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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324011/a-novel-fc-fgf21-with-improved-resistance-to-proteolysis-increased-affinity-towards-%C3%AE-klotho-and-enhanced-efficacy-in-mice-and-cynomolgus-monkeys
#1
Shanaka Stanislaus, Randy Hecht, Junming Yie, Todd Hager, Michael Hall, Chris Spahr, Wei Wang, Jennifer Weiszmann, Yang Li, Liying Deng, Dwight Winters, Stephen Smith, Lei Zhou, Yuesheng Li, Murielle M Véniant, Jing Xu
FGF21 is a natural hormone that modulates glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism. Previously, we engineered an Fc fusion FGF21 variant with two mutations, Fc-FGF21(RG), to extend the half-life and reduce aggregation and in vivo degradation of FGF21. We now describe a new variant developed to reduce the extreme C-terminal degradation and improve the binding affinity to β-Klotho. We demonstrate, by introducing one additional mutation located at the C-terminus of FGF21 (A180E) that the new molecule, Fc-FGF21(RGE), has gained many improved attributes...
January 26, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279265/engineered-microenvironments-for-synergistic-vegf-integrin-signalling-during-vascularization
#2
Vladimíra Moulisová, Cristina Gonzalez-García, Marco Cantini, Aleixandre Rodrigo-Navarro, Jessica Weaver, Mercedes Costell, Roser Sabater I Serra, Matthew J Dalby, Andrés J García, Manuel Salmerón-Sánchez
We have engineered polymer-based microenvironments that promote vasculogenesis both in vitro and in vivo through synergistic integrin-growth factor receptor signalling. Poly(ethyl acrylate) (PEA) triggers spontaneous organization of fibronectin (FN) into nanonetworks which provide availability of critical binding domains. Importantly, the growth factor binding (FNIII12-14) and integrin binding (FNIII9-10) regions are simultaneously available on FN fibrils assembled on PEA. This material platform promotes synergistic integrin/VEGF signalling which is highly effective for vascularization events in vitro with low concentrations of VEGF...
May 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209625/association-of-blood-eosinophil-and-blood-neutrophil-counts-with-asthma-exacerbations-in-the-copenhagen-general-population-study
#3
Signe Vedel-Krogh, Sune Fallgaard Nielsen, Peter Lange, J Rgen Vestbo, B Rge Gr Nne Nordestgaard
BACKGROUND: Blood eosinophil count is a marker of eosinophilic airway inflammation and disease severity in asthma. However, blood neutrophil count might also be associated with disease severity. We tested the hypothesis that high blood eosinophil and neutrophil counts are both associated with the risk of asthma exacerbations among individuals with asthma from the general population. METHODS: From the Copenhagen General Population Study with 81351 participants, we included 4838 with self-reported asthma...
February 16, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199404/loss-of-genes-related-to-nucleotide-excision-repair-ner-and-implications-for-reductive-genome-evolution-in-symbionts-of-deep-sea-vesicomyid-clams
#4
Shigeru Shimamura, Takashi Kaneko, Genki Ozawa, Mamiko Nishino Matsumoto, Takeru Koshiishi, Yoshihiro Takaki, Chiaki Kato, Ken Takai, Takao Yoshida, Katsunori Fujikura, James P Barry, Tadashi Maruyama
Intracellular thioautotrophic symbionts of deep-sea vesicomyid clams lack some DNA repair genes and are thought to be undergoing reductive genome evolution (RGE). In this study, we addressed two questions, 1) how these symbionts lost their DNA repair genes and 2) how such losses affect RGE. For the first question, we examined genes associated with nucleotide excision repair (NER; uvrA, uvrB, uvrC, uvrD, uvrD paralog [uvrDp] and mfd) in 12 symbionts of vesicomyid clams belonging to two clades (5 clade I and 7 clade II symbionts)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186172/appropriateness-of-reference-genes-for-normalizing-messenger-rna-in-mouse-2-4-dinitrobenzene-sulfonic-acid-dnbs-induced-colitis-using-quantitative-real-time-pcr
#5
Nour Eissa, Laëtitia Kermarrec, Hayam Hussein, Charles N Bernstein, Jean-Eric Ghia
2,4-Dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis is an experimental model that mimics Crohn's disease. Appropriateness of reference genes is crucial for RT-qPCR. This is the first study to determine the stability of reference gene expression (RGE) in mice treated with DNBS. DNBS experimental Colitis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice. RNA was extracted from colon tissue and comprehensive analysis of 13 RGE was performed according to predefined criteria. Relative colonic TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels were calculated...
