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Taddesse Yayeh, Kyunghwa Yun, Soyong Jang, Seikwan Oh
BACKGROUND: Red ginseng and ginsenosides have shown plethoric effects against various ailments. However, little is known regarding the effect of red ginseng on morphine-induced dependence and tolerance. We therefore investigated the effect of red ginseng extract (RGE) and biotransformed ginsenosides Rh2, Rg3, and compound K on morphine-induced dependence in mice and rats. METHODS: While mice were pretreated with RGE and then morphine was injected intraperitoneally, rats were infused with ginsenosides and morphine intracranially for 7 days...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Ashlea M Klahr, S Alexandra Burt, Leslie D Leve, Daniel S Shaw, Jody M Ganiban, David Reiss, Jenae M Neiderhiser
Negative parenting is shaped by the genetically influenced characteristics of children (via evocative rGE) and by parental antisocial behavior; however, it is unclear how these factors jointly impact parenting. This study examined the effects of birth parent and adoptive parent antisocial behavior on negative parenting. Participants included 546 families within a prospective adoption study. Adoptive parent antisocial behavior emerged as a small but significant predictor of negative parenting at 18 months and of change in parenting from 18 to 27 months...
September 26, 2016: Child Development
Bianca S Siedler, Bárbara C Roloff, Gizele L de Sá, Alessandra Neis, Fabrício R Conceição, Daiane D Hartwig, Sibele Borsuk, Odir A Dellagostin, Fabrício S Campos, Paulo M Roehe, Claudia P Hartleben, Alan J A McBride
Bovine herpesvirus (BoHV) glycoprotein E (gE) is a non-essential envelope glycoprotein and the deletion of gE has been used to develop BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 differential vaccine strains. The DIVA (Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals) strategy, using marker vaccines based on gE-negative BoHV strains, allows the identification of vaccinated or infected animals in immunoassays designed to detect anti-gE antibodies. In this study a codon optimized synthetic sequence of gE containing highly conserved regions from BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 was expressed in Pichia pastoris...
September 28, 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
Emaad Abdel-Kahaar, Thomas Giese, Claudia Sommerer, Hannah Rieger, Maria Shipkova, Eberhard Wieland
BACKGROUND: Analysis of residual gene expression (RGE) of NFAT-regulated genes has been developed as a pharmacodynamic biomarker to monitor therapy with calcineurin inhibitors (CNI). The availability of commercial primer sets (Search-LC, Heidelberg) and the well-established assay protocol make this biomarker a promising candidate to be utilized clinically in different laboratories. However, implementation of the method in routine practice requires analytical robustness and comparable results across laboratories...
September 16, 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Ramasri Sathanoori, Paulina Bryl-Gorecka, Christa E Müller, Laurie Erb, Gary A Weisman, Björn Olde, David Erlinge
Endothelial cells release ATP in response to fluid shear stress, which activates purinergic (P2) receptor-mediated signaling molecules including endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS), a regulator of vascular tone. While P2 receptor-mediated signaling in the vasculature is well studied, the role of P2Y2 receptors in shear stress-associated endothelial cell alignment, cytoskeletal alterations, and wound repair remains ill defined. To address these aspects, human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers were cultured on gelatin-coated dishes and subjected to a shear stress of 1 Pa...
September 20, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
T V Azizova, G V Zhuntova, Rge Haylock, M B Moseeva, E S Grigoryeva, M V Bannikova, Z D Belyaeva, E V Bragin
OBJECTIVES: This paper describes findings from the study of chronic bronchitis (CB) incidence after occupational exposure to ionising radiation among workers employed at Russian Mayak Production Association (PA) during 1948 and 1982 and followed up until 2008 based on 'Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008'. METHODS: Analyses were based on 2135 verified cases among 21 417 workers. Rate ratios (RR) were estimated by categorical analysis for non-radiation and radiation factors...
September 19, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Walter Chingwaru, Richard H Glashoff, Jerneja Vidmar, Petrina Kapewangolo, Samantha L Sampson
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infections have remained a major public health concern worldwide, particularly in Southern Africa. Yet our understanding of the molecular interactions between the pathogens has remained poor due to lack of suitable preclinical models for such studies. We reviewed the use, this far, of mammalian cell culture models in HIV-MTB interaction studies. Studies have described the use of primary human cell cultures, including (1) monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) fractions of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), alveolar macrophages (AM), (2) cell lines such as the monocyte-derived macrophage cell line (U937), T lymphocyte cell lines (CEMx174, ESAT-6-specific CD4(+) T-cells) and an alveolar epithelial cell line (A549) and (3) special models such as stem cells, three dimensional (3D) or organoid cell models (including a blood-brain barrier cell model) in HIV-MTB interaction studies...
