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antibiotics endocarditis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717038/a-human-biofilm-disrupting-monoclonal-antibody-potentiates-antibiotic-efficacy-in-rodent-models-of-both-staphylococcus-aureus-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-infections
#1
Yan Q Xiong, Angeles Estellés, L Li, W Abdelhady, R Gonzales, Arnold S Bayer, Edgar Tenorio, Anton Leighton, Stefan Ryser, Lawrence M Kauvar
Many serious bacterial infections are antibiotic-refractory due to biofilm formation. A key structural component of biofilm is extracellular DNA which is stabilized by bacterial proteins, including those from the DNABII family. TRL1068 is a high affinity human monoclonal antibody against a DNABII epitope conserved across both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species. In the current study, the efficacy of TRL1068 for disruption of biofilm was demonstrated in vitro in the absence of antibiotics by scanning electron microscopy...
July 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713108/current-prescribing-practices-for-antibiotic-prophylaxis-a-survey-of-dental-practitioners
#2
Leah S Spittle, Kathleen B Muzzin, Patricia R Campbell, Janice P DeWald, Francisco Rivera-Hidalgo
AIM: Antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines have been developed for health care and dentistry. The authors examined whether dentists were following the 2007 American Heart Association (AHA) and the 2012 American Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) recommendations for antibiotic prophylaxis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey was sent to 600 dentists in the south-central region of the United States. The survey examined dentists' prescribing practices for patients with cardiac and prosthetic joint replacements, antibiotic regimen prescribed, confidence in their prescription decisions, and dentistry's contribution to antibiotic resistance...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711529/initial-treatment-strategy-for-intracranial-mycotic-aneurysms-two-case-reports-and-literature-review
#3
Makoto Ohtake, Kensuke Tateishi, Naoki Ikegaya, Junya Iwata, Shoji Yamanaka, Hidetoshi Murata
BACKGROUND: Intracranial mycotic aneurysm (IMA) is a rare neurovascular disease and a well-known complication following infective endocarditis. IMAs potentially carry a high mortality risk due to intracranial hemorrhage. Therefore, initial treatment is crucial for IMA patients, but an optimal treatment strategy remains unknown. Herein, we report two cases of IMA patients treated with the current usual modalities, and we provide a comprehensive literature review to propose an optimal initial treatment strategy for IMAs...
July 12, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710229/pirate-project-point-of-care-informatics-based-randomised-controlled-trial-for-decreasing-overuse-of-antibiotic-therapy-in-gram-negative-bacteraemia
#4
Angela Huttner, Werner C Albrich, Pierre-Yves Bochud, Angèle Gayet-Ageron, Anne Rossel, Elodie von Dach, Stephan Harbarth, Laurent Kaiser
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic overuse drives antibiotic resistance. The optimal duration of antibiotic therapy for Gram-negative bacteraemia (GNB), a common community and hospital-associated infection, remains unknown and unstudied via randomised controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This investigator-initiated, multicentre, non-inferiority, informatics-based point-of-care RCT will randomly assign adult hospitalised patients receiving microbiologically efficacious antibiotic(s) for GNB to (1) 14 days of antibiotic therapy, (2) 7 days of therapy or (3) an individualised duration determined by clinical response and 75% reduction in peak C reactive protein (CRP) values...
July 13, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706868/tricuspid-valve-endocarditis
#5
Syed T Hussain, James Witten, Nabin K Shrestha, Eugene H Blackstone, Gösta B Pettersson
Right-sided infective endocarditis (RSIE) is less common than left-sided infective endocarditis (IE), encompassing only 5-10% of cases of IE. Ninety percent of RSIE involves the tricuspid valve (TV). Given the relatively small numbers of TVIE cases operated on at most institutions, the purpose of this review is to highlight and discuss the current understanding of IE involving the TV. RSIE and TVIE are strongly associated with intravenous drug use (IVDU), although pacemaker leads, defibrillator leads and vascular access for dialysis are also major risk factors...
May 2017: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698421/-tricuspid-valve-repair-in-a-patient-with-isolated-tricuspid-valve-infective-endocarditis-with-pulmonary-embolism-report-of-a-case
#6
Hiroyuki Hara, Kenji Minakata, Kazuhisa Sakamoto, Yuki Kuroda, Toshio Harada, Taro Nakatsu, Tomohiro Nakata, Kyokun Uehara, Kazuhiro Yamasaki, Tadashi Ikeda
We report a case of 39-year-old man who developed tricuspid valve infective endocarditis with a complication of pulmonary embolism. He was transferred to our institution because of intermittent fever and enlargement of the vegetation of the tricuspid valve in spite of optimal antibiotics treatment. Computed tomography revealed pulmonary embolism, and transesophageal echocardiography showed a large and mobile vegetation (22×10 mm) on the tricuspid valve with moderate regurgitation. In addition, Streptococcus agalactiae was identified in blood cultures...
