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diarrhea and probiotics

George M Carter, Aryan Esmaeili, Hardikkumar Shah, Debbie Indyk, Matthew Johnson, Michael Andreae, Henry S Sacks
People living with human immunodeficiency virus frequently use dietary supplements, including probiotics, but concern exists about ingesting live organisms. We performed a systematic review of the benefits of probiotics and a meta-analysis of sepsis risk. We undertook a protocol-driven, comprehensive review to identify all relevant studies, assess their quality, and summarize the evidence. Of 2068 references, 27 were analyzed. The data suggest possible benefits for CD4 count, recurrence or management of bacterial vaginosis, and diarrhea management...
October 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Abdel-Naser Elzouki
Probiotics are live, nonpathogenic bacteria capable of colonizing the colonic mucosa. The most common probiotics include strains of Lactobacillus or Bifidobacteria, which are part of the normal gastrointestinal microbiota. Initial studies of selected probiotic species have suggested potential efficacy in several gastrointestinal diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases (particularly pouchitis), antibiotic-related diarrhea, Clostridium difficile toxin-induced colitis, infectious diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, and allergy...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Teresa Graziano, Angela Amoruso, Stefania Nicola, Francesca Deidda, Serena Allesina, Marco Pane, Pietro Piffanelli, Francesco Strozzi, Luca Mogna, Mario Del Piano
GOALS: The aim of the study was to unequivocally demonstrate the nontransmissibility of the genes mediating the resistance of the strain Bifidobacterium longum W11 (LMG P-21586) to rifaximin. BACKGROUND: Most antibiotic treatments can induce unfavorable side effects such as antibiotic-associated diarrhea, which is largely attributable to the disruption of the intestinal microbiota. The parallel intake of probiotic bacteria might reduce these events, even if with generally very poor results...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Mario Del Piano, Francesco Coggiola, Marco Pane, Angela Amoruso, Stefania Nicola, Luca Mogna
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea accounts for 9% of the mortality among children under 5 years of age worldwide, and it is significantly associated with malnutrition. Each year, diarrhea kills around 760,000 children under 5 years of age and most of these are in sub-Saharan Africa.In Uganda, the infant mortality rate of 58 per 1000 is unacceptably high, and the major contributors include malnutrition, diarrhea, pneumonia, malaria, prematurity, sepsis, and newborn illnesses.There is an urgent need for intervention to prevent and control diarrheal diseases...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Giovanni Gasbarrini, Fiorenza Bonvicini, Annagiulia Gramenzi
Gut microbiota promotes healthy effects on the host and prevents diseases. Probiotic (probios, for life) are defined as "live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host." At the beginning of 1900s Louis Pasteur identified the microorganisms responsible for the process of fermentation, whereas E. Metchnikoff associated the enhanced longevity of Bulgarian rural people to the regular consumption of fermented dairy products such as yogurt. He suggested that lactobacilli might counteract the putrefactive effects of gastrointestinal metabolism that contributed to illness and aging...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
J Daniel Dubreuil, Richard E Isaacson, Dieter M Schifferli
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of E. coli diarrhea in farm animals. ETEC are characterized by the ability to produce two types of virulence factors: adhesins that promote binding to specific enterocyte receptors for intestinal colonization and enterotoxins responsible for fluid secretion. The best-characterized adhesins are expressed in the context of fimbriae, such as the F4 (also designated K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F17, and F18 fimbriae. Once established in the animal small intestine, ETEC produce enterotoxin(s) that lead to diarrhea...
October 2016: EcoSal Plus
D Ayoub, L R Lopetuso, F Chamseddine, A Dajani, K Lahiri, H Mahmoud, M S Miqdady, G Zirizzotti, M A Sultan, F Franceschi, A Gasbarrini
OBJECTIVE: Gastroenteritis represents with respiratory tract infection the most common infectious disease syndrome of humans in developing countries. Gut microbiota regional variation and dysbiosis play a crucial role in triggering and worsening this devastating GI disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With this manuscript, we want to explore and emphasize the critical aspect of acute gastroenteritis in Middle-East Countries and its correlation with the clinical aspect of gut microbiota modification and intestinal homeostasis...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Bradley C Johnston, Joshua Z Goldenberg, Patricia C Parkin
Clinical Question: In children prescribed an antibiotic, is the co-administration of a probiotic associated with lower rates of antibiotic-associated diarrhea without an increase in clinically important adverse events? Bottom Line: Moderate-quality evidence suggests that probiotics are associated with lower rates of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children (aged 1 month to 18 years) without an increase in adverse events.
October 11, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Mélanie Gagnon, Allison Vimont, André Darveau, Ismaïl Fliss, Julie Jean
Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis among children worldwide. Despite effective vaccines, inexpensive alternatives such as probiotics are needed. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of probiotic candidate Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67 to inhibit rotavirus infection. Bacterial adhesion to intestinal cells and interference with viral attachment were evaluated in vitro. B. thermophilum RBL67 displayed adhesion indexes of 625 ± 84 and 1958 ± 318 on Caco-2 and HT-29 cells respectively and was comparable or superior to four other bifidobacteria, including B...
