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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830103/differential-fine-tuning-of-gene-expression-regulation-in-coffee-leaves-by-ccdreb1d-promoter-haplotypes-under-water-deficit
#1
Gabriel Sergio Costa Alves, Luana Ferreira Torres, Eveline Déchamp, Jean-Christophe Breitler, Thierry Joët, Frédéric Gatineau, Alan Carvalho Andrade, Benoît Bertrand, Pierre Marraccini, Hervé Etienne
Despite the importance of the DREB1D gene (also known as CBF4) in plant responses to water deficit and cold stress, studies analysing its regulation by transgenic approaches are lacking. In the current work, a functional study of three CcDREB1D promoter haplotypes (named HP15, HP16 and HP17) isolated from drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive clones of Coffea canephora was carried out in plants of C. arabica stably transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens by analysing their ability to regulate the expression of the uidA reporter gene in response to water deficit mimicked by polyethylene glycol (-2...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830098/enhancing-genetic-gain-in-the-era-of-molecular-breeding
#2
Yunbi Xu, Ping Li, Cheng Zou, Yanli Lu, Chuanxiao Xie, Xuecai Zhang, Boddupalli M Prasanna, Michael S Olsen
As one of the important concepts in conventional quantitative genetics and breeding, genetic gain can be defined as the amount of increase in performance that is achieved annually through artificial selection. To develop pro ducts that meet the increasing demand of mankind, especially for food and feed, in addition to various industrial uses, breeders are challenged to enhance the potential of genetic gain continuously, at ever higher rates, while they close the gaps that remain between the yield potential in breeders' demonstration trials and the actual yield in farmers' fields...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829770/combinatorial-regulation-of-a-blimp1-prdm1-enhancer-in-the-mouse-retina
#3
Taylor S Mills, Tatiana Eliseeva, Stephanie M Bersie, Grace Randazzo, Jhenya Nahreini, Ko Uoon Park, Joseph A Brzezinski
The mouse retina comprises seven major cell types that exist in differing proportions. They are generated from multipotent progenitors in a stochastic manner, such that the relative frequency of any given type generated changes over time. The mechanisms determining the proportions of each cell type are only partially understood. Photoreceptors and bipolar interneurons are derived from cells that express Otx2. Within this population, Blimp1 (Prdm1) helps set the balance between photoreceptors and bipolar cells by suppressing bipolar identity in most of the cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829599/nonpyrogenic-molecular-adjuvants-based-on-norabu-muramyldipeptide-and-norabu-glucosaminyl-muramyldipeptide-synthesis-molecular-mechanisms-of-action-biological-activities-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#4
Roman Effenberg, Pavlína Turánek Knötigová, Daniel Zyka, Hana Čelechovská, Josef Mašek, Eliška Bartheldyová, Frantisek Hubatka, Štěpán Koudelka, Róbert Lukáč, Anna Kovalová, David Saman, Michal Křupka, Lucia Barkocziová, Petr Kosztyu, Marek Šebela, Ladislav Drož, Michal Hučko, Mária Kanásová, Andrew David Miller, Milan Raška, Miroslav Ledvina, Jaroslav Turanek
Apyrogenic fatty acyl analogues of muramyldipeptide (MDP) (abbreviated N-L18norAbuGMDP, N-B30norAbuGMDP, norAbuMDP-Lys(L18), norAbuMDP-Lys(B30), norAbuGMDP-Lys(L18), norAbuGMDP-Lys(B30), (B30)norAbuMDP, (L18)norAbuMDP) were designed and synthesized comprising the normuramyl-L-α-aminobutanoyl (norAbu) structural moiety. All new analogues show depressed pyrogenicity both as free compounds and in liposomal formulations when tested in vivo in rabbits (s.c. and i.v. application). The potency of analogues in selective activation of NOD2 and NLRP3 (inflammasome) receptors in vitro, but not NOD1, is demonstrated using transgenic cell-based detection systems...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829423/multi-photon-time-lapse-imaging-to-visualize-development-in-real-time-visualization-of-migrating-neural-crest-cells-in-zebrafish-embryos
#5
Antionette L Williams, Brenda L Bohnsack
Congenital eye and craniofacial anomalies reflect disruptions in the neural crest, a transient population of migratory stem cells that give rise to numerous cell types throughout the body. Understanding the biology of the neural crest has been limited, reflecting a lack of genetically tractable models that can be studied in vivo and in real-time. Zebrafish is a particularly important developmental model for studying migratory cell populations, such as the neural crest. To examine neural crest migration into the developing eye, a combination of the advanced optical techniques of laser scanning microscopy with long wavelength multi-photon fluorescence excitation was implemented to capture high-resolution, three-dimensional, real-time videos of the developing eye in transgenic zebrafish embryos, namely Tg(sox10:EGFP) and Tg(foxd3:GFP), as sox10 and foxd3 have been shown in numerous animal models to regulate early neural crest differentiation and likely represent markers for neural crest cells...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828740/the-oligomer-hypothesis-in-%C3%AE-synucleinopathy
#6
REVIEW
Kenjiro Ono
Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in the brain constitute the main histopathological features of Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies. They comprise amyloid-like fibrils composed of α-synuclein (αS), a small protein (~14 kDa). Because the aggregation of αS in the brain has been implicated as a critical step in the development of these diseases, the research for disease-modifying drugs has focused on modification of the αS aggregation process in the brain. Recent studies using synthetic αS peptides, a cell culture model, transgenic mice models, and human samples such as cerebrospinal fluids and the blood of PD patients have suggested that pre-fibrillar forms of αS (i...
