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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527340/induction-of-cell-death-by-tospoviral-protein-nss-and-the-motif-critical-for-cell-death-does-not-control-rna-silencing-suppression-activity
#1
Ajeet Singh, Vipin Permar, R K Jain, Suneha Goswami, Ranjeet Ranjan Kumar, Tomas Canto, Peter Palukaitis, Shelly Praveen
Groundnut bud necrosis virus induces necrotic symptoms in different hosts. Previous studies showed reactive oxygen species-mediated programmed cell death (PCD) resulted in necrotic symptoms. Transgenic expression of viral protein NSs mimics viral symptoms. Here, we showed a role for NSs in influencing oxidative burst in the cell, by analyzing H2O2 accumulation, activities of antioxidant enzymes and expression levels of vacuolar processing enzymes, H2O2-responsive microRNA 319a.2 plus its possible target metacaspase-8...
May 17, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527337/improved-stress-tolerance-and-productivity-in-transgenic-rice-plants-constitutively-expressing-the-oryza-sativa-glutathione-synthetase-osgs-under-paddy-field-conditions
#2
Seong-Im Park, Young-Saeng Kim, Jin-Ju Kim, Ji-Eun Mok, Yul-Ho Kim, Hyang-Mi Park, Il-Sup Kim, Ho-Sung Yoon
Reactive oxygen species, which increase under various environmental stresses, have deleterious effects on plants. An important antioxidant, glutathione, is used to detoxify reactive oxygen species in plant cells and is mainly produced by two enzymes: gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-ECS) and glutathione synthetase (GS). To evaluate the functional roles of the glutathione synthetase gene (OsGS) in rice, we generated four independent transgenic rice plants (TG1-TG4) that overexpressed OsGS under the control of the constitutively expressed OsCc1 promoter...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526984/reduced-weed-seed-shattering-by-silencing-a-cultivated-rice-gene-strategic-mitigation-for-escaped-transgenes
#3
Huanxin Yan, Lei Li, Ping Liu, Xiaoqi Jiang, Lei Wang, Jia Fang, Zhimin Lin, Feng Wang, Jun Su, Bao-Rong Lu
Transgene flow form a genetically engineered (GE) crop to its wild relatives may result in unwanted environmental consequences. Mitigating transgenes via introducing a gene that is disadvantageous to wild relatives but beneficial to crops, and is tightly-linked with the target transgenes, may provide a promising solution to limit the spread of transgenes in wild/weedy populations. Here we demonstrate a novel system with significantly reduced seed shattering in crop-weed hybrid descendants by partially silenced expression of the seed-shattering gene SH4 in cultivated rice, using artificial microRNA and antisense RNA techniques...
May 19, 2017: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526454/generation-and-characterization-of-caprine-chymosin-in-corn-seed
#4
Wen-Guo Liu, Yun-Peng Wang, Zhi-Jun Zhang, Min Wang, Qing-Xue Lv, Hong-Wei Liu, Ling-Cong Meng, Ming Lu
Chymosin is widely used in the dairy industry, and much is produced through recombinant DNA in organisms such as bacteria and tobacco. In this study, we used a new transgenic method to express caprine chymosin in corn seeds with lower cost and better storage capability. The recombinant chymosin protein was successfully expressed at an average level of 0.37 mg/g dry weight, which is 0.27% of the total soluble protein in the corn seed. Prochymosin can be activated to produce a chymosin protein with the ability to induce clotting in milk, similar to the commercial protein...
May 16, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526353/stretch-activated-two-pore-domain-k2p-potassium-channels-in-the-heart-focus-on-atrial-fibrillation-and-heart-failure
#5
REVIEW
Constanze Schmidt, Felix Wiedmann, Stefan M Kallenberger, Antonius Ratte, Jan S Schulte, Beatrix Scholz, Frank Ulrich Müller, Niels Voigt, Maria-Patapia Zafeiriou, Joachim R Ehrlich, Ursula Tochtermann, Gábor Veres, Arjang Ruhparwar, Matthias Karck, Hugo A Katus, Dierk Thomas
Two-pore-domain potassium (K2P) channels modulate cellular excitability. The significance of stretch-activated cardiac K2P channels (K2P2.1, TREK-1, KCNK2; K2P4.1, TRAAK, KCNK4; K2P10.1, TREK-2, KCNK10) in heart disease has not been elucidated in detail. The aim of this work was to assess expression and remodeling of mechanosensitive K2P channels in atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) patients in comparison to murine models. Cardiac K2P channel levels were quantified in atrial (A) and ventricular (V) tissue obtained from patients undergoing open heart surgery...
