumor cell growth and to curb tumor development...
September 4, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863237/a-prospective-analysis-evaluating-tissue-biopsy-location-and-its-clinical-relevance-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyps
#3
Ava R Weibman, Julia He Huang, Whitney W Stevens, Lydia A Suh, Caroline P E Price, Alcina K Lidder, David B Conley, Kevin C Welch, Stephanie Shintani-Smith, Anju T Peters, Leslie C Grammer, Atsushi Kato, Robert C Kern, Robert P Schleimer, Bruce K Tan
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) has a high propensity for recurrence. Studies suggest that eosinophilia influences disease severity and surgical outcomes, but the selection of sinonasal site for measuring eosinophilia has not been examined. The aim of this study was to investigate how region-specific tissue eosinophilia affects radiographic severity, comorbidity prevalence, and polyp recurrence risk following sinus surgery. METHODS: Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels in uncinate tissue (UT) and nasal polyp (NP) homogenates from 116 CRSwNP patients were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
September 1, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863085/early-chemoprophylaxis-is-associated-with-decreased-venous-thromboembolism-risk-without-concomitant-increase-in-intraspinal-hematoma-expansion-after-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Ronald Chang, Michelle H Scerbo, Karl M Schmitt, Sasha D Adams, Timothy J Choi, Charles E Wade, John B Holcomb
BACKGROUND: After traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), there is increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), but chemoprophylaxis (PPX) may cause expansion of intraspinal hematoma (ISH). METHODS: Single-center retrospective study of adult trauma patients from 2012-2015 with SCI. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: VTE diagnosis, death, or discharge within 48 hours. Patients were dichotomized based on early (≤48 hours) heparinoid and/or aspirin PPX. ISH expansion was diagnosed intraoperatively or by follow-up radiology...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863047/aspirin-use-and-mortality-in-two-contemporary-u-s-cohorts
#5
Wen-Yi Huang, Sarah E Daugherty, Meredith S Shiels, Mark P Purdue, Neal D Freedman, Christian C Abnet, Albert R Hollenbeck, Richard B Hayes, Debra T Silverman, Sonja I Berndt
BACKGROUND: Daily aspirin use has been recommended for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, but its use for primary prevention remains controversial. METHODS: We followed 440,277 men and women from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (ages 50-71) and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (ages 55-74) for mortality for 13 years on average. Frequency of aspirin use was ascertained through self-report, and cause of death by death certificates...
August 31, 2017: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862960/selection-of-stent-type-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-presenting-with-acute-myocardial-infarction-an-analysis-from-the-action-acute-coronary-treatment-and-intervention-outcomes-network-registry-get-with-the-guidelines
#6
Amit N Vora, Tracy Y Wang, Shuang Li, Karen Chiswell, Connie Hess, Renato D Lopes, Sunil V Rao, Eric D Peterson
BACKGROUND: Patients receiving oral anticoagulation in addition to dual-antiplatelet therapy are known to be at high risk for bleeding events; thus, the selection of a drug-eluting stent (DES) versus a bare metal stent (BMS) can have important implications for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) presenting with acute myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS AND RESULTS: From the National Cardiovascular Data Registry ACTION (Acute Coronary Treatment and Intervention Outcomes Network) Registry-Get With the Guidelines, we identified 14 427 AF patients presenting with acute MI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention from 2008 to 2014...
August 21, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844979/tailoring-naringenin-conjugates-with-amplified-and-triple-antiplatelet-activity-profile-rational-design-synthesis-human-plasma-stability-and-in-vitro-evaluation
#7
Evgenios Stylos, Maria V Chatziathanasiadou, Antonis Tsiailanis, Tahsin F Kellici, Maria Tsoumani, Androniki D Kostagianni, Maria Deligianni, Alexandros D Tselepis, Andreas G Tzakos
BACKGROUND: The current standard-of-care antiplatelet therapy in cardiovascular disease patients is consisted of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibitor aspirin, along with a platelet receptor P2Y12 antagonist. Recently, the triple antiplatelet therapy with aspirin, a P2Y12 receptor antagonist and a protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) antagonist, has been suggested for the secondary prevention of atherothrombotic events, however presented an increased risk of bleeding. Therefore, the quest for novel antiplatelet agents simultaneously targeting the three pathways with improved efficacy/safety profile is of immense importance...
