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Placental thickness

Helena H L Lee, Annisa S L Mak, C F Poon, K Y Leung
A noninvasive approach by serial ultrasound examination at 12-15, 18, and 30 weeks of gestation can be used to exclude homozygous α(0)-thalassemia-induced fetal anemia. At 12-15 weeks of gestation, the predictive values for the fetal cardio-thoracic ratio were better than that for the placental thickness. At 16-20 weeks of gestation, measuring middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity is associated with a low false-positive rate. However, the false-positive rate of this noninvasive approach can be about 3%, requiring an invasive test to confirm the diagnosis...
October 26, 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Natasa M Milic, Jelena Milin-Lazovic, Tracey L Weissgerber, Goran Trajkovic, Wendy M White, Vesna D Garovic
OBJECTIVES: Preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific hypertensive disorder, has been associated with cardiovascular risk factors and vascular changes, such as acute atherosis in placental blood vessels, which are similar to early-stage atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to determine whether women with preeclampsia have increased atherosclerotic burden, as determined by carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), when compared to women without preeclampsia. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that reported CIMT, a non-invasive, ultrasound-based measure of subclinical atherosclerosis, in women who did vs...
November 18, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Hany Zaher, Ayman Abdel-Aziz Swelum, Abdel-Salam Eidaroos, Faten Labib
The present study aimed mainly to study the level of nitric oxide (NO) and combined thickness of the uterus and placenta (CTUP) in buffaloes affected by pregnancy pathology. Females (n = 104) were classified into three main groups: nonpregnant (n = 10), healthy pregnant (n = 54), and pathologically pregnant (n = 40). The healthy pregnant animals were subgrouped according to the stage of pregnancy to early stage (n = 15), mid stage (n = 15), late stage (n = 19), and full term (n = 5). The animals in which pregnancy was associated with placental pathology were subgrouped to uterine torsion (n = 27), hydroallantois (n = 5), and abortion (n = 8)...
January 15, 2017: Theriogenology
Firoza Haffejee, Thajasvarie Naicker, Moganavelli Singh, Ayesha B M Kharsany, Miriam Adhikari, Ravesh Singh, Niren Maharaj, Jagidesa Moodley
Leptin, primarily produced by adipocytes, is implicated in the development of pre-eclampsia. This study examines placental leptin production and serum leptin levels in HIV infected and uninfected normotensive and pre-eclamptic pregnancies. Placental leptin production was analysed by RT-PCR and serum leptin levels by ELISA in normotensive (n = 90) and pre-eclamptic (n = 90) pregnancies which were further stratified by HIV status. Placental leptin production was higher in pre-eclampsia compared to normotensive pregnancies irrespective of HIV status (p = ...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Simon H J Brown, Samuel R Eather, Dilys J Freeman, Barbara J Meyer, Todd W Mitchell
In preeclampsia, maternal insulin resistance leads to defective expansion of adipocytes, enhanced adipocyte lipolysis, up-regulation of very low density lipoprotein synthesis, maternal hypertriglyceridaemia and the potential for ectopic fat storage. Our aim was to quantitate and compare the total amount and type of lipid in placenta from pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia and healthy pregnancies. Quantitative lipid analysis of lipid extracts from full thickness placental biopsies was carried out by shotgun lipidomics...
2016: PloS One
Sevan A Vahanian, Anthony M Vintzileos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Placental implantation abnormalities (PIAs) comprise a large group of disorders associated with significant maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity. RECENT FINDINGS: Risk factors include prior uterine surgery/myometrial scarring and the presence of placenta previa with or without prior cesarean delivery. Newly identified risk factors include previous prelabor cesarean delivery and previous postpartum hemorrhage. PIAs contribute substantially to preterm birth with prematurity rates ranging from 38 to 82%...
December 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
E E Idih, B U Ezem, E A Nzeribe, A O Onyegbule, B C Duru, C C Amajoyi
BACKGROUND: Despite the global efforts made to eradicate malaria, it continues to be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in both neonates and the parturients. This study was done to determine the relationship between placental parasitemia, average neonatal birth weight and the relationship between the use of malaria preventive measures and the occurrence of placental parasitemia with the aim to improving maternal and neonatal outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was done at the labor ward unit of the Federal Medical Center, Owerri, from December 2013 to May 2014...
