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Aspirin AND Cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641310/potentiating-the-effects-of-radiotherapy-in-rectal-cancer-the-role-of-aspirin-statins-and-metformin-as-adjuncts-to-therapy
#1
K J Gash, A C Chambers, D E Cotton, A C Williams, M G Thomas
BACKGROUND: Complete tumour response (pCR) to neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy for rectal cancer is associated with a reduction in local recurrence and improved disease-free and overall survival, but is achieved in only 20-30% of patients. Drug repurposing for anti-cancer treatments is gaining momentum, but the potential of such drugs as adjuncts, to increase tumour response to chemo-radiotherapy in rectal cancer, is only just beginning to be recognised. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted and all studies investigating the use of drugs to enhance response to neo-adjuvant radiation in rectal cancer were included...
June 22, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639101/prevention-and-treatment-of-cancer-targeting-chronic-inflammation-research-progress-potential-agents-clinical-studies-and-mechanisms
#2
REVIEW
Yong Zhang, Weijia Kong, Jiandong Jiang
Numerous experimental and clinical studies indicate that chronic inflammation is closely related to the initiation, progression, and spread of cancer, in which proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and transcription factors, such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), play pivotal roles. Stimulated by proinflammatory cytokines, NF-κB and STAT3 can modulate the expression of target genes, most of which are oncogenic ones, and promote the survival, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of cancer cells...
May 29, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636624/metabolically-healthy-obesity-is-associated-with-higher-prevalence-of-colorectal-adenoma
#3
Dong Hyun Sinn, Yang Won Min, Hee Jung Son, Poong-Lyul Rhee, Seung Woon Paik, Sung Noh Hong, Geum-Youn Gwak
BACKGROUND: The risk of colorectal adenoma (CRA), an important precursor of colorectal cancer, is largely unknown among obese individuals without obesity-related metabolic abnormalities, a condition described as metabolically-healthy obese (MHO). The aim of this study was to examine the association among metabolic status, the different categories of body mass index (BMI), and CRA in a large cohort of adults. METHODS: We analyzed the association among metabolic status, BMI categories and CRA in asymptomatic adults who underwent a first-time colonoscopy as part of the comprehensive health check-up program at the Health Promotion Center of Samsung Medical Center, from January 2005 to December 2012...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623609/administration-of-direct-oral-anticoagulants-in-patients-with-myeloproliferative-neoplasms
#4
Jean-Christophe Ianotto, Marie-Anne Couturier, Hubert Galinat, Dominique Mottier, Christian Berthou, Gaëlle Guillerm, Eric Lippert, Aurélien Delluc
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have been approved to treat and prevent thrombotic events. However, they are not yet labeled for use in patients with active cancers. Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal chronic disorders with a high incidence of thrombotic events, for which low-dose aspirin (LDA) is the standard drug treatment. We analyzed efficacy and safety of DOACs prescription in patients treated for MPNs. An MPN database, the OBENE registry, was established at our institution. We collected biological and clinical data from diagnosis to last follow-up for every patient included in this study...
June 16, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620089/development-and-validation-of-risk-prediction-equations-to-estimate-survival-in-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-cohort-study
#5
Julia Hippisley-Cox, Carol Coupland
Objective To develop and externally validate risk prediction equations to estimate absolute and conditional survival in patients with colorectal cancer. Design Cohort study.Setting General practices in England providing data for the QResearch database linked to the national cancer registry.Participants 44 145 patients aged 15-99 with colorectal cancer from 947 practices to derive the equations. The equations were validated in 15 214 patients with colorectal cancer from 305 different QResearch practices and 437 821 patients with colorectal cancer from the national cancer registry...
June 15, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619690/metformin-the-aspirin-of-the-21-st-century-its-role-in-gestational-diabetes-prevention-of-preeclampsia-and-cancer-and-the-promotion-of-longevity
#6
REVIEW
Roberto Romero, Offer Erez, Maik Hüttemann, Eli Maymon, Bogdan Panaitescu, Agustin Conde-Agudelo, Percy Pacora, Bo Hyun Yoon, Lawrence I Grossman
Metformin is everywhere. Originally introduced in clinical practice as an anti-diabetic agent, its role as a therapeutic agent is expanding to include treatment of pre-diabetes, gestational diabetes, polycystic ovarian disease, and more recently, experimental studies, as well as observations in randomized clinical trials, suggest that metformin could have a place in the treatment or prevention of preeclampsia. This article provides a brief overview of the history of metformin in the treatment of diabetes, reviews the results of meta-analyses of metformin in gestational diabetes, and the treatment of obese non-diabetic pregnant women to prevent macrosomia...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617623/timing-of-aspirin-and-other-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-use-among-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-in-relation-to-tumor-markers-and-survival
#7
Xinwei Hua, Amanda I Phipps, Andrea N Burnett-Hartman, Scott V Adams, Sheetal Hardikar, Stacey A Cohen, Jonathan M Kocarnik, Dennis J Ahnen, Noralane M Lindor, John A Baron, Polly A Newcomb
Purpose Regular use of aspirin is associated with improved survival for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the timing of and the subtype of CRC that would benefit the most from using aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in relation to survival is unclear. Patients and Methods In all, 2,419 patients age 18 to 74 years with incident invasive CRC who were diagnosed from 1997 to 2008 were identified from population-based cancer registries in the United States, Canada, and Australia...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597105/role-of-aspirin-in-breast-cancer-survival
#8
REVIEW
Wendy Y Chen, Michelle D Holmes
Chemotherapy and hormonal therapy have significantly decreased breast cancer mortality, although with considerable side effects and financial costs. In the USA, over three million women are living after a breast cancer diagnosis and are eager for new treatments that are low in toxicity and cost. Multiple observational studies have reported improved breast cancer survival with regular aspirin use. Furthermore, pooled data from five large randomized trials of aspirin for cardiovascular disease showed that subjects on aspirin had decreased risk of cancer mortality and decreased risk of metastatic cancer...
