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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222529/progressive-motor-deficit-is-mediated-by-the-denervation-of-neuromuscular-junctions-and-axonal-degeneration-in-transgenic-mice-expressing-mutant-p301s-tau-protein
#1
Zhuoran Yin, Femke Valkenburg, Betty E Hornix, Ietje Mantingh-Otter, Xingdong Zhou, Muriel Mari, Fulvio Reggiori, Debby Van Dam, Bart J L Eggen, Peter P De Deyn, Erik Boddeke
Tauopathies include a variety of neurodegenerative diseases associated with the pathological aggregation of hyperphosphorylated tau, resulting in progressive cognitive decline and motor impairment. The underlying mechanism for motor deficits related to tauopathy is not yet fully understood. Here, we use a novel transgenic tau mouse line, Tau 58/4, with enhanced neuron-specific expression of P301S mutant tau to investigate the motor abnormalities in association with the peripheral nervous system. Using stationary beam, gait, and rotarod tests, motor deficits were found in Tau 58/4 mice already 3 months after birth, which deteriorated during aging...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222521/the-effects-of-lw-afc-on-the-hippocampus-transcriptome-in-senescence-accelerated-mouse-prone-8-strain-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Jianhui Wang, Yang Liu, Xiaorui Cheng, Xiaorui Zhang, Feng Liu, Gang Liu, Shanyi Qiao, Ming Ni, Wenxia Zhou, Yongxiang Zhang, Fei Li
The senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) strain is considered a robust experimental model for developing preventative and therapeutic treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease which cannot be effectively prevented, halted, or cured. Our previous studies showed that LW-AFC, a new formula derived from the classical traditional Chinese medicinal prescription Liuwei Dihuang decoction, ameliorates cognitive deterioration in PrP-hAβPPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice and SAMP8 mice. This study aims to investigate the mechanism that mediates how LW-AFC improves cognitive deficit on the basis of the transcriptome...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222506/synaptic-compensation-as-a-probable-cause-of-prolonged-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease-implications-from-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-the-disease
#3
Narjes Baazaoui, Michael Flory, Khalid Iqbal
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a slow, progressive neurodegenerative disease in which cognitive decline takes place over a period of several years with a very variable period of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and, in some cases, relatively long period before progression to dementia. The cognitive deficit during MCI is probably due to neuronal loss, an intermediate level of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and synaptosis, which is interrupted with a transient compensatory increase. We found impairment in reference memory accompanied by a decrease in the expression of synaptophysin, β-III tubulin, and MAP2 and a trend for GluR1, at 12 weeks of age in 3xTg-AD mice (hAPPSwe, P301L tau, PS1 [M146V] knock-in), a widely used transgenic model of AD...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222350/a-thdreb-gene-from-tamarix-hispida-improved-the-salt-and-drought-tolerance-of-transgenic-tobacco-and-t-%C3%A2-hispida
#4
Guiyan Yang, Lili Yu, Kaimin Zhang, Yulin Zhao, Yucong Guo, Caiqiu Gao
Dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB) transcription factors are important abiotic stress tolerance related genes, and some reports on the roles of DREB have primarily addressed herbal plants. To explore the abiotic stress tolerance role of DREB (ThDREB) from Tamarix hispida, a ThDREB gene with a complete ORF of 783 bp that encodes a 28.74 kDa protein with 260 amino acids, was isolated and functionally annotated. ThDREB expression was highly induced by NaCl, PEG, NaHCO3 and CdCl2 treatments, and the highest expression level (369...
February 10, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222349/aldo-keto-reductase-1-akr1-protect-cellular-enzymes-from-salt-stress-by-detoxifying-reactive-cytotoxic-compounds
#5
Ramu S Vemanna, K C Babitha, Jayant K Solanki, V Amarnatha Reddy, S K Sarangi, M Udayakumar
Cytotoxic compounds like reactive carbonyl compounds such as methylglyoxal (MG), melandialdehyde (MDA), besides the ROS accumulate significantly at higher levels under salinity stress conditions and affect lipids and proteins that inhibit plant growth and productivity. The detoxification of these cytotoxic compounds by overexpression of NADPH-dependent Aldo-ketoreductase (AKR1) enzyme enhances the salinity stress tolerance in tobacco. The PsAKR1 overexpression plants showed higher survival and chlorophyll content and reduced MDA, H2O2, and MG levels under NaCl stress...
