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Kymberleigh A Romano, Kimberly A Dill-McFarland, Kazuyuki Kasahara, Robert L Kerby, Eugenio I Vivas, Daniel Amador-Noguez, Pamela Herd, Federico E Rey
BACKGROUND: Convenient, reproducible, and rapid preservation of unique biological specimens is pivotal to their use in microbiome analyses. As an increasing number of human studies incorporate the gut microbiome in their design, there is a high demand for streamlined sample collection and storage methods that are amenable to different settings and experimental needs. While several commercial kits address collection/shipping needs for sequence-based studies, these methods do not preserve samples properly for studies that require viable microbes...
May 18, 2018: Microbiome
Silvija Bilokapic, Mike Strauss, Mario Halic
Nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin, are repetitively spaced along DNA and regulate genome expression and maintenance. The long linear chromatin molecule is extensively condensed to fit DNA inside the nucleus. How distant nucleosomes interact to build tertiary chromatin structure remains elusive. In this study, we used cryo-EM to structurally characterize different states of long range nucleosome core particle (NCP) interactions. Our structures show that NCP pairs can adopt multiple conformations, but, commonly, two NCPs are oriented with the histone octamers facing each other...
May 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Brad C Smith, Bachana Lomsadze, Steven T Cundiff
The determination of the properties (i.e. line center, width, and amplitude) of a spectral line is simulated using a Monte Carlo method. For dual-comb spectroscopy, ideal repetition rates emerge for both the signal and LO combs that do not correspond to the repetition rates that possess the highest signal-to-noise ratio. The determination is even more accurate when the repetition rates have an arbitrary near-harmonic ratio. The simulation results are generalized to allow for the comparison of any two spectroscopic systems (i...
April 30, 2018: Optics Express
Rajendra Singh, Deepak Pandey, Shilpa Dhariwal, Priyanka Sood, Duni Chand
Bacillus sp. APB-6 harboring nitrile hydratase was used in the production of acrylamide from acrylonitrile. Bacillus sp. APB-6, for maximum production of Co++ containing nitrile hydratase, was cultured in the medium containing lactose (18.0 g l-1 ), peptone (1.0 g l-1 ), yeast extract (2.0 g l-1 ), MgSO4 (0. 5 g l-1 ), K2 HPO4 (0.6 g l-1 ), urea (9.0 g l-1 ), and CoCl2 (0.01 g l-1 ), pH 7.0, and incubated at 35 °C for 24 h in an incubator shaker (160 rpm). Nitrile hydratase exhibited relatively high specificity for aliphatic nitriles...
May 2018: 3 Biotech
Jason A Whitfield, Christopher Dromey, Panika Palmer
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of speech intensity on acoustic and kinematic vowel space measures and conduct a preliminary examination of the relationship between kinematic and acoustic vowel space metrics calculated from continuously sampled lingual marker and formant traces. Method: Young adult speakers produced 3 repetitions of 2 different sentences at 3 different loudness levels. Lingual kinematic and acoustic signals were collected and analyzed...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Thanos Manos, Magteld Zeitler, Peter A Tass
In this paper, we computationally generate hypotheses for dose-finding studies in the context of desynchronizing neuromodulation techniques. Abnormally strong neuronal synchronization is a hallmark of several brain disorders. Coordinated Reset (CR) stimulation is a spatio-temporally patterned stimulation technique that specifically aims at disrupting abnormal neuronal synchrony. In networks with spike-timing-dependent plasticity CR stimulation may ultimately cause an anti-kindling, i.e., an unlearning of abnormal synaptic connectivity and neuronal synchrony...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Marie-Ève St-Louis, Robert W Hughes, Jean Saint-Aubin, Sébastien Tremblay
In a single large-scale study, we demonstrate that verbal sequence learning as studied using the classic Hebb repetition effect (Hebb, 1961)-the improvement in the serial recall of a repeating sequence compared to nonrepeated sequences-is resilient to both wide and irregular spacing between sequence repetitions. Learning of a repeated sequence of letters was evident to a comparable degree with three, five, and eight intervening nonrepeated sequences and regardless of whether the spacing between repetitions was regular or irregular...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Joanna M Stephen, Ran Sopher, Sebastian Tullie, Andrew A Amis, Simon Ball, Andy Williams
PURPOSE: The infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) is a common cause of knee pain and loss of knee flexion and extension. However, its anatomy and behavior are not consistently defined. METHODS: Thirty-six unpaired fresh frozen knees (median age 34 years, range 21-68) were dissected, and IFP attachments and volume measured. The rectus femoris was elevated, suprapatellar pouch opened and videos recorded looking inferiorly along the femoral shaft at the IFP as the knee was flexed...
