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Placental thickness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523122/sex-differences-in-rat-placental-development-from-pre-implantation-to-late-gestation
#1
J I Kalisch-Smith, D G Simmons, M Pantaleon, K M Moritz
BACKGROUND: A male fetus is suggested to be more susceptible to in utero and birth complications. This may be due in part to altered morphology or function of the XY placenta. We hypothesised that sexual dimorphism begins at the blastocyst stage with sex differences in the progenitor trophectoderm (TE) and its derived trophoblast lineages, as these cells populate the majority of cell types within the placenta. We investigated sex-specific differences in cell allocation in the pre-implantation embryo and further characterised growth and gene expression of the placental compartments from the early stages of the definitive placenta through to late gestation...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508539/the-effect-of-maternal-obesity-on-fatty-acid-transporter-expression-and-lipid-metabolism-in-the-full-term-placenta-of-lean-breed-swine
#2
L Tian, S S Dong, J Hu, J J Yao, P S Yan
This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of back-fat thickness (BF), at mating of sows, on the maternal and newborn circulating lipids, expression of placental fatty acids (FA) transporters and lipid accumulation in placenta. Full-term placentas were obtained by vaginal delivery from BFI (9-14 mm; n = 37), BFII (15-19 mm; n = 43) and BFIII (20-27 mm; n = 38) sows according to BF at mating, and frozen placental sections were analysed for fat accumulation. Blood samples were collected from the sows of day 105 pregnancy and from cord blood at delivery...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487023/redefining-3dimensional-placental-membrane-microarchitecture-using-multiphoton-microscopy-and-optical-clearing
#3
Lauren Richardson, Gracie Vargas, Tyra Brown, Lorenzo Ochoa, Jayshil Trivedi, Marian Kacerovský, Martha Lappas, Ramkumar Menon
INTRODUCTION: Remodeling of human placental membranes (amniochorionic or fetalmembrane) throughout gestation, a necessity to accommodate increasing uterine volume, involves continuous alterations (replacement of cells and remodeling of extracellular matrix). Methodologic limitations have obscured microscopic determination of cellular and layer-level alterations. This study used a combination of advanced imaging by multiphoton autofluorescence microscopy (MPAM) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy along with tissue optical clearing to characterize the 3Dimensional multilayer organization of placental membranes...
May 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458694/submicroscopic-and-asymptomatic-congenital-infection-by-plasmodium-vivax-or-p-falciparum-in-colombia-37-cases-with-placental-histopathology-and-cytokine-profile-in-maternal-and-placental-blood
#4
Olga María Agudelo-García, Eliana María Arango-Flórez, Jaime Carmona-Fonseca
Problem. Congenital plasmodial infection (CPI) is a rare event, which has been little studied in Colombia. Objective. To measure the frequency of CPI and to describe the immune and histological characteristics in maternal blood and placentas when CPI occurs. Methodology. A cross-sectional study was carried out in northwest Colombia. A sample size of 39 unit analysis (a unit of analysis corresponds to the cord, placenta, and peripheral blood of a pregnant woman) was calculated using epidemiological and statistical parameters...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403020/understanding-the-impact-of-preservation-methods-on-the-integrity-and-functionality-of-placental-allografts
#5
Amy Johnson, Alexandra Gyurdieva, Sandeep Dhall, Alla Danilkovitch, Yi Duan-Arnold
INTRODUCTION: Human placental membranes (hPMs) have a long history in treating burns and wounds. The composition of hPMs includes structural matrix, growth factors, and neonatal cells, all of which contribute to their regenerative potential. However, most hPM products are devitalized after dehydration and irradiation. We compared the functionality of single-layer viable cryopreserved human amniotic membrane (vCHAM) with multilayer devitalized dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (dHACM) in wound-relevant models to determine the effect of different processing methods on hPMs...
April 12, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377901/unusual-presentation-of-invasive-mole-a-case-report
#6
Soheila Aminimoghaddam, Andisheh Maghsoudnia
BACKGROUND: Invasive mole is responsible for most cases of localized gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Gestational trophoblastic disease describes a number of gynecologic tumors that originate in trophoblastic layer including hydatidiform mole (complete or partial), invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor and epitheloid trophoblastic tumor. Invasive mole may arise from any pregnancy event although in most cases is diagnosed after molar pregnancy. Overall cure rate in low risk patients is nearly 100% and in high-risk patient 90%...
January 2017: Journal of Reproduction & Infertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365905/aflibercept-a-review-in-macular-oedema-secondary-to-branch-retinal-vein-occlusion
#7
Sheridan M Hoy
Aflibercept (Eylea(®)) is a fully human, recombinant fusion protein available in various countries worldwide, including those of the EU, as well as the USA, for intravitreal use in the treatment of macular oedema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in adults. Aflibercept acts as a soluble decoy receptor, binding with high affinity to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and placental growth factor (PIGF), preventing these angiogenic factors from binding to and activating their cognate receptors...