February 13, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221787/multiple-pesticides-detoxification-function-of-maize-zea-mays-gst34
#6
Dongzhi Li, Li Xu, Sen Pang, Zhiqian Liu, Weisong Zhao, Chengju Wang
ZmGST34 is a maize tau class GST gene and was found to be differently expressed between two maize cultivars differing in tolerance to herbicide metolachlor. To explore the possible role of ZmGST34 in maize development, the expression pattern and substrate specificity of ZmGST34 were characterized by quantitative RT-PCR and heterologous expression system, respectively. The results indicated that the expression level of ZmGST34 was increased approximately 2 to 5-fold per day during the second-leaf stage of maize seedling...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220771/expanding-the-genetic-code-of-mus-musculus
#7
Songmi Han, Aerin Yang, Soonjang Lee, Han-Woong Lee, Chan Bae Park, Hee-Sung Park
Here we report the expansion of the genetic code of Mus musculus with various unnatural amino acids including N(ɛ)-acetyl-lysine. Stable integration of transgenes encoding an engineered N(ɛ)-acetyl-lysyl-tRNA synthetase (AcKRS)/tRNA(Pyl) pair into the mouse genome enables site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids into a target protein in response to the amber codon. We demonstrate temporal and spatial control of protein acetylation in various organs of the transgenic mouse using a recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFPuv) as a model protein...
February 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220688/the-dnaj-protein-osdja6-negatively-regulates-rice-innate-immunity-to-the-blast-fungus-magnaporthe-oryzae
#8
Xionghui Zhong, Jiuxia Yang, Yanlong Shi, Xuli Wang, Guo-Liang Wang
Rice blast, caused by Magnaporthe oryzae (synonym: Pyricularia oryzae), severely reduces rice production and grain quality. The molecular mechanism of rice resistance to M. oryzae is not fully understood. In the present study, we identified a chaperone DnaJ protein, OsDjA6, that is involved in basal resistance to M. oryzae in rice. The OsDjA6 protein is distributed in the entire rice cell. The expression of OsDjA6 is significantly induced in rice after infection with a compatible isolate. Silencing of OsDjA6 in transgenic rice enhances resistance to M...
February 21, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220544/prospective-purification-and-characterization-of-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-in-the-mouse-retina-regeneration-assay
#9
Patrick Schäfer, Mike O Karl
Reactive gliosis is an umbrella term for various glia functions in neurodegenerative diseases and upon injury. Specifically, Müller glia (MG) in some species readily regenerate retinal neurons to restore vision loss after insult, whereas mammalian MG respond by reactive gliosis-a heterogeneous response which frequently includes cell hypertrophy and proliferation. Limited regeneration has been stimulated in mammals, with a higher propensity in young MG, and in vitro compared to in vivo, but the underlying processes are unknown...
February 21, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220107/new-insights-in-glucocorticoid-receptor-signaling-more-than-just-a-ligand-binding-receptor
#10
REVIEW
Karin Scheschowitsch, Jacqueline Alves Leite, Jamil Assreuy
The clinical use of classical glucocorticoids (GC) is narrowed by the many side effects it causes and the resistance to GC observed in some diseases. Since the great majority of GC effects depend on the activation of a glucocorticoid receptor (GR), many research groups had focused to better understand the signaling pathways involving those receptors. Transgenic animal models and genetic modifications of the receptor brought a huge insight into GR mechanisms of action. This in turn opened a new window for the search of selective GR modulators that ideally may have agonistic and antagonistic combined effects and activate one specific signaling pathway, inducing mostly transrepression or transactivation mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220062/anatomical-and-molecular-properties-of-long-descending-propriospinal-neurons-in-mice
#11
Jamie R Flynn, Victoria L Conn, Kieran A Boyle, David I Hughes, Masahiko Watanabe, Tomoko Velasquez, Martyn D Goulding, Robert J Callister, Brett A Graham
