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Endurance performance

Thomas F Giustino, Paul J Fitzgerald, Stephen Maren
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a crucial role in emotional learning and memory in rodents and humans. While many studies suggest a differential role for the prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) subdivisions of mPFC, few have considered the relationship between neural activity in these two brain regions recorded simultaneously in behaving animals. Importantly, how concurrent PL and IL activity relate to conditioned freezing behavior is largely unknown. Here we used single-unit recordings targeting PL and IL in awake, behaving rats during the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear...
2016: PloS One
Florian Husmann, Martin Gube, Sabine Felser, Matthias Weippert, Anett Mau-Moeller, Sven Bruhn, Martin Behrens
PURPOSE: Despite growing interest in task-dependent alterations of central and peripheral fatigue following endurance exercise, little is known about the impact of rowing on quadriceps muscle fatigue. This study aimed to investigate central and peripheral mechanisms of fatigue following a 2000-m rowing time-trial. METHODS: Eight competitive rowers (4 males, 4 females, 20 ± 4 years) performed a 2000-m time-trial on an indoor rower and a control condition (sitting)...
October 21, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Bernard X W Liew, Susan Morris, Justin W L Keogh, Brendyn Appleby, Kevin Netto
BACKGROUND: In recent years, athletes have ventured into ultra-endurance and adventure racing events, which tests their ability to race, navigate, and survive. These events often require race participants to carry some form of load, to bear equipment for navigation and survival purposes. Previous studies have reported specific alterations in biomechanics when running with load which potentially influence running performance and injury risk. We hypothesize that a biomechanically informed neuromuscular training program would optimize running mechanics during load carriage to a greater extent than a generic strength training program...
October 22, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Andrea Locci, Patrizia Porcu, Giuseppe Talani, Francesca Santoru, Roberta Berretti, Elisa Giunti, Valentina Licheri, Enrico Sanna, Alessandra Concas
Exposure of female rats to estradiol during the perinatal period has profound effects on GABAergic neurotransmission that are crucial to establish sexually dimorphic brain characteristics. We previously showed that neonatal β-estradiol 3-benzoate (EB) treatment decreases brain concentrations of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone, a potent positive modulator of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAAR). We thus evaluated whether neonatal EB treatment affects GABAAR expression and function in the hippocampus of adult female rats...
October 18, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Brun Jean-Frédéric, Varlet-Marie Emmanuelle, Raynaud de Mauverger Eric
The hemorheological theory of optimal hematocrit suggests that the best value of hematocrit (hct) should be that which results in the highest value of the hematocrit/viscosity (h/η) ratio. Trained athletes compared to sedentary subjects have a lower hct, but a higher h/η, and endurance training reduces the discrepancy between the actual hct and the ⪡ideal⪢ hct that can be predicted with a theoretical curve of h/ηvs hct constructed with Quemada's model. In this study we investigated what becomes this homeostasis of h/η and hct during acute exercise in 19 athletes performing a 25 min exercise test...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Jafra D Thomas, J Mark Vanness, Bradley J Cardinal
The purpose of this study was to perform a construct validity assessment of Kendzierski's exercise self-schema theory questionnaire using objective measures of health-related physical fitness. This study tested the hypothesis that individuals with an exercise self-schema would possess significantly greater physical fitness than those who did not across three domains of health-related physical fitness: Body composition, cardiovascular fitness, and upper-body muscular endurance. Undergraduate student participants from one private university on the west coast of the United States completed informed consent forms and the exercise self-schema questionnaire within a classroom setting or at an on-campus outside tabling session...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