August 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838364/spontaneous-coronary-artery-dissection-clinical-outcomes-and-risk-of-recurrence
#8
Jacqueline Saw, Karin Humphries, Eve Aymong, Tara Sedlak, Roshan Prakash, Andrew Starovoytov, G B John Mancini
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is underdiagnosed and an important cause of myocardial infarction (MI), especially in young women. Long-term cardiovascular outcomes, including recurrent SCAD, are inadequately reported. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe the acute and long-term cardiovascular outcomes and assess the predictors of recurrent SCAD. METHODS: Nonatherosclerotic SCAD patients were prospectively followed at Vancouver General Hospital systematically to ascertain baseline, predisposing and precipitating stressors, angiographic features, revascularization, use of medication, and in-hospital and long-term cardiovascular events...
August 29, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832762/antidepressant-effects-of-kai-xin-san-in-fluoxetine-resistant-depression-rats
#9
X Z Dong, D X Wang, Y P Lu, S Yuan, P Liu, Y Hu
This study aimed to investigate the antidepressant effect and the mechanism of action of Kai-Xin-San (KXS) in fluoxetine-resistant depressive (FRD) rats. Two hundred male Wistar rats weighing 200±10 g were exposed to chronic and unpredictable mild stresses (CUMS) for 4 weeks and given fluoxetine treatment simultaneously. The rats that did not show significant improvement in behavioral indexes were chosen as the FRD model rats. These rats were randomly divided into four groups: FRD model control; oral fluoxetine and aspirin; oral KXS at a dose of 338 mg·kg-1·day-1; and oral KXS at a dose of 676 mg·kg-1·day-1...
August 17, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830373/statistical-methods-for-elimination-of-guarantee-time-bias-in-cohort-studies-a-simulation-study
#10
In Sung Cho, Ye Rin Chae, Ji Hyeon Kim, Hae Rin Yoo, Suk Yong Jang, Gyu Ri Kim, Chung Mo Nam
BACKGROUND: Aspirin has been considered to be beneficial in preventing cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Several pharmaco-epidemiology cohort studies have shown protective effects of aspirin on diseases using various statistical methods, with the Cox regression model being the most commonly used approach. However, there are some inherent limitations to the conventional Cox regression approach such as guarantee-time bias, resulting in an overestimation of the drug effect. To overcome such limitations, alternative approaches, such as the time-dependent Cox model and landmark methods have been proposed...
August 22, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782132/aspirin-and-incident-depressive-symptoms-a-longitudinal-cohort-study-over-8%C3%A2-years
#11
Nicola Veronese, Ai Koyanagi, Brendon Stubbs, Marco Solmi, Michele Fornaro, Brisa F Fernandes, Christoph Muller, Trevor Thompson, André F Carvalho, Stefania Maggi
OBJECTIVE: Aspirin exhibits anti-atherosclerotic and anti-inflammatory properties-two potential risk factors for depression. The relationship between aspirin use and depression, however, remains unclear. We investigated whether the aspirin use is associated with a decreased incidence of depressive symptoms in a large North American cohort. METHODS: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative dataset, a multicenter, longitudinal study on community-dwelling adults was analyzed...
