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Thomas Vaessen, Zuzana Kasanova, Dennis Hernaus, Johan Lataster, Dina Collip, Martine van Nierop, Inez Myin-Germeys
OBJECTIVE: Results from experimental studies suggest that psychosis and psychosis liability are associated with increased cortisol levels and blunted cortisol reactivity, and that use of antipsychotics may reduce these aberrations. Here, we report on overall cortisol, diurnal slope, and cortisol stress reactivity in everyday life in psychosis and psychosis liability using the experience sampling method (ESM). METHODS: Our sample consisted of individuals diagnosed with psychotic disorder currently on (MPD; n = 53) or off antipsychotic medication (NMPD; n = 20), first-degree relatives of psychotic patients (REL; n = 47), and healthy volunteers (HV; n = 67)...
June 7, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Michelle Comas, Kristin Valentino, Anne F Johnson, Bradley S Gibson, Courtney Taylor
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Overgeneral memory (OGM), difficulty in retrieving specific autobiographical memories, is a robust phenomenon related to the onset and course of depressive and posttraumatic stress disorders. Inhibitory mechanisms are theorized to underlie OGM; however, empirical support for this link is equivocal. The current study examines the differential roles of two aspects of inhibitory control in association with OGM: suppression of prepotent responses and resistance to proactive interference (PI)...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Pan Song, Chuiguo Huang, Yan Wang
AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of docetaxel, cabazitaxel, docetaxel + estramustine, mitoxantrone in the management of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). METHODS: Electronic databases including PubMed, Cochrance Library and Embase were searched for studies published from when the databases were established to January 1 s t, 2018. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared docetaxel + prednisone (DP), cabazitaxel + prednisone (CP), docetaxel + estramustine + prednisone (DEP), and mitoxantrone + cabazitaxel prednisone (MP) for CRPC treatment were identified...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Sara E Alger, Shirley Chen, Jessica D Payne
Information that is the most salient and important for future use is preferentially preserved through active processing during sleep. Emotional salience is a biologically adaptive cue that influences episodic memory processing through interactions between amygdalar and hippocampal activity. However, other cues that influence the importance of information, such as the explicit direction to remember or forget, interact with the inherent salience of information to determine its fate in memory. It is unknown how sleep-based processes selectively consolidate this complex information...
June 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Laureline Arnaud, Vincent Gracco, Lucie Ménard
It is well known that congenitally blind adults have enhanced auditory processing for some tasks. For instance, they show supra-normal capacity to perceive accelerated speech. However, only a few studies have investigated basic auditory processing in this population. In this study, we investigated if pitch processing enhancement in the blind is a domain-general or domain-specific phenomenon, and if pitch processing shares the same properties as in the sighted regarding how scores from different domains are associated...
June 12, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Gill Norman, Maggie J Westby, Amber D Rithalia, Nikki Stubbs, Marta O Soares, Jo C Dumville
BACKGROUND: Venous leg ulcers are open skin wounds on the lower leg which can be slow to heal, and are both painful and costly. The point prevalence of open venous leg ulcers in the UK is about 3 cases per 10,000 people, and many people experience recurrent episodes of prolonged ulceration. First-line treatment for venous leg ulcers is compression therapy, but a wide range of dressings and topical treatments are also used. This diversity of treatments makes evidence-based decision-making challenging, and a clear and current overview of all the evidence is required...
June 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Troy Morrison, Sara Jones, Ryan S Causby, Kerry Thoirs
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with hyperglycaemia and advanced glycosylation end-products. In the foot, the consequences of chronic or uncontrolled diabetes are micro and macrovascular disease, neuropathy, reduced joint mobility and structural and soft tissue changes that increase the risk of ulcer development and amputation. Diabetes foot assessment currently includes a comprehensive history, neurological and vascular assessments and examination focussed on dermatological and musculoskeletal abnormalities...
