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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090619/the-evolving-approach-to-management-of-cancer-cachexia
#1
REVIEW
Rony Dev, Angelique Wong, David Hui, Eduardo Bruera
Weight loss is distressing to cancer patients and caregivers. Anorexia/cachexia syndrome is characterized by lipolysis and the loss of lean body mass, and is not reversible by increasing caloric intake. The pathophysiology of cancer cachexia is complex and includes symptoms that impact caloric intake, as well as chronic inflammation, hypermetabolism, and hormonal alterations. Cancer patients require routine screening for cachexia and, ideally, interventions should be initiated in the early stages of weight loss...
January 15, 2017: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086850/the-prevalence-trend-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-components-and-risk-factors-in-korean-adults-results-from-the-korean-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2008-2013
#2
Binh Thang Tran, Bo Yoon Jeong, Jin-Kyoung Oh
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in the clinical markers of metabolic syndrome (MS) are associated with the development of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and some cancers. MS prevalence in Korea increased between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s; however, no data on the recent trends of MS prevalence are available. Thus, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of MS, the five components of MS, and the related risk factors in Korean adults by using recent data. METHODS: Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2008 and 2013 were used...
January 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079155/dietary-phytochemical-peitc-restricts-tumor-development-via-modulation-of-epigenetic-writers-and-erasers
#3
Jung Eun Park, Yang Sun, Sai Kiang Lim, James P Tam, Matthijs Dekker, Hong Chen, Siu Kwan Sze
Dietary intake of bioactive phytochemicals including the cruciferous vegetable derivative phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) can reduce risk of human cancers, but possible epigenetic mechanisms of these effects are yet unknown. We therefore sought to identify the molecular basis of PEITC-mediated epigenetic tumor restriction. Colon cancer cells treated with low-dose PEITC for >1 month exhibited stable alterations in expression profile of epigenetic writers/erasers and chromatin-binding of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and Polycomb-group (PcG) proteins...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077379/effects-of-supplementation-with-nondigestible-carbohydrates-on-fecal-calprotectin-and-on-epigenetic-regulation-of-sfrp1-expression-in-the-large-bowel-mucosa-of-healthy-individuals
#4
Fiona C Malcomson, Naomi D Willis, Iain McCallum, Long Xie, Idoia Ibero-Baraibar, Wing C Leung, Seamus Kelly, D Michael Bradburn, Nigel J Belshaw, Ian T Johnson, John C Mathers
BACKGROUND: Hyperactive Wnt signaling is frequently observed in colorectal cancer. Higher intakes of dietary fiber [nondigestible carbohydrates (NDCs)] and the fermentation product butyrate are protective against colorectal cancer and may exert their preventative effects via modulation of the Wnt pathway. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of supplementing healthy individuals with 2 NDCs [resistant starch (RS) and polydextrose] on fecal calprotectin concentrations and Wnt pathway-related gene expression...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065483/defining-the-role-of-dietary-intake-in-determining-weight-change-in-patients-with-cancer-cachexia
#5
R Nasrah, M Kanbalian, C Van Der Borch, N Swinton, S Wing, R T Jagoe
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Weight loss is a cardinal feature of cachexia and is frequently associated with reduced food intake and anorexia. It is still unclear how much reduced food intake contributes to cancer-related weight loss and how effective increasing dietary energy and protein is in combating this weight loss. The relationship between weight change and both diet and change in dietary intake, was examined in patients with advanced stage cancer referred to a multidisciplinary clinic for management of cancer cachexia...
December 21, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053552/diet-and-lifestyle-factors-associated-with-mirna-expression-in-colorectal-tissue
#6
Martha L Slattery, Jennifer S Herrick, Lila E Mullany, John R Stevens, Roger K Wolff
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-protein-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. Diet and lifestyle factors have been hypothesized to be involved in the regulation of miRNA expression. In this study it was hypothesized that diet and lifestyle factors are associated with miRNA expression. Data from 1,447 cases of colorectal cancer to evaluate 34 diet and lifestyle variables using miRNA expression in normal colorectal mucosa as well as for differential expression between paired carcinoma and normal tissue were used...
2017: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050676/nutritional-risk-in-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-rationale-for-a-tailored-nutritional-pathway
#7
Takashi Aoyama, Osamu Imataki, Keita Mori, Kanako Yoshitsugu, Masafumi Fukaya, Ikue Okamura, Terukazu Enami, Raine Tatara, Takashi Ikeda
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation carries nutrition-related risks. Therefore, nutritional therapy needs to be initiated before transplantation even takes place. We assessed nutritional risk among patients who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We assessed nutrient supply (calorie supply and protein supply) by chart review. Assessments were made from the pretreatment phase of transplantation to after the end of parenteral nutrition in 51 patients who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation at Shizuoka Cancer Center between 2007 and 2012...
