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Mingna Liao, Qilun Zhang, Fengling Tang, Zhiwei Xu, Xin Zhou, Youpeng Li, Yali Zhang, Chenghao Yang, Qiang Ru, Lingzhi Zhao
The synthesis of nanosized CoO anodes with unique morphologies via a hydrothermal method is investigated. By adjusting the pH values of reaction solutions, nanoflakes (CoO-NFs) and nanoflowers (CoO-FLs) are successfully located on copper foam. Compared with CoO-FLs, CoO-NFs as anodes for lithium ion batteries present ameliorated lithium storage properties, such as good rate capability, excellent cycling stability, and large CoO nanoflakes; CoO nanoflowers; anodes; binder free; lithium ion batteriesreversible capacity...
March 22, 2018: Nanomaterials
Misun Kim, Eleanor A Maguire
Humans commonly operate within 3D environments such as multifloor buildings and yet there is a surprising dearth of studies that have examined how these spaces are represented in the brain. Here, we had participants learn the locations of paintings within a virtual multilevel gallery building and then used behavioral tests and fMRI repetition suppression analyses to investigate how this 3D multicompartment space was represented, and whether there was a bias in encoding vertical and horizontal information. We found faster response times for within-room egocentric spatial judgments and behavioral priming effects of visiting the same room, providing evidence for a compartmentalized representation of space...
March 15, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Charu Eapen, Bhaskaranand Kumar, Anil K Bhat, Anand Venugopal
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare clinical and ultrasound findings of thumb joints in young adults with and without thumb pain associated with text messaging. METHODS: In this case-control study, 117 students with thumb pain associated with text messaging were evaluated clinically and with ultrasound analysis of the thumb. Age- and sex-matched controls received ultrasound evaluation to note any subclinical changes. RESULTS: Clinical examination in the cases identified tenderness most commonly in the metacarpophalangeal joints, followed by the carpometacarpal joints, and then the interphalangeal joints...
March 2018: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
Na Tian, Limin Han, Chen Chen, Zhezhi Wang
Epipremnum aureum is an important foliage plant in the Araceae family. In this study, we have sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of E. aureum by using Illumina Hiseq sequencing platforms. This genome is a double-stranded circular DNA sequence of 164,831 bp that contains 35.8% GC. The two inverted repeats (IRa and IRb; 26,606 bp) are spaced by a small single-copy region (22,868 bp) and a large single-copy region (88,751 bp). The chloroplast genome has 131 (113 unique) functional genes, including 86 (79 unique) protein-coding genes, 37 (30 unique) tRNA genes, and eight (four unique) rRNA genes...
2018: PloS One
Srdjan Cirovic, Robert Lloyd, Jelena Jovanovik, Holger A Volk, Clare Rusbridge
BACKGROUND: Syringomyelia is a pathological condition in which fluid-filled cavities (syringes) form and expand in the spinal cord. Syringomyelia is often linked with obstruction of the craniocervical junction and a Chiari malformation, which is similar in both humans and animals. Some brachycephalic toy breed dogs such as Cavalier King Charles Spaniels (CKCS) are particularly predisposed. The exact mechanism of the formation of syringomyelia is undetermined and consequently with the lack of clinical explanation, engineers and mathematicians have resorted to computer models to identify possible physical mechanisms that can lead to syringes...
March 9, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Valentina Mazzoli, Lukas M Gottwald, Eva S Peper, Martijn Froeling, Bram F Coolen, Nico Verdonschot, Andre M Sprengers, Pim van Ooij, Gustav J Strijkers, Aart J Nederveen
PURPOSE: 3D time-resolved (4D) phase contrast MRI can be used to study muscle contraction. However, 3D coverage with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution can only be achieved by interleaved acquisitions during many repetitions of the motion task, resulting in long scan times. The aim of this study was to develop a compressed sensing accelerated 4D phase contrast MRI technique for quantification of velocities and strain rate of the muscles in the lower leg during active plantarflexion/dorsiflexion...
