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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054108/increase-in-pro-apoptotic-activity-of-inhibitory-pas-domain-protein-via-phosphorylation-by-mk2
#1
Shuya Kasai, Mary Jane Elizabeth Richardson, Satoru Torii, Ken-Ichi Yasumoto, Hiroki Shima, Kazuhiko Igarashi, Ken Itoh, Kazuhiro Sogawa, Kazutaka Murayama
Inhibitory PAS domain protein (IPAS) is a bifunctional protein that downregulates hypoxic gene expression and exerts pro-apoptotic activity by preventing pro-survival activity of Bcl-xL and its related factors. Pro-apoptotic activity of IPAS is attenuated by the activation of the PINK1-Parkin pathway, and involved in neuronal degeneration in an experimental mouse model of Parkinson's disease. The current study shows that phosphorylation of IPAS at Ser184 by MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2 or MAPKAPK2) enhances the pro-apoptotic function of IPAS...
October 20, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053932/the-patterns-of-in-vitro-cell-death-and-inflammatory-cytokines-induced-by-distinct-bcg-vaccine-strains-are-differentially-induced-in-human-mononuclear-cells
#2
C Ponte, M Hacker, M Moraes, L Castello-Branco, F Silva, P Antas
Tuberculosis (TB) remains among the world's leading cause of mortality. For its control, studies of TB vaccines are needed. Since live-attenuated Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only TB vaccine currently in use, studies on the protective role of BCG are required. In this study, we analyzed host cells purified directly from whole blood of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative volunteers, comprising adult healthy donors (HD) and neonates (umbilical cord bloods, UCB), with the aim to directly compare in vitro immune responses with distinct BCG strains in human mononuclear cells...
October 20, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053904/a-direct-aspiration-first-pass-technique-adapt-for-acute-stroke-therapy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
Benjamin Gory, Xavier Armoiry, Rotem Sivan-Hoffman, Michel Piotin, Mikael Mazighi, Bertrand Lapergue, Raphaël Blanc, Francis Turjman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: ADAPT (A Direct Aspiration First Pass Technique), involving the first-line use of large-bore distal aspiration catheter, is a new strategy in the mechanical thrombectomy of acute ischemic stroke caused by large vessel occlusion. However, its impact on reperfusion rates, clinical outcomes, and complication rates is not fully examined. METHOD: We conducted a systematic review of the literature searching multiple databases for reports on thrombectomy of acute stroke with the ADAPT technique and performed meta-analyses of clinical and radiographic outcomes...
October 20, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053773/less-is-more-neural-mechanisms-underlying-anomia-treatment-in-chronic-aphasic-patients
#4
Davide Nardo, Rachel Holland, Alexander P Leff, Cathy J Price, Jennifer T Crinion
Previous research with aphasic patients has shown that picture naming can be facilitated by concurrent phonemic cueing [e.g. initial phoneme(s) of the word that the patient is trying to retrieve], both as an immediate word retrieval technique, and when practiced repeatedly over time as a long-term anomia treatment. Here, to investigate the neural mechanisms supporting word retrieval, we adopted-for the first time-a functional magnetic resonance imaging task using the same naming procedure as it occurs during the anomia treatment process...
September 27, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053684/remotely-supervised-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-an-update-on-safety-and-tolerability
#5
Michael T Shaw, Margaret Kasschau, Bryan Dobbs, Natalie Pawlak, William Pau, Kathleen Sherman, Marom Bikson, Abhishek Datta, Leigh E Charvet
The remotely supervised tDCS (RS-tDCS) protocol enables participation from home through guided and monitored self-administration of tDCS treatment while maintaining clinical standards. The current consensus regarding the efficacy of tDCS is that multiple treatment sessions are needed to observe targeted behavioral reductions in symptom burden. However, the requirement for patients to travel to clinic daily for stimulation sessions presents a major obstacle for potential participants, due to work or family obligations or limited ability to travel...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053666/experimental-implementation-of-a-new-composite-fabrication-method-exposing-bare-fibers-on-the-composite-surface-by-the-soft-layer-method
#6
Dongyoung Lee, Dai Gil Lee, Jun Woo Lim
The bipolar plate is a key component in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). It is a multi-functional component that should have high electrical conductivity, high mechanical properties, and high productivity. In this regard, a carbon fiber/epoxy resin composite can be an ideal material to replace the conventional graphite bipolar plate, which often leads to the catastrophic failure of the entire system because of its inherent brittleness. Though the carbon/epoxy composite has high mechanical properties and is easy to manufacture, the electrical conductivity in the through-thickness direction is poor because of the resin-rich layer that forms on its surface...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053588/yeast-killer-toxin-k28-biology-and-unique-strategy-of-host-cell-intoxication-and-killing
#7
REVIEW
Björn Becker, Manfred J Schmitt
The initial discovery of killer toxin-secreting brewery strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) in the mid-sixties of the last century marked the beginning of intensive research in the yeast virology field. So far, four different S. cerevisiae killer toxins (K28, K1, K2, and Klus), encoded by cytoplasmic inherited double-stranded RNA viruses (dsRNA) of the Totiviridae family, have been identified. Among these, K28 represents the unique example of a yeast viral killer toxin that enters a sensitive cell by receptor-mediated endocytosis to reach its intracellular target(s)...
