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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30025403/chemoprevention-with-enalapril-and-aspirin-in-men1-t-knockout-mouse-model
#1
Jerena Manoharan, Volker Fendrich, Pietro Di Fazio, Carmen Bollmann, Silvia Roth, Barbara Joos, Ioannis Mintziras, Max Albers, Annette Ramaswamy, Philippe Bertolino, Chang X Zhang, Emily P Slater, Detlef K Bartsch, Caroline Lopez-Lopez
<br>Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasias (pNEN) are the most common cause of death in adult patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). So far, only few chemopreventive strategies (e.g. with somatostatin analogues) have been evaluated for MEN1 associated pNENs. In this experimental study on 75 Men1(+ /T) knockout mice, the effect of aspirin (n=25) and an inhibitor of angiotensin-I converting enzyme (enalapril, n=25) compared to controls (n=25) were evaluated as single chemopreventive strategies for pNENs after 6,9,12,15 and 18 months...
July 19, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024942/prefrontal-cortex-dependent-innate-behaviors-are-altered-by-selective-knockdown-of-gad1-in-neuropeptide-y-interneurons
#2
Katelynn M Corder, Mariana A Cortes, Aundrea F Bartley, Samantha A Lear, Farah D Lubin, Lynn E Dobrunz
GABAergic dysfunction has been implicated in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including anxiety disorders. Anxiety disorders are the most common type of psychiatric disorder during adolescence. There is a deficiency of GABAergic transmission in anxiety, and enhancement of GABA transmission through pharmacological means reduces anxiety behaviors. GAD67-the enzyme responsible for GABA production-has been linked to anxiety disorders. One class of GABAergic interneurons, Neuropeptide Y (NPY) expressing cells, is abundantly found in brain regions associated with anxiety and fear learning, including prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024919/effects-of-transgenic-bacillus-thuringiensis-cotton-on-insecticide-use-heliothine-counts-plant-damage-and-cotton-yield-a-meta-analysis-1996-2015
#3
Daniel Fleming, Fred Musser, Dominic Reisig, Jeremy Greene, Sally Taylor, Megha Parajulee, Gus Lorenz, Angus Catchot, Jeffrey Gore, David Kerns, Scott Stewart, Deborah Boykin, Michael Caprio, Nathan Little
The primary management tactic for lepidopteran pests of cotton in the United States of America (USA) is the use of transgenic cotton that produces Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) toxins. The primary target pests of this technology are Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Heliothis virescens (F.) in the eastern and central Cotton Belt of the USA. Concerns over the evolution of resistance in H. zea to Bt toxins and scrutiny of the necessity of Bt crops has escalated. We reviewed published and unpublished data from field trials of Bt cotton in the eastern and central Cotton Belt of the USA through 2015 to evaluate the effectiveness of Bt cotton (Bollgard, Bollgard II, WideStrike, WideStrike 3, and TwinLink)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024734/retinol-binding-protein-interferes-with-transthyretin-mediated-%C3%AE-amyloid-aggregation-inhibition
#4
Parth Mangrolia, Regina M Murphy
Beta-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation is causally linked to Alzheimer's disease. Based on in vitro and transgenic animal studies, transthyretin (TTR) is hypothesized to provide neuroprotection against Aβ toxicity by binding to Aβ and inhibiting its aggregation. TTR is a homotetrameric protein that circulates in blood and cerebrospinal fluid; its normal physiological role is as a carrier for thyroxine and retinol-binding protein (RBP). RBP complexes with retinol, and the holoprotein (hRBP) binds with high affinity to TTR...
July 19, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024101/single-copy-transgene-integration-in-a-transcriptionally-active-site-for-recombinant-protein-synthesis
#5
Sofie A O'Brien, Kyoungho Lee, Hsu-Yuan Fu, Zion Lee, Tung S Le, Christopher S Stach, Meghan G McCann, Alicia Q Zhang, Michael J Smanski, Nikunj V Somia, Wei-Shou Hu
For the biomanufacturing of protein biologics, establishing stable cell lines with high transgene transcription is critical for high productivity. Modern genome engineering tools can direct transgene insertion to a specified genomic locus and can potentially become a valuable tool for cell line generation. In this study, we surveyed transgene integration sites and their transcriptional activity to identify characteristics of desirable regions. A lentivirus containing destabilized Green Fluorescent Protein (dGFP) was used to infect Chinese hamster ovary cells at a low multiplicity of infection, and cells with high or low GFP fluorescence were isolated...
