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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324061/the-prediction-of-deterioration-of-nutritional-status-during-chemoradiation-therapy-in-patients-with-esophageal-cancer
#1
Sofia C M Rietveld, Jill E Witvliet-van Nierop, Karen Ottens-Oussoren, Donald L van der Peet, Marian A E de van der Schueren
Patients with esophageal cancer are at high risk of developing malnutrition during neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT), which in turn is associated with postoperative morbidity. The aim of the study is to explore whether parameters of a complete pre-treatment nutritional status may predict deterioration of nutritional status during CRT in patients with esophageal cancer. In this prospective cohort study, 101 patients with esophageal cancer treated with CRT were included. Data of patient characteristics, tumor classification, performance score, %weight change, body mass index, fat (free) mass index, phase angle, handgrip strength, energy- and protein intake, and use of (additional) dietary supplements were collected...
January 11, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300725/association-between-intake-of-less-healthy-foods-defined-by-the-united-kingdom-s-nutrient-profile-model-and-cardiovascular-disease-a-population-based-cohort-study
#2
Oliver T Mytton, Nita G Forouhi, Peter Scarborough, Marleen Lentjes, Robert Luben, Mike Rayner, Kay Tee Khaw, Nicholas J Wareham, Pablo Monsivais
BACKGROUND: In the United Kingdom, the Food Standards Agency-Ofcom nutrient profiling model (FSA-Ofcom model) is used to define less-healthy foods that cannot be advertised to children. However, there has been limited investigation of whether less-healthy foods defined by this model are associated with prospective health outcomes. The objective of this study was to test whether consumption of less-healthy food as defined by the FSA-Ofcom model is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD)...
January 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298512/protective-effect-of-safflower-seed-on-cisplatin-induced-renal-damage-in-mice-via-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-mediated-pathways
#3
Chan Hum Park, Ah Young Lee, Ji Hyun Kim, Su Hui Seong, Gwi Yeong Jang, Eun Ju Cho, Jae Sue Choi, Jungkee Kwon, Young Ock Kim, Sang Won Lee, Takako Yokozawa, Yu Su Shin
Cisplatin, a platinum chelate with potent antitumor activity against cancers of the testis, ovary, urinary bladder, prostate, and head and neck, has adverse effects on the kidney, bone marrow, and digestive organs, and its use is particularly limited by nephropathy as a side effect. In the present study, safflower seed extract was administered to a mouse model of cisplatin-induced acute renal failure to investigate its activity. Cisplatin (20[Formula: see text]mg/kg body weight) was administered by intraperitoneal injection to mice that had received oral safflower seed extract (100 or 200[Formula: see text]mg/kg body weight per day) for the preceding 2 days...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286303/disturbed-vitamin-a-metabolism-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld
#4
REVIEW
Ali Saeed, Robin P F Dullaart, Tim C M A Schreuder, Hans Blokzijl, Klaas Nico Faber
Vitamin A is required for important physiological processes, including embryogenesis, vision, cell proliferation and differentiation, immune regulation, and glucose and lipid metabolism. Many of vitamin A's functions are executed through retinoic acids that activate transcriptional networks controlled by retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs).The liver plays a central role in vitamin A metabolism: (1) it produces bile supporting efficient intestinal absorption of fat-soluble nutrients like vitamin A; (2) it produces retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) that distributes vitamin A, as retinol, to peripheral tissues; and (3) it harbors the largest body supply of vitamin A, mostly as retinyl esters, in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs)...
December 29, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281714/coordinate-regulation-of-stress-signaling-and-epigenetic-events-by-acss2-and-hif-2-in-cancer-cells
#5
Rui Chen, Min Xu, Jason Nagati, Joseph A Garcia
Survival of cancer cells in the harsh tumor microenvironment, characterized by oxygen and glucose deprivation, requires rapid initiation of cytoprotective measures. Metabolites whose levels change during stress are ideal signaling cues, particularly if used in post-translational modifications of stress-responsive signal transducers. In cancer cells exposed to oxygen or glucose deprivation, there is an increase in cellular levels of acetate, a substrate for acetate-dependent acetyl CoA synthetase 2 (Acss2) that also stimulates translocation of Acss2 from the cytosol to the nucleus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249914/lifestyle-diet-and-colorectal-cancer-risk-according-to-epi-genetic-instability-current-evidence-and-future-directions-of-molecular-pathological-epidemiology
#6
REVIEW
Laura A E Hughes, Colinda C J M Simons, Piet A van den Brandt, Manon van Engeland, Matty P Weijenberg
Purpose of Review: In this review, we describe molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) studies from around the world that have studied diet and/or lifestyle factors in relation to molecular markers of (epi)genetic pathways in colorectal cancer (CRC), and explore future perspectives in this realm of research. The main focus of this review is diet and lifestyle factors for which there is evidence for an association with CRC as identified by the World Cancer Research Fund reports. In addition, we review promising hypotheses, that warrant consideration in future studies...