October 20, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053462/implicit-block-diagonal-low-rank-representation
#8
Xingyu Xie, Xianglin Guo, Guangcan Liu, Jun Wang
While current block diagonal constrained subspace clustering methods are performed explicitly on the original data space, in practice it is often more desirable to embed the block diagonal prior into the reproducing kernel Hilbert feature space by kernelization techniques, as the underlying data structure in reality is usually nonlinear. However, it is still unknown how to carry out the embedding and kernelization in the models with block diagonal constraints. In this work, we shall take a step in this direction...
October 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053435/temporal-occurrence-and-niche-preferences-of-phytophthora-species-causing-brown-rot-of-citrus-in-the-central-valley-of-california
#9
W Hao, Timothy D Miles, Frank N Martin, Greg Browne, Helga Forster, James E Adaskaveg
Brown rot of citrus fruits is caused by several species of Phytophthora and is currently of serious concern for the California citrus industry. Two species, P. syringae and P. hibernalis, are quarantine pathogens in China, a major export market for California citrus. To maintain trade and estimate the risk of exporting a quarantine pathogen, the distribution and frequency of Phytophthora species causing brown rot of oranges in major growing areas of California was investigated. Symptomatic fruit were collected from navel (winter to late spring) and Valencia (late spring to summer) orange orchards from 2013 to 2015...
October 20, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053405/evolution-of-endoscopic-anterior-component-separation-to-a-precostal-access-with-a-new-cylindrical-balloon-trocar
#10
Gernot Köhler, Ines Fischer, Richard Kaltenböck, Michael Lechner, Bernhard Dauser, Lars Nannestad Jorgensen
INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic anterior component separation (ECS) techniques facilitate tension-free midline closure of wide ventral hernia defects. We describe a novel approach with a precostal incision and a new cylindrical ballon trocar. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-center analysis of 19 patients undergoing ECS between January 1, 2014 and August 2, 2017 was performed with regard to improvement of technique. We currently start with a lateral precostal incision. This access in a low-fat and stable area allows for easy identification of the external oblique muscle with the ribs functioning as dorsal abutment for entering the correct plane between external and internal oblique muscles...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052946/hierarchical-evaluation-of-electrical-stimulation-protocols-for-chronic-wound-healing-an-effect-size-meta-analysis
#11
Charles Khouri, Sylvain Kotzki, Matthieu Roustit, Sophie Blaise, Francois Gueyffier, Jena-Luc Cracowski
Electrical stimulation (ES) has been tested for decades to improve chronic wound healing. However, uncertainty remains on the magnitude of the efficacy and on the best applicable protocol. We conducted an effect size meta-analysis to assess the overall efficacy of ES on wound healing, to compare the efficacy of the different modalities of electrical stimulation, and to determine whether efficacy differs depending on the wound etiology, size and age of the chronic wound. Twenty-nine randomized clinical trials with 1510 patients and 1753 ulcers were selected...
October 20, 2017: Wound Repair and Regeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052943/towards-a-capability-approach-to-child-growth-a-theoretical-framework
#12
Hinke Haisma, Sepideh Yousefzadeh, Pieter Boele Van Hensbroek
Child malnutrition is an important cause of under-5 mortality and morbidity around the globe. Despite the partial success of (inter)national efforts to reduce child mortality, under-5 mortality rates continue to be high. The multidimensional approaches of the Sustainable Development Goals may suggest new directions for rethinking strategies for reducing child mortality and malnutrition. We propose a theoretical framework for developing a "capability" approach to child growth. The current child growth monitoring practices are based on 2 assumptions: (a) that anthropometric and motor development measures are the appropriate indicators; and (b) that child growth can be assessed using a single universal standard that is applicable around the world...
October 20, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052916/directed-self-assembly-of-liquid-crystalline-molecular-building-blocks-for-sub-5-nm-nanopatterning
#13
REVIEW
Koen Nickmans, Albert P H J Schenning
The thin-film directed self-assembly of molecular building blocks into oriented nanostructure arrays enables next-generation lithography at the sub-5 nm scale. Currently, the fabrication of inorganic arrays from molecular building blocks is restricted by the limited long-range order and orientation of the materials, as well as suitable methodologies for creating lithographic templates at sub-5 nm dimensions. In recent years, higher-order liquid crystals have emerged as functional thin films for organic electronics, nanoporous membranes, and templated synthesis, which provide opportunities for their use as lithographic templates...