May 16, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526325/expression-of-megf10-in-cholinergic-and-glutamatergic-neurons
#6
Yu Fujita, Tomoji Maeda, Koji Kamaishi, Rui Saito, Koyo Chiba, Xuefeng Shen, Kun Zou, Hiroto Komano
Multiple-EGF like domains 10 (MEGF10) is the mammalian homologue of Draper, a Drosophila phagocytosis receptor that plays an important role in synapse elimination and cell type-specific recognition. However, the expression and function of MEGF10 in the brain remain to be elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the regions and types of neurons that express MEGF10 in the brain, and to determine whether cells expressing MEGF10 possess phagocytic abilities. Our results indicated that MEGF10 is expressed in cholinergic and glutamatergic neurons of the cortex, hippocampus, and substantia nigra...
May 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526302/an-important-role-of-vegf-c-in-promoting-lymphedema-development
#7
Epameinondas Gousopoulos, Steven T Proulx, Samia B Bachmann, Lothar C Dieterich, Jeannette Scholl, Sinem Karaman, Roberta Bianchi, Michael Detmar
Secondary lymphedema is a common post-cancer treatment complication but the pathomechanisms underlying the disease remain unclear. Using a mouse-tail lymphedema model, we found an increase in local and systemic levels of the lymphangiogenic factor VEGF-C, and identified CD68+ macrophages as a cellular source. Surprisingly, overexpression of VEGF-C in a transgenic mouse model led to aggravation of lymphedema with increased immune cell infiltration and vascular leakage in comparison to wild-type littermates. Conversely, blockage of VEGF-C by overexpression of soluble VEGFR3 reduced edema development, diminishing inflammation and blood vascular leakage...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525963/the-use-of-transgenic-parasites-in-malaria-vaccine-research
#8
Ahmad Syibli Othman, Catherin Marin-Mogollon, Ahmed M Salman, Blandine M Franke-Fayard, Chris J Janse, Shahid M Khan
Transgenic malaria parasites expressing foreign genes, for example fluorescent and luminescent proteins, are used extensively to interrogate parasite biology and host-parasite interactions associated with malaria pathology. Increasingly transgenic parasites are also exploited to advance malaria vaccine development. Areas Covered: We review how transgenic malaria parasites are used, in vitro and in vivo, to determine protective efficacy of different antigens and vaccination strategies and to determine immunological correlates of protection...
May 19, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525954/construction-of-various-%C3%AE-34-5-deleted-fluorescent-expressing-oncolytic-herpes-simplex-type-1-ohsv-for-generation-and-isolation-of-hsv-based-vectors
#9
REVIEW
Shahriyar Abdoli, Farzin Roohvand, Ladan Teimoori-Toolabi, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, Mina Bahrololoumi, Kayhan Azadmanesh
Background: Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV)-based vectors lacking γ34.5 gene, are considered as ideal templates to construct efficient vectors for (targeted) cancer gene therapy. Herein, we reported the construction of three single/dually-flourescence labeled and γ34.5-deleted, recombinant HSV-1 vectors for rapid generation and easy selection/isolation of different HSV-Based vectors. Methods: Generation of recombinant viruses was performed with conventional homologous recombination methods using green fluorescent protein (GFP) and BleCherry harboring shuttle vectors...