February 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163169/does-maoa-increase-susceptibility-to-prenatal-stress-in-young-children
#6
Suena H Massey, Amalia E Hatcher, Caron A C Clark, James L Burns, Daniel S Pine, Andrew D Skol, Daniel K Mroczek, Kimberly A Espy, David Goldman, Edwin Cook, Lauren S Wakschlag
BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated a gene-by-prenatal-environment interaction whereby the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) modified the impact of prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) on adolescent disruptive behavior (DB), with the MAOA risk genotype varying by sex. We extend this work by examining whether this mechanism is evident with another common adversity, prenatal stress exposure (PSE), and whether sex differences are present earlier in development in closer proximity to exposure...
February 3, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792283/self-assembled-peptide-based-hydrogels-as-scaffolds-for-proliferation-and-multi-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#7
Yung-Li Wang, Shih-Pei Lin, Srinivasa Rao Nelli, Fu-Kai Zhan, Hsun Cheng, Tsung-Sheng Lai, Mei-Yu Yeh, Hsin-Chieh Lin, Shih-Chieh Hung
Fluorenyl-9-methoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-diphenylalanine (Fmoc-FF) and Fmoc-arginine-glycine--aspartate (Fmoc-RGD) peptides self-assemble to form a 3D network of supramolecular hydrogel (Fmoc-FF/Fmoc-RGD), which provides a nanofibrous network that uniquely presents bioactive ligands at the fiber surface for cell attachment. In the present study, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in Fmoc-FF/Fmoc-RGD hydrogel increase in proliferation and survival compared to those in Fmoc-FF/Fmoc-RGE hydrogel. Moreover, MSCs encapsulated in Fmoc-FF/Fmoc-RGD hydrogel and induced in each defined induction medium undergo in vitro osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation...
October 28, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746699/morphine-dependence-is-attenuated-by-red-ginseng-extract-and-ginsenosides-rh2-rg3-and-compound-k
#8
Taddesse Yayeh, Kyunghwa Yun, Soyong Jang, Seikwan Oh
BACKGROUND: Red ginseng and ginsenosides have shown plethoric effects against various ailments. However, little is known regarding the effect of red ginseng on morphine-induced dependence and tolerance. We therefore investigated the effect of red ginseng extract (RGE) and biotransformed ginsenosides Rh2, Rg3, and compound K on morphine-induced dependence in mice and rats. METHODS: While mice were pretreated with RGE and then morphine was injected intraperitoneally, rats were infused with ginsenosides and morphine intracranially for 7 days...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716897/birth-and-adoptive-parent-antisocial-behavior-and-parenting-a-study-of-evocative-gene-environment-correlation
#9
Ashlea M Klahr, S Alexandra Burt, Leslie D Leve, Daniel S Shaw, Jody M Ganiban, David Reiss, Jenae M Neiderhiser
Negative parenting is shaped by the genetically influenced characteristics of children (via evocative rGE) and by parental antisocial behavior; however, it is unclear how these factors jointly impact parenting. This study examined the effects of birth parent and adoptive parent antisocial behavior on negative parenting. Participants included 546 families within a prospective adoption study. Adoptive parent antisocial behavior emerged as a small but significant predictor of negative parenting at 18 months and of change in parenting from 18 to 27 months...
September 26, 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693624/secretory-expression-of-bovine-herpesvirus-type-1-5-glycoprotein-e-in-pichia-pastoris-for-the-differential-diagnosis-of-vaccinated-or-infected-cattle
#10
Bianca S Siedler, Bárbara C Roloff, Gizele L de Sá, Alessandra Neis, Fabrício R Conceição, Daiane D Hartwig, Sibele Borsuk, Odir A Dellagostin, Fabrício S Campos, Paulo M Roehe, Claudia P Hartleben, Alan J A McBride
Bovine herpesvirus (BoHV) glycoprotein E (gE) is a non-essential envelope glycoprotein and the deletion of gE has been used to develop BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 differential vaccine strains. The DIVA (Differentiation of Infected from Vaccinated Animals) strategy, using marker vaccines based on gE-negative BoHV strains, allows the identification of vaccinated or infected animals in immunoassays designed to detect anti-gE antibodies. In this study a codon optimized synthetic sequence of gE containing highly conserved regions from BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 was expressed in Pichia pastoris...
