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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449186/the-risk-of-lower-gastrointestinal-bleeding-in-low-dose-aspirin-users
#1
W-C Chen, K-H Lin, Y-T Huang, T-J Tsai, W-C Sun, S-K Chuah, D-C Wu, P-I Hsu
BACKGROUND: Aspirin increases the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. AIM: To investigate the risk of lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) in aspirin users. METHODS: Low-dose (75-325 mg daily) aspirin users and controls matched by age, gender and enrollment time in a 1:5 ratio were selected from 1 million randomly sampled subjects in the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. Cox proportional hazard regression models were developed to evaluate the predictors of LGIB with adjustments for age, gender, comorbidities including coronary artery disease, ischaemic stroke, diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, liver cirrhosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, dyslipidemia, uncomplicated peptic ulcer disease, history of peptic ulcer bleeding, and concomitant use of clopidogrel, ticlopidine, warfarin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, steroids, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs), nitrates, alendronate, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and calcium channel blockers...
April 27, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448072/evaluation-of-ptgs2-expression-pik3ca-mutation-aspirin-use-and-colon-cancer-survival-in-a-population-based-cohort-study
#2
Ronan T Gray, Marie M Cantwell, Helen G Coleman, Maurice B Loughrey, Peter Bankhead, Stephen McQuaid, Roisin F O'Neill, Kenneth Arthur, Victoria Bingham, Claire McGready, Anna T Gavin, Chris R Cardwell, Brian T Johnston, Jacqueline A James, Peter W Hamilton, Manuel Salto-Tellez, Liam J Murray
OBJECTIVES: The association between aspirin use and improved survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis may be more pronounced in tumors that have PIK3CA mutations or high PTGS2 expression. However, the evidence of a difference in association by biomarker status lacks consistency. In this population-based colon cancer cohort study the interaction between these biomarkers, aspirin use, and survival was assessed. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 740 stage II and III colon cancer patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2008...
April 27, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419982/resting-heart-rate-and-ischemic-stroke-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#3
Koki Nakanishi, Marco R Di Tullio, Min Qian, John L P Thompson, Arthur J Labovitz, Douglas L Mann, Ralph L Sacco, Patrick M Pullicino, Ronald S Freudenberger, John R Teerlink, Susan Graham, Gregory Y H Lip, Bruce Levin, Jay P Mohr, Richard Buchsbaum, Conrado J Estol, Dirk J Lok, Piotr Ponikowski, Stefan D Anker, Shunichi Homma
BACKGROUND: Although high resting heart rate (RHR) is known to be associated with an increased risk of mortality and hospital admission in patients with heart failure, the relationship between RHR and ischemic stroke remains unclear. This study is aimed at investigating the relationship between RHR and ischemic stroke in patients with heart failure in sinus rhythm. METHODS: We examined 2,060 patients with systolic heart failure in sinus rhythm from the Warfarin versus Aspirin in Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction trial...
April 19, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412461/effects-of-low-dose-aspirin-on-maternal-blood-pressure-and-vascular-function-in-an-experimental-model-of-gestational-hypertension
#4
Oluwatobiloba Osikoya, Paresh A Jaini, An Nguyen, Melissa Valdes, Styliani Goulopoulou
Daily intake of low-dose aspirin after 12weeks of gestation is currently recommended as a preventative intervention in pregnancies in high risk of developing preeclampsia. This recommendation is based on epidemiological evidence, whereas experimental studies investigating the exact mechanisms of aspirin action during pregnancy are lacking. We previously showed that treating pregnant rats with a synthetic mimetic of unmethylated CpG DNA (bacterial DNA) caused preeclampsia-like characteristics such as maternal hypertension and increased cyclooxygenase (COX) expression and activity...
April 12, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411390/statin-use-and-mortality-among-ovarian-cancer-patients-a-population-based-cohort-study
#5
Freija Verdoodt, Merete Kjaer Hansen, Susanne K Kjaer, Anton Pottegård, Søren Friis, Christian Dehlendorff
Statin use has been suggested to improve prognosis in cancer patients, however, for ovarian cancer, the evidence is sparse. From the Danish Cancer Registry, we identified patients aged 30-84 years with a histologically verified first diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer between 2000-2013. Data on filled prescriptions, death, and potential confounding factors were obtained from nationwide registers. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for the association between post-diagnostic statin use and all-cause or cancer-specific mortality...
