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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240990/wnt-signaling-loss-accelerates-the-appearance-of-neuropathological-hallmarks-of-alzheimer-s-disease-in-j20-app-transgenic-and-wild-type-mice
#1
Cheril Tapia-Rojas, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative pathology characterized by aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau protein, synaptic dysfunction, and spatial memory impairment. The Wnt signaling pathway has several key functions in the adult brain and has been associated with AD, mainly as a neuroprotective factor against Aβ toxicity and tau phosphorylation. However, dysfunction of Wnt/β-catenin signaling might also play a role in the onset and development of the disease. J20 APPswInd transgenic (Tg) mouse model of AD was treated i...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240921/cry1-bt-susceptibilities-of-fall-armyworm-lepidoptera-noctuidae-host-strains
#2
David A Ingber, Charles E Mason, Lindsey Flexner
The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a highly polyphagous, multivoltine pest of commercial crops including corn (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium spp. L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and pasture grasses. Fall armyworm has become a growing concern in agricultural communities across the Americas as field populations in many locales have evolved resistance to several Cry1 toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt). An often overlooked aspect of fall armyworm biology is the existence of two host strains, the 'rice' and 'corn' strains...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240906/differential-inhibition-of-helicoverpa-armigera-lep-noctuidae-gut-digestive-trypsin-by-extracted-and-purified-inhibitor-of-datura-metel-solanales-solanaceae
#3
Reza Navaei-Bonab, Majid Kazzazi, Moosa Saber, Mohammad Vatanparast
The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner (Lep: Noctuidae), is an economically important pest of numerous major food crops worldwide. Protease inhibitors from plants, expressed constitutively in transgenic crops, have potential for pest management as an alternative to chemical pesticides. In this study, a protease inhibitor was isolated, purified, and characterized from Datura metel L. seeds. The purity of the isolated inhibitor was confirmed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and activity staining showed one major peak and one clear activity band for the protein...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240788/enhanced-heart-failure-mortality-and-renin-activation-in-female-mice-with-experimental-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#4
Ranjana Tripathi, Ryan Sullivan, Tai-Hwang M Fan, Dong Wang, Yao Sun, Guy L Reed, Inna P Gladysheva
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the major cause of heart failure affecting both women and men. Limited clinical studies show conflicting data in sex-related differences in the progression of dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure (HF) outcomes. We examined the comparative sex-related progression of cardiomyopathy and the development of HF (at 4, 7, 13 weeks of age) in a well-established, transgenic mouse model of DCM that recapitulates the progressive stages of human HF. By 13 weeks of age, female mice with DCM had more severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction, left ventricular dilation and wall thinning (P<0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239725/t-cell-calcium-dynamics-visualized-in-a-ratiometric-tdtomato-gcamp6f-transgenic-reporter-mouse
#5
Tobias X Dong, Shivashankar Othy, Amit Jairaman, Jonathan Skupsky, Angel Zavala, Ian Parker, Joseph L Dynes, Michael D Cahalan
Calcium is an essential cellular messenger that regulates numerous functions in living organisms. Here we describe development and characterization of 'Salsa6f', a fusion of GCaMP6f and tdTomato optimized for cell tracking while monitoring cytosolic Ca2+, and a transgenic Ca2+ reporter mouse with Salsa6f targeted to the Rosa26 locus for Cre-dependent expression in specific cell types. The development and function of T cells was unaffected in Cd4-Salsa6f mice. We describe Ca2+ signals reported by Salsa6f during T cell receptor activation in naïve T cells, helper Th17 T cells and regulatory T cells, and Ca2+ signals mediated in T cells by an activator of mechanosensitive Piezo1channels...
