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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814638/field-repetition-and-local-mapping-in-the-hippocampus-and-medial-entorhinal-cortex
#1
Roddy M Grieves, Éléonore Duvelle, Emma R Wood, Paul Anthony Dudchenko
Hippocampal place cells support spatial cognition and are thought to form the neural substrate of a global 'cognitive map'. A widely held view is that parts of the hippocampus also underlie the ability to separate patterns, or to provide different neural codes for distinct environments. However, a number of studies have shown that in environments composed of multiple, repeating compartments, place cells and other spatially modulated neurons show the same activity in each local area. This repetition of firing fields may reflect pattern completion, and may make it difficult for animals to distinguish similar local environments...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805882/plant-array-chip-for-the-germination-and-growth-screening-of-arabidopsis-thaliana
#2
Youn-Hee Park, Nayoung Lee, Giltsu Choi, Je-Kyun Park
A screening process for the germination and growth of seed is generally required for plant research. Such a repetitive screening process is costly and time-consuming, and its bulky setup requires a lot of space. In particular, the control of the variables, such as light, nutrients, hormones and temperature, is difficult due to the limited space for incubation. In addition, small seeds such as Arabidopsis thaliana are difficult to handle as they are hundreds of microns in diameter and require a more precisely controllable screening environment...
August 14, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802145/ensemble-of-expert-deep-neural-networks-for-spatio-temporal-denoising-of-contrast-enhanced-mri-sequences
#3
A Benou, R Veksler, A Friedman, T Riklin Raviv
Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) is an imaging protocol where MRI scans are acquired repetitively throughout the injection of a contrast agent. The analysis of dynamic scans is widely used for the detection and quantification of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Extraction of the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters from the DCE-MRI concentration curves allows quantitative assessment of the integrity of the BBB functionality. However, curve fitting required for the analysis of DCE-MRI data is error-prone as the dynamic scans are subject to non-white, spatially-dependent and anisotropic noise...
August 2, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795419/simultaneous-mr-thermometry-and-acoustic-radiation-force-imaging-using-interleaved-acquisition
#4
Joshua T de Bever, Henrik Odéen, Lorne W Hofstetter, Dennis L Parker
PURPOSE: A novel and practical method for simultaneously performing MR acoustic radiation force imaging (ARFI) and proton resonance frequency (PRF)-shift thermometry has been developed and tested. This could be an important tool for evaluating the success of MR-guided focused ultrasound procedures for which MR-thermometry measures temperature and thermal dose and MR-ARFI detects changes in tissue mechanical properties. METHODS: MR imaging was performed using a gradient recalled echo segmented echo-planar imaging pulse sequence with bipolar motion encoding gradients (MEG)...
August 10, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782129/volumetric-mri-thermometry-using-a-three-dimensional-stack-of-stars-echo-planar-imaging-pulse-sequence
#5
Sumeeth V Jonathan, William A Grissom
PURPOSE: To measure temperature over a large brain volume with fine spatiotemporal resolution. METHODS: A three-dimensional stack-of-stars echo-planar imaging sequence combining echo-planar imaging and radial sampling with golden angle spacing was implemented at 3T for proton resonance frequency-shift temperature imaging. The sequence acquires a 188x188x43 image matrix with 1.5x1.5x2.75 mm(3) spatial resolution. Temperature maps were reconstructed using sensitivity encoding (SENSE) image reconstruction followed by the image domain hybrid method, and using the k-space hybrid method...
August 7, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764447/a-comparison-of-acoustic-and-articulatory-methods-for-analyzing-vowel-differences-across-dialects-data-from-american-and-australian-english
#6
Arwen Blackwood Ximenes, Jason A Shaw, Christopher Carignan
In studies of dialect variation, the articulatory nature of vowels is sometimes inferred from formant values using the following heuristic: F1 is inversely correlated with tongue height and F2 is inversely correlated with tongue backness. This study compared vowel formants and corresponding lingual articulation in two dialects of English, standard North American English, and Australian English. Five speakers of North American English and four speakers of Australian English were recorded producing multiple repetitions of ten monophthongs embedded in the /sVd/ context...
July 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763377/unfamiliar-faces-in-recognition-memory-spaced-learning-enhances-subsequent-recognition-memory-by-reducing-repetition-priming
#7
Yanpei Wang, Qinfang Xu, Shuirong Liao, Demei Jia
Although the spacing effect is one of most robust effects in learning, its cognitive and neural mechanisms are still under investigation. Whether the spacing effect is achieved by reducing neural repetition priming or depends on learning experience is still unclear. In this event-related potential study, participants were asked to memorize 140 novel faces, half under the massed learning condition and the other half under the spaced learning condition. The afterwards recognition tests indicated that participants recognized more items under the spaced learning condition than under the massed learning condition...