April 15, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406723/aspirin-use-and-colorectal-cancer-survival-according-to-tumor-cd274-programmed-cell-death-1-ligand-1-expression-status
#6
Tsuyoshi Hamada, Yin Cao, Zhi Rong Qian, Yohei Masugi, Jonathan A Nowak, Juhong Yang, Mingyang Song, Kosuke Mima, Keisuke Kosumi, Li Liu, Yan Shi, Annacarolina da Silva, Mancang Gu, Wanwan Li, NaNa Keum, Xuehong Zhang, Kana Wu, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Edward L Giovannucci, Marios Giannakis, Scott J Rodig, Gordon J Freeman, Daniel Nevo, Molin Wang, Andrew T Chan, Charles S Fuchs, Reiko Nishihara, Shuji Ogino
Purpose Blockade of the programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, PD-1) immune checkpoint pathway can improve clinical outcomes in various malignancies. Evidence suggests that aspirin (a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) not only prolongs colorectal cancer survival, but can also activate T cell-mediated antitumor immunity and synergize with immunotherapy through inhibition of prostaglandin E2 production. We hypothesized that the survival benefit associated with aspirin might be stronger in colorectal carcinoma with a lower CD274 (PDCD1 ligand 1, PD-L1) expression level that resulted in lower signaling of the immune checkpoint pathway...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398139/the-association-between-high-on-treatment-platelet-reactivity-and-early-recurrence-of-ischemic-events-after-minor-stroke-or-tia
#7
Zilong Rao, Huaguang Zheng, Fei Wang, Anxin Wang, Liping Liu, Kehui Dong, Xingquan Zhao, Yilong Wang, Yibin Cao
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of HTPR in predicting early recurrence of ischemic events in patients with minor ischemic stroke or high-risk TIA. METHODS: From January 2014 to September 2014, a single center continuously enrolled patients with minor ischemic stroke or high-risk TIA and gave them antiplatelet therapy consisting of aspirin with clopidogrel. HTPR was assessed by TEG after 7 days of antiplatelet therapy and detected CYP2C19 genotype. The incidence of recurrent ischemic events was assessed 3 months after onset...
April 11, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393040/vitreous-haemorrhage-a-population-based-study-of-the-incidence-and-risk-factors-in-taiwan
#8
Ching-Yu Wang, Wai-Man Cheang, De-Kuang Hwang, Ching-Heng Lin
AIM: To report the epidemiology and incidence of vitreous hemorrhage and to evaluate risk factors for patients with vitreous hemorrhage (VH) in Taiwan. METHODS: A retrospective population-based study. Analyzing a sample of one million subjects from all enrollees of the Taiwan Health Insurance programme. All data were obtained from the Taiwan Health Insurance Research Database, which contained patient sex, date of birth, all records of clinical visits and hospitalizations, and diagnosis codes as included in the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM)...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387464/a-novel-ph-controlled-hydrogen-sulfide-donor-protects-gastric-mucosa-from-aspirin-induced-injury
#9
Chun-Tao Yang, Zhen-Zhen Lai, Ze-Hang Zheng, Jian-Ming Kang, Ming Xian, Rui-Yu Wang, Kun Shi, Fu-Hui Meng, Xiang Li, Li Chen, Hui Zhang
Hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) serves as a vital gastric mucosal defence under acid condition. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among widely prescribed medications with effects of antipyresis, analgesia and anti-inflammation. However, their inappropriate use causes gastric lesions and endogenous H2 S deficiency. In this work, we reported the roles of a novel pH-controlled H2 S donor (JK-1) in NSAID-related gastric lesions. We found that JK-1 could release H2 S under mild acidic pH and increase solution pH value...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385304/functional-testing-or-coronary-computed-tomography-angiography-in-patients-with-stable%C3%A2-coronary-artery-disease
#10
Mads E Jørgensen, Charlotte Andersson, Bjarne L Nørgaard, Jawdat Abdulla, Jacqueline B Shreibati, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Gunnar H Gislason, Richard E Shaw, Mark A Hlatky
BACKGROUND: The choice of either anatomical or functional noninvasive testing to evaluate suspected coronary artery disease might affect subsequent clinical management and outcomes. OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the association of initial noninvasive cardiac testing in outpatients with stable symptoms, with subsequent use of medications, invasive procedures, and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We studied patients enrolled in a Danish nationwide register who underwent initial noninvasive cardiac testing with either coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) or functional testing (exercise electrocardiography or nuclear stress testing) from 2009 to 2015...
