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Hui Zhang, Ping Heng Li, Guo Mo Zhou, Yu Feng Zhou
Vegetation index is a key indicator for qualitative and quantitative assessment of green vegetation, which has been widely used in vegetation monitoring. Forests are often distributed in mountainous areas with complex topography, which is one of the main factors of accurate retrieval of forest vegetation information. Here, we analyzed the topographic effects on canopy reflectance using a geometric optical model. The responses of complete ratio vegetation indices [simple ratio index (SR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI)], incomplete ratio vegetation indices [enhanced vegetation index (EVI) and soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI)], non-ratio vegetation indices [reduced simple ratio (RSR), modified normalized difference vegetation index (MNDVI), greenness vegetation index (GVI)] and, topography adjusted vegetation index [topography adjusted vegetation index (TAVI)] to topography were discussed in detail, with the aim to provide reference for selecting vegetation index in complex terrain mountainous area...
February 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Ying Chen, Yu Xue Liu, Chong Jun Chen, Hao Hao Lyu, Yu Ying Wa, Li Li He, Sheng Mao Yang
In recent years, studies on carbon sequestration of biochar in soil has been in spotlight owing to the specific characteristics of biochar such as strong carbon stability and well developed pore structure. However, whether biochar will ultimately increase soil carbon storage or promote soil carbon emissions when applied into the soil? This question remains controversial in current academic circles. Further research is required on priming effect of biochar on mineralization of native soil organic carbon and its mechanisms...
January 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Larry L Bowman, Elizaveta S Kondrateva, Maxim A Timofeyev, Lev Y Yampolsky
Local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity are main mechanisms of organisms' resilience in changing environments. Both are affected by gene flow and are expected to be weak in zooplankton populations inhabiting large continuous water bodies and strongly affected by currents. Lake Baikal, the deepest and one of the coldest lakes on Earth, experienced epilimnion temperature increase during the last 100 years, exposing Baikal's zooplankton to novel selective pressures. We obtained a partial transcriptome of Epischura baikalensis (Copepoda: Calanoida), the dominant component of Baikal's zooplankton, and estimated SNP allele frequencies and transcript abundances in samples from regions of Baikal that differ in multy-year average surface temperatures...
April 25, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Juliet Compston
Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is the most common secondary cause of osteoporosis and the resulting fractures cause significant morbidity. Following initiation of oral glucocorticoids, rapid bone loss occurs, and fracture risk increases within a few months in a dose-dependent manner. These adverse effects are due to inhibition of bone formation accompanied by an early but transient increase in bone resorption. Multiple mechanisms underlie these changes in bone remodeling; direct effects include upregulation of PPARγR2, increased expression of sclerostin and increased RANKL/OPG ratio, whilst hypogonadism, altered renal and intestinal calcium handling, and reduced production of insulin-like growth factor 1 also contribute...
April 24, 2018: Endocrine
Cihan Kayasandik, Pooran Negi, Fernanda Laezza, Manos Papadakis, Demetrio Labate
Fluorescence confocal microscopy has become increasingly more important in neuroscience due to its applications in image-based screening and profiling of neurons. Multispectral confocal imaging is useful to simultaneously probe for distribution of multiple analytes over networks of neurons. However, current automated image analysis algorithms are not designed to extract single-neuron arbors in images where neurons are not separated, hampering the ability map fluorescence signals at the single cell level. To overcome this limitation, we introduce NeuroTreeTracer - a novel image processing framework aimed at automatically extracting and sorting single-neuron traces in fluorescent images of multicellular neuronal networks...
April 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fraser Callaghan, Jerome J Maller, Thomas Welton, Matthew J Middione, Ajit Shankaranarayanan, Stuart M Grieve
Diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography is a uniquely powerful tool capable of demonstrating structural brain network abnormalities across a range of psychiatric disorders; however, it is not currently clinically useful. This is because limitations on sensitivity effectively restrict its application to scientific studies of cohorts, rather than individual patients. Recent improvements in dMRI hardware, acquisition, processing and analysis techniques may, however, overcome these measurement limitations. We therefore acquired the highest-ever angular resolution in vivo tractographic data set, and used these data to ask the question: 'is cutting-edge, optimised dMRI now sensitive enough to measure brain network abnormalities at a level that may enable personalised psychiatry?' The fibre tracking performance of this 'gold standard' data set of 1150 unique directions (11 shells) was compared to a conventional 64-direction protocol (single shell) and a clinically practical, highly optimised and accelerated 9-min protocol of 140 directions (3 shells)...
