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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651171/the-relevance-of-inter-and-intrastrain-differences-in-mice-and-rats-and-their-implications-for-models-of-seizures-and-epilepsy
#1
REVIEW
Wolfgang Löscher, Russell J Ferland, Thomas N Ferraro
It is becoming increasingly clear that the genetic background of mice and rats, even in inbred strains, can have a profound influence on measures of seizure susceptibility and epilepsy. These differences can be capitalized upon through genetic mapping studies to reveal genes important for seizures and epilepsy. However, strain background and particularly mixed genetic backgrounds of transgenic animals need careful consideration in both the selection of strains and in the interpretation of results and conclusions...
June 23, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651020/the-nervous-system-of-the-adult-ascidian-ciona-intestinalis-type-a-ciona-robusta-insights-from-transgenic-animal-models
#2
Tomohiro Osugi, Yasunori Sasakura, Honoo Satake
The nervous system of ascidians is an excellent model system to provide insights into the evolutionary process of the chordate nervous system due to their phylogenetic positions as the sister group of vertebrates. However, the entire nervous system of adult ascidians has yet to be functionally and anatomically investigated. In this study, we have revealed the whole dorsal and siphon nervous system of the transgenic adult ascidian of Ciona intestinalis Type A (Ciona robusta) in which a Kaede reporter gene is expressed in a pan-neuronal fashion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650694/investigation-of-the-developmental-potential-and-developmental-kinetics-of-bovine-parthenogenetic-and-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer-embryos-using-a-time-lapse-monitoring-system
#3
Min-Jee Park, Eun-Young Kim, Man-Jong Kang, Jun-Beom Lee, Chang-Jin Jeong, Se-Pill Park
A time-lapse monitoring system has predictive value for selecting good-quality embryos with the highest implantation potential. Using this new tool, we investigated the developmental potential and developmental kinetics of bovine parthenogenetic (PA) and two types of somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) embryos. Bovine non-transgenic ear cells (bECs) or transgenic cells (bTGCs) were used as donor cells. The cleavage and blastocyst development rates did not significantly differ among the PA, NT-bEC, and NT-bTGC groups, and first cleavage occurred an average of 19...
June 26, 2017: Cellular Reprogramming
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650631/effect-of-the-biphenyl-neolignan-honokiol-on-a%C3%AE-42-induced-toxicity-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-a%C3%AE-42-fibrillation-cholinesterase-activity-dpph-radicals-and-iron-ii-chelation
#4
Srinivas Kantham, Stephen Chan, Gawain McColl, Jared Miles, Suresh Kumar Veliyath, Girdhar Singh Deora, Satish N Dighe, Samira Khabbazi, Marie-Odile Parat, Benjamin P Ross
The biphenyl neolignan honokiol is a neuroprotectant which has been proposed as a treatment for central nervous system disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The death of cholinergic neurons in AD is attributed to multiple factors, including: accumulation and fibrillation of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) within the brain; metal ion toxicity; and oxidative stress. In this study, we used a transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans model expressing full length Aβ42 as a convenient in vivo system for examining the effect of honokiol against Aβ-induced toxicity...
June 26, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650461/a-light-and-calcium-gated-transcription-factor-for-imaging-and-manipulating-activated-neurons
#5
Wenjing Wang, Craig P Wildes, Tanyaporn Pattarabanjird, Mateo I Sanchez, Gordon F Glober, Gillian A Matthews, Kay M Tye, Alice Y Ting
Activity remodels neurons, altering their molecular, structural, and electrical characteristics. To enable the selective characterization and manipulation of these neurons, we present FLARE, an engineered transcription factor that drives expression of fluorescent proteins, opsins, and other genetically encoded tools only in the subset of neurons that experienced activity during a user-defined time window. FLARE senses the coincidence of elevated cytosolic calcium and externally applied blue light, which together produce translocation of a membrane-anchored transcription factor to the nucleus to drive expression of any transgene...
