Read by QxMD icon Read


Jeppe H Ekberg, Maria Hauge, Line V Kristensen, Andreas N Madsen, Maja S Engelstoft, Anna-Sofie Husted, Rasmus Sichlau, Kristoffer L Egerod, Pascal Timshel, Timothy J Kowalski, Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reiman, Harald S Hansen, Andrew D Howard, Birgitte Holst, Thue W Schwartz
Triglycerides are among the most efficacious stimulators of incretin secretion; however the relative importance of FFA1 (GPR40), FFA4 (GPR120) and GPR119 which all recognize triglyceride metabolites, i.e. LCFA and 2-MAG respectively, is still unclear. Here, we find all three receptors to be highly expressed and highly enriched in FACS-purified GLP-1 and GIP cells isolated from transgenic reporter mice. In vivo, the triglyceride-induced increase in plasma GIP was significantly reduced in FFA1 deficient mice (to 34% - mean of four experiments each with 8-10 animals), in GPR119 deficient mice (to 24 %) and in FFA1/FFA4 double deficient mice (to 15%) but not in FFA4 deficient mice...
October 25, 2016: Endocrinology
Oliver R Oakley, Kee Jun Kim, Po-Ching Lin, Radwa Barakat, Joseph A Cacioppo, Zhong Li, Alex Whitaker, Kwang Chul Chung, Wenyan Mei, CheMyong Ko
17β-estradiol is a potent sex hormone synthesized primarily by gonads in females and males that regulates development and function of the reproductive system. Recent studies show that 17β-estradiol is locally synthesized in non-reproductive tissues and regulates a myriad of events, including local inflammatory responses. In this study, we report that mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches are novel sites of de novo synthesis of 17β-estradiol. These secondary lymphoid organs are located within or close to the gastrointestinal tract, contain leukocytes, and function at the forefront of immune surveillance...
October 25, 2016: Endocrinology
Chi F Hung, Yu-Hua Chow, W Conrad Liles, William A Altemeier, Lynn M Schnapp
: We previously demonstrated that FoxD1-derived cells in the lung are enriched in pericyte-like cells in mouse lung. These cells express the common pericyte markers and are located adjacent to endothelial cells. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility of administering diphtheria toxin (DT) by oropharyngeal aspiration as an approach to ablate FoxD1-derived cells. METHOD: We crossed mice expressing Cre-recombinase under the FoxD1 promoter to Rosa26-loxP-STOP-loxP-iDTR mice and generated a bitransgenic line (FoxD1-Cre;Rs26-iDTR) where FoxD1-derived cells heritably express iDTR and are sensitive to DT...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
I Lengyel, F Toth, D Biyashev, I Szatmari, K Monory, C Tomboly, G Toth, S Benyhe, A Borsodi
Endomorphins are natural amidated opioid tetrapeptides with the following structure: Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2 (endomorphin-1), and Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH2 (endomorphin-2). Endomorphins interact selectively with the μ-opioid or MOP receptors and exhibit nanomolar or sub-nanomolar receptor binding affinities, therefore they suggested to be endogenous agonists for the μ-opioid receptors. Endomorphins mediate a number of characteristic opioid effects, such as antinociception, however there are several physiological functions in which endomorphins appear to act in a fashion that does not involve binding to and activation of the μ-opioid receptor...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Matthew D Keefe, Joshua L Bonkowsky
There has been a rapid expansion in use of transgenic technologies in zebrafish. We report a novel example of trans-interactions of genetic elements, or transvection. This interaction led to a novel expression pattern and illustrates a precautionary example regarding use of transgenes in zebrafish.
October 25, 2016: Zebrafish
Lloyd Hamilton, Katy R Astell, Gergana Velikova, Dirk Sieger
Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and deadliest form of brain cancer. Glioblastomas are infiltrated by a high number of microglia, which promote tumor growth and surrounding tissue invasion. However, it is unclear how microglia and glioma cells physically interact and if there are differences, depending on glioma cell type. Hence, we have developed a novel live imaging assay to study microglia-glioma interactions in vivo in the zebrafish brain. We transplanted well-established human glioblastoma cell lines, U87 and U251, into transgenic zebrafish lines with labelled macrophages/microglia...