Alexander N Shikov, Olga N Pozharitskaya, Valery G Makarov
PURPOSE: Aralia elata var. mandshurica (Rupr. & Maxim.) J.Wen syn. A. mandshurica Rupr. & Maxim is evaluated for its medicinal application. The aim of this study is to analyze pharmacological studies on A. elata var. mandshurica published until December 2015. METHODS: The information regarding the chemistry, safety, effectiveness, and pharmacological and clinical effects of A. elata was systematically collected from the scientific literature through library catalogs; online services such as E-library...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Ross Beaumont, Philip Cordery, Mark Funnell, Stephen Mears, Lewis James, Phillip Watson
This study examined effects of 4 weeks of caffeine supplementation on endurance performance. Eighteen low-habitual caffeine consumers (<75 mg · day(-1)) were randomly assigned to ingest caffeine (1.5-3.0 mg · kg(-1)day(-1); titrated) or placebo for 28 days. Groups were matched for age, body mass, V̇O2peak and Wmax (P > 0.05). Before supplementation, all participants completed one V̇O2peak test, one practice trial and 2 experimental trials (acute 3 mg · kg(-1) caffeine [precaf] and placebo [testpla])...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Diego B Souza, Juan Del Coso, Juliano Casonatto, Marcos D Polito
PURPOSE: Caffeine-containing energy drinks (EDs) are currently used as ergogenic aids to improve physical performance in a wide variety of sport disciplines. However, the outcomes of previous investigations on this topic are inconclusive due to methodological differences, especially, in the dosage of the active ingredients and the test used to assess performance. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies to evaluate the effects of acute ED intake on physical performance...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Cory W Baumann, Dongmin Kwak
PURPOSE: Echinacea is an herbal supplement used by endurance athletes for its performance boosting properties. It is thought that Echinacea improves the blood's oxygen carrying capacity by increasing production of erythropoietin (EPO), a glycoprotein that regulates red blood cell formation. Subsequently, these changes would lead to an overall improvement in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and running economy (RE), two markers of aerobic fitness. The purpose of this review is to briefly discuss the physiological variables associated with distance running performance and how these variables are influenced by Echinacea supplementation...
September 2016: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
Atsushi Imai, Koji Kaneoka
BACKGROUND: Although it is believed that trunk function is important for athletic performance, few researchers have demonstrated a significant relationship between the trunk function and athletic performance. Recently, the prone plank and side plank tests have been used to assess trunk function. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between trunk endurance plank tests and athletic performance tests, including whether there is a relationship between long distance running and trunk endurance plank tests in adolescent male soccer players...
October 2016: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
George Moschonis, Ellen G H M van den Heuvel, Christina Mavrogianni, Cécile M Singh-Povel, Michalis Leotsinidis, Yannis Manios
The benefits of dairy consumption seem to extend beyond its significant contribution to ensuring nutrient intake adequacy as indicated by the favourable associations with several health outcomes reported by different studies. The aims of the present study were to examine the associations of milk consumption with fitness, anthropometric and biochemical indices in children and further explore whether the observed associations are attributed to vitamins B₂ and B12 derived from milk. A representative subsample of 600 children aged 9-13 years participating in the Healthy Growth Study was examined...
October 13, 2016: Nutrients
Eric D Ryan, Brennan J Thompson, Eric J Sobolewski
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the influence of workplace manual labor on measures of muscular fitness, with a secondary aim to investigate the relationship between muscular fitness and work performance in blue-collar (BC) workers. METHODS: Leg extension isokinetic strength at slow and fast velocities, hamstring and hip-flexor flexibility, and low back muscular endurance were examined in young and older BC workers and white-collar (WC) controls, while work performance was examined in the BC cohort...