August 6, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781013/early-aspirin-use-and-the-development-of-cardiac-allograft-vasculopathy
#12
Miae Kim, Brian A Bergmark, Thomas A Zelniker, Mandeep R Mehra, Garrick C Stewart, Deborah S Page, Erica L Woodcome, Jennifer A Smallwood, Steven Gabardi, Michael M Givertz
BACKGROUND: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT). Little is known about the influence of aspirin on clinical expression of CAV. METHODS: We followed 120 patients with OHT at a single center for a median of 7 years and categorized them by the presence or absence of early aspirin therapy post-transplant (aspirin treatment ≥6 months in the first year). The association between aspirin use and time to the primary end-point of angiographic moderate or severe CAV (International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation grade ≥2) was investigated...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780034/impact-of-aspirin-and-clopidogrel-hyporesponsiveness-in-patients-treated%C3%A2-with-drug-eluting-stents-2-year-results-of-a-prospective-multicenter-registry-study
#13
Thomas D Stuckey, Ajay J Kirtane, Bruce R Brodie, Bernhard Witzenbichler, Claire Litherland, Giora Weisz, Michael J Rinaldi, Franz-Josef Neumann, D Christopher Metzger, Timothy D Henry, David A Cox, Peter L Duffy, Ernest L Mazzaferri, Paul A Gurbel, Roxana Mehran, Philippe Généreux, Ori Ben-Yehuda, Charles A Simonton, Gregg W Stone
OBJECTIVES: In this analysis of 2-year outcomes in the ADAPT-DES (Assessment of Dual AntiPlatelet Therapy with Drug-Eluting Stents) study, the authors sought to examine the independent associations between platelet reactivity to both aspirin and clopidogrel and subsequent outcomes. BACKGROUND: The relationship between platelet reactivity and long-term adverse events following implantation of drug-eluting stents (DES) has been incompletely characterized. METHODS: The ADAPT-DES study was a multicenter registry of patients undergoing routine platelet function testing following percutaneous coronary intervention with DES...
August 28, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774396/aspirin-does-not-increase-heart-failure%C3%A2-events-in-heart-failure-patients-from-the-warcef%C3%A2-trial
#14
John R Teerlink, Min Qian, Natalie A Bello, Ronald S Freudenberger, Bruce Levin, Marco R Di Tullio, Susan Graham, Douglas L Mann, Ralph L Sacco, J P Mohr, Gregory Y H Lip, Arthur J Labovitz, Seitetz C Lee, Piotr Ponikowski, Dirk J Lok, Stefan D Anker, John L P Thompson, Shunichi Homma
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether aspirin increases heart failure (HF) hospitalization or death in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction receiving an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). BACKGROUND: Because of its cyclooxygenase inhibiting properties, aspirin has been postulated to increase HF events in patients treated with ACE inhibitors or ARBs. However, no large randomized trial has addressed the clinical relevance of this issue...
August 2017: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768848/predicting-major-bleeding-in-patients-with-noncardioembolic-stroke-on-antiplatelets-s2top-bleed
#15
Nina A Hilkens, Ale Algra, Hans-Christoph Diener, Johannes B Reitsma, Philip M Bath, Laszlo Csiba, Werner Hacke, L Jaap Kappelle, Peter J Koudstaal, Didier Leys, Jean-Louis Mas, Ralph L Sacco, Pierre Amarenco, Leila Sissani, Jacoba P Greving
OBJECTIVE: To develop and externally validate a prediction model for major bleeding in patients with a TIA or ischemic stroke on antiplatelet agents. METHODS: We combined individual patient data from 6 randomized clinical trials (CAPRIE, ESPS-2, MATCH, CHARISMA, ESPRIT, and PRoFESS) investigating antiplatelet therapy after TIA or ischemic stroke. Cox regression analyses stratified by trial were performed to study the association between predictors and major bleeding...