September 28, 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661400/analytical-validation-and-cross-validation-of-an-nfat-regulated-gene-expression-assay-for-pharmacodynamic-monitoring-of-therapy-with-calcineurin-inhibitors
#11
Emaad Abdel-Kahaar, Thomas Giese, Claudia Sommerer, Hannah Rieger, Maria Shipkova, Eberhard Wieland
BACKGROUND: Analysis of residual gene expression of the nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT)-regulated genes has been developed as a pharmacodynamic biomarker to monitor therapy with calcineurin inhibitors. The availability of commercial primer sets (Search-LC) and the well-established assay protocol makes this biomarker a promising candidate to be used clinically in different laboratories. However, implementation of the method in routine practice requires analytical robustness and comparable results across laboratories...
December 2016: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27652381/p2y2-receptor-modulates-shear-stress-induced-cell-alignment-and-actin-stress-fibers-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#12
Ramasri Sathanoori, Paulina Bryl-Gorecka, Christa E Müller, Laurie Erb, Gary A Weisman, Björn Olde, David Erlinge
Endothelial cells release ATP in response to fluid shear stress, which activates purinergic (P2) receptor-mediated signaling molecules including endothelial nitric oxide (eNOS), a regulator of vascular tone. While P2 receptor-mediated signaling in the vasculature is well studied, the role of P2Y2 receptors in shear stress-associated endothelial cell alignment, cytoskeletal alterations, and wound repair remains ill defined. To address these aspects, human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers were cultured on gelatin-coated dishes and subjected to a shear stress of 1 Pa...
February 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647620/chronic-bronchitis-incidence-in-the-extended-cohort-of-mayak-workers-first-employed-during-1948-1982
#13
T V Azizova, G V Zhuntova, Rge Haylock, M B Moseeva, E S Grigoryeva, M V Bannikova, Z D Belyaeva, E V Bragin
OBJECTIVES: This paper describes findings from the study of chronic bronchitis (CB) incidence after occupational exposure to ionising radiation among workers employed at Russian Mayak Production Association (PA) during 1948 and 1982 and followed up until 2008 based on 'Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2008'. METHODS: Analyses were based on 2135 verified cases among 21 417 workers. Rate ratios (RR) were estimated by categorical analysis for non-radiation and radiation factors...
September 19, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633294/mammalian-cell-cultures-as-models-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-interaction-studies-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Walter Chingwaru, Richard H Glashoff, Jerneja Vidmar, Petrina Kapewangolo, Samantha L Sampson
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infections have remained a major public health concern worldwide, particularly in Southern Africa. Yet our understanding of the molecular interactions between the pathogens has remained poor due to lack of suitable preclinical models for such studies. We reviewed the use, this far, of mammalian cell culture models in HIV-MTB interaction studies. Studies have described the use of primary human cell cultures, including (1) monocyte-derived macrophage (MDM) fractions of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), alveolar macrophages (AM), (2) cell lines such as the monocyte-derived macrophage cell line (U937), T lymphocyte cell lines (CEMx174, ESAT-6-specific CD4(+) T-cells) and an alveolar epithelial cell line (A549) and (3) special models such as stem cells, three dimensional (3D) or organoid cell models (including a blood-brain barrier cell model) in HIV-MTB interaction studies...
September 2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629124/evaluation-of-immunity-to-varicella-zoster-virus-with-a-novel-double-antigen-sandwich-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay
#15
Jian Liu, Chunye Chen, Rui Zhu, Xiangzhong Ye, Jizong Jia, Lianwei Yang, Yongmei Wang, Wei Wang, Jianghui Ye, Yimin Li, Hua Zhu, Qinjian Zhao, Jun Zhang, Tong Cheng, Ningshao Xia
Varicella is a highly contagious disease caused by primary infection of Varicella zoster virus (VZV). Varicella can be severe or even lethal in susceptible adults, immunocompromised patients and neonates. Determination of the status of immunity to VZV is recommended for these high-risk populations. Furthermore, measurement of population immunity to VZV can help in developing proper varicella vaccination programmes. VZV glycoprotein E (gE) is an antigen that has been demonstrated to be a highly accurate indicator of VZV-specific immunity...
