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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231681/noninvasive-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-for-the-treatment-of-orofacial-pain
#1
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: tDCS is a promising method for the treatment of chronic pain. Electrode placement locations must be chosen in accordance with the density and the time course of the current in order to prevent pathological changes in the underlying tissue. In order to reduce current spatial variability, more electrodes of the same polarity are placed in a circle around the second electrode of the opposite polarity. The applied current produced the greatest changes directly beneath the electrodes: the cathode reduces the excitability of cortical neurons, while the anode has the opposite effect...
October 24, 2016: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231546/blood-cadmium-by-race-hispanic-origin-the-role-of-smoking
#2
Yutaka Aoki, Jennifer Yee, Mary E Mortensen
BACKGROUND: There have been increasing concerns over health effects of low level exposure to cadmium, especially those on bones and kidneys. OBJECTIVE: To explore how age-adjusted geometric means of blood cadmium in adults varied by race/Hispanic origin, sex, and smoking status among U.S. adults and the extent to which the difference in blood cadmium by race/Hispanic origin and sex may be explained by intensity of smoking, a known major source of cadmium exposure...
February 20, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231477/effects-of-tdcs-on-motor-learning-and-memory-formation-a-consensus-and-critical-position-paper
#3
REVIEW
Ethan R Buch, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Andrea Antal, Jan Born, Pablo A Celnik, Joseph Classen, Christian Gerloff, Mark Hallett, Friedhelm C Hummel, Michael A Nitsche, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Walter J Paulus, Janine Reis, Edwin M Robertson, John C Rothwell, Marco Sandrini, Heidi M Schambra, Eric M Wassermann, Ulf Ziemann, Leonardo G Cohen
Motor skills are required for activities of daily living. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied in association with motor skill learning has been investigated as a tool for enhancing training effects in health and disease. Here, we review the published literature investigating whether tDCS can facilitate the acquisition, retention or adaptation of motor skills. Work in multiple laboratories is underway to develop a mechanistic understanding of tDCS effects on different forms of learning and to optimize stimulation protocols...
January 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231466/leaky-gate-model-intensity-dependent-coding-of-pain-and-itch-in-the-spinal-cord
#4
Shuohao Sun, Qian Xu, Changxiong Guo, Yun Guan, Qin Liu, Xinzhong Dong
Coding of itch versus pain has been heatedly debated for decades. However, the current coding theories (labeled line, intensity, and selectivity theory) cannot accommodate all experimental observations. Here we identified a subset of spinal interneurons, labeled by gastrin-releasing peptide (Grp), that receive direct synaptic input from both pain and itch primary sensory neurons. When activated, these Grp(+) neurons generated rarely seen, simultaneous robust pain and itch responses that were intensity dependent...
February 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231395/functional-connectivity-in-amygdalar-sensory-pre-motor-networks-at-rest-new-evidence-from-the-human-connectome-project
#5
Nicola Toschi, Andrea Duggento, Luca Passamonti
The word "e-motion" derives from the Latin word "ex-moveo" which literally means "moving away from something / somebody". Emotions are thus fundamental to prime action and goal-directed behavior with obvious implications for individual's survival. However, the brain mechanisms underlying the interactions between emotional and motor cortical systems remain poorly understood. A recent diffusion tensor imaging study in humans has reported the existence of direct anatomical connections between the amygdala and sensory/(pre)motor cortices, corroborating an initial observation in animal research...
