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Aspirin AND Cancer

A Leader, H Ten Cate, G Spectre, E A M Beckers, A Falanga
In cancer patients, antithrombotic medications (i.e. anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy) are frequently prescribed for prior or new indications such as venous thromboembolism or stoke prevention in atrial fibrillation. Balancing the risks of bleeding and thrombosis during periods of thrombocytopenia represents a significant challenge. Management is informed mainly by expert opinion and several recent retrospective studies on venous thromboembolism. The main management options include no change, temporarily withholding antithrombotic therapy, reducing dose, changing the regimen, and increasing the platelet transfusion threshold...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
C M Sauer, D T Myran, C E Costentin, G Zwisler, T Safder, S Papatheodorou, L A Mucci
BACKGROUND: Previous studies found divergent effects of aspirin use on prostate cancer incidence, potentially due to studies with short durations of aspirin use and insufficient adjustment for screening. METHODS: A systematic review on the association between aspirin use ≥3 years and incident prostate cancer was performed in accordance with the PRISMA and MOOSE criteria. RESULTS: In the cohort studies, aspirin use for at least 3 years was associated with a lower incidence rate of prostate cancer (Odds ratio (OR) 0...
December 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
Shan Lu, Obinna N Obianom, Yong Ai
Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths around the world despite the availability of many approved small molecules for treatment. The issues lie in the potency, selectivity and targeting of these compounds. Therefore, new strategies and targets are needed to optimize and develop novel treatments for CRC. Here, a group of novel hybrids derived from aspirin and chalcones were designed and synthesized based on recent reports of their individual benefits to CRC targeting and selectivity...
October 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Keunyoung Kim, Yoon-Kyung Heo, Soyoung Chun, Chang-Hwan Kim, Ok-Nam Bae, Moo-Yeol Lee, Kyung-Min Lim, Jin-Ho Chung
Arsenic-associated carcinogenesis and related mortality are a major public health concern worldwide; however, the underlying mechanism of action remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that arsenic promotes tumor metastasis by stimulating tumor cell-platelet aggregation (TCPA), which can ultimately increase cancer-related mortality. In freshly isolated human platelets in vitro, arsenic potentiated TCPA prompted by diverse cancer cell lines, which was attributable to increased platelet reactivity to TCPA with respect to thrombin generation and P-selectin, GPIIb/IIIa expression...
November 14, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Michelle L MacKintosh, Emma J Crosbie
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: To assess the most recent high-quality evidence for endometrial cancer prevention strategies. RECENT FINDINGS: Obesity is an established risk factor for endometrial cancer. Weight cycling and weight gain in middle age are risk factors for endometrial cancer. Bariatric surgery reduces the risk of endometrial cancer by up to 81% in obese women who attain and maintain a normal weight. Combined oral contraceptives provide durable protection against endometrial cancer for 30 years or more...
November 13, 2018: Current Oncology Reports
Satyajeet Roy, Shirisha Vallepu, Cristian Barrios, Krystal Hunter
Background: Cancer survivors suffer from many comorbid conditions even after the cure of their cancers beyond 5 years. We explored the differences in the association of comorbid conditions between the cancer survivors and patients without cancer. Methods: Electronic medical records of 280 adult cancer survivors and 280 age-matched patients without cancer in our suburban internal medicine office were reviewed. Results: Mean age of the cancer survivors was 72...
December 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
R S Kilari, A I J Bashir, A Devitt, C J Perry, S T Safrany, Iain D Nicholl
BACKGROUND: Oesophageal cancer (OC) is a deadly cancer because of its aggressive nature with survival rates that have barely improved in decades. Epidemiologic studies have shown that low-dose daily intake of aspirin can decrease the incidence of OC. METHODS: The toxicity of aspirin and aspirin derivatives to OC and a colorectal cancer (CRC) cell line were investigated in the presence and absence of platins. RESULTS: The data in this study show the effects of a number of aspirin analogues and aspirin on OC cell lines that originally presented as squamous cell carcinoma (SSC) and adenocarcinoma (ADC)...
November 12, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Oscar J Cordero, Rubén Varela-Calviño
Many evidences support that species from the Human Oral Microbiome Database such as Fusobacterium nucleatum or Bacteroides, linked previously to periodontitis and appendicitis, play a role in colorectal cancer (CRC), including metastasis. These typically oral species are invasive anaerobes that form biofilms in their virulent state. Aspirin (a NSAID) has been recently included into routine CRC prevention rationale. NSAIDs can prevent the growth of neoplastic lesions by inhibiting COX enzymes and another set of recently identified COX-independent targets, which include the WNT, AMPK and MTOR signaling pathways, the crosstalk between nucleoli and NF-κB transcriptional activity in apoptosis, and the biochemistry of platelets...
