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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943847/modeling-search-behaviors-during-the-acquisition-of-expertise-in-a-sequential-decision-making-task
#1
Cristóbal Moënne-Loccoz, Rodrigo C Vergara, Vladimir López, Domingo Mery, Diego Cosmelli
Our daily interaction with the world is plagued of situations in which we develop expertise through self-motivated repetition of the same task. In many of these interactions, and especially when dealing with computer and machine interfaces, we must deal with sequences of decisions and actions. For instance, when drawing cash from an ATM machine, choices are presented in a step-by-step fashion and a specific sequence of choices must be performed in order to produce the expected outcome. But, as we become experts in the use of such interfaces, is it possible to identify specific search and learning strategies? And if so, can we use this information to predict future actions? In addition to better understanding the cognitive processes underlying sequential decision making, this could allow building adaptive interfaces that can facilitate interaction at different moments of the learning curve...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927342/expert-opinion-biomimetic-functionalized-surfaces-and-the-induction-of-bone-formation
#2
Ugo Ripamonti
Tissue engineering still needs to assign the molecular basis of pattern formation, tissue induction and morphogenesis: What next to morphogens and stem cells? Macroporous biomimetic matrices per se, without the addition of the soluble osteogenic molecular signals of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) supergene family, initiate the induction of bone formation. Carving geometries within different calcium phosphate-based macroporous bioreactors we show that geometric cues imprinted within the macroporous spaces initiate the spontaneous induction of bone...
September 19, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923313/functional-brain-networks-for-learning-predictive-statistics
#3
Joseph Giorgio, Vasilis M Karlaftis, Rui Wang, Yuan Shen, Peter Tino, Andrew Welchman, Zoe Kourtzi
Making predictions about future events relies on interpreting streams of information that may initially appear incomprehensible. This skill relies on extracting regular patterns in space and time by mere exposure to the environment (i.e., without explicit feedback). Yet, we know little about the functional brain networks that mediate this type of statistical learning. Here, we test whether changes in the processing and connectivity of functional brain networks due to training relate to our ability to learn temporal regularities...
August 18, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923276/rapid-whole-brain-resting-state-fmri-at-3%C3%A2-t-efficiency-optimized-three-dimensional-epi-versus-repetition-time-matched-simultaneous-multi-slice-epi
#4
Rüdiger Stirnberg, Willem Huijbers, Daniel Brenner, Benedikt A Poser, Monique Breteler, Tony Stöcker
State-of-the-art simultaneous-multi-slice (SMS-)EPI and 3D-EPI share several properties that benefit functional MRI acquisition. Both sequences employ equivalent parallel imaging undersampling with controlled aliasing to achieve high temporal sampling rates. As a volumetric imaging sequence, 3D-EPI offers additional means of acceleration complementary to 2D-CAIPIRINHA sampling, such as fast water excitation and elliptical sampling. We performed an application-oriented comparison between a tailored, six-fold CAIPIRINHA-accelerated 3D-EPI protocol at 530 ms temporal and 2...
September 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922169/app-based-bradykinesia-tasks-for-clinic-and-home-assessment-in-parkinson-s-disease-reliability-and-responsiveness
#5
Dustin A Heldman, Enrique Urrea-Mendoza, Lilia C Lovera, David A Schmerler, Xiomara Garcia, Mohammad E Mohammad, Maria Catalina U McFarlane, Joseph P Giuffrida, Alberto J Espay, Hubert H Fernandez
BACKGROUND: Clinical rating of bradykinesia in Parkinson disease (PD) is challenging as it must combine several movement features into a single score. Additionally, in-clinic assessment cannot capture fluctuations throughout the day. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reliability and responsiveness of a motion sensor-based tablet app for objective bradykinesia assessment in clinic and at home as compared to clinical ratings. METHODS: Thirty-two PD patients treated with subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) were outfitted with a motion sensor on the index finger of the more affected hand to perform two repetitions of finger-tapping, hand opening-closing, and arm pronation-supination tasks with DBS on and 10, 20, and 30 minutes after turning DBS off...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919842/international-society-of-sports-nutrition-position-stand-nutrient-timing
#6
REVIEW
Chad M Kerksick, Shawn Arent, Brad J Schoenfeld, Jeffrey R Stout, Bill Campbell, Colin D Wilborn, Lem Taylor, Doug Kalman, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Richard B Kreider, Darryn Willoughby, Paul J Arciero, Trisha A VanDusseldorp, Michael J Ormsbee, Robert Wildman, Mike Greenwood, Tim N Ziegenfuss, Alan A Aragon, Jose Antonio
The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review regarding the timing of macronutrients in reference to healthy, exercising adults and in particular highly trained individuals on exercise performance and body composition. The following points summarize the position of the ISSN:Nutrient timing incorporates the use of methodical planning and eating of whole foods, fortified foods and dietary supplements. The timing of energy intake and the ratio of certain ingested macronutrients may enhance recovery and tissue repair, augment muscle protein synthesis (MPS), and improve mood states following high-volume or intense exercise...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905474/steer-prop-a-grase-propeller-sequence-with-interecho-steering-gradient-pulses
#7
Girish Srinivasan, Novena Rangwala, Xiaohong Joe Zhou
PURPOSE: This study demonstrates a novel PROPELLER (periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction) pulse sequence, termed Steer-PROP, based on gradient and spin echo (GRASE), to reduce the imaging times and address phase errors inherent to GRASE. The study also illustrates the feasibility of using Steer-PROP as an alternative to single-shot echo planar imaging (SS-EPI) to produce distortion-free diffusion images in all imaging planes. METHODS: Steer-PROP uses a series of blip gradient pulses to produce N (N = 3-5) adjacent k-space blades in each repetition time, where N is the number of gradient echoes in a GRASE sequence...