January 3, 2017: Annals of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049261/nutrition-assessment-and-its-relationship-with-performance-and-glasgow-prognostic-scores-in-vietnamese-patients-with-esophageal-cancer
#8
Tran Chau Quyen, Jongjit Angkatavanich, Tran Van Thuan, Vo Van Xuan, Le Danh Tuyen, Do Anh Tu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the nutritional status of patients with esophageal cancer, and to investigate its relationship with performance status and prognosis. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This clinical, cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2014 to February 2015 at National Cancer Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam. Stage III/IV esophageal cancer patients were assessed for their nutritional status (patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) and SGA scores, BMI, mid-arm circumference (MAC), energy and protein intakes, weight changes, Karnofsky and Eastern cooperative oncology group performance scores (KPS/ECOG), and Glasgow prognostic score (GPS)...
January 2017: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042853/inadequacy-of-body-weight-based-recommendations-for-individual-protein-intake-lessons-from-body-composition-analysis
#9
Corinna Geisler, Carla M Prado, Manfred J Müller
Current body weight-based protein recommendations are ignoring the large variability in body composition, particularly lean mass (LM), which drives protein requirements. We explored and highlighted the inter-individual variability of weight versus body composition-adjusted protein intakes by secondary analysis in three cohorts of (1) 574 healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 41.4 ± 15.2 years); (2) 403 cirrhotic patients (age: 44.7 ± 12.3 years) and (3) 547 patients with lung cancer (age: 61.3 ± 8.2 years). LM was assessed using different devices (magnetic resonance imaging, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computer tomography, total body potassium and bioelectrical impedance), body weight-based protein intake, its ratio (per kg LM) and mean protein requirement were calculated...
December 31, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032232/effectiveness-of-a-preoperative-exercise-and-nutritional-support-program-for-elderly-sarcopenic-patients-with-gastric-cancer
#10
Kazuyoshi Yamamoto, Yukiko Nagatsuma, Yasunari Fukuda, Motohiro Hirao, Kazuhiro Nishikawa, Atsushi Miyamoto, Masataka Ikeda, Shoji Nakamori, Mitsugu Sekimoto, Kazumasa Fujitani, Toshimasa Tsujinaka
We established a preoperative exercise and nutritional support program for elderly sarcopenic patients with gastric cancer. Twenty-two gastric cancer patients aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of sarcopenia according to the algorithm proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People received our preoperative program. The median duration of the program participation was 16 days. Total calorie and protein intakes were significantly higher after the program than before [29.4 ± 6.9 kcal/kg ideal body weight (IBW) vs 27...
December 28, 2016: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031192/identifying-biomarkers-of-dietary-patterns-by-using-metabolomics
#11
Mary C Playdon, Steven C Moore, Andriy Derkach, Jill Reedy, Amy F Subar, Joshua N Sampson, Demetrius Albanes, Fangyi Gu, Jukka Kontto, Camille Lassale, Linda M Liao, Satu Männistö, Alison M Mondul, Stephanie J Weinstein, Melinda L Irwin, Susan T Mayne, Rachael Stolzenberg-Solomon
BACKGROUND: Healthy dietary patterns that conform to national dietary guidelines are related to lower chronic disease incidence and longer life span. However, the precise mechanisms involved are unclear. Identifying biomarkers of dietary patterns may provide tools to validate diet quality measurement and determine underlying metabolic pathways influenced by diet quality. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the correlation of 4 diet quality indexes [the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010, the Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED), the WHO Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and the Baltic Sea Diet (BSD)] with serum metabolites...
December 28, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028954/the-role-of-heavy-metal-salts-in-pathological-biomineralization-of-breast-cancer-tissue
#12
Anatolij Romanjuk, Mykola Lyndin, Roman Moskalenko, Olena Gortinskaya, Yuliya Lyndina
BACKGROUND: The process of pathological biomineralization plays an important part in the morphogenesis of tumors. The role of heavy metal salts in the pathological mineralization of breast cancer tissue should not be ruled out, considering their ability to enter into covalent bonds with calcium salt molecules. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the microelement composition of breast cancer calcifications and the participation of heavy metals in their formation process...
September 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002874/high-serum-alanine-aminotransferase-is-associated-with-the-risk-of-colorectal-adenoma-in-korean-men
#13
Chang Mo Moon, Kyung Eun Yun, Seungho Ryu, Yoosoo Chang, Dong Il Park
BACKGROUND AND AIM: An elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is frequently observed in subjects with metabolic syndrome, which is associated with the risk of colorectal adenoma (CRA). However, the relationship between ALT and CRA remains unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether high serum ALT is associated with the risk of CRA in a metabolically healthy population. METHODS: We conducted this cross-sectional study in 27,717 asymptomatic Korean adults who underwent a health checkup...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965474/a%C3%A3-a%C3%A3-berries-inhibit-colon-tumorigenesis-in-azoxymethane-dextran-sulfate-sodium-treated-mice
#14
Yoon Jin Choi, Yoon Jeong Choi, Nayoung Kim, Ryoung Hee Nam, Seonmin Lee, Hye Seung Lee, Ha-Na Lee, Young-Joon Surh, Dong Ho Lee
Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of açaí against azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colorectal cancer development. Methods: The effect of açaí on tumorigenesis was assessed by evaluating tumor incidence, multiplicity and invasiveness in the mouse colon. The levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], interleukin [IL]-1β, and IL-6) were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
December 16, 2016: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959384/pro-metastatic-intracellular-signaling-of-the-elaidic-trans-fatty-acid
#15
Kiyomu Fujii, Yi Luo, Rina Fujiwara-Tani, Shingo Kishi, Song He, Shuyun Yang, Takamitsu Sasaki, Hitoshi Ohmori, Hiroki Kuniyasu
Trans fatty acids (TFAs) are risk factors of cardiovascular disorders, and a few studies have reported the cancer-promoting effects of TFAs. In the present study, we examined the effects and signaling of elaidic acid (EA), a TFA, in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Oral intake of EA increased the metastasis of CT26 mouse CRC cells by inducing the expression of stemness markers nucleostemin (NS) and CD133. Mechanisms underlying EA-induced signaling were confirmed by determining the binding of EA to G-protein coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) and GPR120 by performing surface protein internalization assay...