July 2016: Nigerian Medical Journal: Journal of the Nigeria Medical Association
P S Hasdemir, M Farasat, C Aydin, B C Ozyurt, T Guvenal, G Pekindil
INTRODUCTION: Adenomyosis can cause defective deep placentation. Preeclampsia is known to be associated with abnormal placentation. The aim of this study was to compare the presence of adenomyosis on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with and without history of preeclampsia in order to investigate the possible role of adenomyosis in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, randomized study consisted of patients with (n = 35) and without (n = 34) history of preeclampsia...
August 2016: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
A Carluccio, F Noto, S Parrillo, A Contri, I De Amicis, A Gloria, D Robbe, M C Veronesi
In the recent years, the donkey population decreased dramatically so that many breeds are presently considered as endangered. In comparison to the horse, the donkey placenta still remains not completely studied. In the horse, one of the diagnostic tools useful to identify pregnant mares at risk of abortion or premature delivery, include the transrectal ultrasound examination of the uterus and its contents; and especially of the combined thickness of the uterus and of the placenta (CUPT). Since the CUPT was never investigated in donkeys, the present study was aimed to define the transrectal CUPT values during the last half of pregnancy in 20 Martina Franca jennies...
July 30, 2016: Theriogenology
Valérie Briand, Jean-Yves Le Hesran, Mayfong Mayxay, Paul N Newton, Gwladys Bertin, Sandrine Houzé, Sommay Keomany, Yom Inthavong, Nanthasane Vannavong, Keobouphaphone Chindavongsa, Bouasy Hongvanthong, Nadine Fievet
BACKGROUND: There are no data on the burden of malaria in pregnancy (MiP) in Laos, where malaria still remains prevalent in the south. METHODS: Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2014 to assess the prevalence of MiP in Vapi District, Salavan Province, southern Laos: the first consisted of screening 204 pregnant women during pregnancies [mean (95 % CI) gestational age: 23 (22-25) weeks] living in 30 randomly selected villages in Vapi District; the second was conducted among 331 pregnant women, who delivered during the study period in Vapi and Toumlane District Hospitals and in Salavan Provincial Hospital...
2016: Malaria Journal
S Mastrodima, R Akolekar, G Yerlikaya, T Tzelepis, K H Nicolaides
OBJECTIVES: To develop a model for the prediction of stillbirth that is based on a combination of maternal characteristics and medical history with first-trimester biochemical and biophysical markers and to evaluate the performance of screening with this model for all stillbirths and those due to impaired placentation and unexplained causes. METHODS: This was a prospective screening study of 76 897 singleton pregnancies, including 76 629 live births and 268 (0.35%) antepartum stillbirths; 157 (59%) were secondary to impaired placentation and 111 (41%) were due to other or unexplained causes...
November 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Elaheh Mesdaghi-Nia, Mitra Behrashi, Arezoo Saeidi, Masoomeh Abedzadeh Kalahroodi, Mojtaba Sehat
BACKGROUND: Measuring of maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in first trimester can be a way for early detection of adverse prenatal outcome due to faulty placenta. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to Determination of association between placental thickness in second trimester with low level of PAPP-A in first trimester. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cohort study, serum PAPP-A of 187 pregnant women was measured in the first trimester of pregnancy...
June 2016: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
Joanna Sue Yee Chan, Debra Heller, Rebecca Baergen
Decidual vasculopathy (DV) is a general term for a number of lesions involving uteroplacental vessels. It is often seen in preeclamptic placentas and indicates a disorder of uteroplacental malperfusion and is associated with placental ischemia and infarction. Although some have advocated submitting special sections in order to better document DV, it is unclear which placental sections have the highest yield in demonstrating these abnormal vessels. 76 consecutive cases of decidual vasculopathy were identified and evaluated for location of DV, as well as presence of other lesions of ischemic change, infarcts and retroplacental hematomas...