2017: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245988/alcohol-intake-aggravates-adipose-browning-and-muscle-atrophy-in-cancer-associated-cachexia
#7
Bo Wang, Faya Zhang, Hui Zhang, Zhixiu Wang, Yan-Nan Ma, Mei-Jun Zhu, Min Du
Cancer is commonly associated with cachexia, a paraneoplastic syndrome characterized by body weight loss, muscle wasting, adipose tissue atrophy and inflammation. Chronic alcohol consumption increases the risk of multiple types of cancer, and enhances cancer-associated cachexia (CAC), but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. To test, C57BL/6 mice were fed with 0% or 20% (w/v) alcohol for 3 months, then inoculated with B16BL6 melanoma cells subcutaneously in the right side of the hip and continued to feed with/without alcohol for 3 or 4 weeks...
November 21, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229727/high-salt-conditions-alter-transcription-of-helicobacter-pylori-genes-encoding-outer-membrane-proteins
#8
John T Loh, Amber C Beckett, Matthew B Scholz, Timothy L Cover
Helicobacter pylori infection and high dietary salt intake are risk factors for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. One possible mechanism by which a high salt diet could influence gastric cancer risk is by modulating H. pylori gene expression. In this study, we utilized RNA-seq methodology to compare the transcriptional profiles of H. pylori grown in media containing different concentrations of sodium chloride. We identified 118 differentially expressed genes (65 upregulated and 53 downregulated in response to high salt conditions), including multiple members of 14 operons...
December 11, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224095/sex-differences-in-muscle-wasting
#9
Lindsey J Anderson, Haiming Liu, Jose M Garcia
With aging and other muscle wasting diseases, men and women undergo similar pathological changes in skeletal muscle: increased inflammation, enhanced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, satellite cell senescence, elevated apoptosis and proteasome activity, and suppressed protein synthesis and myocyte regeneration. Decreased food intake and physical activity also indirectly contribute to muscle wasting. Sex hormones also play important roles in maintaining skeletal muscle homeostasis. Testosterone is a potent anabolic factor promoting muscle protein synthesis and muscular regeneration...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222878/non-communicable-diseases-food-and-nutrition-in-vietnam-from-1975-to-2015-the-burden-and-national-response
#10
Tuan T Nguyen, Minh V Hoang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This review manuscript examines the burden and national response to non-communicable diseases (NCDs), food and nutrition security in Vietnam from 1975 to 2015. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We extracted data from peer-reviewed manuscripts and reports of nationally representative surveys and related policies in Vietnam. RESULTS: In 2010, NCDs accounted for 318,000 deaths (72% of total deaths), 6.7 million years of life lost, and 14 million disability-adjusted life years in Vietnam...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221118/lentinan-dose-dependence-between-immunoprophylaxis-and-promotion-of-the-murine-liver-cancer
#11
Ying Wang, Xue Han, Yan Dong Li, Yabing Wang, Shi Yang Zhao, Dong Jie Zhang, Yu Lu
Lentinan could exhibit significant biological activity favorable for human health and disease control such as the recovery of patients with liver cancer. In order to investigate the effect of lentinan dose dependence between immunoprophylaxis and promotion of cancer cell proliferation of the murine liver cancer, different concentrations of lentinan were prepared for the test in vitro (MTT assay) and in vivo (cumulative survival assay, spleen lymphocyte proliferation tests and peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis assays)...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207625/stanniocalcin2-acts-as-an-anorectic-factor-through-activation-of-stat3-pathway
#12
Yang Jiao, Jiejie Zhao, Guojun Shi, Xing Liu, Xuelian Xiong, Xiaoying Li, Huijie Zhang, Qinyun Ma, Yan Lu
The regulation of food intake and body weight has been hotly investigated. In the present study, we show that stanniocalcin2 (STC2), a cytokine ubiquitously expressed and especially upregulated in many types of human cancers, has a regulatory role in food intake and weight loss. Systemic treatment of C57BL/6 mice with recombinant STC2 protein resulted in decreased food intake and body weight, whereas energy expenditure was not affected. Similarly, STC2 treatment also induced anorexia in hyperphagic leptin-deficient mice, leading to a significant reduction in body weight and improvement of blood glucose levels...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205754/preliminary-investigation-of-blood-concentrations-of-insulin-like-growth-factor-insulin-lactate-and-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-in-dogs-with-lymphoma-as-compared-with-matched-controls
#13
B McQuown, K E Burgess, C R Heinze
It is well established that tumour cells have metabolic differences when compared with normal cells. This is particularly true for energy metabolism in which dogs with cancer have been reported to have higher blood insulin and lactate concentrations than control dogs. Moreover, some human and animal studies suggest that the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signalling pathway may play a role in tumorigenesis and tumour progression. At present, IGF-1 has not been evaluated in dogs with multicentric lymphoma...
