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Aspirin AND COX

Oscar J Cordero, Rubén Varela-Calviño
Many evidences support that species from the Human Oral Microbiome Database such as Fusobacterium nucleatum or Bacteroides, linked previously to periodontitis and appendicitis, play a role in colorectal cancer (CRC), including metastasis. These typically oral species are invasive anaerobes that form biofilms in their virulent state. Aspirin (a NSAID) has been recently included into routine CRC prevention rationale. NSAIDs can prevent the growth of neoplastic lesions by inhibiting COX enzymes and another set of recently identified COX-independent targets, which include the WNT, AMPK and MTOR signaling pathways, the crosstalk between nucleoli and NF-κB transcriptional activity in apoptosis, and the biochemistry of platelets...
October 2018: Heliyon
Paul Gurbel, Udaya Tantry, Steven Weisman
The concomitant use of low-dose aspirin for cardioprotection and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents for pain relief is prevalent, particularly in the elderly for whom cardiovascular disease and pain are common co-morbidities. Non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to interfere with the antiplatelet effect of aspirin through competitive binding with COX-1. While the clinical significance of this interference is still unclear, this review sought to assess the body of literature which has evaluated the potential attenuation of the anti-platelet effect of aspirin when dosed concomitantly with an NSAID...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Nai-Fang Chi, Chi-Pang Wen, Chung-Hsiang Liu, Jie-Yuan Li, Jiann-Shing Jeng, Chih-Hung Chen, Li-Ming Lien, Ching-Huang Lin, Yu Sun, Wei-Lun Chang, Chaur-Jong Hu, Chung Y Hsu
Background Clopidogrel was thought to be superior to aspirin for secondary prevention of vascular diseases in clinical trials. In this study we assessed the safety and efficacy of clopidogrel versus aspirin in real-world practice by using the Taiwan Stroke Registry. Methods and Results Patients with ischemic stroke (2006-2016) on aspirin or clopidogrel for secondary stroke prevention were identified in the Taiwan Stroke Registry. Stroke recurrence and mortality rates in patients receiving aspirin (N=34 679) were compared with those receiving clopidogrel (N=7611) during a 12-month follow-up period...
October 2, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Pei-Jui Luo, Xi-Hsuan Lin, Chung-Chi Lin, Jiing-Chyuan Luo, Hsiao-Yun Hu, Po-Hsiang Ting, Ming-Chih Hou
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: We aimed to identify the risk factors of first-time occurrence of non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) among aspirin users after adjusting for confounding factors like age, gender, underlying co-morbidities, and medications. METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan and matching age, gender, underlying co-morbidities and enrollment time by propensity score, 11105 aspirin users and 11105 controls were identified for comparison from a cohort dataset of 1,000,000 randomly sampled subjects...
October 23, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Christopher C Parker, Nicholas D James, Christopher D Brawley, Noel W Clarke, Alex P Hoyle, Adnan Ali, Alastair W S Ritchie, Gerhardt Attard, Simon Chowdhury, William Cross, David P Dearnaley, Silke Gillessen, Clare Gilson, Robert J Jones, Ruth E Langley, Zafar I Malik, Malcolm D Mason, David Matheson, Robin Millman, J Martin Russell, George N Thalmann, Claire L Amos, Roberto Alonzi, Amit Bahl, Alison Birtle, Omar Din, Hassan Douis, Chinnamani Eswar, Joanna Gale, Melissa R Gannon, Sai Jonnada, Sara Khaksar, Jason F Lester, Joe M O'Sullivan, Omi A Parikh, Ian D Pedley, Delia M Pudney, Denise J Sheehan, Narayanan Nair Srihari, Anna T H Tran, Mahesh K B Parmar, Matthew R Sydes
BACKGROUND: Based on previous findings, we hypothesised that radiotherapy to the prostate would improve overall survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer, and that the benefit would be greatest in patients with a low metastatic burden. We aimed to compare standard of care for metastatic prostate cancer, with and without radiotherapy. METHODS: We did a randomised controlled phase 3 trial at 117 hospitals in Switzerland and the UK. Eligible patients had newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer...
October 18, 2018: Lancet
J J Li, H Q Gu, Y J Peng, X Q Zhao, Y L Wang, X Meng, L P Liu, Y J Wang
Objective: Abnormalities of lipid profile were considered as risk factors of hemorrhage after ischemic stroke. We aimed to determine the relationship between lipid levels and bleeding in minor stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients receiving antiplatelet therapy. Methods: Serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride were tested in a subgroup of 3 044 consecutive patients from Clopidogrel in High-risk patients with Acute Non-disabling Cerebrovascular Events (CHANCE) trial...