August 11, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Luana Azevedo de Freitas, Gustavo Lobato Mota, Herlon Victor Rodrigues Silva, Cibele Figueira Carvalho, Lúcia Daniel Machado da Silva
The goals of this study were to report embryonic and fetal ultrasound changes and compare blood flow of uteroplacental and umbilical arteries of normal and abnormal conceptus. Accordingly, from the day of mating or artificial insemination, all fetuses in 60 pregnancies were evaluated weekly. According to the ultrasound findings, the gestational age was determined and the conceptuses were divided into normal or abnormal (embryonic and fetal abnormalities). The two-dimensional ultrasound assessment consists of measuring and evaluating the echogenicity of conceptus and extra-fetal structures...
September 2016: Animal Reproduction Science
Roxane J Hillier, Elvis Ojaimi, David T Wong, Michael Y K Mak, Alan R Berger, Radha P Kohly, Peter J Kertes, Farzin Forooghian, Shelley R Boyd, Kenneth Eng, Filiberto Altomare, Louis R Giavedoni, Rosane Nisenbaum, Rajeev H Muni
PURPOSE: To determine whether aqueous cytokine levels correlate with disease severity in diabetic macular edema. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study of 49 adults with diabetes mellitus, centre-involving diabetic macular edema and central subfield macular thickness ≥310 μm on spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Clinical examination and aqueous sampling were carried out before an initial injection of ranibizumab. Multiplex immunoassay of sample was carried out for vascular endothelial growth factor, placental growth factor, transforming growth factor beta, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-3, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and epidermal growth factor...
July 28, 2016: Retina
Perrie F O'Tierney-Ginn, Melanie Gillingham, Jessica Fowler, Elizabeth Brass, Nicole E Marshall, Kent L Thornburg
The fetus largely depends on maternal supply and placental transport for its source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), which are essential for proper neurological and cardiovascular development. Pregnancy complications such as diabetes reduces neonatal LCPUFA supply, but little is known of how fatty acid delivery is affected by maternal body type or weight gain in uncomplicated pregnancies. In a cross-sectional study of maternal-neonatal pairs at term, we sought to determine the effect of gestational weight gain on neonatal LCPUFA supply...
July 28, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
Swapna Dharashivkar, Lawrence Wasser, Richard N Baumgartner, Jeffrey C King, Stephen J Winters
BACKGROUND: Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), a glycoprotein produced by hepatocytes that transports testosterone and other steroids in plasma, is a marker for developing metabolic syndrome and T2DM. SHBG is present in umbilical cord blood where it may be epigenetically regulated. This study was conducted to investigate whether the fetal environment, based on maternal pre-pregnancy weight, pregnancy weight gain or smoking during pregnancy, influence SHBG in newborns. METHODS: Maternal and newborn characteristics and SHBG levels and other variables were measured in cord and day 2 heel-stick blood samples in 60 healthy full-term singleton babies (31 F, 29 M)...
2016: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Shunji Suzuki
PURPOSE: Prenatal recognition of circumvallate placenta is important because the condition may lead to some serious perinatal complications. METHODS: The possibility of antenatal ultrasonographic screening for circumvallate placenta was examined by measuring the thickness of the placenta at the thickest point. The study group consisted of 722 unselected patients with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies seen for routine ultrasonographic examination between 18 and 21 weeks' gestation...
June 2008: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
Tansim Akhter, Anna-Karin Wikström, Marita Larsson, Anders Larsson, Gerhard Wikström, Tord Naessen
OBJECTIVES: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. In PE there is a substantial increase in levels of the anti-angiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt1) and decreased levels of the pro-angiogenic factor placental growth factor (PlGF). Elevated levels of sFlt1 are also found in individuals with CVD. The aims of this study were to assess sFlt1, PlGF and the sFlt1/PlGF ratio and their correlation with signs of arterial aging by measuring common carotid artery (CCA) intima and media thicknesses and their ratio (I/M ratio) in women with and without PE...
June 3, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Marie-Julie Allard, Julie D Bergeron, Moogeh Baharnoori, Lalit K Srivastava, Louis-Charles Fortier, Claire Poyart, Guillaume Sébire
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a commensal bacterium present in the lower genital tract of 15-30% of healthy pregnant women. GBS is the leading cause of chorioamnionitis and cerebral injuries in newborns, occurring most often in the absence of maternofetal pathogen translocation. Despite GBS being the most frequent bacterium colonizing pregnant women, no preclinical studies have investigated the impact of end-gestational maternal GBS exposure on the offspring's brain development and its behavioral correlates...
May 25, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
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