March 5, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Wen Wu, Justin Fong, Vincent Crocher, Peter V S Lee, Denny Oetomo, Ying Tan, David C Ackland
Robotic-assistive exoskeletons can enable frequent repetitive movements without the presence of a full-time therapist; however, human-machine interaction and the capacity of powered exoskeletons to attenuate shoulder muscle and joint loading is poorly understood. This study aimed to quantify shoulder muscle and joint force during assisted activities of daily living using a powered robotic upper limb exoskeleton (ArmeoPower, Hocoma). Six healthy male subjects performed abduction, flexion, horizontal flexion, reaching and nose touching activities...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Matthew Pitt
The function of the neuromuscular junction in children is amenable to electrophysiological testing. Of the two tests available, repetitive nerve stimulation is uncomfortable and has a reduced sensitivity compared with single-fibre methodology. The latter is the method of choice, recording the variability in neuromuscular transmission as a value called jitter. It can be performed by voluntary activation of the muscle being examined, which is not suitable in children, or by stimulation techniques. A modification of these techniques, called Stimulated Potential Analysis with Concentric needle Electrodes (SPACE), is well tolerated and can be performed while the child is awake...
February 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Stephen J Johans, Kevin N Swong, Daniel J Burkett, Michael P Wemhoff, Sean M Lew, Chirag R Patel, Anand V Germanwala
Superficial siderosis (SS) of the CNS is a rare and often unrecognized condition. Caused by hemosiderin deposition from chronic, repetitive hemorrhage in the subarachnoid space, it results in parenchymal damage in the subpial layers of the brain and spinal cord. T2-weighted MRI shows the characteristic hypointensity of hemosiderin deposition, classically occurring around the cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord. Patients present with progressive gait ataxia and sensorineural hearing impairment. Although there have been several studies, case reports, and review articles over the years, the clear pathophysiology of subarachnoid space hemorrhage remains to be elucidated...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Avinash Eranki, Navid Farr, Ari Partanen, Karun V Sharma, Christopher T Rossi, Avi Z Rosenberg, AeRang Kim, Matthew Oetgen, Haydar Celik, David Woods, Pavel S Yarmolenko, Peter C W Kim, Bradford J Wood
PURPOSE: High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can non-invasively treat tumors with minimal or no damage to intervening tissues. While continuous-wave HIFU thermally ablates target tissue, the effect of hundreds of microsecond-long pulsed sonications is examined in this work. The objective of this study was to characterize sonication parameter-dependent thermomechanical bioeffects to provide the foundation for future preclinical studies and facilitate clinical translation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Acoustic power, number of cycles/pulse, sonication time, and pulse repetition frequency (PRF) were varied on a clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) - guided HIFU (MR-HIFU) system...
February 11, 2018: International Journal of Hyperthermia
Hahnsung Kim, Suhyung Park, Eung Yeop Kim, Jaeseok Park
PURPOSE: To develop a novel, retrospective multi-phase non-contrast-enhanced MRA (ROMANCE MRA) in a single acquisition for robust angiogram separation even in the presence of cardiac arrhythmia. METHODS: In the proposed ROMANCE MRA, data were continuously acquired over all cardiac phases using retrospective, multi-phase flow-sensitive single-slab 3D fast spin echo (FSE) with variable refocusing flip angles, while an external pulse oximeter was in sync with pulse repetitions in FSE to record real-time information on cardiac cycles...
February 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Arnold Gutierrez, Michael T Williams, Charles V Vorhees
Methamphetamine (MA) alters dopamine markers and cognitive function in heavy users. In rodents, there are MA dosing regimens that induce concordant effects using repeated administration at spaced intervals. These regimens are effective but complicate experiments designed to disentangle the effects of the drug on different brain regions in relation to their cognitive effects because of treatment spacing. In an effort to simplify the model, we tested whether a single dose of MA could induce the same monoamine and cognitive effects as multiple, spaced dosing without affecting survival...
February 9, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Sha Wang, Yan-Biao Wang, Guo-Ying Feng, Shou-Huan Zhou
We present a SESAM mode locked Yb:CALGO laser with a harmonic repetition rate to the 300th order pumped by a single-mode fiber coupled laser diode. By fine tuning the internal angle between the laser beam and the normal axis through the gain medium, at pump power of 1.2 W, an average output power of 132 mW is achieved with a pulse duration of 777.6 fs and a repetition rate of 22.4 GHz. The amplification effect over several tens of roundtrips induced Fabry-Perot filtering of the anti-reflection (AR) coated gain medium is analyzed...