August 21, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828714/genetic-engineering-a-possible-strategy-for-protein-energy-malnutrition-regulation
#7
REVIEW
Praveen Guleria, Vineet Kumar, Shiwani Guleria
Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) has adversely affected the generations of developing countries. It is a syndrome that in severity causes death. PEM generally affects infants of 1-5 age group. This manifestation is maintained till adulthood in the form of poor brain and body development. The developing nations are continuously making an effort to curb PEM. However, it is still a prime concern as it was in its early years of occurrence. Transgenic crops with high protein and enhanced nutrient content have been successfully developed...
August 21, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828630/lanosterol-synthase-like-is-involved-with-differential-accumulation-of-steroidal-glycoalkaloids-in-potato
#8
Akhilesh Kumar, Edna Fogelman, Mira Weissberg, Zachariah Tanami, Richard E Veilleux, Idit Ginzberg
Phytosterol homeostasis may be maintained in leaves through diversion of intermediates into glycoalkaloid biosynthesis, whereas in tuber flesh, excess intermediates are catalyzed by tuber-specific StLAS - like , resulting in low tuber glycoalkaloids. Lanosterol synthase (LAS) and cycloartenol synthase (CAS) are phylogenetically related enzymes. Cycloartenol is the accepted precursor leading to cholesterol and phytosterols, and in potato, to steroidal glycoalkaloid (SGA) biosynthesis. LAS was also shown to synthesize some plant sterols, albeit at trace amounts, questioning its role in sterol homeostasis...
August 21, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828576/bone-turnover-is-altered-in-transgenic-rats-overexpressing-the-p2y2-purinergic-receptor
#9
Maria Ellegaard, Cansu Agca, Solveig Petersen, Ankita Agrawal, Lars Schack Kruse, Ning Wang, Alison Gartland, Jens-Erik Beck Jensen, Niklas Rye Jørgensen, Yuksel Agca
It is now widely recognized that purinergic signaling plays an important role in the regulation of bone remodeling. One receptor subtype, which has been suggested to be involved in this regulation, is the P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2R). In the present study, we investigated the effect of P2Y2R overexpression on bone status and bone cell function using a transgenic rat. Three-month-old female transgenic Sprague Dawley rats overexpressing P2Y2R (P2Y2R-Tg) showed higher bone strength of the femoral neck. Histomorphometry showed increase in resorptive surfaces and reduction in mineralizing surfaces...
August 21, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828456/neutral-merocyanine-dyes-for-in-vivo-nir-fluorescence-imaging-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-plaques
#10
Jin-Wu Yan, Jia-Ying Zhu, Kai-Xiang Zhou, Jin-Sheng Wang, Hui-Ya Tan, Zhong-Yong Xu, Shuo-Bin Chen, Yu-Ting Lu, Meng-Chao Cui, Lei Zhang
Two neutral merocyanine-based near-infrared fluorescent probes were for the first time developed through rational engineering of the classical cationic cyanine scaffold IR-780 for in vivo imaging of amyloid-β plaques. In vivo NIRF imaging revealed that the probe could penetrate the blood-brain barrier and efficiently differentiate the living transgenic and wild-type mice.