April 25, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Mariusz Bral, Boris Gala-Lopez, David L Bigam, Darren H Freed, A M James Shapiro
In recent years, remarkable progress has occurred in the development of technologies to support ex situ liver perfusion. Building upon extensive preclinical studies in large animal models, pilot and randomized clinical trials have been initiated, and preliminary outcomes suggest more optimal protection of both standard and extended criteria liver grafts. There currently exists an incredible opportunity and need to further refine this technology, determine appropriate viability measures to predict usable liver grafts, and to explore potent protective additive strategies to further optimize the quality of extended criteria organs...
April 5, 2018: Transplantation Reviews
Ruud Andreas Fritz Verhees, Wybo Dondorp, Carel Thijs, Geert Jan Dinant, Johannes Andreas Knottnerus
The effectiveness of influenza vaccination in the elderly has long been a topic of debate, fueled by the absence of direct evidence from randomized trials on its effect on mortality and the methodological limitations of observational studies pointing this direction. It is argued that new placebo-controlled trials should be undertaken to resolve this uncertainty. However, such trials may be ethically questionable. To bring this discussion forward, we provide a comprehensive overview of the ethical challenges of an influenza vaccine efficacy trial designed to evaluate mortality in the elderly...
April 21, 2018: Vaccine
Anne-Marie English, Sineád M Waters, Paul Cormican, Colin J Byrne, Seán Fair, David A Kenny
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue is a major endocrine organ and is thought to play a central role in the metabolic control of reproductive function in cattle. Plane of nutrition during early life has been shown to influence the timing of puberty in both male and female cattle, though the exact biological mechanisms involved are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of early calf-hood nutrition on the transcriptomic profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue in Holstein-Friesian bulls to identify possible downstream effects on reproductive physiology...
April 24, 2018: BMC Genomics
Christopher Fueger, Wendy E Huddleston
Athletes must be able to successfully navigate the soccer pitch or hockey rink to win the game, requiring maximal cognitive resources to successfully compete. Concussions potentially deplete these resources, and the long-term impact of concussions on an individual's goal-directed visually guided behavior continues to elude the scientific community. While the acute effects on cognition and the motor system have been elucidated elsewhere, long-term effects on performance have been less clear. Additionally, most investigations into long-term postinjury motor behaviors have focused on balance and gait, with little focus on functional upper extremity movements...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
Irene Suomi, Timo Vihma
Information on wind gusts is needed for assessment of wind-induced damage and risks to safety. The measurement of wind gust speed requires a high temporal resolution of the anemometer system, because the gust is defined as a short-duration (seconds) maximum of the fluctuating wind speed. Until the digitalization of wind measurements in the 1990s, the wind gust measurements suffered from limited recording and data processing resources. Therefore, the majority of continuous wind gust records date back at most only by 30 years...
April 23, 2018: Sensors
Masayuki Wakioka, Natsumi Yamashita, Hiroki Mori, Yasushi Nishihara, Fumiyuki Ozawa
This paper reports the synthesis of D-A polymers containing 1,2-dithienylethene (DTE) units via palladium-catalyzed direct arylation polymerization (DArP). The reaction of dibromoisoindigo ( 1 - Br ) and DTE ( 2 - H ), in the presence of Pd₂(dba)₃·CHCl₃ (0.5 mol%), P(2-MeOC₆H₄)₃ ( L1 ) (2 mol%), pivalic acid (1 equiv) as catalyst precursors, and Cs₂CO₃ (3 equiv) as a base affords poly( 1 - alt - 2 ) with a high molecular weight ( M n up to 44,900). Although, it has been known that monomers, with plural C⁻H bonds, tend to form insoluble materials via direct arylation at undesirable C⁻H positions; the reaction of 1 - Br and 2 - H cleanly proceeds without insolubilization...
April 23, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Davide Viggiano, Giuseppe Gigliotti, Gianfranco Vallone, Anna Giammarino, Michelangelo Nigro, Giovambattista Capasso
Current urate-lowering therapy (ULT) includes three direct acting drugs (allopurinol, febuxostat, Rasburicase) and at least four 'indirect' drugs with other important targets (canagliflozin, losartan, fenofibrate and sevelamer). Moreover, the alcalinization of urines using bicarbonate can be used to dissolve urate crystals and the clinician may discontinue several drugs are known to increase serum levels of uric acid, such as diuretics, aspirin, cyclosporine, theophylline, mycophenolate and ACE inhibitors. While there is a consensus to start ULT in cases of symptomatic hyperuricemia (gout, urate-nephrolithiasis), the very frequent conditions of asymptomatic hyperuricemia remains a major conundrum...