September 14, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887176/ecoacoustic-codes-and-ecological-complexity
#8
Almo Farina
Multi-layer communication and sensing network assures the exchange of relevant information between animals and their umwelten, imparting complexity to the ecological systems. Individual soniferous species, the acoustic community, and soundscape are the three main operational levels that comprise this multi-layer network. Acoustic adaptation and acoustic niche are two more important mechanisms that regulate the acoustic performances at the first level while the acoustic community model explains the complexity of the interspecific acoustic network at the second level...
September 5, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886652/linear-and-nonlinear-frequency-and-time-domain-spectroscopy-with-multiple-frequency-combs
#9
Kochise Bennett, Jeremy R Rouxel, Shaul Mukamel
Two techniques that employ equally spaced trains of optical pulses to map an optical high frequency into a low frequency modulation of the signal that can be detected in real time are compared. The development of phase-stable optical frequency combs has opened up new avenues to metrology and spectroscopy. The ability to generate a series of frequency spikes with precisely controlled separation permits a fast, highly accurate sampling of the material response. Recently, pairs of frequency combs with slightly different repetition rates have been utilized to down-convert material susceptibilities from the optical to microwave regime where they can be recorded in real time...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881217/protein-%C3%AE-sheet-prediction-using-an-efficient-dynamic-programming-algorithm
#10
Mostafa Sabzekar, Mahmoud Naghibzadeh, Mahdie Eghdami, Zafer Aydin
Predicting the β-sheet structure of a protein is one of the most important intermediate steps towards the identification of its tertiary structure. However, it is regarded as the primary bottleneck due to the presence of non-local interactions between several discontinuous regions in β-sheets. To achieve reliable long-range interactions, a promising approach is to enumerate and rank all β-sheet conformations for a given protein and find the one with the highest score. The problem with this solution is that the search space of the problem grows exponentially with respect to the number of β-strands...
August 24, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863683/portable-double-sided-pulsed-laser-heating-system-for-time-resolved-geoscience-and-materials-science-applications
#11
G Aprilis, C Strohm, I Kupenko, S Linhardt, A Laskin, D M Vasiukov, V Cerantola, E G Koemets, C McCammon, A Kurnosov, A I Chumakov, R Rüffer, N Dubrovinskaia, L Dubrovinsky
A portable double-sided pulsed laser heating system for diamond anvil cells has been developed that is able to stably produce laser pulses as short as a few microseconds with repetition frequencies up to 100 kHz. In situ temperature determination is possible by collecting and fitting the thermal radiation spectrum for a specific wavelength range (particularly, between 650 nm and 850 nm) to the Planck radiation function. Surface temperature information can also be time-resolved by using a gated detector that is synchronized with the laser pulse modulation and space-resolved with the implementation of a multi-point thermal radiation collection technique...
August 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863646/development-of-a-10-khz-high-harmonic-source-up-to-140-ev-photon-energy-for-ultrafast-time-angle-and-phase-resolved-photoelectron-emission-spectroscopy-on-solid-targets
#12
J Schmidt, A Guggenmos, S H Chew, A Gliserin, M Högner, M F Kling, J Zou, C Späth, U Kleineberg
We present a newly developed high harmonic beamline for time-, angle-, and carrier-envelope phase-resolved extreme ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy on solid targets for the investigation of ultrafast band structure dynamics in the low-fs to sub-fs time regime. The source operates at a repetition rate of 10 kHz and is driven by 5 fs few-cycle near-infrared laser pulses generating high harmonic radiation with photon energies up to 120 eV at a feasible flux. The experimental end station consists of a complementary combination of photoelectron detectors which are able to spectroscopically address electron dynamics both in real and in k-space...
August 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863483/long-period-clocks-from-short-period-oscillators
#13
Darka Labavić, Hildegard Meyer-Ortmanns
We analyze repulsively coupled Kuramoto oscillators, which are exposed to a distribution of natural frequencies. This source of disorder leads to closed orbits of repetitive temporary patterns of phase-locked motion, providing clocks on macroscopic time scales. The periods can be orders of magnitude longer than the periods of individual oscillators. By construction, the attractor space is quite rich. This may cause long transients until the deterministic trajectories find their stationary orbits. The smaller the width of the distribution about the common natural frequency, the longer are the emerging time scales on average...