April 1, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332771/prenatal-high-fat-diet-alters-placental-morphology-nutrient-transporter-expression-and-mtorc1-signaling-in-rat
#8
Lin Song, Bo Sun, Gretha J Boersma, Zachary A Cordner, Jianqun Yan, Timothy H Moran, Kellie L K Tamashiro
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine how the rat placenta and fetus respond to maternal high-fat (HF) diet during gestation and to identify the possible mechanisms. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with standard chow (13.5% fat) or HF (60% fat) diet during gestation. Placentas were collected on gestation day 21. RESULTS: HF dams had greater fat mass, higher plasma leptin, lower plasma adiponectin, and impaired glucose tolerance during pregnancy...
March 23, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323893/effect-of-supervised-exercise-training-during-pregnancy-on-neonatal-and-maternal-outcomes-among-overweight-and-obese-women-secondary-analyses-of-the-etip-trial-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
Kirsti Krohn Garnæs, Siri Ann Nyrnes, Kjell Åsmund Salvesen, Øyvind Salvesen, Siv Mørkved, Trine Moholdt
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity associates with complications during pregnancy and childbirth. Our aim was to investigate if exercise during pregnancy in overweight/obese women could influence birth weight or other neonatal and maternal outcomes at delivery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial of exercise training in pregnancy for women with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 28 kg/m2. Ninety-one women (31.3 ± 4.3 years, BMI 34...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300011/neonatal-fatty-acid-profiles-are-correlated-with-infant-growth-measures-at-6-months
#10
P F O'Tierney-Ginn, D Davina, M Gillingham, D J P Barker, C Morris, K L Thornburg
Rapid weight gain in infancy and low levels of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) at birth are associated with increased adiposity later in life. The association between placental LCPUFA delivery and weight gain in infancy is poorly understood. We sought to determine the relationships between maternal phenotype, placental fatty acid transporter expression and offspring growth patterns over the first 6 months. Placental tissue and cord blood were collected at term delivery from women with uncomplicated pregnancies...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276297/decidual-vasculopathy-placental-location-and-association-with-ischemic-lesions
#11
Joanna Sy Chan, Debra S Heller, Rebecca N Baergen
Decidual vasculopathy (DV) is a general term for a number of lesions involving uteroplacental vessels. It is often seen in preeclamptic placentas and indicates a disorder of uteroplacental malperfusion and is associated with placental ischemia and infarction. Although some have advocated submitting special sections in order to better document DV, it is unclear which placental sections have the highest yield in demonstrating these abnormal vessels. Seventy-six consecutive cases of decidual vasculopathy were identified and evaluated for location of DV, as well as presence of other lesions of ischemic change, infarcts, and retroplacental hematomas...
January 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272653/we-can-diagnose-it-if-we-consider-it-diagnostic-pitfall-for-placenta-placental-mesenchymal-dysplasia
#12
Havva Serap Toru, Esra Çobankent Aytekin, Cem Yaşar Sanhal, Sezin Yakut, Zafer Çetin, İbrahim İnanç Mendilcioğlu, Hadice Elif Peştereli
Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is an increasingly recognizable abnormality. Early cases have been confused with partial hydatidiform mole. Placental mesenchymal dysplasia is probably under-diagnosed because of being an unfamiliar clinical entity and also mistaken for gestational trophoblastic disease due to the similar sonographic findings of two entities. In this report, we describe the clinical, gross, and histopathological findings of placental mesenchymal dysplasia in two cases. The 33-week-preterm baby of a 26-year-old woman with cardiovascular disease and 342 gram placenta and the 19-week fetus with trisomy 21 of a 40 year-old woman were terminated...