July 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588790/ibuprofen-and-fatal-lung-cancer-a-brief-report-of-the-prospective-results-from-the-third-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-nhanes-iii
#9
Marisa A Bittoni, David P Carbone, Randall E Harris
Chronic inflammation appears to increase the risk of lung cancer and, reciprocally, agents that reduce inflammation have been found to reduce this risk. However, few prospective studies have assessed whether there exists an association between lung cancer and the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In the present study, the association between fatal lung cancer and NSAIDs was investigated using cohort data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (NHANES III). Baseline data were collected on smoking, NSAID use and other lifestyle factors for 10,735 participants during 1988-1994, with cause-specific mortality status ascertained through probabilistic record matching based on the National Death Index until 2006...
June 2017: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581881/prevalence-and-clinical-intentions-of-antithrombotic-therapy-on-discharge-to-hospice-care
#10
Christina A Kowalewska, Brie N Noble, Erik K Fromme, Mary Lynn McPherson, Kristi N Grace, Jon P Furuno
BACKGROUND: There are no guidelines for antithrombotic therapy on admission to hospice care. Antithrombotic therapy may offer some benefit in these patients, but is also associated with well-described risks. OBJECTIVE: We quantified the frequency and characteristics of patients prescribed antithrombotic therapy on discharge from acute care to hospice care. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. Settings/Subjects: Adult (age> = 21 years) patients discharged from acute care to hospice care between January 1, 2010 and June 30, 2014...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579807/effects-of-chemopreventive-agents-on-the-incidence-of-recurrent-colorectal-adenomas-a-systematic-review-with-network-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
Sajesh K Veettil, Nattawat Teerawattanapong, Siew Mooi Ching, Kean Ghee Lim, Surasak Saokaew, Pochamana Phisalprapa, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk
BACKGROUND: Protective effects of several chemopreventive agents (CPAs) against colorectal adenomas have been well documented in randomized controlled trials (RCTs); however, there is uncertainty regarding which agents are the most effective. METHODS: We searched for RCTs published up until September 2016. Retrieved trials were evaluated using risk of bias. We performed both pairwise analysis and network meta-analysis (NMA) of RCTs to compare the effects of CPAs on the recurrence of colorectal adenomas (primary outcome)...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577622/aspirin-for-primary-prevention
#12
REVIEW
Ilana B Richman, Douglas K Owens
Aspirin reduces the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke, and the risk of colorectal cancer. Aspirin increases the risk of gastrointestinal and intracranial bleeding. The best available evidence supports initiating aspirin in select populations. In 2016, the US Preventive Services Task Force recommended initiating aspirin for the primary prevention of both cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer among adults ages 50 to 59 who are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Adults 60 to 69 who are at increased cardiovascular disease risk may also benefit...
July 2017: Medical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573479/aspirin-and-the-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-diseases-an-approach-based-on-individualized-integrated-estimation-of-risk
#13
Massimo Volpe, Allegra Battistoni, Giovanna Gallo, Roberta Coluccia, Raffaele De Caterina
While the use of aspirin in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular (CVD) is well established, aspirin in primary prevention is not systematically recommended because the absolute CV event reduction is similar to the absolute excess in major bleedings. Recently, emerging evidence suggests the possibility that the assumption of aspirin, may also be effective in the prevention of cancer. By adding to the CV prevention benefits the potential beneficial effect of aspirin in reducing the incidence of mortality and cancer could tip the balance between risks and benefits of aspirin therapy in the primary prevention in favour of the latter and broaden the indication for treatment with in populations at average risk...
