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Aspirin AND Cancer

Lu Wang, Qi-Song Lei, Yu-Ying Liu, Guan-Jie Song, Chun-Ling Song
OBJECTIVE: Raynaud phenomenon is a vasospastic disorder affecting the hands and feet, and the efficacies of traditional treatments, such as pharmacological therapies and sympathectomy, are not uniform. Patients with paraneoplastic Raynaud phenomenon do not benefit from the traditional treatments. The use of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) for Raynaud phenomenon has been reported for several years; however, there are few reports regarding botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of paraneoplastic Raynaud phenomenon...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Benilde Cosmi
Idiopathic or unprovoked venous thromboembolism is an event occurring in the absence of any apparent provoking or triggering environmental risk factors, such as surgery, trauma, and immobilization. Areas covered: Unprovoked VTE can be associated with occult cancer, but only limited, and not extensive cancer screening, may be warranted, as the rate of occult cancer is low in such patients. Routine thrombophilia testing is not currently recommended as it does not influence the management of the disease. The duration of anticoagulation for unprovoked VTE after the first three months is still debated as the disease tends to recur regardless of treatment duration...
October 14, 2016: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
Mojgan Najafzadeh, Charmaine Normington, Badie K Jacob, Mohammad Isreb, Rajendran C Gopalan, Diana Anderson
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit COX enzyme activity which affects the inflammatory response. Inflammation is associated with increasing cancer incidence. Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that NSAID treatment could cause an anti-tumor effect in cancers. In the present study, blood was taken from healthy individuals (n = 17) and patients with respiratory diseases or lung cancer (n = 36). White blood cells (WBC) were treated with either a micro-suspension, i.e., bulk (B) or nano-suspension (N) of aspirin (ASP) or ibuprofen (IBU) up to 500 μg/ml in the comet assay and up to 125 μg/ml in the micronucleus assay...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Jing-Huan Li, Yan Wang, Xiao-Ying Xie, Xin Yin, Lan Zhang, Rong-Xin Chen, Zheng-Gang Ren
Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the principal therapy for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its efficacy is currently limited owing to tumor progression or treatment failure. It has been shown that aspirin reduces the incidence of multiple malignant tumors including HCC and plays a synergistic role with chemotherapy in the treatment of colon cancer. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the adjuvant effect of aspirin on patients with unresectable HCC who underwent TACE therapy. A retrospective matched-pairs analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy of aspirin in combination with TACE therapy...
2016: American Journal of Cancer Research
Mariusz Dąbrowski, Elektra Szymańska-Garbacz, Zofia Miszczyszyn, Tadeusz Dereziński, Leszek Czupryniak
BACKGROUND: The risk of several types of cancer is increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus. The earliest possible diagnosis of cancer - difficult within regular outpatient diabetes care - is of utmost importance for patients' survival. The aim of this multicenter, retrospective (years 1998-2015), case-control study was to identify risk factors associated with malignancy in subjects with diabetes treated in a typical outpatient setting. METHODS: In the databases of 3 diabetic and 1 primary care clinics 203 patients (115 women) with type 2 diabetes mellitus who developed malignancy while treated for diabetes were identified...
October 10, 2016: BMC Cancer
Qiao Tang, Yajun Liu, Tao Li, Xiang Yang, Guirong Zheng, Hongning Chen, Lee Jia, Jingwei Shao
Metastasis currently remains the predominant cause of breast carcinoma treatment failure. The effective targeting of metastasis-related-pathways in cancer holds promise for a new generation of therapeutics. In this study, we developed an novel Asp-UA conjugate, which was composed of classical "old drug" aspirin and low toxicity natural product ursolic acid for targeting breast cancer metastasis. Our results showed that Asp-UA could attenuate the adhesion, migration and invasion of breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in a more safe and effective manner in vitro...
September 24, 2016: Oncotarget
Lisa E Vaughan, Anna Prizment, Cindy K Blair, William Thomas, Kristin E Anderson
PURPOSE: Few studies have evaluated the chemopreventive effect of aspirin on the cancer risk in elderly women. We examined associations between frequency, dose, and duration of aspirin use with incidence of 719 aspirin-sensitive cancers (cancers of colon, pancreas, breast, and ovaries) in the Iowa Women's Health Study (IWHS), a prospective cohort of women over 70 years old. METHODS: Aspirin frequency, dose, and duration were self-reported in the 2004 IWHS questionnaire...