July 19, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30023962/effective-theranostic-cyanine-for-imaging-of-amyloid-species-in-vivo-and-cognitive-improvements-in-mouse-model
#6
Yinhui Li, Chen Chen, Di Xu, Chung-Yan Poon, See-Lok Ho, Rui Zheng, Qiong Liu, Guoli Song, Hung-Wing Li, Man Shing Wong
We report herein an investigation of carbazole-based cyanine, ( E )-4-(2-(9-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl)-9 H -carbazol-3-yl)-vinyl)-1-methyl-quinolin-1-iumiodide (SLM), as an effective theranostic agent for Alzheimer's disease (AD). This cyanine exhibited desirable multifunctional and biological properties, including amyloid-β (Aβ)-oligomerization inhibition, blood-brain barrier permeability, low neurotoxicity, neuroprotective effect against Aβ-induced toxicities, high selectivity and strong binding interactions with Aβ peptide/species, good biostability, as well as strong fluorescence enhancement upon binding to Aβ species for diagnosis and therapy of AD...
June 30, 2018: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30023284/s-adenosylhomocysteine-hydrolase-over-expression-does-not-alter-s-adenosylmethionine-or-s-adenosylhomocysteine-levels-in-cbs-deficient-mice
#7
Hyung-Ok Lee, Liqun Wang, Yin-Ming Kuo, Andrew J Andrews, Sapna Gupta, Warren D Kruger
Elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with a number of human diseases including coronary artery disease, stroke, osteoporosis and dementia. It is highly correlated with intracellular S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). Since SAH is a strong inhibitor of methyl-transfer reactions involving the methyl-donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), elevation in SAH could be an explanation for the wide association of tHcy and human disease. Here, we have created a transgenic mouse ( Tg-hAHCY ) that expresses human S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase ( AHCY ) from a zinc-inducible promoter in the liver and kidney...
June 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022995/functional-dissection-of-auxin-response-factors-in-regulating-tomato-leaf-shape-development
#8
Lingjie Wu, Zhendong Tian, Junhong Zhang
The phytohormone auxin is involved in many aspects of plant growth and developmental processes. The tomato Aux/IAA transcription factor SlIAA9/ENTIRE/E plays an important role in leaf morphogenesis and fruit development, and the E gene encodes a protein from the Aux/IAA family of auxin response repressors. Both SlIAA9 -RNAi transgenic and entire ( e ) mutant plants reduce the leaf complexity in tomato, but the underlying mechanism is not yet completely resolved. Auxin signaling is known to regulate target genes expression via Aux/IAA and ARFs (auxin response factors) transcriptional regulators...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022991/overexpression-of-a-sdd1-like-gene-from-wild-tomato-decreases-stomatal-density-and-enhances-dehydration-avoidance-in-arabidopsis-and-cultivated-tomato
#9
Samuel Morales-Navarro, Ricardo Pérez-Díaz, Alfonso Ortega, Alberto de Marcos, Montaña Mena, Carmen Fenoll, Enrique González-Villanueva, Simón Ruiz-Lara
Stomata are microscopic valves formed by two guard cells flanking a pore, which are located on the epidermis of most aerial plant organs and are used for water and gas exchange between the plant and the atmosphere. The number, size and distribution of stomata are set during development in response to changing environmental conditions, allowing plants to minimize the impact of a stressful environment. In Arabidopsis, STOMATAL DENSITY AND DISTRIBUTION 1 ( AtSDD1 ) negatively regulates stomatal density and optimizes transpiration and water use efficiency (WUE)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022990/suppression-of-slmbp15-inhibits-plant-vegetative-growth-and-delays-fruit-ripening-in-tomato
#10
Wencheng Yin, Xiaohui Yu, Guoping Chen, Boyan Tang, Yunshu Wang, Changguang Liao, Yanjie Zhang, Zongli Hu
MADS-box genes have been demonstrated to participate in a number of processes in tomato development, especially fruit ripening. In this study, we reported a novel MADS-box gene, SlMBP15 , which is implicated in fruit ripening. Based on statistical analysis, the ripening time of SlMBP15 -silenced tomato was delayed by 2-4 days compared with that of the wild-type (WT). The accumulation of carotenoids and biosynthesis of ethylene in fruits were decreased in SlMBP15 -silenced tomato. Genes related to carotenoid and ethylene biosynthesis were greatly repressed...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022929/region-specific-effects-of-immunotherapy-with-antibodies-targeting-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-a-transgenic-model-of-synucleinopathy
#11
Martin Kallab, Marcos Herrera-Vaquero, Malin Johannesson, Fredrik Eriksson, Jessica Sigvardson, Werner Poewe, Gregor K Wenning, Eva Nordström, Nadia Stefanova