April 20, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Joel R Kuhn, Lynn J Lohnas, Michael J Kahana
The well-known recency effect in immediate free recall reverses when subjects attempt to recall items studied and tested on a series of prior lists, as in the final-free-recall procedure (Craik, 1970). In this case, the last few items on each list are actually remembered less well than are the midlist items. Because dual-store theories of recall naturally predict negative recency, this phenomenon has long been cited as evidence favoring these models. In a final-free-recall study, we replicate the negative-recency effect for the within-list serial position curve and the positive-recency effect for the between-list serial position curve...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Ramona Kloss, Michael H Limberg, Ursula Mackfeld, Doris Hahn, Alexander Grünberger, Vera D Jäger, Ulrich Krauss, Marco Oldiges, Martina Pohl
Sustainable and eco-efficient alternatives for the production of platform chemicals, fuels and chemical building blocks require the development of stable, reusable and recyclable biocatalysts. Here we present a novel concept for the biocatalytic production of 1,5-diaminopentane (DAP, trivial name: cadaverine) using catalytically active inclusion bodies (CatIBs) of the constitutive L-lysine decarboxylase from E. coli (EcLDCc-CatIBs) to process L-lysine-containing culture supernatants from Corynebacterium glutamicum...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sandra Da Costa, Stephanie Clarke, Sonia Crottaz-Herbette
The influential dual-stream model of auditory processing stipulates that information pertaining to the meaning and to the position of a given sound object is processed in parallel along two distinct pathways, the ventral and dorsal auditory streams. Functional independence of the two processing pathways is well documented by conscious experience of patients with focal hemispheric lesions. On the other hand there is growing evidence that the meaning and the position of a sound are combined early in the processing pathway, possibly already at the level of early-stage auditory areas...
April 1, 2018: Hearing Research
Jørgen Riis Jepsen
Diagnostic consensus criteria cannot be applied in a major proportion of patients with upper limb complaints, many of which are regarded as "non-specific". The three empirical studies in this thesis aimed to address this diagnostic challenge by incorporating representative neurological qualities in the physical examination.
Patterns of muscle weakness, sensory abnormalities and nerve trunk allodynia based on the nerves' topography and their motor and cutaneous innervation were defined to reflect peripheral nerve afflictions and their locations...
April 2018: Danish Medical Journal
Ichiro Yamada, Keigo Hikishima, Norio Yoshino, Junichiro Sakamoto, Naoyuki Miyasaka, Shinichi Yamauchi, Hiroyuki Uetake, Masamichi Yasuno, Yukihisa Saida, Ukihide Tateishi, Daisuke Kobayashi, Yoshinobu Eishi
BACKGROUND: Although the prognosis of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients depends on the histologic grade (HG) and lymph node metastasis (LNM), accurate preoperative assessment of these prognostic factors is often difficult. PURPOSE: To assess the HG and extent of LNM by q-space imaging (QSI) for preoperative diagnosis of CRC. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. SPECIMEN: A total of 20 colorectal tissue samples containing adenocarcinomas and resected lymph nodes (LNs)...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Ronny Bergquist, Vegard Moe Iversen, Paul J Mork, Marius Steiro Fimland
Elastic resistance bands require little space, are light and portable, but their efficacy has not yet been established for several resistance exercises. The main objective of this study was to compare the muscle activation levels induced by elastic resistance bands versus conventional resistance training equipment (dumbbells) in the upper-body resistance exercises flyes and reverse flyes. The level of muscle activation was measured with surface electromyography in 29 men and women in a cross-over design where resistance loadings with elastic resistance bands and dumbbells were matched using 10-repetition maximum loadings...