2018: PloS One
P S Bhupal Dev, Rabindra N Mohapatra, Yongchao Zhang
Many new physics scenarios beyond standard model often necessitate the existence of a (light) neutral scalar H, which might couple to the charged leptons in a flavor violating way, while evading all existing constraints. We show that such scalars could be effectively produced at future lepton colliders, either on shell or off shell depending on their mass, and induce lepton flavor violating (LFV) signals, i.e., e^{+}e^{-}→ℓ_{α}^{±}ℓ_{β}^{∓}(+H) with α≠β. We find that a large parameter space of the scalar mass and the LFV couplings can be probed well beyond the current low-energy constraints in the lepton sector...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Adam J Shapiro, Stephanie D Davis, Deepika Polineni, Michele Manion, Margaret Rosenfeld, Sharon D Dell, Mark A Chilvers, Thomas W Ferkol, Maimoona A Zariwala, Scott D Sagel, Maureen Josephson, Lucy Morgan, Ozge Yilmaz, Kenneth N Olivier, Carlos Milla, Jessica E Pittman, M Leigh Anne Daniels, Marcus Herbert Jones, Ibrahim A Janahi, Stephanie M Ware, Sam J Daniel, Matthew L Cooper, Lawrence M Nogee, Billy Anton, Tori Eastvold, Lynn Ehrne, Elena Guadagno, Michael R Knowles, Margaret W Leigh, Valery Lavergne
BACKGROUND: This document presents the American Thoracic Society clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). TARGET AUDIENCE: Clinicians investigating adult and pediatric patients for possible PCD. METHODS: Systematic reviews and, when appropriate, meta-analyses were conducted to summarize all available evidence pertinent to our clinical questions. Evidence was assessed using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach for diagnosis and discussed by a multidisciplinary panel with expertise in PCD...
June 15, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Huidan Lou, Lei Yin, Biquan Zhang, Zhong-Wen Ouyang, Bao Li, Zhenxing Wang
By utilizing the quinolinic derivative, 8-carboxymethoxy-2-carboxylicquinoline (L), five transition metal coordination complexes, [M(L)(H2 O)3 ]·H2 O] (M = Mn (1), Co (2)), [Ni(L)(H2 O)2 ] (3), and {[M(L)](H2 O)} n (M = Ni (4), Cu (5)), were synthesized by hydrothermal methods employing similar synthetic strategies. The crystal structures, magnetism and high-field EPR were characterized for the obtained compounds. 1-3 are mononuclear compounds. 1 and 2 have pentagonal bipyramidal geometry, while 4 and 5 exhibit one-dimensional zig-zag chain...
June 15, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Jonathan M Holmes, Dennis M Levi
Although historically, treatment of amblyopia has been recommended prior to closure of a critical window in visual development, the existence and duration of that critical window is currently unclear. Moreover, there is clear evidence, both from animal and human studies of deprivation amblyopia, that there are different critical windows for different visual functions and that monocular and binocular deprivation have different neural and behavioral consequences. In view of the spectrum of critical windows for different visual functions and for different types of amblyopia, combined with individual variability in these windows, treatment of amblyopia has been increasingly offered to older children and adults...
January 2018: Visual Neuroscience
Xiaojing Tian, Qianqian Yu, Wei Wu, Ruitong Dai
Ohmic heating (OH) is an alternative food processing technology for effectively inactivating microorganisms that depends on the heat that has been generated when electrical current passes directly through food material. The advantages of OH for microbial inactivation include shorter heating time, more uniform heat distribution inside food, reduced nutrition losses, and higher energy efficiency. This review presents some published information regarding the inactivation of microorganisms by OH, including the major factors that influence the inactivation effectiveness of OH, the inactivation of vegetative cells and spores in foods by OH, the inactivation mechanisms of OH, and the challenges and prospects of OH for food processing...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Po-Hsun Lei, Chyi-Da Yang, Yong-Sian Yang, Jian-Hong Lin
In this study, we synthesized a periodic polystyrene nanosphere (PS NS) array using the dip-drop method with post-deposition etching to improve the light extraction efficiency (LEE) of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The dip-drop method has advantages such as simple procedure, inexpensive equipment, room temperature deposition, and easy implementation in LEDs. The arrangement of PS NSs on an indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate depends on the average dip-drop speed and the concentration of the PS NS suspension...