August 29, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768046/carbon-monoxide-released-from-its-pharmacological-donor-tricarbonyldichlororuthenium-ii-dimer-corm-2-accelerates-the-healing-of-pre-existing-gastric-ulcers
#16
Magierowski Marcin, Magierowska Katarzyna, Hubalewska-Mazgaj Magdalena, Sliwowski Zbigniew, Ginter Grzegorz, Pajdo Robert, Chmura Anna, Kwiecien Slawomir, Brzozowski Tomasz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carbon monoxide (CO), gaseous mediator produced by heme oxygenases (HO), has been shown to prevent stress-, ethanol-, aspirin- or alendronate-induced gastric damage, however, its role in the gastric ulcer healing has not been fully explained. We investigated whether CO released from tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2) can affect gastric ulcer healing and determined mechanisms involved in healing action of this compound. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Gastric ulcers were induced in Wistar rats by serosal application of acetic acid...
August 2, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762014/beyond-cox-1-the-effects-of-aspirin-on-platelet-biology-and-potential-mechanisms-of-chemoprevention
#17
Argentina Ornelas, Niki Zacharias-Millward, David G Menter, Jennifer S Davis, Lenard Lichtenberger, David Hawke, Ernest Hawk, Eduardo Vilar, Pratip Bhattacharya, Steven Millward
After more than a century, aspirin remains one of the most commonly used drugs in western medicine. Although mainly used for its anti-thrombotic, anti-pyretic, and analgesic properties, a multitude of clinical studies have provided convincing evidence that regular, low-dose aspirin use dramatically lowers the risk of cancer. These observations coincide with recent studies showing a functional relationship between platelets and tumors, suggesting that aspirin's chemopreventive properties may result, in part, from direct modulation of platelet biology and biochemistry...
July 31, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756905/aspirin-versus-clopidogrel-for-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-first-ever-noncardioembolic-acute-ischemic-stroke-ten-year-survival-data-from-the-athens-stroke-outcome-project
#18
Haralampos Milionis, George Ntaios, Vasileios Papavasileiou, Konstantinos Spengos, Efstathios Manios, Moses Elisaf, Konstantinos Vemmos
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of stroke and poor outcome following a stroke event. We assessed the impact of discharge treatment with aspirin versus clopidogrel on the 10-year survival of patients with type 2 diabetes after a first-ever noncardioembolic acute ischemic stroke (AIS). METHODS: This was a post hoc analysis of the Athens Stroke Outcome Project. Study outcomes included death, stroke recurrence, and a composite cardiovascular disease (CVD) end point (recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, coronary revascularization, aortic aneurysm rupture, or sudden death)...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725937/aspirin-use-and-head-and-neck-cancer-survival-an-observational-study-of-11-623-person-years-follow-up
#19
Shin-Ae Kim, Jong-Lyel Roh, Sung-Bae Kim, Seung-Ho Choi, Soon Yuhl Nam, Sang Yoon Kim
BACKGROUND: Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with reduced risks for certain human cancers. However, the effects of aspirin and NSAIDs on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remain controversial, and the prognostic effects of these drugs in patients with HNSCC are largely unknown. This study examined the clinical impact of aspirin and NSAIDs on disease recurrence and survival in patients with HNSCC. METHODS: This study analysed a cohort of 1392 consecutive patients who received definitive treatment for previously untreated HNSCC at our tertiary referral center...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706001/aspirin-as-a-cox-inhibitor-and-anti-inflammatory-drug-in-human-skeletal-muscle
#20
Steve M Ratchford, Kaleen M Lavin, Ryan K Perkins, Bozena Jemiolo, Scott W Trappe, Todd A Trappe
Although aspirin is one of the most common anti-inflammatory drugs in the world, the effect of aspirin on human skeletal muscle inflammation is almost completely unknown. This study examined the potential effects and related time course of an orally consumed aspirin dose on the inflammatory PGE2/COX pathway in human skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis of 10 healthy adults (5M/5F, 25±2y) before and 2, 4, and 24h after consuming a standard dose of aspirin (975mg) and partitioned for analysis of 1) in vivo PGE2 levels in resting skeletal muscle and 2) ex vivo skeletal muscle PGE2 production when stimulated with the COX substrate arachidonic acid (5μM)...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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