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Paul A Leighton, Stephen D Brealey, Joseph J Dias
OBJECTIVE: To explore stakeholder perspectives upon participant retention in clinical trials, and to generate strategies to support retention in a surgical, clinical trial. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: The SWIFFT trial is a multicenter study comparing treatments for the fracture of the waist of the scaphoid bone in adults. Here we report upon a multistage, iterative consultative process with SWIFFT stakeholders, these include workshops with members of the public, with nurses involved in data collection, and with consultant clinicians...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Medicine
Susan S Li, Don Hayes, Joseph D Tobias, Wayne J Morgan, Dmitry Tumin
BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic status is correlated with worse outcomes in patients with cystic fibrosis. Whether insurance status impacts adherence to care in this population is unknown. METHODS: Patients ≥18 years old in the CF Foundation Patient Registry (2005-2013) were grouped based on reported annual insurance as private, public (Medicaid, Medicare, or state medical assistance program), other, or no insurance. Random effects logistic regression evaluated association between change in insurance status and annual use of recommended routine care...
January 22, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Clement Bommier, Xiulei Ji
Through intense effort in recent years, knowledge of Na-ion batteries has been advanced significantly, pertaining to electrodes. Often, such progress has been accompanied by using a convenient choice of electrolyte or binder. Nevertheless, it has been witnessed that "external" factors to electrodes, such as electrolytes, solid electrolyte interphase, and binders, affect the functions of electrodes profoundly. And generally, certain types of electrodes favor some electrolytes or binders. With a rapidly increasing number of publications in the area, trends in terms of electrolytes and binders are possibly exploitable...
January 22, 2018: Small
Yanjun Zan, Örjan Carlborg
The adaptation to a new habitat often results in a confounding between genome-wide genotype and beneficial alleles. When the confounding is strong, or the allelic effects weak, it is a major statistical challenge to detect the adaptive polymorphisms. We describe a novel approach to dissect polygenic traits in natural populations. First, candidate adaptive loci are identified by screening for loci directly associated with the adaptive trait or the expression of genes known to affect it. Then, a multi-locus genetic architecture is inferred using a backward elimination association analysis across all candidate loci with an adaptive false discovery rate based threshold...
January 22, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
V Brown, E J Tan, A J Hayes, S Petrou, M L Moodie
Rigorous estimates of preference-based utilities are important inputs into economic evaluations of childhood obesity interventions, yet no published review currently exists examining utility by weight status in paediatric populations. A comprehensive systematic literature review and meta-analysis was therefore undertaken, pooling data on preference-based health state utilities by weight status in children using a random-effects model. Tests for heterogeneity were performed, and publication bias was assessed...
January 21, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Paolo Pozzilli
As Diabetes/Metabolism: Research & Reviews (DMRR) begins its transition to a new editorial team, incoming Editor-in-Chief, Dr Paolo Pozzilli, reflects on the lessons learned from the past editorship and envisions the future of the journal. In today's fast-paced world, a medical journal should be fast in communicating decisions. Authors are eager to publish their work as fast as possible, and a journal must guarantee this, whilst at the same time ensuring a rigorous peer-review process. With this in mind, we hope to help the diabetes scientific community...
January 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Wang Xu-Jing, Zhang Xin, Yang Jiang-Tao, Wang Zhi-Xing
Gene stacking is a developing trend in agricultural biotechnology. Unintended effects in stacked transgenic plants are safety issues considered by the public and researchers. Omics techniques provide useful tools to assess unintended effects. In this paper, stacked transgenic maize 12-5×IE034 that contained insecticidal cry and glyphosate tolerance G10-epsps genes was obtained by crossing of transgenic maize varieties 12-5 and IE034. Transcriptome and metabolome analyses were performed for different maize varieties, including 12-5×IE034, 12-5, IE034, and conventional varieties collected from different province in China...
January 21, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Maíra Duarte Cardoso, Leila Soledade Lemos, Emily Moraes Roges, Jailson Fulgencio de Moura, Davi Castro Tavares, Carlos Alexandre R Matias, Dália Dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Salvatore Siciliano
AIMS: To perform a microbiological survey regarding the presence, prevalence and characterization of Aeromonas sp. and Vibrio sp. in debilitated wrecked marine birds recovered from the center-north coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS AND RESULTS: Swabs obtained from 116 alive and debilitated wrecked marine birds, comprising 19 species, from the study area were evaluated by biochemical methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests and pathogenicity gene screening were performed for bacterial strains of public health importance...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
S Suhailah, S N S Sakinah, O Malina, B A Norliza, N M Asyraf, A Fairuz, T Z M T Jamaluddin, A H Rukman, W M Zahiruddin, M N Shafei, S Surianti, B D Aziah, I Zawaha, A W Zainudin, N A Munirah, M N Desa, V Neela, S M Norbaya
OBJECTIVE: The high prevalence of leptospirosis in humans is of great public health concern, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira antibodies and distribution of serovars, and to assess the usefulness of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a screening method for leptospiral antibodies in a high-risk healthy community. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 231 market workers and food handlers in wet markets and food premises from two localities in central Malaysia...
January 22, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Rodolfo Savica, Brandon R Grossardt, Walter A Rocca, James H Bower
BACKGROUND: Limited population-based information is available on the co-occurrence of dementia and PD. However, projecting the prevalence of PD with and without dementia during the next 50 years is crucial for planning public-health and patient-care initiatives. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to project the prevalence of PD with and without dementia in the United States by 2060. METHODS: We used the Rochester Epidemiology Project medical records-linkage system to identify all persons with PD with or without dementia residing in Olmsted County, Minnesota, on January 1, 2006...