Synucleinopathies represent a group of neurodegenerative disorders which are characterized by intracellular accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein. α-synuclein misfolding and oligomer formation is considered a major pathogenic trigger in these disorders. Therefore, targeting α-synuclein species represents an important candidate therapeutic approach. Our aim was to analyze the biological effects of passive immunization targeting α-synuclein and to identify the possible underlying mechanisms in a transgenic mouse model of oligodendroglial α-synucleinopathy...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022868/lrrk2-kinase-activity-induces-mitochondrial-fission-in-microglia-via-drp1-and-modulates-neuroinflammation
#12
Dong Hwan Ho, A Reum Je, Haejin Lee, Ilhong Son, Hee-Seok Kweon, Hyung-Gun Kim, Wongi Seol
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 contains a functional kinase domain and G2019S, the most prevalent LRRK2 pathogenic mutation, increases its kinase activity. LRRK2 regulates mitochondria morphology and autophagy in neurons. LPS treatment increases LRRK2 protein level and mitochondrial fission in microglia, and down-regulation of LRRK2 expression or inhibition of its kinase activity attenuates microglia activation. Here, we evaluated the direct role of LRRK2 G2019S in mitochondrial dynamics in microglia...
June 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022489/intraganglionic-macrophages-a-new-population-of-cells-in-the-enteric-ganglia
#13
David Dora, Emily Arciero, Ryo Hotta, Csilla Barad, Sukhada Bhave, Tamas Kovacs, Adam Balic, Allan M Goldstein, Nandor Nagy
The enteric nervous system shares embryological, morphological, neurochemical, and functional features with the central nervous system. In addition to neurons and glia, the CNS includes a third component, microglia, which are functionally and immunophenotypically similar to macrophages, but a similar cell type has not previously been identified in enteric ganglia. In this study we identify a population of macrophages in the enteric ganglia, intermingling with the neurons and glia. These intraganglionic macrophages (IMs) are highly ramified and express the hematopoietic marker CD45, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen, and chB6, a marker specific for B cells and microglia in avians...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021906/kaposi-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-latency-locus-renders-b-cells-hyperresponsive-to-secondary-infections
#14
Sang-Hoon Sin, Anthony B Eason, Rachele Bigi, Yongbaek Kim, SunAh Kang, Kelly Tan, Tischan A Seltzer, Raman Venkataramanan, Hyowon An, Dirk P Dittmer
Kaposi Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) KSHV induces B cell hyperplasia and neoplasia such as multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). To explore KSHV-induced B cell reprogramming in vivo , we expressed the KSHV latency locus, inclusive of all viral miRNAs, in B cells of transgenic mice in the absence of the inhibitory FcγRIIB receptor. The BALB/c strain was chosen as this is the preferred model to study B cell differentiation. The mice developed hyperglobulinemia, plasmacytosis, and B lymphoid hyperplasia...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021891/oral-prion-neuroinvasion-occurs-independently-of-prp-c-expression-in-the-gut-epithelium
#15
Alison Marshall, Barry M Bradford, Alan R Clarke, Jean C Manson, Neil A Mabbott
The early replication of certain prion strains within the Peyer's patches in the small intestine is essential for the efficient spread of disease to the brain after oral exposure. Our data show that orally-acquired prions utilise specialised gut epithelial cells known as M cells to enter Peyer's patches. M cells express the cellular isoform of the prion protein, PrPC , and this may be exploited by some pathogens as an uptake receptor to enter Peyer's patches. This suggested that PrPC might also mediate the uptake and transfer of prions across the gut epithelium into Peyer's patches in order to establish infection...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021792/the-insulator-protein-ctcf-is-required-for-correct-hox-gene-expression-but-not-for-embryonic-development-in-drosophila
#16
Maria Cristina Gambetta, Eileen E M Furlong
Insulator binding proteins (IBPs) play an important role in regulating gene expression by binding to specific DNA sites to facilitate appropriate gene regulation. There are several IBPs in Drosophila , each defined by their ability to insulate target gene promoters in transgenic assays from the activating or silencing effects of neighboring regulatory elements. Of these, only CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) has an obvious ortholog in Mammals. CTCF is essential for mammalian cell viability and is an important regulator of genome architecture...