October 2018: Heliyon
Efrat L Amitay, Katarina Cuk, Tobias Niedermaier, Korbinian Weigl, Hermann Brenner
In recent years fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) have been offered as a primary screening test for colorectal cancer (CRC) in a growing number of countries. This study aims to identify factors associated with apparently false positive results of FITs. In this cross-sectional study within the German population-based screening colonoscopy program, participants were invited to provide a stool sample for FIT prior to colonoscopy. 4656 participants aged 50-79 years with no known history of CRC or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and no findings of neoplasms at screening colonoscopy were included in the current analyses...
November 9, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Zhen Zhang, Fulin Chen, Lijun Shang
In recent years, the reports on using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for cancer prevention and treatment have been on the rise. In 2017, the US Preventive Services Working Group issued primary prevention guidelines on the use of NSAIDs, especially aspirin, for cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer, and formally established the role and status of aspirin in cancer prevention. However, the mechanism of NSAIDs on preventing cancer is still not clear. In this paper, the progress of the application of NSAIDs, especially aspirin, in the prevention and treatment of tumors in recent years is summarized, and new ideas and directions for the follow-up study are also discussed...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Ryota Niikura, Atsuo Yamada, Mitsuhiro Fujishiro, Kiyohito Tanaka, Koji Matsuda, Yutaka Saito, Kazuo Ohtsuka, Ichiro Oda, Chikatoshi Katada, Masayuki Kato, Mitsuhiro Kida, Kiyonori Kobayashi, Shu Hoteya, Takahiro Horimatsu, Shinya Kodashima, Takahisa Matsuda, Manabu Muto, Hironori Yamamoto, Shomei Ryozawa, Ryuichi Iwakiri, Hiromu Kutsumi, Hiroaki Miyata, Mototsugu Kato, Ken Haruma, Kazuma Fujimoto, Naomi Uemura, Michio Kaminishi, Tomohiro Shinozaki, Hisao Tajiri, Kazuhiko Koike
AIM: To clarify whether antithrombotic drugs affect diagnosis using the immunochemical faecal occult blood test -(iFOBT) of colorectal neoplasia. METHODS: Using the Japan Endoscopy Database from 8 centres between 2015 and 2017, we analyzed data about patients who were iFOBT positive and had received direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC), warfarin, aspirin or thienopyridine. One-to-one matching-analogue propensity score weighted analyses were performed to compare the positive predictive value (PPV) of all neoplasms, invasive and non-invasive colorectal cancers and adenomas between drug users and non-users...
November 8, 2018: Digestion
Zhenhua Shang, Xue Wang, Hao Yan, Bo Cui, Qi Wang, Jiangtao Wu, Xin Cui, Jin Li, Tongwen Ou, Kun Yang
Background: Epidemiological evidences regarding the association between the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the risk of prostate cancer (PC) is still controversial. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to explore the controversy that exists. Methods: Electronic databases including Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, BIOSIS, Scopus, CBM, CNKI, WANFANG, and CQVIP were used to search for and identify eligible studies published until December 31, 2017. Pooled effect estimates for the relative risk (RR) were computed through fixed-effects or random-effects models as appropriate...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Maria Rosa Montinari, Sergio Minelli, Raffaele De Caterina
Aspirin is currently the most widely used drug worldwide, and has been clearly one of the most important pharmacological achievements of the twentieth century. Historians of medicine have traced its birth in 1897, but the fascinating history of aspirin actually dates back >3500 years, when willow bark was used as a painkiller and antipyretic by Sumerians and Egyptians, and then by great physicians from ancient Greece and Rome. The modern history of aspirin precursors, salicylates, began in 1763 with Reverend Stone - who first described their antipyretic effects - and continued in the 19th century with many researchers involved in their extraction and chemical synthesis...
November 1, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Mei Li, Hui-Fang Chai, Fei Peng, Yu-Ting Meng, Li-Zhi Zhang, Lin Zhang, Hong Zou, Qi-Lan Liang, Man-Man Li, Kai-Ge Mao, Dong-Xu Sun, Meng-Ying Tong, Zi-Qian Deng, Zhi-Jie Hou, Yi Zhao, Jia Li, Xiao-Chao Wang, Sha-Sha Lv, Qing-Qing Zhang, Xiao Yu, Eric W-F Lam, Quentin Liu, Xiao-Nan Cui, Jie Xu
Estrogen receptor β (ERβ) plays critical roles in thyroid cancer progression. However, its role in thyroid cancer stem cell maintenance remains elusive. Here, we report that ERβ is overexpressed in papillary thyroid cancer stem cells (PTCSCs), whereas ablation of ERβ decreases stemness-related factors expression, diminishes ALDH+ cell populations, and suppresses sphere formation ability and tumor growth. Screening estrogen-responsive lncRNAs in PTC spheroid cells, we find that lncRNA-H19 is highly expressed in PTCSCs and PTC tissue specimens, which is correlated with poor overall survival...