July 31, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759606/spaced-education-in-medical-residents-an-electronic-intervention-to-improve-competency-and-retention-of-medical-knowledge
#8
Jason Matos, Camille R Petri, Kenneth J Mukamal, Anita Vanka
BACKGROUND: Spaced education is a novel method that improves medical education through online repetition of core principles often paired with multiple-choice questions. This model is a proven teaching tool for medical students, but its effect on resident learning is less established. We hypothesized that repetition of key clinical concepts in a "Clinical Pearls" format would improve knowledge retention in medical residents. METHODS: This study investigated spaced education with particular emphasis on using a novel, email-based reinforcement program, and a randomized, self-matched design, in which residents were quizzed on medical knowledge that was either reinforced or not with electronically-administered spaced education...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752567/auditory-visual-integration-modulates-location-specific-repetition-suppression-of-auditory-responses
#9
Talia Shrem, Micah M Murray, Leon Y Deouell
Space is a dimension shared by different modalities, but at what stage spatial encoding is affected by multisensory processes is unclear. Early studies observed attenuation of N1/P2 auditory evoked responses following repetition of sounds from the same location. Here, we asked whether this effect is modulated by audiovisual interactions. In two experiments, using a repetition-suppression paradigm, we presented pairs of tones in free field, where the test stimulus was a tone presented at a fixed lateral location...
July 28, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748093/pathological-features-of-explant-lungs-with-fibrosis-in-autoimmune-pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis
#10
Manabu Ono, Ryoko Saito, Junya Tominaga, Yoshinori Okada, Shinya Ohkouchi, Tamiko Takemura
Association of fibrosis with autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (aPAP) is rare. However, prognoses of such cases are poor and the process of the formation of fibrosis is still unknown. In this study, we report a case of aPAP with progressive fibrosis occurring in a 46-year-old woman. She had undergone several repetitions of whole lung lavage (WLL) for 7 years and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) inhalation for 3 months; however, the progression of fibrosis was not hindered...
September 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720637/intersection-syndrome-the-subtle-squeak-of-an-overused-wrist
#11
Thomas M Skinner
Patient histories that include wrist pain can be pivotal in the distinction between intersection syndrome (IS) and the more common de Quervain's tenosynovitis (DQT). Presented here is a 26-year-old pregnant woman with a history of rowing who developed left radial/dorsal wrist pain and a rubbing/squeaking sensation. Nine months of conservative DQT therapy and a landmark-guided corticosteroid injection failed to relieve her symptoms. An in-clinic ultrasound showed tenosynovitis at the intersection of the first and second compartments, confirming a diagnosis of IS...
July 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716432/effect-of-frequency-and-focal-spacing-on-transcranial-histotripsy-clot-liquefaction-using-electronic-focal-steering
#12
Tyler Gerhardson, Jonathan R Sukovich, Aditya S Pandey, Timothy L Hall, Charles A Cain, Zhen Xu
This in vitro study investigated the effects of ultrasound frequency and focal spacing on blood clot liquefaction via transcranial histotripsy. Histotripsy pulses were delivered using two 256-element hemispherical transducers of different frequency (250 and 500 kHz) with 30-cm aperture diameters. A 4-cm diameter spherical volume of in vitro blood clot was treated through 3 excised human skullcaps by electronically steering the focus with frequency proportional focal spacing: λ/2, 2 λ/3 and λ with 50 pulses per location...
July 14, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700695/does-practicing-a-wide-range-of-joint-angle-configurations-lead-to-higher-flexibility-in-a-manual-obstacle-avoidance-target-pointing-task
#13
Inge Tuitert, Reinoud J Bootsma, Marina M Schoemaker, Egbert Otten, Leonora J Mouton, Raoul M Bongers
Flexibility in motor actions can be defined as variability in the use of degrees of freedom (e.g., joint angles in the arm) over repetitions while keeping performance (e.g., fingertip position) stabilized. We examined whether flexibility can be increased through enlarging the joint angle range during practice in a manual obstacle-avoidance target-pointing task. To establish differences in flexibility we partitioned the variability in joint angles over repetitions in variability within (GEV) and variability outside the solution space (NGEV)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686882/distributed-practice-can-boost-evaluative-conditioning-by-increasing-memory-for-the-stimulus-pairs
#14
Jasmin Richter, Anne Gast
When presenting a neutral stimulus (CS) in close temporal and spatial proximity to a positive or negative stimulus (US) the former is often observed to adopt the valence of the latter, a phenomenon named evaluative conditioning (EC). It is already well established that under most conditions, contingency awareness is important for an EC effect to occur. In addition to that, some findings suggest that awareness of the stimulus pairs is not only relevant during the learning phase, but that it is also relevant whether memory for the pairings is still available during the measurement phase...