July 18, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021471/recombinant-human-c1-esterase-inhibitor-conestat-alfa-for-prophylaxis-to-prevent-attacks-in-adult-and-adolescent-patients-with-hereditary-angioedema
#17
Anna Valerieva, Sonia Caccia, Marco Cicardi
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) due to C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency is a debilitating and potentially lethal disease. Management includes on-demand treatment of angioedema and their prophylaxis. Plasma derived C1-INH is an established treatment for both on demand and prophylaxis of HAE. Conestat alfa is a recombinant form of human C1-INH (rhC1-INH) produced in transgenic rabbits. It has granted drug's registration as treatment option for acute HAE attacks in adults and adolescents in Europe, America, and other countries...
July 19, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021209/fibroblast-growth-factor-9-suppresses-striatal-cell-death-dominantly-through-erk-signaling-in-huntington-s-disease
#18
Issa Olakunle Yusuf, Pei-Hsun Cheng, Hsiu-Mei Chen, Yu-Fan Chang, Chih-Yi Chang, Han-In Yang, Chia-Wei Lin, Shaw-Jenq Tsai, Jih-Ing Chuang, Chia-Ching Wu, Bu-Miin Huang, H Sunny Sun, Shang-Hsun Yang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Huntington's disease (HD) is a heritable neurodegenerative disorder, and there is no cure for HD to date. A type of fibroblast growth factor (FGF), FGF9, has been reported to play prosurvival roles in other neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. However, the effects of FGF9 on HD is still unknown. With many similarities in the cellular and pathological mechanisms that eventually cause cell death in neurodegenerative diseases, we hypothesize that FGF9 might provide neuroprotective functions in HD...
July 18, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021173/cold-activated-lipid-dynamics-in-adipose-tissue-highlights-a-role-for-cardiolipin-in-thermogenic-metabolism
#19
Matthew D Lynes, Farnaz Shamsi, Elahu Gosney Sustarsic, Luiz O Leiria, Chih-Hao Wang, Sheng-Chiang Su, Tian Lian Huang, Fei Gao, Niven R Narain, Emily Y Chen, Aaron M Cypess, Tim J Schulz, Zachary Gerhart-Hines, Michael A Kiebish, Yu-Hua Tseng
Thermogenic fat expends energy during cold for temperature homeostasis, and its activity regulates nutrient metabolism and insulin sensitivity. We measured cold-activated lipid landscapes in circulation and in adipose tissue by MS/MSALL shotgun lipidomics. We created an interactive online viewer to visualize the changes of specific lipid species in response to cold. In adipose tissue, among the approximately 1,600 lipid species profiled, we identified the biosynthetic pathway of the mitochondrial phospholipid cardiolipin as coordinately activated in brown and beige fat by cold in wild-type and transgenic mice with enhanced browning of white fat...
July 17, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021132/transcription-activity-of-transposon-sequence-limits-sleeping-beauty-transposition
#20
Orsolya Kolacsek, Tamás I Orbán
Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon based technology has been extensively applied in basic research and biotechnology for routine cell culture gene delivery and vertebrate transgenesis, and it is also investigated in various gene therapy applications. Cell tolerance for the transgene is a key factor during transgenesis and is modulated not only through the type but by the dose of expression. Our experimental results exemplify that transgenes regulated with high activity promoters can reduce the overall success of gene delivery...
July 15, 2018: Gene
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