January 22, 2018: Optics Express
Mu-Chieh Lo, Robinson Guzmán, Guillermo Carpintero
A monolithically integrated mode-locked semiconductor laser is proposed. The compound ring cavity is composed of a colliding pulse mode-locking (ML) subcavity and a passive Fabry-Perot feedback subcavity. These two 1.6 mm long subcavities are coupled by using on-chip reflectors at both ends, enabling harmonic mode locking. By changing DC-bias conditions, optical mode spacing from 50 to 450 GHz is experimentally demonstrated. Ultrafast pulses shorter than 0.3 ps emitted from this laser diode are shown in autocorrelation traces...
February 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Ranjit Ranbhor, Anil Kumar, Kirti Patel, Vibin Ramakrishnan, Susheel Durani
Diversification of chain stereochemistry opens up the possibilities of 'in principle' increase in the design space of proteins. This huge increase in the sequence and consequent structural variation is aimed at the generation of smart materials of biological origin. For diversifying protein structure stereochemically, we introduced L- and D--amino acids as the design alphabet. With an inverse design algorithm, we now explore the usage of specific variables such as stereochemistry and sequence of this alphabet in independent steps...
February 2, 2018: Physical Biology
Marija Šimundić Munitić, Ivona Bago, Karl Glockner, Lumnije Kqiku, Dragana Gabrić, Ivica Anić
PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of laser-activated irrigation by Er:YAG and Er:YSGG (LAI) protocols and Nd:YAG laser irradiation on the bond strength of self-adhesively cemented fiber posts to root canal dentine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 84 human single-rooted permanent teeth instrumented with ProTaper Next technique. After obturation, post space preparations were created for fiber-reinforced composite posts. The prepared specimens were divided according to the laser treatment of the post space preparations: group 1: LAI (Er:YAG) + saline solution (pulse energy: 20 mJ, repetition rate: 15 Hz); group 2: LAI (Er:YAG) + QMiX solution (pulse energy: 20 mJ, repetition rate: 15 Hz); group 3: LAI (Er,Cr:YSGG) + saline solution (pulse energy: 62...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
Michael Hart-Matyas, Alexandra Taylor, Han Joo Lee, Mark A Maclean, Amaris Hui, Anna Macleod
Medical students employ various study strategies to master large amounts of information during their medical education. Digital flashcards are an interactive, self-directed study stool that may improve knowledge retention by combining the principles of active recall and spaced-repetition. They may be studied during and beyond undergraduate medical education. However, making flashcards can be an onerous task. In this article, we describe twelve tips on how to establish and maintain a collaborative digital flashcard project based on the undergraduate medical curriculum...
January 29, 2018: Medical Teacher
Moritz Zaiss, Philipp Ehses, Klaus Scheffler
Gradient echo (GRE)-based acquisition provides a robust readout method for chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) at ultrahigh field (UHF). To develop a snapshot-CEST approach, the transient GRE signal and point spread function were investigated in detail, leading to optimized measurement parameters and reordering schemes for fast and robust volumetric CEST imaging. Simulation of the transient GRE signal was used to determine the optimal sequence parameters and the maximum feasible number of k-space lines...
January 26, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
Muhammad Saqib, O Berkay Şahinoğlu, E Yegân Erdem
The ability to produce a controlled sequence of alternating droplets from two separate sources inside a microfluidic system brings several advantages in microfluidic analysis. The effectiveness of this technique for use in an application depends on the ability of the device to replicate the pattern continuously and accurately. In this work we studied the effect of the dispersed phase channel geometry on generating a repeating pattern of alternating droplets in a cross junction microfluidic device. By measuring the radius of curvature of a droplet at the time of break up, and calculating the Laplace pressure using these values, we analyzed how the angle of taper of the dispersed phase inlet channel has an influence on the pattern repetition and uniformity of formed droplet size and spacing in between...
January 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Richard J Adams, Matthew D Lichter, Allison Ellington, Marga White, Kate Armstead, James T Patrie, Paul T Diamond
A study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of virtual activities of daily living (ADL) practice using the SaeboVR software system for the recovery of upper extremity (UE) motor function following stroke. The system employs Kinect sensor-based tracking to translate human UE motion into the anatomical pose of the arm of the patient's avatar within a virtual environment, creating a virtual presence within a simulated task space. Patients gain mastery of 12 different integrated activities while traversing a metaphorical "road to recovery" that includes thematically linked levels and therapist-selected difficulty settings...
January 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
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