June 1, 2017: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573063/alleviating-promotion-of-inflammation-and-cancer-induced-by-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs
#14
REVIEW
Anthony M Kyriakopoulos, Markus Nagl, Stella Baliou, Vasilleios Zoumpourlis
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) including aspirin are of intensive use nowadays. These drugs exert their activity via the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) by cyclooxygenase inhibition. Though beneficial for health in some instances, both unspecific and specific cyclooxygenase inhibitor activity interfere with AA metabolism producing also proinflammatory lipids that may promote cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review is based on available literature on clinical uses, biochemical investigations, molecular medicine, pharmacology, toxicity, and epidemiology-clinical studies on NSAIDs and other drugs that may be used accordingly, which was collected from electronic (SciFinder, Medline, Science Direct, and ACS among others) and library searches of books and journals...
2017: International Journal of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548953/from-rapalogs-to-anti-aging-formula
#15
Mikhail V Blagosklonny
Inhibitors of mTOR, including clinically available rapalogs such as rapamycin (Sirolimus) and Everolimus, are gerosuppressants, which suppress cellular senescence. Rapamycin slows aging and extends life span in a variety of species from worm to mammals. Rapalogs can prevent age-related diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis, obesity, neurodegeneration and retinopathy and potentially rejuvenate stem cells, immunity and metabolism. Here, I further suggest how rapamycin can be combined with metformin, inhibitors of angiotensin II signaling (Losartan, Lisinopril), statins (simvastatin, atorvastatin), propranolol, aspirin and a PDE5 inhibitor...
May 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542447/exploratory-plasma-proteomic-analysis-in-a-randomized-crossover-trial-of-aspirin-among-healthy-men-and-women
#16
Xiaoliang Wang, Ali Shojaie, Yuzheng Zhang, David Shelley, Paul D Lampe, Lisa Levy, Ulrike Peters, John D Potter, Emily White, Johanna W Lampe
Long-term use of aspirin is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer and other cancers; however, the mechanism of chemopreventive effect of aspirin is not fully understood. Animal studies suggest that COX-2, NFκB signaling and Wnt/β-catenin pathways may play a role, but no clinical trials have systematically evaluated the biological response to aspirin in healthy humans. Using a high-density antibody array, we assessed the difference in plasma protein levels after 60 days of regular dose aspirin (325 mg/day) compared to placebo in a randomized double-blinded crossover trial of 44 healthy non-smoking men and women, aged 21-45 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542316/antithrombotic-therapy-of-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation-discharged-after-major-non-cardiac-surgery-1-year-follow-up-sub-analysis-of-prague-14-study
#17
Martina Ondrakova, Zuzana Motovska, Petr Waldauf, Jiri Knot, Lukas Havluj, Lukas Bittner, Radek Bartoska, Robert Gűrlich, Martin Krbec, Valer Dzupa, Robert Grill, Petr Widimsky
BACKGROUND: The study investigated the discharge antithrombotic medication in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) after major non-cardiac surgery and the impact on one-year outcomes. METHODS: A subgroup of 366 patients (mean age 75.9±10.5 years, women 42.3%, acute surgery 42.9%) undergoing major non-cardiac surgery and having any form of AF (30.6% of the total population enrolled in the PRAGUE-14 study) was followed for 1 year. RESULTS: Antithrombotics (interrupted due to surgery) were resumed until discharge in 51...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541994/aspirin-use-associated-with-reduced-risk-of-cancer
#18
Karen Rosenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539172/influence-of-aspirin-and-non-aspirin-nsaid-use-on-ovarian-and-endometrial-cancer-summary-of-epidemiologic-evidence-of-cancer-risk-and-prognosis
#19
REVIEW
F Verdoodt, S K Kjaer, S Friis
Increasing evidence supports a role for aspirin use in reducing the incidence and mortality of several cancer types. This has spurred a new wave of interest in this widely used drug. In this review, we present and evaluate the epidemiologic evidence of the association between the use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the incidence and prognosis of ovarian and endometrial cancer. The evidence of a preventive effect of NSAID use on risk of ovarian or endometrial cancer is based primarily on results from observational studies and, consequently, is only suggestive...
June 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537928/differences-in-risk-factors-of-malignancy-between-men-and-women-with-type-2-diabetes-a-retrospective-case-control-study
#20
Mariusz Dąbrowski, Elektra Szymańska-Garbacz, Zofia Miszczyszyn, Tadeusz Dereziński, Leszek Czupryniak
BACKGROUND: The aim of this multicenter, retrospective, case-control study was to identify differences in risk factors of malignancy between men and women with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: Among women the most prevalent malignancies were: breast and uterine cancers (35.6% and 14.4% respectively), while among men there were: colorectal and prostate cancers (24.5% and 13.3% respectively). In both gender metformin use was associated with lower cancer risk. Obesity and insulin treatment in dose-dependent and time-varying manner were associated with significantly increased risk of malignancy in females...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
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