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Endurance performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342828/-resistance-training-for-muscle-weakness-in-multiple-sclerosis-direct-versus-contralateral-approach-in-individuals-with-ankle-dorsiflexors-disparity-in-strength
#1
Andrea Manca, Maria Paola Cabboi, Daniele Dragone, Francesca Ginatempo, Enzo Ortu, Edoardo Rosario De Natale, Beniamina Mercante, Giovanni Mureddu, Guido Bua, Franca Deriu
OBJECTIVE: To compare effects of contralateral strength training (CST) versus direct strength training (DST) of the more-affected ankle dorsiflexors on muscle performance and clinical-functional outcomes in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) exhibiting inter-limb strength asymmetry. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with relapsing-remitting MS and mild-to-moderate disability (EDSS≤6) presenting with ankle dorsiflexors' strength disparity...
March 22, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338378/validation-of-a-maximal-incremental-skating-test-performed-on-a-slide-board-comparison-with-treadmill-skating
#2
Tatiane Piucco, Fernando Diefenthaeler, Rogério Soares, Juan M Murias, Guillaume Y Millet
PURPOSE: the aim of this study was to investigate the criterion validity of a maximal incremental skating test performed on a slide board (SB). METHODS: Twelve sub-elite speed skaters performed a maximal skating test on a treadmill and on a SB. Gas exchange threshold (GET), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and maximal variables were determined. RESULTS: oxygen uptake (V̇O2) (31.0 ± 3.2 and 31.4 ± 4.1 mL∙min(-1)∙kg(-1)), percentage of maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) (66...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338375/an-updated-review-of-the-applied-physiology-of-american-collegiate-football-the-physical-demands-strength-conditioning-nutritional-considerations-and-injury-characteristics-of-america-s-favourite-game
#3
Hugh H K Fullagar, Robert McCunn, Andrew Murray
Whilst there are various avenues for performance improvement within collegiate American football (AF), there is no comprehensive evaluation of the collective array of resources around performance, physical conditioning and injury and training/game characteristics to guide future research and inform practitioners. Accordingly, the aim of the present review was to provide a current examination of these areas within collegiate AF. Recent studies show that there is a wide range of body compositions and strength characteristics between players, which appear to be influenced by playing position, level of play, training history/programming and time of season...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338369/dha-rich-fish-oil-increases-the-omega-3-index-and-lowers-the-oxygen-cost-of-physiologically-stressful-cycling-in-trained-individuals
#4
Lachlan Hingley, Michael J Macartney, Marc A Brown, Peter L McLennan, Gregory E Peoples
Dietary fish oil, providing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) modulates oxygen consumption and fatigue in animal models. However, in humans predominately supplemented with high eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), there is no evidence of endurance performance enhancement. Therefore, this study examined if DHA-rich fish oil could improve repeated bouts of physiologically stressful cycling and a subsequent time trial in a state of fatigue. Twenty-six trained males took part in a double-blind study and were supplemented with either 2x1g/day soy oil (Control) or DHA-rich tuna fish oil (Nu-Mega) (FO) (560mg DHA / 140mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)) for eight weeks...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338363/decrement-in-professional-cyclists-performance-after-a-grand-tour
#5
Jose A Rodríguez-Marroyo, José G Villa, Raúl Pernía, Carl Foster
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze professional cyclists' performance decline after, and the exercise demands during, a Grand Tour. METHOD: Seven professional cyclists performed two incremental exercise tests, 1-week before and the day after the Vuelta España. During the race the exercise demands were analyzed on the basis of the HR. Three intensity zones were established according to reference HR values corresponding to the ventilatory (VT) and respiratory compensation (RCT) thresholds determined during the pre-race test...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337952/prenatal-maternal-stress-shapes-children-s-theory-of-mind-the-qf2011-queensland-flood-study
#6
G Simcock, S Kildea, G Elgbeili, D P Laplante, V Cobham, S King
Research shows that stress in pregnancy has powerful and enduring effects on many facets of child development, including increases in behavior problems and neurodevelopmental disorders. Theory of mind is an important aspect of child development that is predictive of successful social functioning and is impaired in children with autism. A number of factors related to individual differences in theory of mind have been identified, but whether theory of mind development is shaped by prenatal events has not yet been examined...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333496/divergent-effects-of-distance-versus-velocity-disturbances-on-emotional-experiences-during-goal-pursuit
#7
James W Beck, Abigail A Scholer, Jeffrey Hughes
Disturbances are factors outside of a person's control that influence goal progress. Although disturbances are typically included in theoretical accounts of goal pursuit, relatively little empirical research has explicitly considered the effects of disturbances on the goal-striving process. We address this gap in the literature by examining the effects that disturbances have on the emotional experience of goal pursuit. More importantly, we differentiate between distance disturbances (changes to the amount of progress made) and velocity disturbances (changes to the rate of progress made)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332114/training-the-gut-for-athletes
#8
REVIEW