April 11, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378909/in-silico-modeling-of-the-antiplatelet-pharmacodynamics-of-low-dose-aspirin-in-health-and-disease
#11
Alberto Giaretta, Bianca Rocca, Barbara Di Camillo, Gianna Maria Toffolo, Carlo Patrono
The influence of platelet turnover on cyclooxygenase (COX-1) inhibition by low-dose aspirin remains largely uncharacterized due to limited feasibility of studying aspirin pharmacodynamics in bone marrow precursors. We developed an in silico compartmental model describing aspirin effects on COX-1 activity in a population of megakaryocytes (MK) and in peripheral platelets. Model parameters were inferred from the literature and calibrated using measurements of serum thromboxane B2 (sTXB2 ), as proxy of COX-1 activity in peripheral platelets, in 17 healthy subjects and 24 patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET)...
April 5, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377721/prostate-cancer-and-aspirin-use-synopsis-of-the-proposed-molecular-mechanisms
#12
REVIEW
Nadeem Bilani, Hisham Bahmad, Wassim Abou-Kheir
Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a critical health burden, impacting the morbidity and mortality of millions of men around the world. Most of the patients with PCa have their disease at first sensitive to androgen deprivation treatments, but later they develop resistance to therapy and eventually die of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Although the newly developed anti-androgen therapies are effectively alleviating symptoms and prolonging lives of patients, there are still no curable treatments for CRPC...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363682/twelve-month-outcome-of-patients-with-an-established-indication-for-oral-anticoagulation-undergoing-coronary-artery-stenting-and-stratified-by-the-baseline-risk-of-bleeding-insights-from-the-warfarin-and-coronary-stenting-war-stent-registry
#13
Andrea Rubboli, Francesco Saia, Alessandro Sciahbasi, Antonio M Leone, Cataldo Palmieri, Maria Letizia Bacchi-Reggiani, Paolo Calabrò, Barbara Bordoni, Giacomo Piccalò, Nicoletta Franco, Annamaria Nicolino, Paolo Magnavacchi, Luigi Vignali, Stefano Mameli, Michele Dallago, Stefano Maggiolini, Luigi Steffanon, Giancarlo Piovaccari, Giuseppe Di Pasquale
PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcome of patients with an established indication for oral anticoagulation (OAC) undergoing coronary stent implantation (PCI-S) and stratified by the baseline risk of bleeding. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The database of the prospective, multicentre, observational WAR-STENT registry (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00722319) was analyzed and patients with atrial fibrillation and CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥2, mechanical heart valve, prior cardiac embolism, intra-cardiac thrombus and recent venous thromboembolism who were treated with either triple (warfarin, aspirin and clopidogrel) or dual (warfarin and clopidogrel) or dual antiplatelet (aspirin and clopidogrel) therapy, identified...
March 19, 2017: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356246/intracranial-hemorrhage-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-receiving-anticoagulation-therapy
#14
Renato D Lopes, Patricia O Guimarães, Bradley J Kolls, Daniel M Wojdyla, Cheryl D Bushnell, Michael Hanna, J Donald Easton, Laine Thomas, Lars Wallentin, Sana M Al-Khatib, Claes Held, Pedro Gabriel Melo de Barros E Silva, John H Alexander, Christopher B Granger, Hans-Christoph Diener
We investigated the frequency and characteristics of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), factors associated with risk of ICH, and outcomes post-ICH overall and by randomized treatment. We identified patients in ARISTOTLE with ICH who received ≥1 dose of study drug (n=18,140). ICH was adjudicated by a central committee. Cox regression models were used to identify factors associated with ICH. ICH occurred in 174 patients; most ICH events were spontaneous (71.2%) versus traumatic (28.8%). Apixaban resulted in significantly less ICH (0...