June 26, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649674/synovial-fibroblast-neutrophil-interactions-promote-pathogenic-adaptive-immunity-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#6
Carmelo Carmona-Rivera, Philip M Carlucci, Erica Moore, Nithya Lingampalli, Hannes Uchtenhagen, Eddie James, Yudong Liu, Kevin L Bicker, Heidi Wahamaa, Victoria Hoffmann, Anca Irinel Catrina, PaulR Thompson, Jane H Buckner, William H Robinson, David A Fox, Mariana J Kaplan
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by synovial joint inflammation and by development of pathogenic humoral and cellular autoimmunity to citrullinated proteins. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are a source of citrullinated autoantigens and activate RA synovial fibroblasts (FLS), cells crucial in joint damage. We investigated the molecular mechanisms by which NETs promote proinflammatory phenotypes in FLS, and whether these interactions generate pathogenic anti-citrulline adaptive immune responses...
April 2017: Science Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649228/ras-activity-tunes-the-period-and-modulates-the-entrainment-of-the-suprachiasmatic-clock
#7
REVIEW
Tsvetan Serchov, Rolf Heumann
The small GTPase Ras is a universal eukaryotic cytoplasmic membrane-anchored protein, which regulates diverse downstream signal transduction pathways that play an important role in the proper functioning of neurons. Ras activity is a central regulator of structural and functional synaptic plasticity in the adult nervous system, where it channels neuronal responses to various extracellular cues allowing the organism to adapt to complex environmental stimuli. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the principle pacemaker of the circadian clock, and the circadian and photic regulation of Ras activity in the SCN is an important modulator of the clockwork...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649000/suppression-of-the-mads-box-gene-slmbp8-accelerates-fruit-ripening-of-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum
#8
Wencheng Yin, Zongli Hu, Baolu Cui, Xuhu Guo, Jingtao Hu, Zhiguo Zhu, Guoping Chen
MADS-box genes encode important transcription factors that are involved in many biological processes of plants, including fruit ripening. In our research, a MADS-box gene, SlMBP8, was identified, and its tissue-specific expression profiles were analysed. SlMBP8 was highly expressed in fruits of the B+4 stage, in senescent leaves and in sepals. To further characterize its function, an RNA interference (RNAi) expression vector of SlMBP8 was constructed and transferred into tomato. In the transgenic plants, the ripening of fruits was shortened by 2-4 days compared to that of wild type...
June 15, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648997/effects-tolerance-mechanisms-and-management-of-salt-stress-in-grain-legumes
#9
REVIEW
Muhammad Farooq, Nirmali Gogoi, Mubshar Hussain, Sharmistha Barthakur, Sreyashi Paul, Nandita Bharadwaj, Hussein M Migdadi, Salem S Alghamdi, Kadambot H M Siddique
Salt stress is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries with irrigated agriculture. Efforts to improve salt tolerance in crop plants are vital for sustainable crop production on marginal lands to ensure future food supplies. Grain legumes are a fascinating group of plants due to their high grain protein contents and ability to fix biological nitrogen. However, the accumulation of excessive salts in soil and the use of saline groundwater are threatening legume production worldwide. Salt stress disturbs photosynthesis and hormonal regulation and causes nutritional imbalance, specific ion toxicity and osmotic effects in legumes to reduce grain yield and quality...
June 16, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648994/dynamic-and-differential-expression-of-the-gonadal-aromatase-during-the-process-of-sexual-differentiation-in-a-novel-transgenic-cyp19a1a-egfp-zebrafish-line
#10
Nathalie Hinfray, Frédéric Sohm, Morgane Caulier, Edith Chadili, Benjamin Piccini, Camille Torchy, Jean-Marc Porcher, Yann Guiguen, François Brion
In zebrafish, there exists a clear need for new tools to study sex differentiation dynamic and its perturbation by endocrine disrupting chemicals. In this context, we developed and characterized a novel transgenic zebrafish line expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the zebrafish cyp19a1a (gonadal aromatase) promoter. In most gonochoristic fish species including zebrafish, cyp19a1a, the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of estrogens, has been shown to play a critical role in the processes of reproduction and sexual differentiation...