February 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231356/using-ethical-frameworks-in-times-of-transition-and-uncertainty
#6
Eileen M Sullivan-Marx
Health care policy is never easy and always fraught with concerns about quality, access, and cost. Currently, uncertainty abounds regarding new federal and state policies on the horizon for older adult care and quality. Empirics undergird most policy-making decisions regarding risk/benefit, cost, and knowing the best action to put in place for the best results. However, in times of great change in policy direction and political viewpoints, empirical knowledge must be combined with ethical knowledge for planning and implementation...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Gerontological Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231337/4d-dose-simulation-in-volumetric-arc-therapy-accuracy-and-affecting-parameters
#7
Thilo Sothmann, Tobias Gauer, René Werner
Radiotherapy of lung and liver lesions has changed from normofractioned 3D-CRT to stereotactic treatment in a single or few fractions, often employing volumetric arc therapy (VMAT)-based techniques. Potential unintended interference of respiratory target motion and dynamically changing beam parameters during VMAT dose delivery motivates establishing 4D quality assurance (4D QA) procedures to assess appropriateness of generated VMAT treatment plans when taking into account patient-specific motion characteristics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231310/breastfeeding-and-the-risk-of-respiratory-tract-infections-after-infancy-the-generation-r-study
#8
Ilse Tromp, Jessica Kiefte-de Jong, Hein Raat, Vincent Jaddoe, Oscar Franco, Albert Hofman, Johan de Jongste, Henriëtte Moll
BACKGROUND: The protection of breastfeeding against respiratory tract infections in the first year of life has often been suggested. Few studies examined the effect of breastfeeding on respiratory tract infections after infancy. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between breastfeeding with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) and upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) after infancy up to 4 years of age (n = 5322). METHODS: This study was embedded in The Generation R study, a Dutch population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231251/empirical-lessons-regarding-contraception-in-a-protracted-refugee-setting-a-descriptive-study-from-maela-camp-on-the-thai-myanmar-border-1996-2015
#9
Somjet Srikanok, Daniel M Parker, Amber L Parker, Tracey Lee, Aung Myat Min, Pranee Ontuwong, Saw Oo Tan, Supachai Sirinonthachai, Rose McGready
Conflict settings and refugee camps can be chaotic places, with large and rapid population movements, exacerbated public health problems, and ad hoc health services. Reproductive health care that includes family planning is of heightened importance in such settings, however, funding and resources tend to be constrained and geared towards acute health services such as trauma management and infectious disease containment. Here we report on the complexities and challenges of providing family planning in a post-emergency refugee setting, using the example of the largest refugee camp on the Thai-Myanmar border, in existence now for over 30 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230970/the-role-of-air-electrode-structure-on-the-incorporation-of-immiscible-pfcs-in-non-aqueous-li-o2-battery
#10
Moran Balaish, Yair Ein-Eli
Perfluorocrbons (PFCs) are considered advantageous additives to non-aqueous Li-O2 battery due to their superior oxygen solubility and diffusivity compared to common battery electrolytes. Up to now, the main focus was concentrated on PFCs-electrolyte investigation, however no special attention was granted to the role of carbon structure in the PFCs- Li-O2 system. Immiscible PFCs, rather than miscible fluorinated-ethers, were added to activated-carbon class air-electrode due to their higher susceptibility towards attack and to their ability to shift the reaction from two phase to an artificial three phase reaction zone...
February 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230928/reactivation-of-hepatitis-b-in-patients-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-with-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-treated-with-direct-acting-antivirals
#11
Ming-Lun Yeh, Chung-Feng Huang, Meng-Hsuan Hsieh, Yu-Min Ko, Kuan-Yu Chen, Ta-Wei Liu, Yi-Hung Lin, Po-Cheng Liang, Ming-Yen Hsieh, Zu-Yau Lin, Shinn-Cherng Chen, Ching-I Huang, Jee-Fu Huang, Po-Lin Kuo, Chia-Yen Dai, Ming-Lung Yu, Wan-Long Chuang
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) may reactivate when treating chronic hepatitis C (CHC) with direct acting antivirals (DAA). We aim to investigate the risk of HBV reactivation during DAA therapy. METHODS: CHC patients receiving pan-oral DAA therapy from Dec. 2013 to Aug. 2016 were evaluated. Fifty-seven patients that had a past HBV infection (negative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)) and positive hepatitis B core antibody (Anti-HBc)) and 7 patients that had a current HBV infection (positive HBsAg) were enrolled...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230850/metal-and-additive-free-photoinduced-borylation-of-haloarenes
#12
Adelphe M Mfuh, Brett D Schneider, Westley Cruces, Oleg V Larionov
Boronic acids and esters have critical roles in the areas of synthetic organic chemistry, molecular sensors, materials science, drug discovery, and catalysis. Many of the current applications of boronic acids and esters require materials with very low levels of transition metal contamination. Most of the current methods for the synthesis of boronic acids, however, require transition metal catalysts and ligands that must be removed via additional purification procedures. This protocol describes a simple, metal- and additive-free method of conversion of haloarenes directly to boronic acids and esters...
March 2017: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230746/oxidation-of-5-chloromethylfurfural-cmf-to-2-5-diformylfuran-dff
#13
Ana I Vicente, Jaime A S Coelho, Svilen P Simeonov, Hristina I Lazarova, Margarita D Popova, Carlos A M Afonso
2,5-Diformylfuran (DFF) is an important biorenewable building block, namely for the manufacture of new polymers that may replace existing materials derived from limited fossil fuel resources. The current reported methods for the preparation of DFF are mainly derived from the oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and, to a lesser extent, directly from fructose. 5-Chloromethylfurfural (CMF) has been considered an alternative to HMF as an intermediate building block due to its advantages regarding stability, polarity, and availability from glucose and cellulose...