September 27, 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Yanni Chen, Michelle Peate, Rajneesh Kaur, Bettina Meiser, Tim Wong, Judy Kirk, Robyn L Ward, Annabel Goodwin, Finlay Macrae, Janet Hiller, Alison H Trainer, Gillian Mitchell
Recent research has shown that aspirin reduces the risk of cancers associated with Lynch Syndrome. However, uncertainty exists around the optimal dosage, treatment duration and whether the benefits of aspirin as a risk-reducing medication (RRM) outweigh adverse medication related side-effects. Little is known about clinicians' attitudes, current practice, and perceived barriers to recommending aspirin as a RRM. To explore the attitudes of clinicians who discuss risk management options with patients with Lynch Syndrome towards using aspirin as a RRM...
September 27, 2016: Familial Cancer
Sun-Hye Ko, Myong Ki Baeg, Woong Jin Bae, Pumsoo Kim, Myung-Gyu Choi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Patients being treated for prostate cancer (PCa) have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. However, whether PCa patients are inherently at a higher risk of colorectal neoplasms (CRNs) is unknown. We aimed to investigate the risk of CRNs in PCa patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who had been diagnosed with PCa at a tertiary medical center and had colonoscopy within 1 year of the PCa diagnosis were investigated. Patients were propensity-matched 1:2 by age and body mass index to asymptomatic control subjects who had undergone colonoscopy for routine health screening...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
Swati Singh, Manika Awasthi, Veda P Pandey, Upendra N Dwivedi
In the present study, 300 plant derived secondary metabolites (100 each of alkaloid, flavonoid, and terpenoid), have been screened for their anti-cancerous activity through inhibition of selected key enzymatic targets, namely cyclooxygenases (COXs), topoisomerases (Topos), and aromatase by molecular docking approach. Furthermore, the stability of the complexes of top hits, from each class of secondary metabolites, with their respective enzymatic targets was analyzed using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation analyses and binding free energy calculations...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Junichi Ishida, Masaaki Konishi, Nicole Ebner, Jochen Springer
Research and development of new drugs requires both long time and high costs, whereas safety and tolerability profiles make the success rate of approval very low. Drug repurposing, applying known drugs and compounds to new indications, has been noted recently as a cost-effective and time-unconsuming way in developing new drugs, because they have already been proven safe in humans. In this review, we discuss drug repurposing of approved cardiovascular drugs, such as aspirin, beta-blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, cardiac glycosides and statins...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Yan Huang, Lenard M Lichtenberger, Morgan Taylor, Justin N Bottsford-Miller, Monika Haemmerle, Michael J Wagner, Yasmin Lyons, Sunila Pradeep, Wei Hu, Rebecca A Previs, Jean M Hansen, Dexing Fang, Piotr L Domiak, Justyna Filant, Elizabeth J Dial, Fangrong Shen, Hiroto Hatakeyama, Anil K Sood
To determine the efficacy of a novel and safer (for gastrointestinal tract) aspirin (aspirin-PC) in preclinical models of ovarian cancer, in vitro dose-response studies were performed to compare the growth-inhibitory effect of aspirin-PC vs. aspirin on 3 human (A2780, SKOV3ip1, HeyA8), and a mouse (ID8) ovarian cancer cell line over an 8-day culture period. In the in vivo studies, the aspirin test drugs were studied alone and in the presence of a VEGF-A inhibitor (bevacizumab or B20), due to an emerging role for platelets in tumor growth following anti-angiogenic therapy, and we examined their underlying mechanisms...
September 16, 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
David H Ilson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews the recent seminal studies in esophagogastric cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Regular low aspirin use may reduce the risk of esophagogastric cancer. Laparoscopic resection of locally advanced gastric cancer appears equivalent to open resection. There is no survival benefit for the addition of postoperative radiation therapy to adjuvant chemotherapy after primary gastric cancer resection. For tumors of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction, the combination of preoperative radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy may be required to ensure achievement of a negative surgical margin and to reduce local tumor recurrence...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Francesca Rauzi, Nicholas S Kirkby, Matthew L Edin, James Whiteford, Darryl C Zeldin, Jane A Mitchell, Timothy D Warner
Regular consumption of low-dose aspirin reduces the occurrence of colorectal, esophageal, stomach, and gastrointestinal cancers. The underlying mechanism is unknown but may be linked to inhibition of angiogenesis. Because the effective doses of aspirin are consistent with the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-1 in platelets, we used liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry analyses and immunoassays of human platelet releasates coupled with angiogenesis assays to search for the mediator(s) of these effects...