November 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440739/a-head-to-head-comparison-among-donor-site-morbidity-after-vascularized-lymph-node-transfer-pearls-and-pitfalls-of-a-6-year-single-center-experience
#16
Pedro Ciudad, Oscar J Manrique, Shivprasad Date, Bulent Sacak, Wei-Ling Chang, Kidakorn Kiranantawat, Seong Yoon Lim, Hung-Chi Chen
Between 2010 and 2016, 110 patients with extremity lymphedema underwent vascularized lymph node (VLN) transfer: groin (G-VLN = 20), supraclavicular (SC-VLN = 54), and right gastroepiploic (RGE-VLN = 36) open and laparoscopic approach. Herein, we discuss the pearls and pitfalls for VLN harvest and compare donor site morbidity and complications. Lymphatic leakage: G-VLN (n = 1) and SC-VLN (n = 1) and one hematoma: SC-VLN were found. Laparoscopic harvest of the RGE-VLN reduces donor site morbidity...
January 2017: Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27304216/fibulin-5-regulates-angiopoietin-1-tie-2-receptor-signaling-in-endothelial-cells
#17
Wilson Chan, Hodan Ismail, Dominique Mayaki, Veronica Sanchez, Kerstin Tiedemann, Elaine C Davis, Sabah N A Hussain
BACKGROUND: Fibulin-5 is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that plays critical roles in vasculogenesis and embryonic development. Deletion of Fibulin-5 in mice results in enhanced skin vascularization and upregulation of the angiogenesis factor angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), suggesting that Fibulin-5 functions as an angiogenesis inhibitor. In this study, we investigate the inhibitory effects of Fibulin-5 on Ang-1/TIE-2 receptor pathway signaling and cell survival in human endothelial cells...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27297508/protective-effect-of-hydro-alcoholic-extract-of-ruta-graveolens-linn-leaves-on-indomethacin-and-pylorus-ligation-induced-gastric-ulcer-in-rats
#18
Mohd Tarique, Hefazat H Siddiqui, Mohd Khushtar, Md Azizur Rahman
BACKGROUND: The search for an ideal and new antiulcer drug has been extended to herbals for novel molecules that decrease the incidence of relapse and afford better protection. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Ruta graveolens (RGE) Linn. leaves on indomethacin (IND) and pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer in Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rats of all the six groups were deprived of food for 24 h...
March 2016: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27283833/proliferation-assessment-in-breast-carcinomas-using-digital-image-analysis-based-on-virtual-ki67-cytokeratin-double-staining
#19
Rasmus Røge, Rikke Riber-Hansen, Søren Nielsen, Mogens Vyberg
Manual estimation of Ki67 Proliferation Index (PI) in breast carcinoma classification is labor intensive and prone to intra- and interobserver variation. Standard Digital Image Analysis (DIA) has limitations due to issues with tumor cell identification. Recently, a computer algorithm, DIA based on Virtual Double Staining (VDS), segmenting Ki67-positive and -negative tumor cells using digitally fused parallel cytokeratin (CK) and Ki67-stained slides has been introduced. In this study, we compare VDS with manual stereological counting of Ki67-positive and -negative cells and examine the impact of the physical distance of the parallel slides on the alignment of slides...
July 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27244258/stability-of-reference-genes-for-messenger-rna-quantification-by-real-time-pcr-in-mouse-dextran-sodium-sulfate-experimental-colitis
#20
Nour Eissa, Hayam Hussein, Hongxing Wang, Mohammad F Rabbi, Charles N Bernstein, Jean-Eric Ghia
BACKGROUND: Many animal models have been developed to characterize the complexity of colonic inflammation. In dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) experimental colitis in mice the choice of reference genes is critical for accurate quantification of target genes using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR). No studies have addressed the performance of reference genes in mice DSS-experimental colitis. This study aimed to determine the stability of reference genes expression (RGE) in DSS-experimental murine colitis...
2016: PloS One
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