March 2018: Journal of Human Kinetics
Alex Clarke, Brooke M Roberts, Charan Ranganath
Associative learning requires mapping between complex stimuli and behavioural responses. When multiple stimuli are involved, conditional associative learning is a gradual process with learning based on trial and error. It is established that a distributed network of regions track associative learning, however the role of neural oscillations in human learning remains less clear. Here we used scalp EEG to test how neural oscillations change during learning of arbitrary visuo-motor associations. Participants learned to associative 48 different abstract shapes to one of four button responses through trial and error over repetitions of the shapes...
March 24, 2018: NeuroImage
M Kozák, N Schönenberger, P Hommelhoff
Atomic motion dynamics during structural changes or chemical reactions have been visualized by pico- and femtosecond pulsed electron beams via ultrafast electron diffraction and microscopy. Imaging the even faster dynamics of electrons in atoms, molecules, and solids requires electron pulses with subfemtosecond durations. We demonstrate here the all-optical generation of trains of attosecond free-electron pulses. The concept is based on the periodic energy modulation of a pulsed electron beam via an inelastic interaction, with the ponderomotive potential of an optical traveling wave generated by two femtosecond laser pulses at different frequencies in vacuum...
March 9, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Mingna Liao, Qilun Zhang, Fengling Tang, Zhiwei Xu, Xin Zhou, Youpeng Li, Yali Zhang, Chenghao Yang, Qiang Ru, Lingzhi Zhao
The synthesis of nanosized CoO anodes with unique morphologies via a hydrothermal method is investigated. By adjusting the pH values of reaction solutions, nanoflakes (CoO-NFs) and nanoflowers (CoO-FLs) are successfully located on copper foam. Compared with CoO-FLs, CoO-NFs as anodes for lithium ion batteries present ameliorated lithium storage properties, such as good rate capability, excellent cycling stability, and large CoO nanoflakes; CoO nanoflowers; anodes; binder free; lithium ion batteriesreversible capacity...
March 22, 2018: Nanomaterials
Misun Kim, Eleanor A Maguire
Humans commonly operate within 3D environments such as multifloor buildings and yet there is a surprising dearth of studies that have examined how these spaces are represented in the brain. Here, we had participants learn the locations of paintings within a virtual multilevel gallery building and then used behavioral tests and fMRI repetition suppression analyses to investigate how this 3D multicompartment space was represented, and whether there was a bias in encoding vertical and horizontal information. We found faster response times for within-room egocentric spatial judgments and behavioral priming effects of visiting the same room, providing evidence for a compartmentalized representation of space...
March 15, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Charu Eapen, Bhaskaranand Kumar, Anil K Bhat, Anand Venugopal
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare clinical and ultrasound findings of thumb joints in young adults with and without thumb pain associated with text messaging. METHODS: In this case-control study, 117 students with thumb pain associated with text messaging were evaluated clinically and with ultrasound analysis of the thumb. Age- and sex-matched controls received ultrasound evaluation to note any subclinical changes. RESULTS: Clinical examination in the cases identified tenderness most commonly in the metacarpophalangeal joints, followed by the carpometacarpal joints, and then the interphalangeal joints...
March 2018: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
Na Tian, Limin Han, Chen Chen, Zhezhi Wang
Epipremnum aureum is an important foliage plant in the Araceae family. In this study, we have sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of E. aureum by using Illumina Hiseq sequencing platforms. This genome is a double-stranded circular DNA sequence of 164,831 bp that contains 35.8% GC. The two inverted repeats (IRa and IRb; 26,606 bp) are spaced by a small single-copy region (22,868 bp) and a large single-copy region (88,751 bp). The chloroplast genome has 131 (113 unique) functional genes, including 86 (79 unique) protein-coding genes, 37 (30 unique) tRNA genes, and eight (four unique) rRNA genes...
2018: PloS One
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