December 4, 2017: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203517/urogualylin-a-new-actor-in-the-energy-balance-movie
#14
Cintia Folgueira, Silvia Barja-Fernandez, Patricia Gonzalez-Saenz, Veronica Pena-Leon, Cecilia Castelao, Manuel Ruiz-Piñon, Felipe F Casanueva, Rubén Nogueiras, Luisa Maria Seoane
Uroguanylin (UGN) is a potential target in the fight against obesity. The mature protein is released after enzymatic cleavage from its natural precursor, pro-UGN. UGN is mostly produced in the gut, and its production is regulated by nutritional status. However, UGN is also produced in other tissues such as the kidneys. In the past, UGN has been widely studied as a natriuretic peptide owing to its involvement in several different pathologies such as heart failure, cancer, and gastrointestinal diseases. However, recent studies have suggested that UGN acts also as a regulator of body weight homeostasis because it modulates both food intake and energy expenditure...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189972/plasma-lipopolysaccharide-binding-protein-and-colorectal-cancer-risk-a-nested-case-control-study-in-the-multiethnic-cohort
#15
Jessica S Citronberg, Lynne R Wilkens, Loic Le Marchand, Unhee Lim, Kristine R Monroe, Meredith A J Hullar, Emily White, Polly A Newcomb, Johanna W Lampe
BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin found on the outer cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria, increases inflammatory response signaling and may play a role in the pathogenesis of several adverse outcomes, including inflammatory bowel diseases, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. While LPS is hypothesized to be associated with colorectal carcinogenesis, there are relatively few human studies which have examined this association. METHODS: We examined the association between colorectal cancer (CRC) and plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), a marker of LPS, in 1,638 participants (819 CRC cases and 819 controls) matched on multiple factors, including age, sex, and race/ethnicity, from the Multiethnic Cohort study...
November 30, 2017: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173466/nutritional-management-can-assist-a-significant-role-in-alleviation-of-arsenicosis
#16
REVIEW
Abha Sharma, S J S Flora
Consumption of arsenic contaminated water causes serious skin disease and cancer in a significant number of exposed people. Chelating agents, consider an expensive therapy, are employed in the treatment of arsenic intoxication. There are reports which suggest that the poorest suffer the most from arsenicosis. This may be due to improper diet intake, consist of low protein and micronutrients which increase the vulnerability to arsenic-related disorders. Several human studies demonstrated the associations between malnourishment and the development of arsenic-caused skin lesions, skin cancer and cardiovascular effects...
January 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158891/overexpression-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-and-metabolic-pathways-possible-targets-of-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Davinder Singh, Rohit Arora, Pardeep Kaur, Balbir Singh, Rahul Mannan, Saroj Arora
Cancer, the main cause of human deaths in the modern world is a group of diseases. Anticancer drug discovery is a challenge for scientists because of involvement of multiple survival pathways of cancer cells. An extensive study on the regulation of each step of these pathways may help find a potential cancer target. Up-regulated HIF-1 expression and altered metabolic pathways are two classical characteristics of cancer. Oxygen-dependent (through pVHL, PHDs, calcium-mediated) and independent (through growth factor signaling pathway, mdm2 pathway, HSP90) regulation of HIF-1α leads to angiogenesis, metastasis, and cell survival...
2017: Cell & Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140419/dietary-glutamine-glutamate-and-mortality-two-large-prospective-studies-in-us-men-and-women
#18
Wenjie Ma, Yoriko Heianza, Tao Huang, Tiange Wang, Dianjianyi Sun, Yan Zheng, Frank B Hu, Kathryn M Rexrode, JoAnn E Manson, Lu Qi
Background: Emerging studies have related circulating glutamine metabolites to various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer; diet is the major source of nutrients involved in glutamine metabolism. However, it remains unknown whether dietary intakes of glutamine, glutamate,and their ratio are related to total and cause-specific mortality. Methods: We followed 74 082 women from the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2012) and 42 303 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2012), who were free of cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111172/nutritional-counseling-with-or-without-systematic-use-of-oral-nutritional-supplements-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-undergoing-radiotherapy
#19
Emanuele Cereda, Silvia Cappello, Sara Colombo, Catherine Klersy, Ilaria Imarisio, Annalisa Turri, Marilisa Caraccia, Valeria Borioli, Teresa Monaco, Marco Benazzo, Paolo Pedrazzoli, Franco Corbella, Riccardo Caccialanza
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the benefit of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in addition to nutritional counseling in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT). METHODS: In a single-center, randomized, pragmatic, parallel-group controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02055833; February 2014-August 2016), 159 newly diagnosed HNC patients suitable for to RT regardless of previous surgery and induction chemotherapy were randomly assigned to nutritional counseling in combination with ONS (N = 78) or without ONS (N = 81) from the start of RT and continuing for up to 3 months after its end...
October 27, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103966/an-update-of-research-evidence-on-nutrition-and-prostate-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Pao-Hwa Lin, William Aronson, Stephen J Freedland
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) remains a leading cause of mortality in US and other countries. Preclinical and clinical studies have examined the role of nutrition and dietary intake on the incidence and progression of PCa with mixed results. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this chapter is to provide an update of recent published literature and highlight progress in the field. MAIN FINDINGS: Low carbohydrate intake, soy protein, ω3 fat, green teas, tomatoes and tomato products and the herbal mixture-zyflamend showed promise in reducing PCa risk or progression...
November 2, 2017: Urologic Oncology
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