Long descending propriospinal neurons (LDPNs) are interneurons that form direct connections between cervical and lumbar spinal circuits. LDPNs are involved in interlimb coordination and are important mediators of functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). Much of what we know about LDPNs comes from a range of species, however, the increased use of transgenic mouse lines to better define neuronal populations calls for a more complete characterisation of LDPNs in mice. In this study, we examined the cell body location, inhibitory neurotransmitter phenotype, developmental provenance, morphology and synaptic inputs of mouse LDPNs throughout the cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219986/functional-analysis-of-the-transmembrane-and-cytoplasmic-domains-of-pcdh15a-in-zebrafish-hair-cells
#12
Reo Maeda, Itallia V Pacentine, Timothy Erickson, Teresa Nicolson
Protocadherin 15 (PCDH15) is required for mechanotransduction in sensory hair cells as a component of the tip link. Isoforms of PCDH15 differ in their cytoplasmic domains (CD1, CD2, and CD3), but share the extracellular and transmembrane (TMD) domains, as well as an intracellular domain known as the common region (CR). In heterologous expression systems, both the TMD and CR of PCDH15 have been shown to interact with members of the mechanotransduction complex. The in vivo significance of these protein-protein interaction domains of PCDH15 in hair cells has not been determined...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219891/peripherally-generated-foxp3-regulatory-t-cells-mediate-the-immunomodulatory-effects-of-ivig-in-allergic-airways-disease
#13
Amir H Massoud, Gabriel N Kaufman, Di Xue, Marianne Béland, Marieme Dembele, Ciriaco A Piccirillo, Walid Mourad, Bruce D Mazer
IVIg is widely used as an immunomodulatory therapy. We have recently demonstrated that IVIg protects against airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation in mouse models of allergic airways disease (AAD), associated with induction of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg). Using mice carrying a DTR/EGFP transgene under the control of the Foxp3 promoter (DEREG mice), we demonstrate in this study that IVIg generates a de novo population of peripheral Treg (pTreg) in the absence of endogenous Treg. IVIg-generated pTreg were sufficient for inhibition of OVA-induced AHR in an Ag-driven murine model of AAD...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219741/regulation-of-human-gdnf-gene-expression-in-nigral-dopaminergic-neurons-using-a-new-doxycycline-regulated-nts-polyplex-nanoparticle-system
#14
Armando J Espadas-Alvarez, Michael J Bannon, Carlos E Orozco-Barrios, Lourdes Escobedo-Sanchez, Jose Ayala-Davila, David Reyes-Corona, Guadalupe Soto-Rodriguez, Vicente Escamilla-Rivera, Andrea De Vizcaya-Ruiz, M Eugenia Gutierrez-Castillo, America Padilla-Viveros, Daniel Martinez-Fong
The human glial-cell derived neurotrophic factor (hGDNF) gene transfer by neurotensin (NTS)-polyplex nanoparticles functionally restores the dopamine nigrostriatal system in experimental Parkinson's disease models. However, high levels of sustained expression of GDNF eventually can cause harmful effects. Herein, we report an improved NTS-polyplex nanoparticle system that enables regulation of hGDNF expression within dopaminergic neurons. We constructed NTS-polyplex nanoparticles containing a single bifunctional plasmid that codes for the reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator advanced (rtTA-Adv) under the control of NBRE3x promoter, and for hGDNF under the control of tetracycline-response element (TRE)...
February 17, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219352/retinoic-acid-promotes-expression-of-germline-specific-genes-in-chicken-blastoderm-cells-by-stimulating-smad1-5-phosphorylation-in-a-feeder-free-culture-system
#15
Xiaochuan Tang, Shiyong Xu, Hongpeng Zhang, Qing Chen, Rongyang Li, Wangjun Wu, Minli Yu, Honglin Liu
BACKGROUND: Producing transgenic chickens with chicken blastodermal cells (cBCs) is inefficient due to the extremely low germline transmission capacity of cBCs. As chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs) have been reported as an efficient method for producing transgenic chickens, the inefficiency of cBCs could potentially be resolved by inducing them to differentiate into germ cells. However, whether chemical inducers are able to enhance cBCs germline competence in vitro is unknown and the molecular mechanisms of differentiation of chicken pluripotent cells into germ cells are poorly understood...