August 22, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828391/minimal-purkinje-cell-specific-pcp2-l7-promoter-virally-available-for-rodents-and-non-human-primates
#11
Keisuke Nitta, Yasunori Matsuzaki, Ayumu Konno, Hirokazu Hirai
Cell-type-specific promoters in combination with viral vectors and gene-editing technology permit efficient gene manipulation in specific cell populations. Cerebellar Purkinje cells play a pivotal role in cerebellar functions. Although the Purkinje cell-specific L7 promoter is widely used for the generation of transgenic mice, it remains unsuitable for viral vectors because of its large size (3 kb) and exceedingly weak promoter activity. Here, we found that the 0.8-kb region (named here as L7-6) upstream of the transcription initiation codon in the first exon was alone sufficient as a Purkinje cell-specific promoter, presenting a far stronger promoter activity over the original 3-kb L7 promoter with a sustained significant specificity to Purkinje cells...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827785/a-highly-sensitive-plasma-based-amyloid-%C3%AE-detection-system-through-medium-changing-and-noise-cancellation-system-for-early-diagnosis-of-the-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Yong Kyoung Yoo, Jinsik Kim, Gangeun Kim, Young Soo Kim, Hye Yun Kim, Sejin Lee, Won Woo Cho, Seongsoo Kim, Sang-Myung Lee, Byung Chul Lee, Jeong Hoon Lee, Kyo Seon Hwang
We developed an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) sensor system for blood-based Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis based on impedimetric detection of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein, which is a representative candidate biomarker for AD. The IME sensing device was fabricated using a surface micromachining process. For highly sensitive detection of several tens to hundreds of picogram/mL of Aβ in blood, medium change from plasma to PBS buffer was utilized with signal cancellation and amplification processing (SCAP) system...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827783/ccdc3-a-new-p63-target-involved-in-regulation-of-liver-lipid-metabolism
#13
Wenjuan Liao, Hongbing Liu, Yiwei Zhang, Ji Hoon Jung, Jiaxiang Chen, Xiaohua Su, Yeong C Kim, Elsa R Flores, San Ming Wang, Malwina Czarny-Ratajczak, Wen Li, Shelya X Zeng, Hua Lu
TAp63, a member of the p53 family, has been shown to regulate energy metabolism. Here, we report coiled coil domain-containing 3 (CCDC3) as a new TAp63 target. TAp63, but not ΔNp63, p53 or p73, upregulates CCDC3 expression by directly binding to its enhancer region. The CCDC3 expression is markedly reduced in TAp63-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts and brown adipose tissues and by tumor necrosis factor alpha that reduces p63 transcriptional activity, but induced by metformin, an anti-diabetic drug that activates p63...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827578/low-dose-tamoxifen-treatment-in-juvenile-males-has-long-term-adverse-effects-on-the-reproductive-system-implications-for-inducible-transgenics
#14
Saloni H Patel, Laura O'Hara, Nina Atanassova, Sarah E Smith, Michael K Curley, Diane Rebourcet, Annalucia L Darbey, Anne-Louise Gannon, Richard M Sharpe, Lee B Smith
The tamoxifen-inducible Cre system is a popular transgenic method for controlling the induction of recombination by Cre at a specific time and in a specific cell type. However, tamoxifen is not an inert inducer of recombination, but an established endocrine disruptor with mixed agonist/antagonist activity acting via endogenous estrogen receptors. Such potentially confounding effects should be controlled for, but >40% of publications that have used tamoxifen to generate conditional knockouts have not reported even the minimum appropriate controls...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827473/restoration-of-circulating-mfge8-milk-fat-globule-egf-factor-8-attenuates-cardiac-hypertrophy-through-inhibition-of-akt-pathway
#15
Ke-Qiong Deng, Jing Li, Zhi-Gang She, Jun Gong, Wen-Lin Cheng, Fu-Han Gong, Xue-Yong Zhu, Yan Zhang, Zhihua Wang, Hongliang Li
Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to numerous stimuli like neurohumoral stress, pressure overload, infection, and injury, and leads to heart failure. Mfge8 (milk fat globule-EGF factor 8) is a secreted protein involved in various human diseases, but its regulation and function during cardiac hypertrophy remain unexplored. Here, we found that circulating MFGE8 levels declined significantly in failing hearts from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Correlation analyses revealed that circulating MFGE8 levels were negatively correlated with the severity of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in affected patients...