September 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
Jian Liu, Chunye Chen, Rui Zhu, Xiangzhong Ye, Jizong Jia, Lianwei Yang, Yongmei Wang, Wei Wang, Jianghui Ye, Yimin Li, Hua Zhu, Qinjian Zhao, Jun Zhang, Tong Cheng, Ningshao Xia
Varicella is a highly contagious disease caused by primary infection of Varicella zoster virus (VZV). Varicella can be severe or even lethal in susceptible adults, immunocompromised patients and neonates. Determination of the status of immunity to VZV is recommended for these high-risk populations. Furthermore, measurement of population immunity to VZV can help in developing proper varicella vaccination programmes. VZV glycoprotein E (gE) is an antigen that has been demonstrated to be a highly accurate indicator of VZV-specific immunity...
November 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Pedro Ciudad, Oscar J Manrique, Shivprasad Date, Bulent Sacak, Wei-Ling Chang, Kidakorn Kiranantawat, Seong Yoon Lim, Hung-Chi Chen
Between 2010 and 2016, 110 patients with extremity lymphedema underwent vascularized lymph node (VLN) transfer: groin (G-VLN = 20), supraclavicular (SC-VLN = 54), and right gastroepiploic (RGE-VLN = 36) open and laparoscopic approach. Herein, we discuss the pearls and pitfalls for VLN harvest and compare donor site morbidity and complications. Lymphatic leakage: G-VLN (n = 1) and SC-VLN (n = 1) and one hematoma: SC-VLN were found. Laparoscopic harvest of the RGE-VLN reduces donor site morbidity...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Wilson Chan, Hodan Ismail, Dominique Mayaki, Veronica Sanchez, Kerstin Tiedemann, Elaine C Davis, Sabah N A Hussain
BACKGROUND: Fibulin-5 is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that plays critical roles in vasculogenesis and embryonic development. Deletion of Fibulin-5 in mice results in enhanced skin vascularization and upregulation of the angiogenesis factor angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), suggesting that Fibulin-5 functions as an angiogenesis inhibitor. In this study, we investigate the inhibitory effects of Fibulin-5 on Ang-1/TIE-2 receptor pathway signaling and cell survival in human endothelial cells...
2016: PloS One
Mohd Tarique, Hefazat H Siddiqui, Mohd Khushtar, Md Azizur Rahman
BACKGROUND: The search for an ideal and new antiulcer drug has been extended to herbals for novel molecules that decrease the incidence of relapse and afford better protection. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Ruta graveolens (RGE) Linn. leaves on indomethacin (IND) and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer in Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rats of all the six groups were deprived of food for 24 h...
March 2016: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Rasmus Røge, Rikke Riber-Hansen, Søren Nielsen, Mogens Vyberg
Manual estimation of Ki67 Proliferation Index (PI) in breast carcinoma classification is labor intensive and prone to intra- and interobserver variation. Standard Digital Image Analysis (DIA) has limitations due to issues with tumor cell identification. Recently, a computer algorithm, DIA based on Virtual Double Staining (VDS), segmenting Ki67-positive and -negative tumor cells using digitally fused parallel cytokeratin (CK) and Ki67-stained slides has been introduced. In this study, we compare VDS with manual stereological counting of Ki67-positive and -negative cells and examine the impact of the physical distance of the parallel slides on the alignment of slides...
July 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Nour Eissa, Hayam Hussein, Hongxing Wang, Mohammad F Rabbi, Charles N Bernstein, Jean-Eric Ghia
BACKGROUND: Many animal models have been developed to characterize the complexity of colonic inflammation. In dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) experimental colitis in mice the choice of reference genes is critical for accurate quantification of target genes using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR). No studies have addressed the performance of reference genes in mice DSS-experimental colitis. This study aimed to determine the stability of reference genes expression (RGE) in DSS-experimental murine colitis...