February 20, 2017: BMC Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218975/stacking-transgenic-event-das-%C3%A3-15%C3%A3-7-1-alters-maize-composition-less-than-traditional-breeding
#16
Rod A Herman, Brandon J Fast, Peter N Scherer, Alyssa M Brune, Denise T de Cerqueira, Barry W Schafer, Ricardo D Ekmay, George G Harrigan, Greg A Bradfisch
The impact of crossing ("stacking") genetically modified (GM) events on maize-grain biochemical composition was compared with the impact of generating non-GM hybrids. The compositional similarity of seven GM stacks containing event DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 and their matched non-GM near-isogenic hybrids (iso-hybrids) was compared with the compositional similarity of concurrently grown non-GM hybrids and these same iso-hybrids. Scatter plots were used to visualize comparisons among hybrids and a coefficient of identity (percent of variation explained by line of identity) was calculated to quantify the relationships within analyte profiles...
February 20, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218918/transgenic-expression-of-human-apol1-risk-variants-in-podocytes-induces-kidney-disease-in-mice
#17
Pazit Beckerman, Jing Bi-Karchin, Ae Seo Deok Park, Chengxiang Qiu, Patrick D Dummer, Irfana Soomro, Carine M Boustany-Kari, Steven S Pullen, Jeffrey H Miner, Chien-An A Hu, Tibor Rohacs, Kazunori Inoue, Shuta Ishibe, Moin A Saleem, Matthew B Palmer, Ana Maria Cuervo, Jeffrey B Kopp, Katalin Susztak
African Americans have a heightened risk of developing chronic and end-stage kidney disease, an association that is largely attributed to two common genetic variants, termed G1 and G2, in the APOL1 gene. Direct evidence demonstrating that these APOL1 risk alleles are pathogenic is still lacking because the APOL1 gene is present in only some primates and humans; thus it has been challenging to demonstrate experimental proof of causality of these risk alleles for renal disease. Here we generated mice with podocyte-specific inducible expression of the APOL1 reference allele (termed G0) or each of the risk-conferring alleles (G1 or G2)...
February 20, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218713/transgene-expression-and-host-cell-responses-to-replication-defective-single-cycle-and-replication-competent-adenovirus-vectors
#18
Catherine M Crosby, Michael A Barry
Most adenovirus (Ad) vectors are E1 gene deleted replication defective (RD-Ad) vectors that deliver one transgene to the cell and all expression is based on that one gene. In contrast, E1-intact replication-competent Ad (RC-Ad) vectors replicate their DNA and their transgenes up to 10,000-fold, amplifying transgene expression markedly higher than RD-Ad vectors. While RC-Ad are more potent, they run the real risk of causing adenovirus infections in vector recipients and those that administer them. To gain the benefits of transgene amplification, but avoid the risk of Ad infections, we developed "single cycle" Ad (SC-Ad) vectors...
February 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218659/effects-of-remote-ischemic-preconditioning-on-heme-oxygenase-1-expression-and-cutaneous-wound-repair
#19
Niels A J Cremers, Kimberley E Wever, Ronald J Wong, René E M van Rheden, Eline A Vermeij, Gooitzen M van Dam, Carine E Carels, Ditte M S Lundvig, Frank A D T G Wagener
Skin wounds may lead to scar formation and impaired functionality. Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) can induce the anti-inflammatory enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and protect against tissue injury. We aim to improve cutaneous wound repair by RIPC treatment via induction of HO-1. RIPC was applied to HO-1-luc transgenic mice and HO-1 promoter activity and mRNA expression in skin and several other organs were determined in real-time. In parallel, RIPC was applied directly or 24h prior to excisional wounding in mice to investigate the early and late protective effects of RIPC on cutaneous wound repair, respectively...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218617/chimeric-protein-repair-of-laminin-polymerization-ameliorates-muscular-dystrophy-phenotype
#20
Karen K McKee, Stephanie C Crosson, Sarina Meinen, Judith R Reinhard, Markus A Rüegg, Peter D Yurchenco
Mutations in laminin α2-subunit (Lmα2, encoded by LAMA2) are linked to approximately 30% of congenital muscular dystrophy cases. Mice with a homozygous mutation in Lama2 (dy2J mice) express a nonpolymerizing form of laminin-211 (Lm211) and are a model for ambulatory-type Lmα2-deficient muscular dystrophy. Here, we developed transgenic dy2J mice with muscle-specific expression of αLNNd, a laminin/nidogen chimeric protein that provides a missing polymerization domain. Muscle-specific expression of αLNNd in dy2J mice resulted in strong amelioration of the dystrophic phenotype, manifested by the prevention of fibrosis and restoration of forelimb grip strength...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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