August 21, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827391/a-fixation-method-to-preserve-cultured-cell-cytonemes-facilitates-mechanistic-interrogation-of-morphogen-transport
#16
William J Bodeen, Suresh Marada, Ashley Truong, Stacey K Ogden
During development, extracellular cues guiding cell fate determination are provided by morphogens. One mechanism by which morphogens are proposed to traverse extracellular space is by traveling along specialized filopodia called cytonemes. These cellular highways extend between signal producing and receiving cells to enable direct morphogen delivery. Although genetic studies support cytoneme involvement in morphogen transport, mechanistic insight into how they are regulated is limited due to technical challenges associated with performing cell biological analysis of the delicate filopodial structures...
August 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827353/foxp3-independent-mechanism-by-which-tgf-%C3%AE-controls-peripheral-t-cell-tolerance
#17
Soyoung A Oh, Ming Liu, Briana G Nixon, Davina Kang, Ahmed Toure, Michael Bivona, Ming O Li
Peripheral T cell tolerance is promoted by the regulatory cytokine TGF-β and Foxp3-expressing Treg cells. However, whether TGF-β and Treg cells are part of the same regulatory module, or exist largely as distinct pathways to repress self-reactive T cells remains incompletely understood. Using a transgenic model of autoimmune diabetes, here we show that ablation of TGF-β receptor II (TβRII) in T cells, but not Foxp3 deficiency, resulted in early-onset diabetes with complete penetrance. The rampant autoimmune disease was associated with enhanced T cell priming and elevated T cell expression of the inflammatory cytokine GM-CSF, concomitant with pancreatic infiltration of inflammatory monocytes that triggered immunopathology...
August 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827330/cytochrome-p450-monooxygenase-lipid-metabolites-are-significant-second-messengers-in-the-resolution-of-choroidal-neovascularization
#18
Eiichi Hasegawa, Saori Inafuku, Lama Mulki, Yoko Okunuki, Ryoji Yanai, Kaylee E Smith, Clifford B Kim, Garrett Klokman, Diane R Bielenberg, Narender Puli, John R Falck, Deeba Husain, Joan W Miller, Matthew L Edin, Darryl C Zeldin, Kin Sing Stephen Lee, Bruce D Hammock, Wolf-Hagen Schunck, Kip M Connor
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness for individuals age 50 and above in the developed world. Abnormal growth of choroidal blood vessels, or choroidal neovascularization (CNV), is a hallmark of the neovascular (wet) form of advanced AMD and leads to significant vision loss. A growing body of evidence supports a strong link between neovascular disease and inflammation. Metabolites of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from the cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase pathway serve as vital second messengers that regulate a number of hormones and growth factors involved in inflammation and vascular function...
August 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827321/hsp90-activator-aha1-drives-production-of-pathological-tau-aggregates
#19
Lindsey B Shelton, Jeremy D Baker, Dali Zheng, Leia E Sullivan, Parth K Solanki, Jack M Webster, Zheying Sun, Jonathan J Sabbagh, Bryce A Nordhues, John Koren, Suman Ghosh, Brian S J Blagg, Laura J Blair, Chad A Dickey
The microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT, tau) forms neurotoxic aggregates that promote cognitive deficits in tauopathies, the most common of which is Alzheimer's disease (AD). The 90-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) chaperone system affects the accumulation of these toxic tau species, which can be modulated with Hsp90 inhibitors. However, many Hsp90 inhibitors are not blood-brain barrier-permeable, and several present associated toxicities. Here, we find that the cochaperone, activator of Hsp90 ATPase homolog 1 (Aha1), dramatically increased the production of aggregated tau...
August 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827284/rhinovirus-infection-of-ormdl3-transgenic-mice-is-associated-with-reduced-rhinovirus-viral-load-and-airway-inflammation
#20
Dae Jin Song, Marina Miller, Andrew Beppu, Peter Rosenthal, Sudipta Das, Maya Karta, Christine Vuong, Amit Kumar Mehta, Michael Croft, David H Broide
Orosomucoid like 3 (ORMDL3), a gene localized to chromosome 17q21, has been linked in epidemiologic studies to childhood asthma and rhinovirus (RV) infections. As the single nucleotide polymorphisms linking ORMDL3 to asthma are associated with increased expression of ORMDL3, we have used hORMDL3(zp3-Cre) mice (which have universal increased expression of human ORMDL3) to determine whether infection of these transgenic mice with RV influences levels of airway inflammation or RV viral load. RV infection of hORMDL3(zp3-Cre) mice resulted in reduced RV viral load assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (lung and airway epithelium), as well as reduced airway inflammation (total bronchoalveolar lavage cells, neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes) compared with RV-infected wild-type mice...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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