April 19, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Richard A Brain, Suzanne Z Schneider, Julie C Anderson, Loren D Knopper, Jeffrey C Wolf, Mark L Hanson
Short-term reproduction assays were conducted with fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to evaluate responses from atrazine exposure at environmentally relevant concentrations and above. Breeding groups of fish with multiple males and females were exposed to atrazine under flow-through conditions. Fathead minnows were exposed to mean measured concentrations of 1.0, 10, 26, 52, and 105 μg atrazine/L for 28 days. Medaka were exposed to mean measured concentrations of 9...
April 16, 2018: Chemosphere
Joseph M Trombello, Diego A Pizzagalli, Myrna M Weissman, Bruce D Grannemann, Crystal M Cooper, Tracy L Greer, Ashley L Malchow, Manish K Jha, Thomas J Carmody, Benji T Kurian, Christian A Webb, Daniel G Dillon, Patrick J McGrath, Gerard Bruder, Maurizio Fava, Ramin V Parsey, Melvin G McInnis, Phil Adams, Madhukar H Trivedi
The current study aimed to characterize the multifaceted nature of anxiety in patients with major depression by evaluating distinct anxiety factors. We then related these derived anxiety factors to performance on a Flanker Task of cognitive control, in order to further validate these factors. Data were collected from 195 patients with nonpsychotic chronic or recurrent major depression or dysthymic disorder. At baseline, participants completed self-report measures of anxiety, depression, and other related symptoms (mania, suicidality) and clinicians administered a structured diagnostic interview and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, including anxiety/somatization items...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Adam B Blake, Alan D Castel
A current debate in metamemory research considers the roles of fluency (Rhodes & Castel, 2008) and belief cues (Mueller, Dunlosky, & Tauber, 2015) in the construction of judgments of learning (JOLs). Under the fluency hypothesis, the processing fluency drives the construction of JOLs. The belief-based hypothesis instead asserts a strong influence of belief. The current study directly influences participants' beliefs to observe the effects on metacognitive judgments of learning. Experiment 1A attempted to variably strengthen participants' beliefs about the font-size effect: participants were informed of research implying a superiority of large-fonts in memory and between study cycles were given differing levels of feedback on the relationship between font-size and their performance...
April 20, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Joshua A Olive, J A Cowan
Iron‑sulfur clusters are essential cofactors found across all domains of life. Their assembly and transfer are accomplished by highly conserved protein complexes and partners. In eukaryotes a [2Fe-2S] cluster is first assembled in the mitochondria on the iron‑sulfur cluster scaffold protein ISCU in tandem with iron, sulfide, and electron donors. Current models suggest that a chaperone pair interacts with a cluster-bound ISCU to facilitate cluster transfer to a monothiol glutaredoxin. In humans this protein is glutaredoxin 5 (GLRX5) and the cluster can then be exchanged with a variety of target apo proteins...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Adrian Selim, Andrew S Moore
The ability to sensitively monitor minimal residual disease (MRD) has played a key role in improving the management and outcomes for a number of leukemias, particularly acute promyelocytic leukemia and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In contrast, MRD monitoring in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been limited by variable assay methodologies and a relative paucity of patient-specific MRD markers. Inter and intratumor genetic heterogeneity pose significant challenges for the identification of molecular markers suitable for MRD monitoring in AML, particularly for those cases without structural chromosomal rearrangements associated with fusion genes...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
Mark W Miller
Progress in PTSD pharmacotherapy has lagged far behind that of other major mental illnesses. Unfortunately, due to the enormous costs and lengthy process involved in bringing drugs to market, delivering new treatments to patients with PTSD in the near future will remain a challenge. However, by capitalizing on recent advances in the pharmacogenetics of antidepressants, precision psychiatry approaches can be leveraged to optimize the delivery of currently-available medications in a fraction of the time and cost required to develop novel therapeutics...
April 21, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Jennifer E O'Brien
Domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) is the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of U.S. minors for the purposes of a commercial sex act. DMST victims and survivors often become involved with state-level systems including the child welfare and/or juvenile justice systems. This study presents exploratory qualitative findings regarding the role of interpersonal relationships in the lives of system-involved DMST survivors from the perspectives of DMST survivors. Results indicate survivors perceive interpersonal relationships as key to promoting risk, providing protection, and fostering resiliency over DMST...
April 21, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
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