December 14, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239334/calycosin-improves-cognitive-function-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-by-activating-the-protein-kinase-c-pathway
#6
Lei Song, Xiaoping Li, Xiao-Xue Bai, Jian Gao, Chun-Yan Wang
The major pathological changes in Alzheimer's disease are beta amyloid deposits and cognitive impairment. Calycosin is a typical phytoestrogen derived from radix astragali that binds to estrogen receptors to produce estrogen-like effects. Radix astragali Calycosin has been shown to relieve cognitive impairment induced by diabetes mellitus, suggesting calycosin may improve the cognitive function of Alzheimer's disease patients. The protein kinase C pathway is upstream of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and exerts a neuroprotective effect by regulating Alzheimer's disease-related beta amyloid degradation...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239333/nigral-dopaminergic-neuron-replenishment-in-adult-mice-through-ve-cadherin-expressing-neural-progenitor-cells
#7
Abir A Rahman, Nathan K Lai, Joshua E Albright, Paige E Urquhart, Abby R Webb, Brad E Morrison
The function of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra is of central importance to the coordination of movement by the brain's basal ganglia circuitry. This is evidenced by the loss of these neurons, resulting in the cardinal motor deficits associated with Parkinson's disease. In order to fully understand the physiology of these key neurons and develop potential therapies for their loss, it is essential to determine if and how dopaminergic neurons are replenished in the adult brain. Recent work has presented evidence for adult neurogenesis of these neurons by Nestin+/Sox2- neural progenitor cells...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238655/duodenal-jejunal-bypass-surgery-reverses-diabetic-phenotype-and-reduces-obesity-in-db-db-mice
#8
Yongjun Liang, Yueqian Wang, Zhengdong Qiao, Ting Cao, Ying Feng, Lin Zhang, Peng Zhang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a complex metabolic disorder typically accompanying weight gain, is associated with progressive β-cell failure and insulin resistance. Bariatric surgery ameliorates glucose tolerance and provides a near-perfect treatment. Duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) is an experimental procedure and has been studied in several rat models, but its influence in db/db mice, a transgenic model of T2DM, remains unclear. To investigate the effectiveness of DJB in db/db mice, we performed the surgery and evaluated metabolism improvement...
2017: Current Chemical Genomics and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238352/overexpression-of-erf1-v-from-haynaldia-villosa-can-enhance-the-resistance-of-wheat-to-powdery-mildew-and-increase-the-tolerance-to-salt-and-drought-stresses
#9
Liping Xing, Zhaocan Di, Wenwu Yang, Jiaqian Liu, Meina Li, Xiaojuan Wang, Chaofan Cui, Xiaoyun Wang, Xiue Wang, Ruiqi Zhang, Jin Xiao, Aizhong Cao
The APETALA 2/Ethylene-responsive element binding factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factor gene family is widely involved in the biotic and abiotic stress regulation. Haynaldia villosa (VV, 2n = 14), a wild species of wheat, is a potential gene pool for wheat improvement. H. villosa confers high resistance to several wheat diseases and high tolerance to some abiotic stress. In this study, ERF1-V, an ethylene-responsive element-binding factor gene of the AP2/ERF transcription factor gene family from wild H. villosa, was cloned and characterized...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238350/differentiation-and-transmigration-of-cd4-t-cells-in-neuroinflammation-and-autoimmunity
#10
REVIEW
Sandip Ashok Sonar, Girdhari Lal
CD4+ T cells play a central role in orchestrating protective immunity and autoimmunity. The activation and differentiation of myelin-reactive CD4+ T cells into effector (Th1 and Th17) and regulatory (Tregs) subsets at the peripheral tissues, and their subsequent transmigration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) into the central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma are decisive events in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. How the Th1, Th17, and regulatory Tregs transmigrate across the BBB into the CNS and cause CNS inflammation is not clearly understood...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238290/intermittent-fasting-protects-against-alzheimer-s-disease-possible-through-restoring-aquaporin-4-polarity
#11