Asker E Jeukendrup
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a critical role in delivering carbohydrate and fluid during prolonged exercise and can therefore be a major determinant of performance. The incidence of GI problems in athletes participating in endurance events is high, indicating that GI function is not always optimal in those conditions. A substantial body of evidence suggests that the GI system is highly adaptable. Gastric emptying as well as stomach comfort can be "trained" and perceptions of fullness decreased; some studies have suggested that nutrient-specific increases in gastric emptying may occur...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332113/the-critical-power-concept-applications-to-sports-performance-with-a-focus-on-intermittent-high-intensity-exercise
#9
REVIEW
Andrew M Jones, Anni Vanhatalo
The curvilinear relationship between power output and the time for which it can be sustained is a fundamental and well-known feature of high-intensity exercise performance. This relationship 'levels off' at a 'critical power' (CP) that separates power outputs that can be sustained with stable values of, for example, muscle phosphocreatine, blood lactate, and pulmonary oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), from power outputs where these variables change continuously with time until their respective minimum and maximum values are reached and exercise intolerance occurs...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332025/endurance-aerobic-high-intensity-and-repeated-sprint-cycling-performance-is-unaffected-by-normobaric-live-high-train-low-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-cross-over-study
#10
Jacob Bejder, Andreas Breenfeldt Andersen, Rie Buchardt, Tanja Hultengren Larsson, Niels Vidiendal Olsen, Nikolai Baastrup Nordsborg
The aim was to investigate whether 6 weeks of normobaric "Live High-Train Low" (LHTL) using altitude tents affect highly trained athletes incremental peak power, 26-km time-trial cycling performance, 3-min all-out performance, and 30-s repeated sprint ability. In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over design, seven highly trained triathletes were exposed to 6 weeks of normobaric hypoxia (LHTL) and normoxia (placebo) for 8 h/day. LHTL exposure consisted of 2 weeks at 2500 m, 2 weeks at 3000 m, and 2 weeks at 3500 m...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329258/a-new-frailty-score-for-experimental-animals-based-on-the-clinical-phenotype-inactivity-as-a-model-of-frailty
#11
Mari Carmen Gomez-Cabrera, Rebeca Garcia-Valles, Leocadio Rodriguez-Mañas, Francisco Jose Garcia-Garcia, Gloria Olaso-Gonzalez, Andrea Salvador-Pascual, Francisco Jose Tarazona-Santabalbina, Jose Viña
The development of animal models to study human frailty is important to test interventions to be translated to the clinical practice. The aim of this work was to develop a score for frailty in experimental animals based in the human frailty phenotype. We also tested the effect of physical inactivity in the development of frailty as determined by our score. Male C57Bl/6J mice, individually caged, were randomly assigned to one of two groups: sedentary (inactive) or spontaneous wheel-runners. We compared the sedentary versus the active lifestyle in terms of frailty by evaluating the clinical criteria used in humans: unintentional weight loss; poor endurance (running time); slowness (running speed); weakness (grip strength), and low activity level (motor coordination) at five different ages: 17, 20, 23, 26 and 28 months of age...
January 19, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329240/effect-of-breathing-oxygen-enriched-air-on-exercise-performance-in-patients-with-precapillary-pulmonary-hypertension-randomized-sham-controlled-cross-over-trial
#12
Silvia Ulrich, Elisabeth D Hasler, Stéphanie Saxer, Michael Furian, Séverine Müller-Mottet, Stephan Keusch, Konrad E Bloch
Aims: The purpose of the current trial was to test the hypothesis that breathing oxygen-enriched air increases exercise performance of patients with pulmonary arterial or chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension (PAH/CTEPH) and to investigate involved mechanisms. Methods and results: Twenty-two patients with PAH/CTEPH, eight women, means ± SD 61 ± 14 years, resting mPAP 35 ± 9mmHg, PaO2 ambient air >7.3 kPa, underwent four bicycle ergospirometries to exhaustion on different days, while breathing oxygen-enriched (FiO2 0...
March 11, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329224/a-clinically-relevant-frailty-index-for-aging-rats
#13
Marshall G Miller, Nopporn Thangthaeng, Barbara Shukitt-Hale
Frailty is a clinical syndrome that is increasingly prevalent during aging. Frailty involves the confluence of reduced strength, speed, physical activity, and endurance and is associated with adverse health outcomes. The present study adapts existing clinical and preclinical indices of frailty to the Fischer (F344) rat. Male F344 rats (n = 133; 17 mo) completed a battery of behavioral tasks, including forelimb wire suspension (strength), rotarod (speed), open field (physical activity), and inclined screen (endurance)...
January 21, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327503/beetroot-juice-supplementation-improves-high-intensity-intermittent-type-exercise-performance-in-trained-soccer-players
#14
Jean Nyakayiru, Kristin L Jonvik, Jorn Trommelen, Philippe J M Pinckaers, Joan M Senden, Luc J C van Loon, Lex B Verdijk
It has been shown that nitrate supplementation can enhance endurance exercise performance. Recent work suggests that nitrate ingestion can also increase intermittent type exercise performance in recreational athletes. We hypothesized that six days of nitrate supplementation can improve high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players. Thirty-two male soccer players (age: 23 ± 1 years, height: 181 ± 1 m, weight: 77 ± 1 kg, playing experience: 15.2 ± 0.5 years, playing in the first team of a 2nd or 3rd Dutch amateur league club) participated in this randomized, double-blind cross-over study...