June 15, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
John P Leach, James F Martin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Current pharmacologic treatments for cardiovascular disease do not correct the underlying cellular defect, the loss of cardiomyocytes. With recent advancements in cardiac regenerative approaches, the induction of endogenous mature cardiomyocyte proliferation has emerged as a new possibility. Here, we review progress made toward the regeneration of cardiac tissue in the mammalian heart through the stimulation of mature cardiomyocyte renewal. RECENT FINDINGS: The targeting of several developmental and signaling pathways has been shown to stimulate cell cycle re-entry in mature cardiomyocytes...
June 14, 2018: Current Cardiology Reports
Leonard F Blackwell, Delwyn G Cooke, Simon Brown
The patterns of a woman's normal ovarian activity can take many forms from childhood to menopause. These patterns lie on a continuum ranging from no ovarian activity to a fully fertile ovulatory cycle, but among the other defined patterns are cycles with anovulatory ovarian activity, including luteinized unruptured follicles (LUFs), and ovulatory cycles with deficient or short luteal phases. For any woman, these patterns can occur in any order, and one can merge into the next, without an intervening bleed, or be missed entirely...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Christopher T Parker, Debbie Cockerham, Ann W Foss
The need for science education and outreach is great. However, despite the ever-growing body of available scientific information, facts are often misrepresented to or misunderstood by the general public. This can result in uninformed decisions that negatively impact society at both individual and community levels. One solution to this problem is to make scientific information more available to the public through outreach programs. Most outreach programs, however, focus on health initiatives, STEM programs, or young audiences exclusively...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Maria G Tektonidou
Kidney damage is a well-recognized complication of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), either primary or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-associated APS. Kidney involvement in APS involves a variety of manifestations, such as renal artery thrombosis or stenosis, renal vein thrombosis, allograft loss due to thrombosis after kidney transplantation, and injury to the renal microvasculature, also known as APS nephropathy. Biopsy in patients with APS nephropathy includes acute thrombotic microangiopathy lesions and chronic intrarenal vascular lesions such as interlobular fibrous intimal hyperplasia, arterial and arteriolar recanalizing thrombosis, fibrous arterial occlusion, and focal cortical atrophy...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Matthew Strohl, Lorant Gonczi, Zsuzsanna Kurt, Talat Bessissow, Peter L Lakatos
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a lifelong, progressive disease that has disabling impacts on patient's lives. Given the complex nature of the diagnosis of IBD and its management there is consequently a large economic burden seen across all health care systems. Quality indicators (QI) have been created to assess the different façades of disease management including structure, process and outcome components. Their development serves to provide a means to target and measure quality of care (QoC). Multiple different QI sets have been published in IBD, but all serve the same purpose of trying to achieve a standard of care that can be attained on a national and international level, since there is still a major variation in clinical practice...
June 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Philip E Dubé, Cambrian Y Liu, Nandini Girish, M Kay Washington, D Brent Polk
Current treatments for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) target the overactive immune response of the intestinal mucosa. However, epidermal growth factor (EGF), an activating ligand of the EGF receptor (EGFR), has been shown to induce disease remission through direct targeting of intestinal mucosal healing. Despite promising preclinical and clinical results, this EGFR-activating therapy has not progressed, in part due to the potential for carcinogenesis associated with long-term use and the increased risk of colitis-associated cancer (CAC) in IBD...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hairul Hisham Bin Hamzah, Oliver Keattch, Derek Covill, Bhavik Anil Patel
Additive manufacturing also known as 3D printing is being utilised in electrochemistry to reproducibly develop complex geometries with conductive properties. In this study, we explored if the electrochemical behavior of 3D printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)/carbon black electrodes was influenced by printing direction. The electrodes were printed in both horizontal and vertical directions. The horizsontal direction resulted in a smooth surface (HPSS electrode) and a comparatively rougher surface (HPRS electrode) surface...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
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