October 25, 2016: Zebrafish
Yushi Luan, Jun Cui, Weichen Wang, Jun Meng
Late blight of tomato is caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. In our previous work, we identified and characterized a miR1918 in P. infestans (pi-miR1918), and showed that its sequence is similar to the sequence of tomato miR1918 (sly-miR1918). In this study, we used Arabidopsis thaliana pre-miR159a as a backbone to synthesize pi-miR1918 via PCR and mutagenesis. The artificial pi-miR1918 was used to investigate the role of miR1918 in tomato-P. infestans interaction. Trangenic tomato plants that overexpressed the artificial pi-miR1918 displayed more serious disease symptoms than wild-type tomato plants after infection with P...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Egor Bobrov, Natalia Skobeleva, Diana Restifo, Natalya Beglyarova, Kathy Q Cai, Elizabeth Handorf, Kerry Campbell, David A Proia, Vladimir Khazak, Erica A Golemis, Igor Astsaturov
The lack of effective treatment modalities is a major problem in pancreatic cancer (PCa), a devastating malignancy that is nearly universally driven by the "undruggable" KRAS and TP53 cancer genes. Poor tumor tissue penetration is the major source of resistance in pancreatic cancer where chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment. In this study we exploited the selective tumor-targeting properties of the heat shock 90 protein inhibitors as the vehicle for drug delivery to pancreatic tumor tissues. STA-12-8666 is a novel esterase-cleavable conjugate of an HSP90i and a topoisomerase I inhibitor, SN-38...
October 13, 2016: Oncotarget
Li-Ping Wang, Su-Jing Fan, Shu-Min Li, Xiao-Jun Wang, Na Sun
The purpose of the present study is to explore the effect of aliskiren on the proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) in AGT-REN double transgenic hypertensive (dTH) mice. The cultured CFs from AGT-REN dTH mice were divided into AGT-REN group (dTH) and aliskiren group (ALIS). Cultured CFs from C57B6 mice were served as control (WT). The effect of different concentration of aliskiren (1 × 10(-6), 1 × 10(-7), 1 × 10(-8), 1 × 10(-9) mol/L) on CFs proliferation was determined by MTT assay. After treatment with 1 × 10(-7) mol/L aliskiren for 24 h, α-SMA, collagen I, III and NADPH oxidase (NOX) protein expression in CFs of AGT-REN dTH mice were detected by Western blot...
October 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Chien-Yuan Lin, Joseph E Jakes, Bryon S Donohoe, Peter N Ciesielski, Haibing Yang, Sophie-Charlotte Gleber, Stefan Vogt, Shi-You Ding, Wendy A Peer, Angus S Murphy, Maureen C McCann, Michael E Himmel, Melvin P Tucker, Hui Wei
BACKGROUND: Plant lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant, renewable feedstock for the production of biobased fuels and chemicals. Previously, we showed that iron can act as a co-catalyst to improve the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. However, directly adding iron catalysts into biomass prior to pretreatment is diffusion limited, and increases the cost of biorefinery operations. Recently, we developed a new strategy for expressing iron-storage protein ferritin intracellularly to accumulate iron as a catalyst for the downstream deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Donna M Bond, Nick W Albert, Robyn H Lee, Gareth B Gillard, Chris M Brown, Roger P Hellens, Richard C Macknight
BACKGROUND: Transcription factors (TFs) coordinate precise gene expression patterns that give rise to distinct phenotypic outputs. The identification of genes and transcriptional networks regulated by a TF often requires stable transformation and expression changes in plant cells. However, the production of stable transformants can be slow and laborious with no guarantee of success. Furthermore, transgenic plants overexpressing a TF of interest can present pleiotropic phenotypes and/or result in a high number of indirect gene expression changes...
2016: Plant Methods
G Kaur, M Pawlik, S E Gandy, M E Ehrlich, J F Smiley, E Levy
Recent data suggest that intraneuronal accumulation of metabolites of the amyloid-β-precursor protein (APP) is neurotoxic. We observed that transgenic mice overexpressing in neurons a human APP gene harboring the APP(E693Q) (Dutch) mutation have intraneuronal lysosomal accumulation of APP carboxylterminal fragments (APP-CTFs) and oligomeric amyloid β (oAβ) but no histological evidence of amyloid deposition. Morphometric quantification using the lysosomal marker protein 2 (LAMP-2) immunolabeling showed higher neuronal lysosomal counts in brain of 12-months-old APP(E693Q) as compared with age-matched non-transgenic littermates, and western blots showed increased lysosomal proteins including LAMP-2, cathepsin D and LC3...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Dana S Poole, Nathalie Doorenweerd, Jaap J Plomp, Ahmed Mahfouz, Marcel J T Reinders, Louise van der Weerd
The ability to administer systemically high doses of manganese as contrast agent while circumventing its toxicity is of particular interest for exploratory MRI studies of the brain. Administering low doses either repeatedly or continuously over time has been shown to enable the acquisition of satisfactory MRI images of the mouse brain without apparent side effects. Here we have systematically compared the obtained MRI contrast and recorded potential systemic side effects such as stress response and muscle strength impairment in relation to the achieved contrast...
October 21, 2016: NeuroImage
Hui Huang, Wei Wang, Jiaqi Zou, Osamu Nakajima, Lei Zhang, Qi He, Yan Diao, Huan Liang, Lingyun Zhou, Yahui Peng
Protoporphyrin Ⅸ has been used as an efficient sensitizer in photodynamic diagnose, photodynamic therapy, and sonodynamic therapy. The level of protoporphyrin Ⅸ is very important for diagnose or therapy effects. 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2 (ALAS2) is the key enzyme upstream of protoporphyrin Ⅸ synthesis. To increase protoporphyrin Ⅸ accumulation, ALAS2 over-expression transgenic mice were generated. Plasmid containing alas2 gene was transfected in colonic carcinoma cell lines. Both in tissues of transgenic mice and in colonic carcinoma cells, the amount of protoporphyrin Ⅸ accumulation did increase...