September 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680865/diabetes-self-management-education-experience-of-people-with-diabetes
#15
Leila Mardanian Dehkordi, Samereh Abdoli
Introduction: Diabetes self-management education (DSME) is a major factor which can affects quality of life of people with diabetes (PWD). Understanding the experience of PWD participating in DSME programs is an undeniable necessity in providing effective DSME to this population. The Aim of the study was to explore the experiences of PWD from a local DSME program in Iran. Methods: This study applied a descriptive phenomenological approach. The participants were PWD attending a well-established local DSME program in an endocrinology and diabetes center in Isfahan, Iran...
June 2017: Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676769/spacing-repetitions-over-long-timescales-a-review-and-a-reconsolidation-explanation
#16
Christopher D Smith, Damian Scarf
Recent accounts of the spacing effect have proposed molecular explanations that explain spacing over short, but not long timescales. In the first half of this paper, we review research on the spacing effect that has employed spaces of 24 h or more across skill-related tasks, language-related tasks and generalization for adults and children. Throughout this review, we distinguish between learning and retention by defining learning (or acquisition) as performance at the end of training and retention as performance after a delay period...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676639/coherent-scatter-controlled-phase-change-grating-structures-in-silicon-using-femtosecond-laser-pulses
#17
Yasser Fuentes-Edfuf, Mario Garcia-Lechuga, Daniel Puerto, Camilo Florian, Adianez Garcia-Leis, Santiago Sanchez-Cortes, Javier Solis, Jan Siegel
Periodic structures of alternating amorphous-crystalline fringes have been fabricated in silicon using repetitive femtosecond laser exposure (800 nm wavelength and 120 fs duration). The method is based on the interference of the incident laser light with far- and near-field scattered light, leading to local melting at the interference maxima, as demonstrated by femtosecond microscopy. Exploiting this strategy, lines of highly regular amorphous fringes can be written. The fringes have been characterized in detail using optical microscopy combined modelling, which enables a determination of the three-dimensional shape of individual fringes...
July 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669852/dynamin-regulates-the-fusion-pore-of-endo-and-exocytotic-vesicles-as-revealed-by-membrane-capacitance-measurements
#18
Eva Lasič, Matjaž Stenovec, Marko Kreft, Phillip J Robinson, Robert Zorec
BACKGROUND: Dynamin is a multidomain GTPase exhibiting mechanochemical and catalytic properties involved in vesicle scission from the plasmalemma during endocytosis. New evidence indicates that dynamin is also involved in exocytotic release of catecholamines, suggesting the existence of a dynamin-regulated structure that couples endo- to exocytosis. METHODS: Thus we here employed high-resolution cell-attached capacitance measurements and super-resolution structured illumination microscopy to directly examine single vesicle interactions with the plasmalemma in cultured rat astrocytes treated with distinct pharmacological modulators of dynamin activity...
September 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667957/sample-exchange-by-beam-scanning-with-applications-to-noncollinear-pump-probe-spectroscopy-at-kilohertz-repetition-rates
#19
Austin P Spencer, Robert J Hill, William K Peters, Dmitry Baranov, Byungmoon Cho, Adriana Huerta-Viga, Alexa R Carollo, Anna C Curtis, David M Jonas
In laser spectroscopy, high photon flux can perturb the sample away from thermal equilibrium, altering its spectroscopic properties. Here, we describe an optical beam scanning apparatus that minimizes repetitive sample excitation while providing shot-to-shot sample exchange for samples such as cryostats, films, and air-tight cuvettes. In this apparatus, the beam crossing point is moved within the focal plane inside the sample by scanning both tilt angles of a flat mirror. A space-filling spiral scan pattern was designed that efficiently utilizes the sample area and mirror scanning bandwidth...
June 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666939/magnetic-resonance-fingerprinting-with-short-relaxation-intervals
#20
Thomas Amthor, Mariya Doneva, Peter Koken, Karsten Sommer, Jakob Meineke, Peter Börnert
PURPOSE: To investigate a technique for improving the performance of Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) in repetitive sampling schemes, especially suited for 3D MRF acquisition, by shortening relaxation intervals between MRF pulse train repetitions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A calculation method for MRF dictionaries adapted to short relaxation intervals and non-relaxed initial spin states is presented, based on the concept of stationary fingerprints. The method is applicable to many different k-space sampling schemes in 2D and 3D...
June 27, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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