July 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525381/the-cell-of-origin-dictates-the-temporal-course-of-neurofibromatosis-1-nf1-low-grade-glioma-formation
#10
Anne C Solga, Joseph A Toonen, Yuan Pan, Patrick J Cimino, Yu Ma, Guillaume A Castillon, Scott M Gianino, Mark H Ellisman, Da Yong Lee, David H Gutmann
Low-grade gliomas are one of the most common brain tumors in children, where they frequently form within the optic pathway (optic pathway gliomas; OPGs). Since many OPGs occur in the context of the Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome, we have previously employed Nf1 genetically-engineered mouse (GEM) strains to study the pathogenesis of these low-grade glial neoplasms. In the light of the finding that human and mouse low-grade gliomas are composed of Olig2+ cells and that Olig2+ oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) give rise to murine high-grade gliomas, we sought to determine whether Olig2+ OPCs could be tumor-initiating cells for Nf1 optic glioma...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524861/an-apicobasal-gradient-of-rac-activity-determines-protrusion-form-and-position
#11
Africa Couto, Natalie Ann Mack, Lucrezia Favia, Marios Georgiou
Each cell within a polarized epithelial sheet must align and correctly position a wide range of subcellular structures, including actin-based dynamic protrusions. Using in vivo inducible transgenes that can sense or modify Rac activity, we demonstrate an apicobasal gradient of Rac activity that is required to correctly form and position distinct classes of dynamic protrusion along the apicobasal axis of the cell. We show that we can modify the Rac activity gradient in genetic mutants for specific polarity proteins, with consequent changes in protrusion form and position and additionally show, using photoactivatable Rac transgenes, that it is the level of Rac activity that determines protrusion form...
May 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524857/a-defined-metabolic-state-in-pre-b-cells-governs-b-cell-development-and-is-counterbalanced-by-swiprosin-2-efhd1
#12
Merle Stein, Sebastian Dütting, Dimitrios Mougiakakos, Michael Bösl, Kristin Fritsch, Dorothea Reimer, Sophia Urbanczyk, Tobit Steinmetz, Wolfgang Schuh, Aline Bozec, Thomas H Winkler, Hans-Martin Jäck, Dirk Mielenz
B-cell development in the bone marrow comprises proliferative and resting phases in different niches. We asked whether B-cell metabolism relates to these changes. Compared to pro B and small pre B cells, large pre B cells revealed the highest glucose uptake and ROS but not mitochondrial mass, whereas small pre B cells exhibited the lowest mitochondrial membrane potential. Small pre B cells from Rag1(-/-);33.C9 μ heavy chain knock-in mice revealed decreased glycolysis (ECAR) and mitochondrial spare capacity compared to pro B cells from Rag1(-/-) mice...
May 19, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524544/enzymatic-engineering-of-live-bacterial-cell-surface-using-butelase-1
#13
Xiaobao Bi, Juan Yin, Giang K T Nguyen, Chang Rao, Nurashikin Bte Abdul Halim, Xinya Hemu, James P Tam, Chuan-Fa Liu
We show that butelase-mediated ligation (BML) can be used to modify live bacterial cell surfaces with diverse cargo molecules. Surface-displayed butelase recognition motif NHV was first introduced at the C-terminal end of the anchoring protein OmpA on E. coli cells. This then served as a handle of BML for the functionalization of E. coli cell surfaces with fluorescein and biotin tags, a tumor-associated monoglycosylated peptide and mCherry protein. The cell-surface ligation reaction was achieved at low concentrations of butelase and the labeling substrates...
May 19, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524179/a-fkbp5-mutation-is-associated-with-paget-s-disease-of-bone-and-enhances-osteoclastogenesis
#14
Bingru Lu, Yulian Jiao, Yinchang Wang, Jing Dong, Muyun Wei, Bin Cui, Yafang Sun, Laicheng Wang, Bingchang Zhang, Zijiang Chen, Yueran Zhao
Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is a common metabolic bone disease that is characterized by aberrant focal bone remodeling, which is caused by excessive osteoclastic bone resorption followed by disorganized osteoblastic bone formation. Genetic factors are a critical determinant of PDB pathogenesis, and several susceptibility genes and loci have been reported, including SQSTM1, TNFSF11A, TNFRSF11B, VCP, OPTN, CSF1 and DCSTAMP. Herein, we report a case of Chinese familial PDB without mutations in known genes and identify a novel c...