October 21, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Evelin L Schaeffer, Sergio Catanozi, Mark J West, Wagner F Gattaz
Pyramidal neuron loss in the hippocampal CA1 region is a very early hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Lithium might be a therapeutic strategy for AD due to its neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties. This study used modern stereological techniques to investigate possible CA1 pyramidal neuron loss in 11-month-old triple transgenic AD (3xTg-AD) mice, and also the effects of therapeutic and subtherapeutic lithium doses on the number and density of CA1 pyramidal neurons and volume of CA1 pyramidal layer in 3xTg-AD and wild-type mice treated from 3 to 11 months of age...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
Yuan Shi, Yao Xiong, Yongkang Jiang, Zhiyong Zhang, Guangdong Zhou, Wenjie Zhang, Yilin Cao, Jing He, Wei Liu
Tenomodulin (TNMD) is a type II transmembrane protein that is widely expressed in a variety of avascular connective tissues and fat tissue. Its function remains largely unknown except for a marker for mature tenocytes. This study reports the generation of tetracycline (Tet)-on driven conditional TNMD overexpressing mice and thus to provide a tool for systemic investigation of its role in regulating functions of various tissues. The current study focuses on in vitro comparison of tenogenic differentiation potentials induced by doxycycline (Dox) treatment among bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSCs), adipose derived stem cells (ASCs), dermal fibroblasts (DFs) and tenocytes (TCs) of the same transgenic mice...
October 21, 2016: Gene
Kenichi Masumura, Naomi Toyoda-Hokaiwado, Akiko Ukai, Yoichi Gondo, Masamitsu Honma, Takehiko Nohmi
Germline mutations are an important component of genetic toxicology; however, mutagenicity tests of germline cells are limited. Recent advances in sequencing technology can be used to detect mutations by direct sequencing of genomic DNA (gDNA). We previously reported induced de novo mutations detected using whole-exome sequencing in the offspring of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-treated mice in a single-dose experiment (85mg/kg, i.p., weekly on two occasions). In this study, two lower doses (10 and 30mg/kg) were added, and dose-response of inherited germline mutations was analyzed...
November 1, 2016: Mutation Research
Jing Li, Aping Niu, Chun-Jiao Lu, Jing-Hui Zhang, Muhammad Junaid, Phyllis R Strauss, Ping Xiao, Xiao Wang, Yi-Wei Ren, De-Sheng Pei
Landfill leachate (LL) is harmful to aquatic environment because it contains high concentrations of dissolved organic matter, inorganic components, heavy metals, and other xenobiotics. Thus, the remediation of LL is crucial for environmental conservation. Here, a potential application of the forward osmosis (FO) filtration process with ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) as a draw solution (DS) was investigated to remediate membrane bioreactor-treated LL (M-LL). After the leachate treatment, the toxicity and removal efficiencies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were evaluated using zebrafish and cultured human cells...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Nidhi Rawat, Michael O Pumphrey, Sixin Liu, Xiaofei Zhang, Vijay K Tiwari, Kaori Ando, Harold N Trick, William W Bockus, Eduard Akhunov, James A Anderson, Bikram S Gill
Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat and barley that leads to reduced yield and mycotoxin contamination of grain, making it unfit for human consumption. FHB is a global problem, with outbreaks in the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia and South America. In the United States alone, total direct and secondary economic losses from 1993 to 2001 owing to FHB were estimated at $7.67 billion. Fhb1 is the most consistently reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) for FHB resistance breeding...
October 24, 2016: Nature Genetics
Ewelina Mnich, Ruben Vanholme, Paula Oyarce, Sarah Liu, Fachuang Lu, Geert Goeminne, Bodil Jørgensen, Mohammed Saddik Motawie, Wout Boerjan, John Ralph, Peter Ulvskov, Birger Lindberg Møller, Nanna Bjarnholt, Jesper Harholt
Lignin is a major polymer in the secondary plant cell wall and composed of hydrophobic interlinked hydroxyphenylpropanoid units. The presence of lignin hampers conversion of plant biomass into biofuels; plants with modified lignin are therefore being investigated for increased digestibility. The bacterium Sphingomonas paucimobilis produces lignin-degrading enzymes including LigD, LigF and LigG involved in cleaving the most abundant lignin inter-unit linkage, the β-aryl ether bond. In this study, we expressed the LigD, LigF and LigG (LigDFG) genes in Arabidopsis thaliana to introduce post-lignification modifications into the lignin structure...
October 24, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"