October 20, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052843/animal-models-in-translational-research-rosetta-stone-or-stumbling-block
#14
REVIEW
Jessica A Bolker
Leading animal models are powerful tools for translational research, but they also present obstacles. Poorly conducted preclinical research in animals is a common cause of translational failure, but even when such research is well-designed and carefully executed, challenges remain. In particular, dominant models may bias research directions, elide essential aspects of human disease, omit important context, or subtly shift research targets. Recognizing these stumbling blocks can help us find ways to avoid them: employing a wider range of models, incorporating more realistic environmental conditions, better aligning studies between animals and patients, and focusing on human biology and therapeutic goals...
October 20, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052806/profiling-autism-symptomatology-an-exploration-of-the-q-asc-parental-report-scale-in-capturing-sex-differences-in-autism
#15
Sarah Ormond, Charlotte Brownlow, Michelle Sarah Garnett, Agnieszka Rynkiewicz, Tony Attwood
The Questionnaire for Autism Spectrum Conditions (Q-ASC) was developed by Attwood et al. (2011) to identify gender-sensitive profiles of autism symptomatology; prioritise and adjust the direction of clinical interventions; and support positive psychosocial outcomes and prognosis into adulthood. The current research piloted the Q-ASC with parents of 238 children with a clinical diagnosis of ASD-Level 1 (without intellectual or language impairment). Data analysis revealed eight interpretable and reliable components of the Q-ASC using Principle components analysis...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052780/immunotherapy-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma-patients-is-it-ready-for-prime-time
#16
REVIEW
Joseph M Obeid, Paul R Kunk, Victor M Zaydfudim, Timothy N Bullock, Craig L Slingluff, Osama E Rahma
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Current treatment options for patients with intermediate and advanced HCC are limited, and there is an unmet need for novel therapeutic approaches. HCC is an attractive target for immunomodulation therapy, since it arises in an inflammatory milieu due to hepatitis B and C infections and cirrhosis. However, a major barrier to the development and success of immunotherapy in patients with HCC is the liver's inherent immunosuppressive function...
October 20, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052772/imaging-of-thoracic-tuberculosis-in-children-current-and-future-directions
#17
REVIEW
Kushaljit Singh Sodhi, Ashu S Bhalla, Nasreen Mahomed, Bernard F Laya
Tuberculosis continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is the leading cause of infection-related deaths worldwide. Children are amongst the high-risk groups for developing tuberculosis and often pose a challenge to the clinicians in making a definitive diagnosis. The newly released global tuberculosis report from World Health Organization reveals a 50% increase in fatality from tuberculosis in children. Significantly, diagnostic and treatment algorithms of tuberculosis for children differ from those of adults...
September 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052656/initial-efficacy-testing-of-an-autobiographical-memory-intervention-on-advance-care-planning-for-patients-with-terminal-cancer
#18
Cheryl Brohard
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To test the efficacy of a novel intervention to facilitate advance care planning.
. DESIGN: Exploratory, quasiexperimental pilot study with two independent groups.
. SETTING: A large hospice located in the southwestern United States. 
. SAMPLE: A convenience sample of 50 participants with terminal cancer enrolled in hospice.
. METHODS: An autobiographical memory (ABM) intervention used the participants' experiences with cancer and end of life for the purpose of directing advance care planning...
November 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052620/solving-a-higgs-optimization-problem-with-quantum-annealing-for-machine-learning
#19
Alex Mott, Joshua Job, Jean-Roch Vlimant, Daniel Lidar, Maria Spiropulu
The discovery of Higgs-boson decays in a background of standard-model processes was assisted by machine learning methods. The classifiers used to separate signals such as these from background are trained using highly unerring but not completely perfect simulations of the physical processes involved, often resulting in incorrect labelling of background processes or signals (label noise) and systematic errors. Here we use quantum and classical annealing (probabilistic techniques for approximating the global maximum or minimum of a given function) to solve a Higgs-signal-versus-background machine learning optimization problem, mapped to a problem of finding the ground state of a corresponding Ising spin model...
October 18, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052582/idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#20
REVIEW
Fernando J Martinez, Harold R Collard, Annie Pardo, Ganesh Raghu, Luca Richeldi, Moises Selman, Jeffrey J Swigris, Hiroyuki Taniguchi, Athol U Wells
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive lung disease characterized by progressive lung scarring and the histological picture of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). It is associated with increasing cough and dyspnoea and impaired quality of life. IPF affects ∼3 million people worldwide, with incidence increasing dramatically with age. The diagnostic approach includes the exclusion of other interstitial lung diseases or overlapping conditions and depends on the identification of the UIP pattern, usually with high-resolution CT; lung biopsy might be required in some patients...
October 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
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