May 19, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524166/homology-mediated-end-joining-based-targeted-integration-using-crispr-cas9
#15
Xuan Yao, Xing Wang, Xinde Hu, Zhen Liu, Junlai Liu, Haibo Zhou, Xiaowen Shen, Yu Wei, Zijian Huang, Wenqin Ying, Yan Wang, Yan-Hong Nie, Chen-Chen Zhang, Sanlan Li, Leping Cheng, Qifang Wang, Yan Wu, Pengyu Huang, Qiang Sun, Linyu Shi, Hui Yang
Targeted integration of transgenes can be achieved by strategies based on homologous recombination (HR), microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) or non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). The more generally used HR is inefficient for achieving gene integration in animal embryos and tissues, because it occurs only during cell division, although MMEJ and NHEJ can elevate the efficiency in some systems. Here we devise a homology-mediated end joining (HMEJ)-based strategy, using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated cleavage of both transgene donor vector that contains guide RNA target sites and ∼800 bp of homology arms, and the targeted genome...
May 19, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523919/editing-plants-for-virus-resistance-using-crispr-cas
#16
J C Green, J S Hu
This minireview summarizes recent advancements using the clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats-associated nuclease systems (CRISPR-Cas) derived from prokaryotes to breed plants resistant to DNA and RNA viruses. The CRISPR-Cas system represents a powerful tool able to edit and insert novel traits into plants precisely at chosen loci offering enormous advantages to classical breeding. Approaches to engineering plant virus resistance in both transgenic and non-transgenic plants are discussed. Iterations of the CRISPR-Cas system, FnCas9 and C2c2 capable of editing RNA in eukaryotic cells offer a particular advantage for providing resistance to RNA viruses which represent the great majority of known plant viruses...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523568/role-of-dopamine-projections-from-ventral-tegmental-area-to-nucleus-accumbens-and-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-reinforcement-behaviors-assessed-using-optogenetic-manipulation
#17
Xiao Han, Man-Yi Jing, Tai-Yun Zhao, Ning Wu, Rui Song, Jin Li
Dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are predicted to play important roles in reward. In pharmacological studies, the rewarding effects of methamphetamine are mediated by DA neurons localized in the VTA. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortices (mPFC) are the main projections from the VTA. However, the role of these projections remains unclear, particularly the mPFC projections. In the present study, DAT-Cre transgenic mice received an injection of adeno-associated viral vectors encoding channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2) or control vector into the VTA resulting in the selective expression of these opsins in DA neurons...
May 19, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523532/progressive-pathological-changes-in-neurochemical-profile-of-the-hippocampus-and-early-changes-in-the-olfactory-bulbs-of-tau-transgenic-mice-rtg4510
#18
Jieun Kim, In-Young Choi, Karen E Duff, Phil Lee
Tauopathies such as Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal lobe degeneration (FTLD-tau) dementia, characterized by pathologic aggregation of the microtubule-associated tau protein and formation of neurofibrillary tangles, have been linked to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. The early detection of cerebral abnormalities and the identification of biological contributors to the continuous pathologic processes of neurodegeneration in tauopathies critically hinge on sensitive and reliable measures of biomarkers in the living brain...
May 18, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523445/ptrmyb57-contributes-to-the-negative-regulation-of-anthocyanin-and-proanthocyanidin-biosynthesis-in-poplar
#19
Shuzhen Wan, Chaofeng Li, Xiaodong Ma, Keming Luo
A novel R2R3 MYB transcription factor PtrMYB57 interacted with bHLH131 and PtrTTG1 to form the MBW complex and negatively regulated the biosynthesis of both anthocyanins and PAs in poplar. R2R3-MYB transcription factors (TFs) are important regulators of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in woody species. A series of R2R3-MYB TFs involved in anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis have been identified in poplar. In this study, we report the identification and characterization of a subgroup 4 MYB member PtrMYB57, which contains a repressor domain (LxLxL) at the C-terminal end...
May 18, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523007/transcriptomic-identification-of-drought-related-genes-and-ssr-markers-in-sudan-grass-based-on-rna-seq
#20
Yongqun Zhu, Xia Wang, Linkai Huang, Chaowen Lin, Xinquan Zhang, Wenzhi Xu, Jianhua Peng, Zhou Li, Haidong Yan, Fuxiang Luo, Xie Wang, Li Yao, Dandan Peng
Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense) is an annual warm-season gramineous forage grass that is widely used as pasture, hay, and silage. However, drought stress severely impacts its yield, and there is limited information about the mechanisms of drought tolerance in Sudan grass. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the Sudan grass variety Wulate No.1, and we developed simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with drought stress. From 852,543,826 raw reads, nearly 816,854,366 clean reads were identified and used for analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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