November 2, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Efrat L Amitay, Prudence R Carr, Lina Jansen, Viola Walter, Wilfried Roth, Esther Herpel, Matthias Kloor, Hendrik Bläker, Jenny Chang-Claude, Hermann Brenner, Michael Hoffmeister
Background: Regular use of aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for a longer period has been inversely associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. However, CRC is a heterogenic disease, and little is known regarding the associations with molecular pathological subtypes. Methods: Analyses included 2444 cases with a first diagnosis of CRC and 3130 healthy controls from a German population-based case control study. Tumor tissue samples were analyzed for major molecular pathological features: microsatellite instability (MSI), CpG island methylator phenotype, B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) mutation, and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog gene (KRAS) mutation...
November 2, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Mark A Moyad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss the overall and latest observations of the effect of diet, lifestyle, supplements, and some prescription heart healthy medications for prostate cancer prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: The concept of maximizing heart health to prevent aggressive prostate cancer continues to be solidified with the addition of more prospective observational and randomized controlled trial data. Heart healthy is prostate healthy, but heart unhealthy is prostate unhealthy...
October 27, 2018: Current Urology Reports
Annet Bens, Deirdre Cronin-Fenton, Christian Dehlendorff, Maj-Britt Jensen, Bent Ejlertsen, Niels Kroman, Søren Friis, Lene Mellemkjaer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Christopher C Parker, Nicholas D James, Christopher D Brawley, Noel W Clarke, Alex P Hoyle, Adnan Ali, Alastair W S Ritchie, Gerhardt Attard, Simon Chowdhury, William Cross, David P Dearnaley, Silke Gillessen, Clare Gilson, Robert J Jones, Ruth E Langley, Zafar I Malik, Malcolm D Mason, David Matheson, Robin Millman, J Martin Russell, George N Thalmann, Claire L Amos, Roberto Alonzi, Amit Bahl, Alison Birtle, Omar Din, Hassan Douis, Chinnamani Eswar, Joanna Gale, Melissa R Gannon, Sai Jonnada, Sara Khaksar, Jason F Lester, Joe M O'Sullivan, Omi A Parikh, Ian D Pedley, Delia M Pudney, Denise J Sheehan, Narayanan Nair Srihari, Anna T H Tran, Mahesh K B Parmar, Matthew R Sydes
BACKGROUND: Based on previous findings, we hypothesised that radiotherapy to the prostate would improve overall survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer, and that the benefit would be greatest in patients with a low metastatic burden. We aimed to compare standard of care for metastatic prostate cancer, with and without radiotherapy. METHODS: We did a randomised controlled phase 3 trial at 117 hospitals in Switzerland and the UK. Eligible patients had newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer...
October 18, 2018: Lancet
Soham Gupta, Alexander P Cole, Maya Marchese, Ye Wang, Jacqueline M Speed, Sean A Fletcher, Junaid Nabi, Sebastian Berg, Stuart R Lipsitz, Toni K Choueiri, Steven L Chang, Adam S Kibel, Annemarie Uhlig, Quoc-Dien Trinh
INTRODUCTION: With improvements in early detection and treatment, a growing proportion of the population now lives with a personal history of a cancer. Although many cancer survivors are in excellent health, the underlying risk factors and side effects of cancer treatment increase the risk of medical complications and secondary malignancies. METHODS: The 2013 National Health Interview Survey was utilized to assess the association between personal history of cancer and receipt of U...
October 20, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Xiangchao Shi, Hongbao Fang, Yan Guo, Hao Yuan, Zijian Guo, Xiaoyong Wang
Copper complexes are hopeful anticancer drugs due to their multifacet biological properties and high biocompatibility. Inflammatory environment plays an important role in tumor progression and affects the body response to chemotherapeutic agents. A copper(II) complex CuLA with a phenanthroline derivative N-(1,10-phenanthrolin-5-yl)-nonanamide (L) and two aspirin anions (A) as the ligands was synthesized. CuLA effectively induces mitochondrial dysfunction and promotes early-apoptosis in SKOV-3 cells; moreover, it suppresses the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, a key enzyme involved in inflammatory response, in lipopolysaccharide stimulated RAW 264...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
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