Jingzhu Zhang, Zhipeng Zhan, Xinhui Li, Aiping Xing, Congmin Jiang, Yanqiu Chen, Wanying Shi, Li An
The impairment of amyloid-β (Aβ) clearance in the brain plays a causative role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Polarity distribution of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is important to remove Aβ from brain. AQP4 polarity can be influenced by the ratio of two AQP4 isoforms M1 and M23 (AQP4-M1/M23), however, it is unknown whether the ratio of AQP4-M1/M23 changes in AD. Histone deacetylase 3 has been reported to be significantly increased in AD brain. Moreover, evidence indicated that microRNA-130a (miR-130a) possibly mediates the regulation of histone deacetylase 3 on AQP4-M1/M23 ratio by repressing the transcriptional activity of AQP4-M1 in AD...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237738/ascending-vasa-recta-are-angiopoietin-tie2-dependent-lymphatic-like-vessels
#12
Yael Kenig-Kozlovsky, Rizaldy P Scott, Tuncer Onay, Isabel Anna Carota, Benjamin R Thomson, Hyea Jin Gil, Veronica Ramirez, Shinji Yamaguchi, Christine E Tanna, Stefan Heinen, Christine Wu, Radu V Stan, Janet D Klein, Jeff M Sands, Guillermo Oliver, Susan E Quaggin
Urinary concentrating ability is central to mammalian water balance and depends on a medullary osmotic gradient generated by a countercurrent multiplication mechanism. Medullary hyperosmolarity is protected from washout by countercurrent exchange and efficient removal of interstitial fluid resorbed from the loop of Henle and collecting ducts. In most tissues, lymphatic vessels drain excess interstitial fluid back to the venous circulation. However, the renal medulla is devoid of classic lymphatics. Studies have suggested that the fenestrated ascending vasa recta (AVRs) drain the interstitial fluid in this location, but this function has not been conclusively shown...
December 13, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237481/retraction-note-transgenic-mice-overexpressing-the-als-linked-protein-matrin-3-develop-a-profound-muscle-phenotype
#13
Christina Moloney, Sruti Rayaprolu, John Howard, Susan Fromholt, Hilda Brown, Matt Collins, Mariela Cabrera, Colin Duffy, Zoe Siemienski, Dave Miller, Maurice S Swanson, Lucia Notterpek, David R Borchelt, Jada Lewis
The authors are retracting this article. The article describes mice expressing wild-type human MATR3. However, since publication the authors have become aware that all of the lines of mice described express human MATR3 containing the F115C mutation. Transgenic mice expressing wild-type and mutant Matrin were created simultaneously in their laboratory and, at a crucial stage of generating the DNA for embryo injection, as confirmed by an investigation by the University of Florida, the DNA preparations were accidentally mislabelled...
December 13, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236992/the-effects-of-aging-on-the-regulation-of-t-tubular-ica-by-caveolin-in-mouse-ventricular-myocytes
#14
Cherrie H T Kong, Simon M Bryant, Judy J Watson, Hanne C Gadeberg, David M Roth, Hemal H Patel, Mark B Cannell, Clive H Orchard, Andrew F James
Aging is associated with diminished cardiac function in males. Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling in ventricular myocytes involves Ca influx via the Ca current (ICa) and Ca release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which occur predominantly at t-tubules. Caveolin-3 regulates t-tubular ICa, partly through PKA, and both ICa and caveolin-3 decrease with age. We therefore investigated ICa and t-tubule structure and function in cardiomyocytes from male WT and caveolin-3-overexpressing (Cav-3OE) mice at 3 and 24 months of age...
December 9, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236544/gene-therapy-for-cystic-fibrosis-improved-delivery-techniques-and-conditioning-with-lysophosphatidylcholine-enhance-lentiviral-gene-transfer-in-mouse-lung-airways
#15
Patricia Cmielewski, Nigel Farrow, Sharnna Devereux, David Parsons, Martin Donnelley
Purpose/Aim: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common, fatal recessive genetic disease among the Caucasian population. Gene therapy has the potential to treat CF long term, however physiological barriers can prevent VSV-G pseudotyped lentiviral (LV) vectors from efficiently accessing the relevant receptors on the basolateral membrane of airway epithelial cells. The aims of this experiment were to use our new dose delivery techniques to determine whether conditioning the mouse lung conducting airways with lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) improves the level of airway gene expression...