June 22, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648742/polo-like-kinase-2-modulates-%C3%AE-synuclein-protein-levels-by-regulating-its-mrna-production
#11
Rikke H Kofoed, Jin Zheng, Nelson Ferreira, Søren Lykke-Andersen, Mauro Salvi, Cristine Betzer, Lasse Reimer, Torben Heick Jensen, Karina Fog, Poul H Jensen
Variations in the α-synuclein-encoding SNCA gene represent the greatest genetic risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD), and duplications/triplications of SNCA cause autosomal dominant familial PD. These facts closely link brain levels of α-synuclein with the risk of PD, and make lowering α-synuclein levels a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PD and related synucleinopathies. In this paper, we corroborate previous findings on the ability of overexpressed Polo-like kinase 2 (PLK-2) to decrease cellular α-synuclein, but demonstrate that the process is independent of PLK-2 phosphorylating S129 in α-synuclein because a similar reduction is achieved with the non-phosphorable S129A mutant α-synuclein...
June 22, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648603/effects-of-brn2-overexpression-on-eccrine-sweat-gland-development-in-the-mouse-paw
#12
Min Keun Chee, Seong Kyeong Jo, Kyung Cheol Sohn, Chang Deok Kim, Jeung-Hoon Lee, Young Ho Lee
Eccrine sweat glands regulate body temperature by secreting water and electrolytes. In humans, eccrine sweat glands are ubiquitous in the skin, except in the lips and external genitalia. In mice, eccrine sweat glands are present only in the paw pad. Brn2 is a protein belonging to a large family of transcription factors. A few studies have examined Brn2 in melanoma cells and epidermal keratinocytes. This study investigated changes in the skin in the K5-Brn2 transgenic mouse, which overexpresses Brn2 and contains the keratin 5 promotor...
June 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648497/selective-optogenetic-control-of-purkinje-cells-in-monkey-cerebellum
#13
Yasmine El-Shamayleh, Yoshiko Kojima, Robijanto Soetedjo, Gregory D Horwitz
Purkinje cells of the primate cerebellum play critical but poorly understood roles in the execution of coordinated, accurate movements. Elucidating these roles has been hampered by a lack of techniques for manipulating spiking activity in these cells selectively-a problem common to most cell types in non-transgenic animals. To overcome this obstacle, we constructed AAV vectors carrying the channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) gene under the control of a 1 kb L7/Pcp2 promoter. We injected these vectors into the cerebellar cortex of rhesus macaques and tested vector efficacy in three ways...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648388/heterozygous-knockout-of-cytosolic-phospholipase-a2%C3%AE-attenuates-alzheimer-s-disease-pathology-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice
#14
Baoxi Qu, Yunhua Gong, Jassica M Gill, Kimbra Kenney, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia
Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) is a key enzyme in regulation of inflammation process and neuromembrane homeostasis, both of which are critical in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's diseases. By hybride APP/PS1 Tg-AD mice with cPLA2α knockout mice, three lines of APP/PS1 Tg-AD mice were produced with genotypes of cPLA2α +/+, cPLA2α +/- and cPLA2α-/-. Compared to cPLA2α +/+ Tg-AD mice, the amyloid plaque formation was significantly downregulated in the brain of cPLA2α+/- Tg-AD mice, but not in cPLA2α -/- Tg-AD mice...