October 1, 2018: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
Caroline Sindet-Pedersen, Morten Lamberts, Laila Staerk, Anders Nissen Bonde, Jeffrey S Berger, Jannik Langtved Pallisgaard, Morten Lock Hansen, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Gunnar H Gislason, Jonas Bjerring Olesen
BACKGROUND: The optimal treatment strategy when combining antiplatelets with oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and myocardial infarction (MI) or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The authors investigated the risk of bleeding, ischemic stroke, MI, and all-cause mortality associated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) compared with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in combination with aspirin, clopidogrel, or both in patients with AF following MI and/or PCI...
October 9, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Mollie E Barnard, Elizabeth M Poole, Gary C Curhan, A Heather Eliassen, Bernard A Rosner, Kathryn L Terry, Shelley S Tworoger
Importance: Ovarian cancer is a highly fatal malignant neoplasm with few modifiable risk factors. Case-control studies have reported a modest reduced risk of ovarian cancer among women who frequently use aspirin or regularly use low-dose aspirin. Objective: To evaluate whether regular aspirin or nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use and patterns of use are associated with lower ovarian cancer risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed NSAID use and ovarian cancer diagnosis data from 2 prospective cohorts, 93 664 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), who were followed up from 1980 to 2014, and 111 834 in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII), who were followed up from 1989 to 2015...
October 4, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Tracey G Simon, Yanan Ma, Jonas F Ludvigsson, Dawn Q Chong, Edward L Giovannucci, Charles S Fuchs, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Kathleen E Corey, Raymond T Chung, Xuehong Zhang, Andrew T Chan
Importance: Prospective data on the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) according to dose and duration of aspirin therapy are limited. Objective: To examine the potential benefits of aspirin use for primary HCC prevention at a range of doses and durations of use within 2 prospective, nationwide populations. Design, Setting, and Participants: Pooled analysis of 2 prospective US cohort studies: the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study...
October 4, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Guillermo R Prozzi, Martín Cañás, Martín A Urtasun, Héctor O Buschiazzo, Cristian M Dorati, Perla Mordujovich-Buschiazzo
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs) are among the most commonly used drugs in clinical practice. They block cyclooxygenases (COX) enzymes, but the degree of inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 varies between them. In general, NSAIDs are classified in selective COX-2 or coxibs and non-selective or traditional NSAIDs. Both the analgesic and antiinflammatory effects, as well as the cardiovascular adverse effects, depend on the COX-2 inhibition. This paper reviews the available evidence of the increased risk of thrombotic events for both coxibs and traditional NSAID...
2018: Medicina
Paola Simeone, Andrea Boccatonda, Rossella Liani, Francesca Santilli
Platelet activation plays a key role in atherogenesis and atherothrombosis. Biochemical evidence of increased platelet activation in vivo can be reliably obtained through non-invasive measurement of thromboxane metabolite (TXM) excretion. Persistent biosynthesis of TXA2 has been associated with several ageing-related diseases, including acute and chronic cardio-cerebrovascular diseases and cardiovascular risk factors, such as cigarette smoking, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, chronic inflammatory diseases...
September 29, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Yunzhe Wang, Cong-Lin Liu, Jes S Lindholt, Guo-Ping Shi, Jinying Zhang
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The development of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) involves extensive extracellular matrix remodelling, leading to aortic wall weakening. This process is mediated by proteases, including cysteinyl cathepsins. Cystatins are their endogenous inhibitors. This study tested whether plasma cystatin B levels in patients with AAA differed from those of healthy controls. METHODS: Plasma samples from patients with AAA and age matched controls were selected from the Viborg Vascular (VIVA) screening trial for AAA...
September 24, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Annet Bens, Søren Friis, Christian Dehlendorff, Maj-Britt Jensen, Bent Ejlertsen, Niels Kroman, Deirdre Cronin-Fenton, Lene Mellemkjær
Observational studies of aspirin use and breast cancer risk have provided inconsistent results. The occurrence of contralateral breast cancer (CBC) among breast cancer survivors may serve as a useful high-risk model to identify preventive drug effects. Using this model, we examined the association between post-diagnosis use of low-dose aspirin and risk of CBC. We identified all women recorded with a first primary breast cancer in the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group Database between 1996 and 2012. Information on drug use, tumor and patient characteristics, treatment, and CBC was obtained from nationwide registries...