March 22, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326844/oxidative-stress-in-acute-hypobaric-hypoxia
#15
Sebastián Irarrázaval, Claudio Allard, Juan Campodónico, Druso Pérez, Pablo Strobel, Luis Vásquez, Inés Urquiaga, Guadalupe Echeverría, Federico Leighton
Irarrázaval, Sebastián, Claudio Allard, Juan Campodónico, Druso Pérez, Pablo Strobel, Luis Vásquez, Inés Urquiaga, Guadalupe Echeverría, and Federico Leighton. Oxidative stress in acute hypobaric hypoxia. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2017.-The effects of acute hypobaric hypoxia endured by mountaineers were studied, specifically as evidenced by acute mountain sickness (AMS) and oxidative stress damage. Ten male volunteers were exposed to acute hypobaric hypoxia, and AMS was evaluated through arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), cardiac rate, and the Lake Louise Score (LLS)...
March 22, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325109/feasibility-and-effects-of-a-combined-adjuvant-high-intensity-interval-strength-training-in-breast-cancer-patients-a-single-center-pilot-study
#16
Sebastian Viktor Waldemar Schulz, Roman Laszlo, Stephanie Otto, Dmytro Prokopchuk, Uwe Schumann, Florian Ebner, Jens Huober, Jürgen Michael Steinacker
PURPOSE: To evaluate feasibility of an exercise intervention consisting of high-intensity interval endurance and strength training in breast cancer patients. METHODS: Twenty-six women with nonmetastatic breast cancer were consecutively assigned to the exercise intervention- (n= 15, mean age 51.9 ± 9.8 years) and the control group (n = 11, mean age 56.9 ± 7.0 years). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing that included lactate sampling, one-repetition maximum tests and a HADS-D questionnaire were used to monitor patients both before and after a supervised six weeks period of either combined high-intensity interval endurance and strength training (intervention group, twice a week) or leisure training (control group)...
March 21, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323456/stratosphere-conditions-inactivate-bacterial-endospores-from-a-mars-spacecraft-assembly-facility
#17
Christina L Khodadad, Gregory M Wong, Leandro M James, Prital J Thakrar, Michael A Lane, John A Catechis, David J Smith
Every spacecraft sent to Mars is allowed to land viable microbial bioburden, including hardy endospore-forming bacteria resistant to environmental extremes. Earth's stratosphere is severely cold, dry, irradiated, and oligotrophic; it can be used as a stand-in location for predicting how stowaway microbes might respond to the martian surface. We launched E-MIST, a high-altitude NASA balloon payload on 10 October 2015 carrying known quantities of viable Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 (4.07 × 10(7) spores per sample), a radiation-tolerant strain collected from a spacecraft assembly facility...
March 21, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323240/the-impact-of-continuous-use-of-lumbosacral-orthoses-on-trunk-motor-performance-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Hiroshi Takasaki, Takahiro Miki
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The lumbosacral orthosis (LSO) is prescribed by general practitioners for the management of low back pain. It may be speculated that continuous use of the LSO for a prolonged period reduces mechanical loading to the trunk muscle in daily living and results in impairments of the trunk muscle. PURPOSE: To investigate whether the trunk motor performances are impaired by continuous use of the lumbosacral orthosis. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Systematic review with meta-analysis...
March 17, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322759/validation-and-refinement-of-prediction-models-to-estimate-exercise-capacity-in-cancer-survivors-using-the-steep-ramp-test
#19
Martijn M Stuiver, Caroline S Kampshoff, Saskia Persoon, Wim Groen, Willem van Mechelen, Mai Jm Chinapaw, Johannes Brug, Frans Nollet, Marie-José Kersten, Goof Schep, Laurien M Buffart
OBJECTIVE: To further test the validity and clinical usefulness of the Steep Ramp Test (SRT) for estimating exercise tolerance in cancer survivors, by external validation and extension of previously published prediction models for VO2peak and Wpeak. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Multicenter. PARTICIPANTS: Cardiopulmonary exercise tests (CPET) and SRT data from cancer survivors (n=283) in two randomized exercise trials...
March 18, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317895/upregulation-of-skeletal-muscle-pgc-1%C3%AE-through-the-elevation-of-cyclic-amp-levels-by-cyanidin-3-glucoside-enhances-exercise-performance
#20
Toshiya Matsukawa, Hideko Motojima, Yuki Sato, Shinya Takahashi, Myra O Villareal, Hiroko Isoda
Regular exercise and physical training enhance physiological capacity and improve metabolic diseases. Skeletal muscles require peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) in the process of their adaptation to exercise owing to PGC-1α's ability to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, angiogenesis, and oxidative metabolism. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G) is a natural polyphenol and a nutraceutical factor, which has several beneficial effects on human health. Here, the effect of Cy3G on exercise performance and the underlying mechanisms involved were investigated...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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