July 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698418/-reconstruction-of-anterior-mitral-leaflet-using-fresh-autologous-pericardial-patch-for-active-infective-endocarditis-report-of-a-case
#7
Hideaki Kanda, Tamahiro Kinjo, Yosuke Hisashi
Several reports have described that the prognosis of patients with mitral valve regurgitation due to active infective endocarditis (IE) is better after mitral valve plasty (MVP) than replacement (MVR). However, extensive destruction of valve tissue might cause difficulties with MVP. We repaired a widely-affected anterior mitral leaflet (AML) using an autologous pericardial patch. A 44-year-old woman with mitral regurgitation presented with prolonged fever and backache. We made a diagnosis of active IE accompanied by mitral valve regurgitation...
July 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689527/dual-infection-by-burkholderia-cepaciaand-pseudomonas-putida-in-an-infective-endocarditis-case
#8
Maria Khan, Farida Khurram Lalani, Aamer Ikram, Gohar Zaman, Parvez Ahmed
Infective endocarditis is rarely caused by Burkholderia cepacia. Pseudomonas putidahas not been reported to cause infective endocarditis so far. This is the first case of infective endocarditis being reported, that is caused by Pseudomonas putidaand Burkholderia cepaciain an immunocompetent host with no predisposing factors. Aortic valve replacement surgery was carried out and antibiotics were given, to which the patient responded well and recovered.
June 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688832/prosthetic-valve-infective-endocarditis-with-mycobacterium-fortuitum-antibiotics-alone-can-be-curative
#9
Sonali R Gnanenthiran, Eunice Y T Liu, Michael Wilson, Tommy Chung, Thomas Gottlieb
Rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria (RGM) are a rare, often fatal cause of infective endocarditis. Although surgery has been the cornerstone of RGM endocarditis therapy, we present the first documented adult case of Mycobacterium fortuitum endocarditis cured with antibiotic therapy.
June 15, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680649/aorto-right-ventricular-fistula-a-rare-complication-of-abiotrophia-endocarditis
#10
Priyanka Bhattacharya, Aasim Mohammed, Eddy Mizrahi
A 41-year-old African male presented with worsening dyspnea and cachexia concerning for congestive heart failure. Transesophageal echocardiogram revealed a large mass attached to the aortic valve leaflet, mass attached to the flail anterior mitral valve leaflet, severe pulmonary hypertension and dilatation of the aortic root along with fistula between the right coronary aortic cusp and the right ventricular (RV) outflow tract. Blood cultures grew Abiotrophia Defectiva (AD) sensitive to vancomycin. Patient underwent emergent surgical closure of aorto RV fistula and aortic root replacement along with pulmonary and mitral valve replacement...
July 2017: Oxford Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674620/risk-and-outcomes-of-aortic-valve-endocarditis-among-patients-with-bicuspid-and-tricuspid-aortic-valves
#11
Yuka Kiyota, Alessandro Della Corte, Vanessa Montiero Vieira, Karam Habchi, Chuan-Chin Huang, Ester E Della Ratta, Thoralf M Sundt, Prem Shekar, Jochen D Muehlschlegel, Simon C Body
OBJECTIVE: Patients with structural abnormalities of cardiac valves, including bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), are said to be at higher risk of infective endocarditis (IE). We sought to determine the risk of IE of the BAV compared with the tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) and to determine the risk of aortic valve replacement and mortality after IE. METHODS: From medical records of two US and one Italian hospitals, patients with their first episode of IE of any native valve were identified...
2017: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671807/valvular-heart-disease-in-adults-infective-endocarditis
#12
Zubair A Khan, Steven M Hollenberg
A variety of microorganisms can cause infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with native valves. Staphylococci and streptococci are most common in community-acquired IE; staphylococci are most common in nosocomial IE. Microbiology of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) depends on timing. Early-onset PVE (ie, 60 days or fewer postsurgery) typically is nosocomial, with Staphylococcus aureus infection being most common. Intermediate-onset PVE (ie, 60 to 365 days postsurgery) typically involves a mix of nosocomial and non-nosocomial organisms...
June 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671806/valvular-heart-disease-in-adults-management-of-prosthetic-heart-valves
#13
John F Trujillo, Steven M Hollenberg
Patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement may receive mechanical or bioprosthetic valves. Mechanical valves require lifelong anticoagulation but are durable and the need for a second surgery is up to eightfold times less than with bioprosthetic valves. Bioprosthetic valves do not require lifelong anticoagulation and thus are associated with fewer bleeding complications but they are less durable and associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates, particularly in younger patients. Anticoagulation with mechanical valves is achieved using warfarin; use of direct-acting oral anticoagulants is not indicated...