2016: PloS One
Amanda K Wheaton, Miranda Velikoff, Manisha Agarwal, Tiffany T Loo, Jeffrey C Horowitz, Thomas H Sisson, Kevin K Kim
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a critical driver of acute lung injury and fibrosis. Injury leads to activation of TGF-β, which regulates changes in the cellular and matrix makeup of the lung during the repair and fibrosis phase. TGF-β can also initiate alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis. Injury leads to destruction of the laminin-rich basement membrane, which is replaced by a provisional matrix composed of arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) motif-containing plasma matrix proteins, including vitronectin and fibronectin...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Peter Deford, Kasey Brown, Rae Lee Richards, Aric King, Kristin Newburn, Katherine Westover, Allan R Albig
Canonical Notch signaling involves Notch receptor activation via interaction with cell surface bound Notch ligand. Recent findings also indicate that Notch signaling may be modulated by cross-talk with other signaling mechanisms. The ECM protein MAGP2 was previously shown to regulate Notch in a cell type dependent manner, although the molecular details of this interaction have not been dissected. Here, we report that MAGP2 cell type specific control of Notch is independent of individual Notch receptor-ligand combinations but dependent on interaction with RGD binding integrins...
February 1, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Kristine Marceau, Rohan H C Palmer, Jenae M Neiderhiser, Taylor F Smith, John E McGeary, Valerie S Knopik
There is considerable evidence that smoke exposure during pregnancy (SDP) environmentally influences birth weight after controlling for genetic influences and maternal characteristics. However, maternal smoking during pregnancy-the behavior that leads to smoke exposure during pregnancy-is also genetically-influenced, indicating the potential role of passive gene-environment correlation. An alternative to passive gene-SDP correlation is a cascading effect whereby maternal and child genetic influences are causally linked to prenatal exposures, which then have an 'environmental' effect on the development of the child's biology and behavior...
May 2016: Behavior Genetics
William Mandy, Meng-Chuan Lai
BACKGROUND: Although autism spectrum condition (ASC) is strongly genetic in origin, accumulating evidence points to the critical roles of various environmental influences on its emergence and subsequent developmental course. METHODS: A developmental psychopathology framework was used to synthesise literature on environmental factors associated with the onset and course of ASC (based on a systematic search of the literature using PubMed, PsychInfo and Google Scholar databases)...
March 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Ha-Yan Park, Sang-Hoon Lee, Kyu-Seon Lee, Hee-Kyung Yoon, Yung-Choon Yoo, Junglim Lee, Jae Eul Choi, Pyeung-Hyeun Kim, Seok-Rae Park
Ginsenosides are the major components of ginseng, which is known to modulate blood pressure, metabolism, and immune function, and has been used to treat various diseases. It has been reported that ginseng and several ginsenosides have immunoregulatory effects on the innate and T cell-mediated immune response. However, their effects on the humoral immune response have not been fully explored. The present study examined the direct effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and ginsenosides on mouse B cell proliferation and on antibody production and the expression of germline transcripts (GLT) by mouse B cells in vitro...
December 2015: Immune Network
Jun Ho Kim, Jeong Hoon Pan, Hyung Taek Cho, Young Jun Kim
Black ginseng, a new type of processed ginseng that has a unique ginsenoside profile, has been shown to display potent pharmacological activities in in vitro and in vivo models. Although red ginseng is considered beneficial for the prevention of diabetes, the relationship between black ginseng and diabetes is unknown. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the anti-diabetic potential of black ginseng extract (BGE) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin-deficient diabetic mice, in comparison with red ginseng extract (RGE)...
2016: PloS One
Kyung-Chul Shin, Hye-Yeon Choi, Min-Ju Seo, Deok-Kun Oh
Ginsenoside compound K (C-K) is attracting a lot of interest because of its biological and pharmaceutical activities, including hepatoprotective, antitumor, anti-wrinkling, and anti-skin aging activities. C-K has been used as the principal ingredient in skin care products. For the effective application of ginseng extracts to the manufacture of cosmetics, the PPD-type ginsenosides in ginseng extracts should be converted to C-K by enzymatic conversion. For increased yield of C-K from the protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides in red-ginseng extract (RGE), the α-L-arabinofuranoside-hydrolyzing α-L-arabinofuranosidase from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus (CS-abf) was used along with the β-D-glucopyranoside/α-L-arabinopyranoside-hydrolyzing β-glycosidase from Sulfolobus solfataricus (SS-bgly) because SS-bgly showed very low hydrolytic activity on the α-L-arabinofuranoside linkage in ginsenosides...
2015: PloS One
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