September 15, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Julie Omolola Okiro, Amjad Zaman Khan, Fergus Keane, Faiza Murad
A 72-year-old man, on treatment for prostate cancer, attended the emergency department with his 2nd episode of spontaneous extensive bruising and haematomas. His first presentation was 2 months prior but this was thought to be because of his aspirin and he improved when aspirin was discontinued. On this occasion aspirin had been restarted 7 days before he developed his symptoms. His blood investigation was significant for a much raised activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). On his 3rd day of admission he deteriorated clinically with a drastic drop in his haemoglobin and worsening tense haematomas...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Maryam Alsadat Hashemipour, Hoda Mehrabizadeh Honarmand, Farideh Falsafi, Mehrnaz Tahmasebi Arashlo, Saied Rajabalian, Sayed Amir Hossein Gandjalikhan Nassab
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: Use of cyclooxygenase inhibitors as chemotherapy agents has attracted the attention of a large number of investigators in recent years. Given the importance of cancer therapy, only a limited number of studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors on specific cell lines. PURPOSE: This research aimed to determine the in vitro cytotoxic effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors (COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors) on KB, Saos-2, 1321N, U-87MG, SFBF-PI 39 cell lines...
September 2016: Journal of Dentistry
Anca Negovan, Mihaela Iancu, Valeriu Moldovan, Septimiu Voidazan, Simona Bataga, Monica Pantea, Kinga Sarkany, Cristina Tatar, Simona Mocan, Claudia Banescu
Background. Aspirin use for cardiovascular or cancer prevention is limited due to its gastrointestinal side effects. Objective. Our prospective, observational case-control study aims to identify the predictive factors for ulcers in low-dose aspirin consumers (75-325 mg/day). Methods. The study included patients who underwent an upper digestive endoscopy and took low-dose aspirin treatment. Results. We recruited 51 patients with ulcer (ulcer group) and 108 patients with no mucosal lesions (control group). In univariate analysis, factors significantly associated with ulcers were male gender (p = 0...
2016: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Riccardo Giampieri, Angelo Restivo, Valeria Pusceddu, Michela Del Prete, Elena Maccaroni, Alessandro Bittoni, Luca Faloppi, Kalliopi Andrikou, Maristella Bianconi, Francesco Cabras, Rossana Berardi, Luigi Zorcolo, Francesco Scintu, Stefano Cascinu, Mario Scartozzi
BACKGROUND: The potential clinical impact of aspirin use beyond its canonical indications is a novel matter of scientific debate. In patients with metastatic colorectal cancer failing all available options, regorafenib and TAS 102 represent the only chance of treatment. Although effective, these therapeutic options bring along a not-negligible burden in terms of economic costs and toxicity. In this setting, the indication to use aspirin in combination with chemotherapy would potentially represent a medical revolution under the economic and toxicity profile...
August 4, 2016: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Yu Liu, Xiaolong Yuan, Wenhui Li, Qianqian Cao, Yusheng Shu
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a potent stimulator of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a key event in the initiation of tumor cell metastasis. Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) is known to be involved in the resolution of inflammation; however, whether AT-RvD1 exerts effects on TGF-β1-induced EMT remains unclear. Thus, we first explored the effects of AT-RvD1 on the EMT of lung cancer cells. Treatment with TGF-β1 increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced the expression of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)...
October 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Ming-Jie Jiang, Juan-Juan Dai, Dian-Na Gu, Qian Huang, Ling Tian
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive malignancies with dismal prognosis. Recently, aspirin has been found to be an effective chemopreventive agent for many solid tumors. However, the function of aspirin use in pancreatic cancer largely remains unknown. We herein argued that aspirin could also lower the risk of pancreatic cancer. Importantly, aspirin assumes pleiotropic effects by targeting multiple molecules. It could further target the unique tumor biology of pancreatic cancer and modify the cancer microenvironment, thus showing remarkable therapeutic potentials...
August 24, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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