February 4, 2017: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269608/modelling-nutrient-transfer-based-on-3d-imaging-of-the-human-placental-microstructure
#13
S Perazzolo, R M Lewis, B G Sengers
Impaired transfer of nutrients from mother to fetus can affect pregnancy outcomes. The placenta has a complex microstructure, including the maternal intervillous space and fetal capillaries. Previous computational models of placental transfer either assumed a simplified idealized local geometry or were based on 2D imaging. In this study, we present a novel 3D computational model to assess the placental transfer of nutrients at the microscale in interaction with the maternal flow environment. A stack of confocal microscopy images of the placental terminal villi was collected and reconstructed...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267189/association-of-placental-jets-and-mega-jets-with-reduced-villous-density
#14
Rojan Saghian, Joanna L James, Merryn H Tawhai, Sally L Collins, Alys R Clark
Spiral arteries (SAs) lie at the interface between the uterus and placenta, and supply nutrients to the placental surface. Maternal blood circulation is separated from the fetal circulation by structures called villous trees. SAs are transformed in early pregnancy from tightly coiled vessels to large high-capacity channels, which is believed to facilitate an increased maternal blood flow throughout pregnancy with minimal increase in velocity, preventing damage to delicate villous trees. Significant maternal blood flow velocities have been theorized in the space surrounding the villi (the intervillous space, IVS), particularly when SA conversion is inadequate, but have only recently been visualized reliably using pulsed wave Doppler ultrasonography...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227866/modelling-nutrient-transfer-based-on-3d-imaging-of-the-human-placental-microstructure
#15
S Perazzolo, R M Lewis, B G Sengers, S Perazzolo, R M Lewis, B G Sengers, B G Sengers, R M Lewis, S Perazzolo
Impaired transfer of nutrients from mother to fetus can affect pregnancy outcomes. The placenta has a complex microstructure, including the maternal intervillous space and fetal capillaries. Previous computational models of placental transfer either assumed a simplified idealized local geometry or were based on 2D imaging. In this study, we present a novel 3D computational model to assess the placental transfer of nutrients at the microscale in interaction with the maternal flow environment. A stack of confocal microscopy images of the placental terminal villi was collected and reconstructed...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220786/intrauterine-zika-virus-infection-of-pregnant-immunocompetent-mice-models-transplacental-transmission-and-adverse-perinatal-outcomes
#16
Meghan S Vermillion, Jun Lei, Yahya Shabi, Victoria K Baxter, Nathan P Crilly, Michael McLane, Diane E Griffin, Andrew Pekosz, Sabra L Klein, Irina Burd
Zika virus (ZIKV) crosses the placenta and causes congenital disease. Here we develop an animal model utilizing direct ZIKV inoculation into the uterine wall of pregnant, immunocompetent mice to evaluate transplacental transmission. Intrauterine inoculation at embryonic day (E) 10, but not E14, with African, Asian or American strains of ZIKV reduces fetal viability and increases infection of placental and fetal tissues. ZIKV inoculation at E10 causes placental inflammation, placental dysfunction and reduces neonatal brain cortical thickness, which is associated with increased activation of microglia...
February 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215689/histomorphometry-of-the-placental-vasculature-and-microcotyledons-in-thoroughbred-mares-with-chronic-laminitis
#17
Fernanda M Pazinato, Bruna da Rosa Curcio, Cristina G Fernandes, Carlos A Santos, Lorena S Feijó, Antonio Sérgio Varela, Carlos E W Nogueira
The objective of this study was to assess the placental vasculature and microcotyledons in pregnant mares with chronic laminitis. Twenty-six pregnant mares were enrolled in the study, 13 had chronic laminitis (Laminitis Group) and 13 were healthy mares (Healthy Group). Arterial systolic pressure and heart rate were measured in the last 30 days of gestation. After foaling, the fetal membranes were grossly evaluated and samples were harvested for histopathologic examination. All mares had digitalized images taken from chorioallantois for histomorphometry analyses (software-NIH ImageJ)...
March 15, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165148/a-correlative-study-of-the-allantois-in-pig-and-rabbit-highlighting-the-diversity-of-extraembryonic-tissues-in-four-mammalian-species-including-mouse-and-man
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Waad Hassan, Christoph Viebahn
Despite its conserved role in placenta and umbilical cord formation, the mammalian allantois shows remarkable diversity in size and form as well as in the timing of its appearance and attachment to the chorion. In the mouse, the common allantoic diverticulum is lacking; instead, the allantoic core domain is defined as a progenitor center for allantoic development. In this study, the allantoises of the pig and the rabbit as two nonrodent mammals of increasing significance in biomedical research are compared (1) morphologically using high resolution light and electron microscopy and (2) molecularly using brachyury mRNA expression as a mesodermal marker...
May 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161057/extracellular-matrix-proteins-in-healthy-and-retained-placentas-comparing-hemochorial-and-synepitheliochorial-placentas
#19
M Franczyk, M Lopucki, N Stachowicz, D Morawska, M Kankofer
The placenta expresses structural and biologically active proteins. Their synthesis is mainly regulated by genomic or nongenomic signals and modulated by hormones. These protein profiles are altered during different stages of pregnancy. The biological properties of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins were defined and described in a number of tissues including placenta. These properties enable them to be the main players in the processes of attachment or invasion into the endometrium during initial placenta formation and its timely separation after delivery and detachment...
February 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157488/placental-stem-villus-arterial-remodeling-associated-with-reduced-hydrogen-sulfide-synthesis-contributes-to-human-fetal-growth-restriction
#20
Liangjian Lu, John Kingdom, Graham J Burton, Tereza Cindrova-Davies
Intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) is often associated with compromised umbilical arterial flow, indicating increased placental vascular resistance. Oxidative stress is causatively implicated. Hydrogen sulfide maintains differentiated smooth muscle in vascular beds, and its synthetic enzyme cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) is down-regulated in growth-restricted placentas. We hypothesized that remodeling of resistance arteries in stem villi contributes to IUGR by compromising umbilical blood flow via oxidative stress, reducing hydrogen sulfide signaling...
April 2017: American Journal of Pathology
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