October 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Andrew D Schreiner, Brad A Keith, Karen E Abernathy, Jingwen Zhang, Walter A Brzezinski
BACKGROUND: Endurance exercise plays a role in cardiovascular risk reduction, but may also be a risk factor for atrial fibrillation. This study was performed to assess the prevalence of atrial fibrillation in a population of long-term, competitive swimmers compared with patients within an internal medicine clinic with known risk factors for atrial fibrillation such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. METHODS: This cross-sectional study utilized survey data comparing the prevalence of atrial fibrillation in swimmers to a general internal medicine population...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Y H Kou, B G Jiang
Peripheral nerve defects are still a major challenge in clinical practice, and the most commonly used method of treatment for peripheral nerve defects is nerve transplantation, which has certain limitations and shortcomings, so new repair methods and techniques are needed. The peripheral nerve is elongated in limb lengthening surgery without injury, from which we got inspirations and proposed a new method to repair peripheral nerve defects: peripheral nerve elongation. The peripheral nerve could beelongated by a certain percent, but the physiological change and the maximum elongation range were still unknown...
October 18, 2016: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
L Angius, B Pageaux, J Hopker, S M Marcora, A R Mauger
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can increase cortical excitability of a targeted brain area, which may affect endurance exercise performance. However, optimal electrode placement for tDCS remains unclear. We tested the effect of two different tDCS electrode montages for improving exercise performance. Nine subjects underwent a control (CON), placebo (SHAM) and two different tDCS montage sessions in a randomised design. In one tDCS session, the anodal electrode was placed over the left motor cortex and the cathodal on contralateral forehead (HEAD), while for the other montage the anodal electrode was placed over the left motor cortex and cathodal electrode above the shoulder (SHOULDER)...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience
Arturo Figueroa, Alexei Wong, Salvador J Jaime, Joaquin U Gonzales
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: L-Citrulline, either synthetic or in watermelon, may improve vascular function through increased L-arginine bioavailability and nitric oxide synthesis. This article analyses potential vascular benefits of L-citrulline and watermelon supplementation at rest and during exercise. RECENT FINDINGS: There is clear evidence that acute L-citrulline ingestion increases plasma L-arginine, the substrate for endothelial nitric oxide synthesis. However, the subsequent acute improvement in nitric oxide production and mediated vasodilation is inconsistent, which likely explains the inability of acute L-citrulline or watermelon to improve exercise tolerance...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Joanna Majerczak, Marcin Grandys, Krzysztof Duda, Agnieszka Zakrzewska, Aneta Balcerczyk, Leszek Kolodziejski, Dorota Szymoniak-Chochol, Ryszard T Smolenski, Grzegorz Bartosz, Stefan Chlopicki, Jerzy A Zoladz
In this study we have evaluated the effect of 20-weeks of moderate-intensity endurance training (ET) on the endothelial glycocalyx layer integrity in relation to the training-induced changes in antioxidant defence. Eleven healthy young, untrained men performed an incremental cycling exercise until exhaustion before and after 20 weeks of ET. Endurance training consisted of 40- minute sessions, mainly of moderate-intensity (∼50% of VO2max ), performed 4 times per week. Venous blood samples were taken at rest and at the end of the maximal exercise test...
October 17, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Sarah Jones, William D-C Man, Wei Gao, Irene J Higginson, Andrew Wilcock, Matthew Maddocks
BACKGROUND: This review is an update of a previously published review in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews Issue 1, 2013 on Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for muscle weakness in adults with advanced disease.Patients with advanced progressive disease often experience muscle weakness, which can impact adversely on their ability to be independent and their quality of life. In those patients who are unable or unwilling to undertake whole-body exercise, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) may be an alternative treatment to enhance lower limb muscle strength...
October 17, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Myosotis Massidda, Valeria Bachis, Laura Corrias, Francesco Piras, Marco Scorcu, Claudia Culigioni, Daniele Masala, Carla M Calò
BACKGROUND: The ACTN3 gene may influence performance in team sports, in which sprint action and high-speed movements, regulated by the anaerobic energy system, are crucial to the ultimate success of a match. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) polymorphism and elite team sport athletic status in Italian male athletes. METHODS: We compared the genotype and allele frequency of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism between team sport athletes (n = 75), endurance athletes (n = 40), sprint/power athletes (n = 64), and non-athletic healthy controls (n = 192) from Italy...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
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