June 22, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647924/comparative-expression-analysis-of-rice-and-arabidopsis-peroxiredoxin-genes-suggests-conserved-or-diversified-roles-between-the-two-species-and-leads-to-the-identification-of-tandemly-duplicated-rice-peroxiredoxin-genes-differentially-expressed-in-seeds
#15
Yun-Shil Gho, Sun-A Park, Sung-Ruyl Kim, Anil Kumar Nalini Chandran, Gynheung An, Ki-Hong Jung
BACKGROUND: Peroxiredoxins (PRXs) have recently been identified as plant antioxidants. Completion of various genome sequencing projects has provided genome-wide information about PRX genes in major plant species. Two of these -- Oryza sativa (rice) and Arabidopsis -- each have 10 PRX members. Although significant progress has been made in understanding their biological roles in Arabidopsis, those functions in rice, a model crop plant, have not been well studied. RESULTS: We performed a comparative expression analysis of rice and Arabidopsis PRXs...
December 2017: Rice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647813/ghvln4-is-involved-in-cell-elongation-via-regulation-of-actin-organization
#16
Fenni Lv, Mingya Han, Dongdong Ge, Hui Dong, Xiaotong Zhang, Lifeng Li, Peipei Zhang, Zhongqi Zhang, Jing Sun, Kang Liu, Youlu Yuan
GhVLN4 exhibited activity of cross-linking actin filaments into bundles. Overexpression of GhVLN4 increased the abundance of thick actin bundles and resulted in longer cell phenotypes. Actin bundle is a dynamic, higher-order cytoskeleton structure that is essential for cell expansion. Villin is one of the major proteins responsible for crosslinking actin filaments into bundles. However, this kind of actin binding protein has rarely been investigated in cotton. In the present work, a cotton villin gene was molecularly cloned from Upland cotton and denominated as GhVLN4...
June 24, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647603/effects-of-the-herbicide-glyphosate-on-non-target-plant-native-species-from-chaco-forest-argentina
#17
Ferreira María Florencia, Torres Carolina, Bracamonte Enzo, Galetto Leonardo
Agriculture based on transgenic crops has expanded in Argentina into areas formerly occupied by Chaco forest. Even though glyphosate is the herbicide most widely used in the world, increasing evidence indicates severe ecotoxicological effects on non-target organisms as native plants. The aim of this work is to determine glyphosate effects on 23 native species present in the remaining Chaco forests immersed in agricultural matrices. This is a laboratory/greenhouse approach studying acute effects on seedlings after 21 days...
June 22, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647374/overexpression-of-dentin-matrix-protein-1-in-nestin-cells-causes-bone-loss-in-mouse-long-bone
#18
Min Pan, Yuteng Weng, Yao Sun
The well-known matrix protein Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is expressed by osteoblasts and osteocytes in bone, and it controls bone mineralization. Recently, it has been found that DMP1 is also expressed in other cell types, such as chondrocytes. Nestin(+) cells are one important type of progenitor cell in bone marrow and are associated with bone remodeling. In our preliminary experiment, DMP1 could also be detected in Nestin(+) cells in bone marrow. This study was designed to explore the effect on bone of DMP1 in Nestin(+) cells...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647324/ampk-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-treating-metabolic-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Emily A Day, Rebecca J Ford, Gregory R Steinberg
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of multiple metabolic pathways and may have therapeutic importance for treating obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Given the ubiquitous expression of AMPK, it has been a challenge to evaluate which tissue types may be most beneficially poised for mediating the positive metabolic effects of AMPK-centered treatments. In this review we evaluate the metabolic phenotypes of transgenic mouse models in which AMPK expression and function have been manipulated, and the impact this has on controlling lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, and inflammation...
June 21, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647114/status-of-therapeutic-gene-transfer-to-treat-cardiovascular-disease-in-dogs-and-cats
#20
REVIEW
Meg M Sleeper
Gene therapy is a procedure resulting in the transfer of a gene into an individual's cells to treat a disease. One goal of gene transfer is to express a functional gene when the endogenous gene is inactive. However, because heart failure is a complex disease characterized by multiple abnormalities at the cellular level, an alternate gene delivery approach is to alter myocardial protein levels to improve function. This article discusses background information on gene delivery including packaging, administration, and a brief discussion of some of the candidate transgenes likely to alter the progression of naturally occurring heart disease in dogs and cats...
June 21, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
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