March 29, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353025/coxibs-refocus-attention-on-the-cardiovascular-risks-of-non-aspirin-nsaids
#15
Dixon Thomas, Zoya Ali, Seeba Zachariah, Kishore Gnana Sam Sundararaj, Matthew Van Cuyk, Jason C Cooper
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were differentiated from steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines to help clinicians who needed to use anti-inflammatory agents that were safer than steroids. With market entry of rofecoxib in 1999, NSAIDs were then further classified into traditional NSAIDs and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors (coxibs), the latter posing potentially fewer gastrointestinal risks. In 2005, rofecoxib was withdrawn from the market because of concerns about the risk of heart attack and stroke with long-term use, and clinical practice began focusing more on the cardiovascular versus gastrointestinal safety of coxibs...
March 28, 2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350995/the-difference-in-association-between-aspirin-use-and-other-thrombocyte-aggregation-inhibitors-and-survival-in-patients-with-colorectal-cancer
#16
M A Frouws, E Rademaker, E Bastiaannet, M P P van Herk-Sukel, V E Lemmens, C J H Van de Velde, J E A Portielje, G J Liefers
BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested that the association between aspirin and improved cancer survival is mediated through the mechanism of aspirin as thrombocyte aggregation inhibitors (TAI). The aim of this study was to provide epidemiological evidence for this mechanism assessing the association between overall survival and the use of aspirin and non-aspirin TAI in patients with colorectal cancer. METHODS: In this observational study, data from the Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organisation were linked to PHARMO Database Network...
March 25, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347710/prostanoids-in-the-pathophysiology-of-human-coronary-artery
#17
REVIEW
Gulsev Ozen, Xavier Norel
Coronary artery disease is one of the leading causes of death in wordwide. There is growing evidence that prostanoids are involved in the physiology and pathophysiology of the human coronary artery by controlling vascular tone, remodelling of the vascular wall or angiogenesis. In this review, the production of prostanoids and the expression of prostanoid receptors in human coronary artery in health or disease are described. In addition, the interactions between sex hormones and prostanoids, their participations in the development of coronary artery diseases have been addressed...
March 24, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344655/interactions-among-cox-2-gpiiia-and-p2y1-variants-are-associated-with-aspirin-responsiveness-and-adverse-events-in-patients-with-ischemic-stroke
#18
Xingyang Yi, Zhao Han, Qiang Zhou, Jing Lin, Chun Wang
BACKGROUND: The effect of gene variants and their interactions on response to aspirin and clinical adverse outcomes after an acute ischemic stroke (IS) is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of aspirin-relevant gene variants and their interactions with clinical adverse outcomes in IS patients taking aspirin. METHODS: A total of 14 variants from six genes encoding COX enzymes (COX-1, COX-2), platelet membrane receptors (TXAS1, P2Y1, P2Y12) and glycoprotein receptor (GPIIIa) were examined in 850 acute IS patients...
March 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344205/decreased-serum-albumin-predicts-bleeding-events-in-patients-on-antiplatelet-therapy-after-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#19
Yosuke Tatami, Hideki Ishii, Toshijiro Aoki, Kazuhiro Harada, Kenshi Hirayama, Yohei Shibata, Takuya Sumi, Yosuke Negishi, Kazuhiro Kawashima, Ayako Kunimura, Toshiki Kawamiya, Dai Yamamoto, Susumu Suzuki, Toyoaki Murohara
BACKGROUND: Antiplatelet therapy (APT) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) prevents ischemic events with increased risk of bleeding. Little is known about the relationship between hypoalbuminemia and bleeding risk in patients receiving APT after PCI. This study investigated the association between serum albumin level and bleeding events in this population.Methods and Results:We enrolled 438 consecutive patients who were prescribed dual APT (DAPT; aspirin and thienopyridine) beyond 1 month after successful PCI without adverse events...
March 25, 2017: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326589/risk-of-myocardial-infarction-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-using-vitamin-k-antagonists-aspirin-or-direct-acting-oral-anticoagulants
#20
Leo M Stolk, Frank de Vries, Chiel Ebbelaar, Anthonius de Boer, Tom Schalekamp, Patrick Souverein, Arina Ten Cate-Hoek, Andrea M Burden
AIM: Direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have become available for the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Conflicting results have been published on the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with the use of DOACs in comparison with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the risk of AMI in patients with AF who are exposed to either VKAs, DOACs or low-dose (< 325 mg) aspirin. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study using data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (2008-2014)...
March 22, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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