June 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670302/prevalence-and-genetic-diversity-of-enterococcus-faecalis-isolates-from-mineral-water-and-spring-water-in-china
#14
Lei Wei, Qingping Wu, Jumei Zhang, Weipeng Guo, Moutong Chen, Liang Xue, Juan Wang, Lianying Ma
Enterococcus faecalis is an important opportunistic pathogen which is frequently detected in mineral water and spring water for human consumption and causes human urinary tract infections, endocarditis and neonatal sepsis. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, virulence genes, antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of E. faecalis from mineral water and spring water in China. Of 314 water samples collected from January 2013 to January 2014, 48 samples (15.3%) were contaminated E. faecalis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669832/hyperbaric-oxygen-treatment-augments-tobramycin-efficacy-in-experimental-staphylococcus-aureus-endocarditis
#15
C J Lerche, L J Christophersen, M Kolpen, P R Nielsen, H Trøstrup, K Thomsen, O Hyldegaard, H Bundgaard, P Ø Jensen, N Høiby, C Moser
BACKGROUND: S. aureus infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious disease an in-hospital mortality of up to 40%. Improvements of effects of antibiotics and host responses could potentially benefit outcomes. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) represents an adjunctive therapeutic option. We evaluated the efficacy of HBOT in combination with tobramycin in S. aureus IE. METHODS: A rat model of S. aureus IE mimicking the bacterial load in humans was used. Infected rats treated with tobramycin were randomized into two groups, 1) HBOT (b...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659548/pathogenicity-of-enterococci
#16
Yasuyoshi Ike
Enterococci belong to the group of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of a wide variety of animals from insects and to human, and the commensal organism in humans and animals. The commensal/probiotic role of enterococci has evolved through thousands of years in mutual coexistence. Enterococcus have many favorable traits that have been appreciated in food fermentation and preservation, and many serve as probiotics to promote health. While lactobacillus have been shown to confer numerous benefits on and often regarded as health bringing organisms, enterococci have become more recognized as emerging human pathogens in recent years...
2017: Nihon Saikingaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656049/systemic-embolization-from-an-unusual-intracardiac-mass-in-the-left-ventricular-outflow-tract
#17
Kelechukwu U Okoro, Timothy R Larsen, John C Lystash
Endocarditis can affect any endocardial surface; in the vast majority of cases, the cardiac valves are involved. It is exceedingly rare to develop infective endocarditis on the endocardium of the left ventricular outflow tract due to the high velocity of blood that traverses this area. Herein, we present a rare case of left ventricular outflow tract endocarditis that likely occurred secondary to damage to the aortic valve leaflets (from healed prior aortic valve endocarditis) causing a high velocity aortic valve regurgitant jet that impinged upon the interventricular septum which damaged the endocardium and resulted in a fibrotic "jet lesion...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645272/prosthetic-joint-infection-caused-by-granulicatella-adiacens-a-case-series-and-review-of-literature
#18
Fanny Quénard, Piseth Seng, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Florence Fenollar, Andreas Stein
BACKGROUND: Bone and joint infection involving Granulicatella adiacens is rare, and mainly involved in cases of bacteremia and infectious endocarditis. Here we report three cases of prosthetic joint infection involving G. adiacens that were successfully treated with surgery and prolonged antimicrobial treatment. We also review the two cases of prosthetic joint infection involving G. adiacens that are reported in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: Not all five cases of prosthetic joint infection caused by G...
June 23, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642141/added-diagnostic-value-and-impact-on-antimicrobial-therapy-of-16s-rrna-pcr-and-amplicon-sequencing-on-resected-heart-valves-in-infective-endocarditis-a-prospective-cohort-study
#19
Bart Peeters, Paul Herijgers, Kurt Beuselinck, Jan Verhaegen, Willy E Peetermans, Marie-Christine Herregods, Stefanie Desmet, Katrien Lagrou
OBJECTIVES: For adequate management and therapy of infective endocarditis (IE), identification of the causative pathogen is crucial but currently molecular testing results are not included in diagnostic criteria. The added diagnostic value and impact on antimicrobial therapy of 16S rRNA PCR and Amplicon Sequencing (16S rRNA PCR) performed on excised heart valves from IE patients was evaluated alongside with the effect of pre-operative antibiotics on the performance of blood culture (BC), valve culture (VC) and 16S rRNA PCR...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638578/a-rare-case-of-aerococcus-urinae-infective-endocarditis
#20
Harsha Tathireddy, Sahitya Settypalli, John J Farrell
Introduction:Aerococcus urinae is a rare cause of infective endocarditis. Aerococcus is a gram positive cocci that is easily misidentified as Staphylococci or Streptococci. The true incidence rate of this pathogen is likely underestimated. Recent advances in laboratory diagnostic methods with matrix-associated laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) have lead to increased recognition of this pathogen in the clinical microbiology lab, and awareness as a cause of infective endocarditis in the infectious disease community...
March 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
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