February 20, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230656/role-of-nonneutralizing-antibodies-in-vaccines-and-or-hiv-infected-individuals
#14
Luzia Mayr, Bin Su, Christiane Moog
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Increased body of evidence gathered over time indicate that antibodies are capable of many inhibitory mechanisms, virus neutralization being just one of them. Nonneutralizing antibodyactivities interfering with HIV replication can also lead to a decrease in viral load and even in-vivo protection. RECENT FINDINGS: It was previously believed that neutralizing antibodies can achieve sterilizing protection mainly by using their neutralization capacities against the infecting virus directly at the portal of virus entry...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230410/a-self-report-measure-for-the-icd-11-dimensional-trait-model-proposal-the-personality-inventory-for-icd-11
#15
Joshua R Oltmanns, Thomas A Widiger
Proposed for the 11th edition of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) is a dimensional trait model for the classification of personality disorder (Tyrer, Reed, & Crawford, 2015). The ICD-11 proposal consists of 5 broad domains: negative affective, detachment, dissocial, disinhibition, and anankastic (Mulder, Horwood, Tyrer, Carter, & Joyce, 2016). Several field trials have examined this proposal, yet none has included a direct measure of the trait model. The purpose of the current study was to develop and provide initial validation for the Personality Inventory for ICD-11 (PiCD), a self-report measure of this proposed 5-domain maladaptive trait model...
February 23, 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230354/chemical-modification-of-semiconductor-surfaces-for-molecular-electronics
#16
Ayelet Vilan, David Cahen
Inserting molecular monolayers within metal/semiconductor interfaces provides one of the most powerful expressions of how minute chemical modifications can affect electronic devices. This topic also has direct importance for technology as it can help improve the efficiency of a variety of electronic devices such as solar cells, LEDs, sensors, and possible future bioelectronic ones. The review covers the main aspects of using chemistry to control the various aspects of interface electrostatics, such as passivation of interface states and alignment of energy levels by intrinsic molecular polarization, as well as charge rearrangement with the adjacent metal and semiconducting contacts...
February 23, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230276/dissection-of-regulatory-elements-during-direct-conversion-of-somatic-cells-into-neurons
#17
Tahereh Soleimani, Nafiseh Falsafi, Hossein Fallahi
A revolutionary approach that involves direct conversion of somatic cells into almost any other types of cells showed promising results for regenerative medicine. Currently, producing valuable cell types including neurons, cardiomyocytes and hepatocytes through direct conversion of somatic cells appear to be a feasible option for regenerative medicine. The process involves inducing the cells by chemical cocktails or by expression of different types of transcription factors. In this concept, in vitro neurogenesis considered to be able to produce neuron cells to replace damaged neurons especially in Alzheimer and Parkinson disease...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230176/antithrombotic-therapy-for-patients-with-stemi-undergoing-primary-pci
#18
REVIEW
Francesco Franchi, Fabiana Rollini, Dominick J Angiolillo
Antithrombotic therapy, including antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents, is the cornerstone of pharmacological treatment to optimize clinical outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Intravenous anticoagulant drugs available for PPCI include the indirect thrombin inhibitors unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin, and the direct thrombin inhibitor bivalirudin. Intravenous antiplatelet drugs mainly include glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors and the P2Y12-receptor inhibitor cangrelor...
February 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230054/magnetization-switching-in-ferromagnets-by-adsorbed-chiral-molecules-without-current-or-external-magnetic-field
#19
Oren Ben Dor, Shira Yochelis, Anna Radko, Kiran Vankayala, Eyal Capua, Amir Capua, See-Hun Yang, Lech Tomasz Baczewski, Stuart Stephen Papworth Parkin, Ron Naaman, Yossi Paltiel
Ferromagnets are commonly magnetized by either external magnetic fields or spin polarized currents. The manipulation of magnetization by spin-current occurs through the spin-transfer-torque effect, which is applied, for example, in modern magnetoresistive random access memory. However, the current density required for the spin-transfer torque is of the order of 1 × 10(6) A·cm(-2), or about 1 × 10(25) electrons s(-1) cm(-2). This relatively high current density significantly affects the devices' structure and performance...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229957/origins-and-mechanisms-of-hysteresis-in-organometal-halide-perovskites
#20
Cheng Li, Antonio Guerrero, Yu Zhong, Sven Huettner
Inorganic-organic organometal halide perovskites, such as CH<sub>3</sub>NH<sub>3</sub>PbI<sub>3</sub> or CsPbI<sub>3</sub>, etc., are an unprecedented rising star in the field of photovoltaics since 2009, owing to its exceptionally high power conversion efficiency (PCE) and simple fabrication processability. Despite its relatively short history of development, intensive investigations have been concentrating on this material, ranging from crystal structure analysis and photophysical characterization, to performance optimization and device integration, etc...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
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