2016: PloS One
Muhan Lü, Shan Yu, Jiaqi Deng, Qiong Yan, Chun Yang, Guodong Xia, Xian Zhou
BACKGROUND: Traditional Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapies have shown efficacies below 80% in several studies, and their use has been accompanied by antibiotic-related side effects. Some recent studies have reported that supplementing standard therapies with probiotics can improve the efficacy and tolerability of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of probiotic supplementation on the eradication rates and therapy-related adverse event rates of anti-Helicobacter pylori regimens...
2016: PloS One
Afshin Shafaghi, Aydin Pourkazemi, Mohsen Khosravani, Saba Fakhrie Asl, Alireza Amir Maafi, Zahra Atrkar Roshan, Jafar Abaspour Rahimabad
BACKGROUND Standard anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) treatment fails in the eradication of the organism in almost 10-35% of the patients and has different side effects. Recent studies have proposed that probiotic supplementations with or without prebiotic may improve the eradication rate and diminish the side effects, although it is still a controversial issue. We aimed to investigate the effect of probiotic with prebiotic supplementation on the eradication rate and side effects of anti H. pylori quadruple therapy...
July 2016: Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases
Heike Stier, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: The probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 (also known as Saccharomyces cerevisiae HANSEN CBS 5926; in the following S. boulardii) has proven its effectiveness in preventive and therapeutic treatment of many gastrointestinal diseases, especially diseases associated with acute diarrhea. In particular, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, traveller's diarrhea, as well as acute diarrhea due to common viral and bacterial infections in children and adults...
2016: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
Shelby R Hayes, Ashley J Vargas
: Goldenberg JZ, Lytvyn L, Steurich J, Parkin P, Mahant S, Johnston BC. Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea.Cochrane Database Syst Rev2015, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD004827. BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are frequently prescribed in children. They alter the microbial balance within the gastrointestinal tract, commonly resulting in antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Probiotics may prevent AAD via restoration of the gut microflora...
August 26, 2016: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
Korinna Ulbricht, Peter Layer, Viola Andresen
Chronic, non-infectious diarrhea can be caused by a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. In anamnesis, it is important to take accompanying warning symptoms and specific triggers into account. The fecal inflammatory marker calprotectin may help differentiating between organic and functional gastrointestinal disorders, but it is not specific. Among other options, gelling fibres, Loperamide and Cholestyramine as well as probiotics are available for the symptomatic treatment of chronic diarrhea. For long-term treatment of chronic diarrhea with the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril, which is approved for acute diarrhea, only limited data are available...
September 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Anoop Kumar, Arivarasu Natarajan Anbazhagan, Hayley P Coffing, Ishita Chatterjee, Shubha Priyamvada, Tarunmeet Gujral, Seema Saksena, Ravinder K Gill, Waddah A Alrefai, Alip Borthakur, Pradeep K Dudeja
Impaired absorption of electrolytes is a hallmark of diarrhea associated with inflammation or enteric infections. Intestinal epithelial luminal membrane NHE3 (Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3) and DRA (Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger) play key roles in mediating electroneutral NaCl absorption. We have previously shown decreased NHE3 and DRA function in response to short-term infection with enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), a diarrheal pathogen. Recent studies have also shown substantial downregulation of DRA expression in diarrheal model of infection with Citrobacter rodentium, the mouse counterpart of EPEC...
September 15, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Gabriel Olveira, Inmaculada González-Molero
The concept of prebiotics, probiotics, and symbiotics and their use in different situations of daily clinical practice related to clinical nutrition is reviewed, as well as their role in the treatment/prevention of diarrhea (acute, induced by antibiotics, secondary to radiotherapy), inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and pouchitis), in colonic health (constipation, irritable bowel), in liver disease (steatosis and minimum encephalopathy), and in intensive care, surgical, and liver transplantation...
November 2016: Endocrinología y Nutrición: órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
Antonella Gallo, Giovanna Passaro, Antonio Gasbarrini, Raffaele Landolfi, Massimo Montalto
Alterations of intestinal microflora may significantly contribute to the pathogenesis of different inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. There is emerging interest on the role of selective modulation of microflora in inducing benefits in inflammatory intestinal disorders, by as probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). To summarize recent evidences on microflora modulation in main intestinal inflammatory disorders, PubMed was searched using terms microbiota, intestinal flora, probiotics, prebiotics, fecal transplantation...
August 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Valerie F Crepin, James W Collins, Maryam Habibzay, Gad Frankel
Infection of mice with Citrobacter rodentium is a robust model to study bacterial pathogenesis, mucosal immunology, the health benefits of probiotics and the role of the microbiota during infection. C. rodentium was first isolated by Barthold from an outbreak of mouse diarrhea in Yale University in 1972 and was 'rediscovered' by Falkow and Schauer in 1993. Since then the use of the model has proliferated, and it is now the gold standard for studying virulence of the closely related human pathogens enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively)...
October 2016: Nature Protocols
Benjamin Kligler, Raymond Teets, Melissa Quick
Significant evidence supports the effectiveness and safety of several complementary or integrative treatment approaches to common primary care problems. Acupuncture is effective in the management of chronic low back pain. Mind-body interventions such as cognitive behavior therapy, yoga, tai chi, qi gong, and music therapy may be helpful for treating insomnia. Exercise can reduce anxiety symptoms. Herbal preparations and nutritional supplements can be useful as first-line therapy for certain conditions, such as fish oil for hypertriglyceridemia, St...
September 1, 2016: American Family Physician
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September 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
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