November 2018: Preventive Medicine
Francesco Finamore, Jean-Luc Reny, Sarah Malacarne, Pierre Fontana, Jean-Charles Sanchez
Diabetes is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Although aspirin is considered a cornerstone of the prevention and treatment of atherothrombotic-related ischemic events, this antiplatelet drug appears to be less effective in patients with poorly controlled diabetes. It has been suggested that the glycation of platelet proteins plays a pivotal role in poor responsiveness to aspirin. However, a direct effect on the critical residue (serine 529, or Ser 529) of the catalytic pocket of cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) has never been demonstrated...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Lisanne A Gitsels, Elena Kulinskaya, Ilyas Bakbergenuly, Nicholas Steel
OBJECTIVE: Compare outcomes of intensive treatment of SBP to less than 120 mmHg versus standard treatment to less than 140 mmHg in the US clinical Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) with similar hypertensive patients managed in routine primary care in the United Kingdom. METHODS: Hypertensive patients aged 50-90 without diabetes or chronic kidney disease (CKD) were selected in SPRINT and The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database. Patients were enrolled in 2010-2013 and followed-up to 2015 (SPRINT N = 4112; THIN N = 8631)...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Hypertension
József Mátyás Baló-Banga, Katalin Schweitzer
INTRODUCTION: According to the present knowledge, the effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) depends on the inhibitory ratio of cyclooxigenase (COX)-1 to COX-2 in the plasma membranes. In addition to cardiovascular and gastrointestinal side effects, there are adverse symptoms which can be divided into cross-intolerance (non-immune mediated) and single or multiple hypersensitive (immune mediated) reactions. Due to clinical phenotypes and to in vivo aspirin reactivity, adverse effects could be further classified...
September 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Xue-Lian Zhang, Han-Jing Fu, Guang-Ran Yang, Gang Wan, Dongmei Li, Liang-Xiang Zhu, Rong-Rong Xie, Yu-Jie Lv, Jian-Dong Zhang, Yu-Ling Li, Qin-Fang Dai, Yu Ji, Da-Yong Gao, Xue-Li Cui, De-Yuan Liu, Shen-Yuan Yuan, Ming-Xia Yuan
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the prognostic significance of metabolic risk scores and aspirin with respect to cerebrovascular events. METHODS: A total of 25 communities of diabetic patients were enrolled in Beijing Community Diabetes Study (BCDS) from 2008. 3413 patients with T2DM in BCDS have complete screening data, including blood glucose, blood pressure, lipid profiles and anti-platelet therapy, which were assigned metabolic score (MS) and add up to the total metabolic score (TMS)...
October 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Zhigang Chen, Wenlu Li, Fuming Qiu, Qi Huang, Zhou Jiang, Jun Ye, Pu Cheng, Cho Low, Yikun Guo, Xinchi Yi, Wenteng Chen, Yongpin Yu, YueHua Han, Jun Wu, Shenghang Jin, Dong Kong, Jian Huang
Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) have been proposed as a key driving force of tumor growth and relapse in colorectal cancer (CRC), and therefore, they are promising targets for cancer therapy. Epidemiological evidence has suggested that the daily use of aspirin reduces overall mortality of CRC and the risk of distant metastasis. We investigated the effect and mechanism of aspirin on CSCs in CRC. Methods: The ratio of CSCs was analyzed after aspirin treatment both in a cell model and patient samples. Chemically modified aspirin and immunoprecipitation were adopted to detect the target proteins of aspirin...
2018: Theranostics
Mark D Findlay, Jesse Dawson, Rachael MacIsaac, Alan G Jardine, Mary Joan MacLeod, Wendy Metcalfe, Jamie P Traynor, Patrick B Mark
Introduction: Stroke rate and mortality are greater in individuals with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) than in those without ESRD. We examined discrepancies in stroke care in ESRD patients and their influence on mortality. Methods: This is a national record linkage cohort study of hospitalized stroke individuals from 2005 to 2013. Presentation, measures of care quality (admission to stroke unit, swallow assessment, antithrombotics, or thrombolysis use), and outcomes were compared in those with and without ESRD after propensity score matching (PSM)...
September 2018: KI Reports
Christine J Chung, Ajay J Kirtane, Yiran Zhang, Bernhard Witzenbichler, Giora Weisz, Thomas D Stuckey, Bruce R Brodie, Michael J Rinaldi, Franz-Josef Neumann, D Christopher Metzger, Timothy D Henry, David A Cox, Peter L Duffy, Ernest L Mazzaferri, Roxana Mehran, Gregg W Stone
BACKGROUND: Whether high on-aspirin platelet reactivity (HAPR) confers an increased risk of adverse outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains unclear. We sought to examine the specific relationship between HAPR and clinical outcomes in ADAPT-DES. METHODS: A total of 8,526 "all-comer" patients in the ADAPT-DES registry who underwent placement of drug-eluting stents (DES) and were treated with aspirin and clopidogrel were assessed to measure platelet reactivity...
August 15, 2018: American Heart Journal
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