August 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859995/glymphatic-system-disruption-as-a-mediator-of-brain-trauma-and-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#14
REVIEW
Molly J Sullan, Breton M Asken, Michael S Jaffee, Steven T DeKosky, Russell M Bauer
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an increasingly important issue among veterans, athletes and the general public. Difficulties with sleep onset and maintenance are among the most commonly reported symptoms following injury, and sleep debt is associated with increased accumulation of beta amyloid (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) in the interstitial space. Recent research into the glymphatic system, a lymphatic-like metabolic clearance mechanism in the central nervous system (CNS) which relies on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), interstitial fluid (ISF), and astrocytic processes, shows that clearance is potentiated during sleep...
August 28, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814638/field-repetition-and-local-mapping-in-the-hippocampus-and-medial-entorhinal-cortex
#15
Roddy M Grieves, Éléonore Duvelle, Emma R Wood, Paul Anthony Dudchenko
Hippocampal place cells support spatial cognition and are thought to form the neural substrate of a global 'cognitive map'. A widely held view is that parts of the hippocampus also underlie the ability to separate patterns, or to provide different neural codes for distinct environments. However, a number of studies have shown that in environments composed of multiple, repeating compartments, place cells and other spatially modulated neurons show the same activity in each local area. This repetition of firing fields may reflect pattern completion, and may make it difficult for animals to distinguish similar local environments...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805882/plant-array-chip-for-the-germination-and-growth-screening-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#16
Youn-Hee Park, Nayoung Lee, Giltsu Choi, Je-Kyun Park
A screening process for the germination and growth of seed is generally required for plant research. Such a repetitive screening process is costly and time-consuming, and its bulky setup requires a lot of space. In particular, the control of the variables, such as light, nutrients, hormones and temperature, is difficult due to the limited space for incubation. In addition, small seeds such as Arabidopsis thaliana are difficult to handle as they are hundreds of microns in diameter and require a more precisely controllable screening environment...
September 12, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802145/ensemble-of-expert-deep-neural-networks-for-spatio-temporal-denoising-of-contrast-enhanced-mri-sequences
#17
A Benou, R Veksler, A Friedman, T Riklin Raviv
Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is an imaging protocol where MRI scans are acquired repetitively throughout the injection of a contrast agent. The analysis of dynamic scans is widely used for the detection and quantification of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Extraction of the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters from the DCE-MRI concentration curves allows quantitative assessment of the integrity of the BBB functionality. However, curve fitting required for the analysis of DCE-MRI data is error-prone as the dynamic scans are subject to non-white, spatially-dependent and anisotropic noise...
August 2, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795419/simultaneous-mr-thermometry-and-acoustic-radiation-force-imaging-using-interleaved-acquisition
#18
Joshua T de Bever, Henrik Odéen, Lorne W Hofstetter, Dennis L Parker
PURPOSE: A novel and practical method for simultaneously performing MR acoustic radiation force imaging (ARFI) and proton resonance frequency (PRF)-shift thermometry has been developed and tested. This could be an important tool for evaluating the success of MR-guided focused ultrasound procedures for which MR-thermometry measures temperature and thermal dose and MR-ARFI detects changes in tissue mechanical properties. METHODS: MR imaging was performed using a gradient recalled echo segmented echo-planar imaging pulse sequence with bipolar motion encoding gradients (MEG)...
August 10, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782129/volumetric-mri-thermometry-using-a-three-dimensional-stack-of-stars-echo-planar-imaging-pulse-sequence
#19
Sumeeth V Jonathan, William A Grissom
PURPOSE: To measure temperature over a large brain volume with fine spatiotemporal resolution. METHODS: A three-dimensional stack-of-stars echo-planar imaging sequence combining echo-planar imaging and radial sampling with golden angle spacing was implemented at 3T for proton resonance frequency-shift temperature imaging. The sequence acquires a 188x188x43 image matrix with 1.5x1.5x2.75 mm(3) spatial resolution. Temperature maps were reconstructed using sensitivity encoding (SENSE) image reconstruction followed by the image domain hybrid method, and using the k-space hybrid method...
August 7, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764447/a-comparison-of-acoustic-and-articulatory-methods-for-analyzing-vowel-differences-across-dialects-data-from-american-and-australian-english
#20
Arwen Blackwood Ximenes, Jason A Shaw, Christopher Carignan
In studies of dialect variation, the articulatory nature of vowels is sometimes inferred from formant values using the following heuristic: F1 is inversely correlated with tongue height and F2 is inversely correlated with tongue backness. This study compared vowel formants and corresponding lingual articulation in two dialects of English, standard North American English, and Australian English. Five speakers of North American English and four speakers of Australian English were recorded producing multiple repetitions of ten monophthongs embedded in the /sVd/ context...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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