December 13, 2017: Experimental Lung Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236260/generation-of-cell-lines-stably-expressing-a-fluorescent-reporter-of-nonsense-mediated-mrna-decay-activity
#16
Nadezhda M Markina, Anton P Pereverzev, Dmitry B Staroverov, Konstantin A Lukyanov, Nadya G Gurskaya
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a mechanism of mRNA surveillance ubiquitous among eukaryotes. Importantly, NMD not only removes aberrant transcripts with premature stop codons, but also regulates expression of many normal genes. A recently introduced dual-color fluorescent protein-based reporter enables analysis of NMD activity in live cells. In this chapter we describe the method to generate stable transgenic cell lines expressing the splicing-dependent NMD reporter using consecutive steps of lentivirus transduction and Tol2 transposition...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236160/ethanol-and-cytokines-in-the-central-nervous-system
#17
Marisa Roberto, Reesha R Patel, Michal Bajo
The innate immune system plays a critical role in the ethanol-induced neuroimmune response in the brain. Ethanol initiates the innate immune response via activation of the innate immune receptors Toll-like receptors (TLRs, e.g., TLR4, TLR3, TLR7) and NOD-like receptors (inflammasome NLRs) leading to a release of a plethora of chemokines and cytokines and development of the innate immune response. Cytokines and chemokines can have pro- or anti-inflammatory properties through which they regulate the immune response...
December 14, 2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236154/calcium-dynamics-in-tomato-pollen-tubes-using-the-yellow-cameleon-3-6-sensor
#18
María Laura Barberini, Lorena Sigaut, Weijie Huang, Silvina Mangano, Silvina Paola Denita Juarez, Eliana Marzol, José Estevez, Mariana Obertello, Lía Pietrasanta, Weihua Tang, Jorge Muschietti
In vitro tomato pollen tubes show a cytoplasmic calcium gradient that oscillates with the same period as growth. Pollen tube growth requires coordination between the tip-focused cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) gradient and the actin cytoskeleton. This [Ca2+]cyt gradient is necessary for exocytosis of small vesicles, which contributes to the delivery of new membrane and cell wall at the pollen tube tip. The mechanisms that generate and maintain this [Ca2+]cyt gradient are not completely understood...
December 13, 2017: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236091/noncoding-copy-number-variations-are-associated-with-congenital-limb-malformation
#19
Ricarda Flöttmann, Bjørt K Kragesteen, Sinje Geuer, Magdalena Socha, Lila Allou, Anna Sowińska-Seidler, Laure Bosquillon de Jarcy, Johannes Wagner, Aleksander Jamsheer, Barbara Oehl-Jaschkowitz, Lars Wittler, Deepthi de Silva, Ingo Kurth, Idit Maya, Fernando Santos-Simarro, Wiebke Hülsemann, Eva Klopocki, Roger Mountford, Alan Fryer, Guntram Borck, Denise Horn, Pablo Lapunzina, Meredith Wilson, Bénédicte Mascrez, Denis Duboule, Stefan Mundlos, Malte Spielmann
PurposeCopy-number variants (CNVs) are generally interpreted by linking the effects of gene dosage with phenotypes. The clinical interpretation of noncoding CNVs remains challenging. We investigated the percentage of disease-associated CNVs in patients with congenital limb malformations that affect noncoding cis-regulatory sequences versus genes sensitive to gene dosage effects.MethodsWe applied high-resolution copy-number analysis to 340 unrelated individuals with isolated limb malformation. To investigate novel candidate CNVs, we re-engineered human CNVs in mice using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based genome editing...
October 12, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234951/zinc-finger-transcription-factor-odd-skipped-related-1-regulates-cranial-bone-formation
#20
Shinji Kawai, Masashi Yamauchi, Atsuo Amano
Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of bone formation has been advanced by novel findings related to genetic control. Odd-skipped related 1 (Osr1) is known to play important roles in embryonic, heart, and urogenital development. To elucidate the in vivo function of Osr1 in bone formation, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing full-length Osr1 under control of its 2.8-kb promoter, which were smaller than their wild-type littermates. Notably, abnormalities in the skull of Osr1 transgenic mice were revealed by analysis of X-ray, skeletal preparation, and morphological findings, including round skull and cranial dysraphism...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
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