January 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940576/aspirin-suppresses-growth-in-pi3k-mutant-breast-cancer-by-activating-ampk-and-inhibiting-mtorc1-signaling
#16
Whitney S Henry, Tyler Laszewski, Tiffany Tsang, Francisco Beca, Andrew H Beck, Sandra S McAllister, Alex Toker
Despite the high incidence of oncogenic mutations in PIK3CA, the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), PI3K inhibitors have yielded little clinical benefit for breast cancer patients. Recent epidemiological studies have suggested a therapeutic benefit from aspirin intake in cancers harboring oncogenic PIK3CA. Here we show that mutant PIK3CA-expressing breast cancer cells have greater sensitivity to aspirin-mediated growth suppression than their wild-type counterparts. Aspirin decreased viability and anchorage-independent growth of mutant PIK3CA breast cancer cells independently of its effects on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)...
December 9, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930524/dietary-protein-and-fat-intake-in-relation-to-risk-of-colorectal-adenoma-in-korean
#17
Sun Young Yang, Young Sun Kim, Jung Eun Lee, Jueun Seol, Ji Hyun Song, Goh Eun Chung, Jeong Yoon Yim, Sun Hee Lim, Joo Sung Kim
Consumption of red meat and alcohol are known risk factors for colorectal cancer, but associations for dietary fat remain unclear. We investigated the associations of dietary fat, protein, and energy intake with prevalence of colorectal adenoma.We performed a prospective cross-sectional study on asymptomatic persons who underwent a screening colonoscopy at a single center during a routine health check-up from May to December 2011. Dietary data were obtained via a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), assisted by a registered dietician...
December 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919947/high-fat-diet-enhances-mammary-tumorigenesis-and-pulmonary-metastasis-and-alters-inflammatory-and-angiogenic-profiles-in-mmtv-pymt-mice
#18
Sneha Sundaram, Lin Yan
The MMTV-PyMT transgenic mouse model is commonly used to study luminal B subtype, which has a lower prevalence but a worse prognosis than luminal A subtype among patients with breast cancer. The objective of the present study was to determine whether an obesogenic, high-fat diet enhances primary tumorigenesis and pulmonary metastasis in female MMTV-PyMT mice. The high-fat diet slightly but significantly increased caloric intake and body fat mass compared to the AIN93G diet. The high-fat diet significantly increased primary mammary tumor progression by 59%, primary tumor weight by 60%, and the number of lung metastases by 147%...
2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918846/soy-food-intake-and-biomarkers-of-breast-cancer-risk-possible-difference-in-asian-women
#19
Gertraud Maskarinec, Dan Ju, Yukiko Morimoto, Adrian A Franke, Frank Z Stanczyk
Soy foods may protect against breast cancer in Asian but not in Western populations. We examined if the levels of various markers of breast cancer risk and inflammation, as well as the effects of soy food consumption on these markers, differ between Asian and non-Asian premenopausal women in two soy intervention trials. One study randomized 220 women to a 2-yr intervention and the other one randomized 96 women in a crossover design to examine the effects of consumption of 2 daily soy servings on nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) volume; estrogens in serum, NAF, and urine; insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, and inflammatory markers in serum; and mammographic densities...
January 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913188/fructose-suppresses-uric-acid-excretion-to-the-intestinal-lumen-as-a-result-of-the-induction-of-oxidative-stress-by-nadph-oxidase-activation
#20
Chihiro Kaneko, Jiro Ogura, Shunichi Sasaki, Keisuke Okamoto, Masaki Kobayashi, Kaori Kuwayama, Katsuya Narumi, Ken Iseki
BACKGROUND: A high intake of fructose increases the risk for hyperuricemia. It has been reported that long-term fructose consumption suppressed renal uric acid excretion and increased serum uric acid level. However, the effect of single administration of fructose on excretion of uric acid has not been clarified. METHODS: We used male Wistar rats, which were orally administered fructose (5g/kg). Those rats were used in each experiment at 12h after administration...
November 30, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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