January 22, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Gustavo Carvalho, Salvador Rassi, Enio Guérios, Fernando A M Curado, Ana Tereza Bastos
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the systematic chain of care for patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) referred for primary angioplasty in a capital city in Midwestern Brazil. BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction is recognized as an important cause of morbidity and mortality and as a public health problem worldwide. Early specialized care is crucial for a good prognosis. METHODS: All STEMI patients receiving care through the public health system at two tertiary care centers from March 2012 to June 2014 were retrospectively analyzed...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
Xiaoyun Tan, Jing Zhang, Shaoyi Zhou, Zhenyin Liu, Tao Zhang, Jiejun Xia
Vascular tumors associated with Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP) are life-threatening and the mortality is as high as 10-30%. Steroids are considered the primary choice for drug therapy. However, there are many steroid-resistant cases. In the present study, analyzed data are presented to support the use of sirolimus in clinical practise for the treatment of corticosteroid-resistant vascular tumors with KMP in eight infants between June 2015 and April 2017 in a single hospital. The time to initial response was 6...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Dermatology
Xuan-Zhang Huang, You Chen, Wen-Jun Chen, Xi Zhang, Cong-Cong Wu, Zhen-Ning Wang, Jian Wu
Hand-foot syndrome (HFS) is the most common adverse effect of capecitabine-containing chemotherapy. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacies of various prevention and treatment strategies for capecitabine-induced HFS. Searches of the PubMed and Embase databases were performed to identify relevant studies. The risk ratio (RR) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was used as an effect measure to evaluate the efficacies of these prevention and treatment strategies. Publication bias was evaluated using Begg's and Egger's tests...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Xinyu Liao, Jiao Li, Aliyu Idris Muhammad, Yuanjie Suo, Shiguo Chen, Xingqian Ye, Donghong Liu, Tian Ding
Atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) is a promising non-thermal technology in food industry. In this study, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD)-ACP exhibited strong bactericidal effect on Escherichia coli in apple juice. Under a 30 to 50 W input power, less than 40 s treatment time was required for DBD-ACP to result in 3.98 to 4.34 log CFU/mL reduction of E. coli in apple juice. The inactivation behavior of ACP on E. coli was well described by the Weibull model. During the treatment, the cell membrane of E. coli was damaged severely by active species produced by plasma, such as hydrogen peroxide, ozone and nitrate...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Saki Narita, Eiko Saito, Norie Sawada, Taichi Shimazu, Taiki Yamaji, Motoki Iwasaki, Junko Ishihara, Ribeka Takachi, Kenji Shibuya, Manami Inoue, Shoichiro Tsugane
While many epidemiological studies have studied the association between lung cancer risk and fruits and vegetable consumption, the major sources of antioxidant vitamins, only a few have investigated the direct association with antioxidants in consideration of cancer subtypes and smoking status. Here, we examined the association between consumption of antioxidant vitamins and lung cancer risk in one of the largest prospective cohort studies in Japan. We investigated the association of dietary antioxidant vitamins intake, namely retinol, vitamin C, vitamin E, α-carotene, and β-carotene, and subsequent incidence of lung cancer among 38,207 men and 41,498 women in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study...
January 22, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Alberto Vaona, Rita Banzi, Koren H Kwag, Giulio Rigon, Danilo Cereda, Valentina Pecoraro, Irene Tramacere, Lorenzo Moja
BACKGROUND: The use of e-learning, defined as any educational intervention mediated electronically via the Internet, has steadily increased among health professionals worldwide. Several studies have attempted to measure the effects of e-learning in medical practice, which has often been associated with large positive effects when compared to no intervention and with small positive effects when compared with traditional learning (without access to e-learning). However, results are not conclusive...
January 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Ingrid Eshun-Wilson, Nandi Siegfried, Dickens H Akena, Dan J Stein, Ekwaro A Obuku, John A Joska
BACKGROUND: Rates of major depression among people living with HIV (PLWH) are substantially higher than those seen in the general population and this may adversely affect antiretroviral treatment outcomes. Several unique clinical and psychosocial factors may contribute to the development and persistence of depression in PLWH. Given these influences, it is unclear if antidepressant therapy is as effective for PLWH as the general population. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of antidepressant therapy for treatment of depression in PLWH...
January 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Shanshan Huang, Lingling Zhang, Linong Yao, Jie Li, Hui Chen, Qingxiang Ni, Chenwei Pan, Lingxiang Jin
A 60-year-old female patient living in southeastern China presented with persistent fever, chills, night sweats, fatigue and dizziness for 12 days. Blood tests showed neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and active hemolytic anemia with elevated C-reactive protein. Broad spectrum antibiotics for a possible diagnosis of sepsis were administered without any response. Malaria was diagnosed initially after visualizing intraerythrocytic ring shaped parasites in bone marrow and blood smears. The region the patient lived in was an area of unstable endemicity for Plasmodium falciparum...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Simon L Goodman
The biological literature reverberates with the inadequacies of commercial research-tool antibodies. The scientific community spends some $2 billion per year on such reagents. Excellent accessible scientific platforms exist for reliably making, validating and using antibodies, yet the laboratory end-user reality is somehow depressing - because they often "don't work". This experience is due to a bizarre and variegated spectrum of causes including: inadequately identified antibodies; inappropriate user and supplier validation; poor user training; and overloaded publishers...
January 17, 2018: New Biotechnology
Savannah Gleim, Stuart J Smyth
Part of what is presently missing at domestic regulatory levels (and that is important at the international level as well) is a detailed understanding of what the rules of, and for, regulation should be, who the actors, stakeholders and major decision makers are and finally, how to get agreement about the rules. Greater insights into the system of rules that underpin regulatory frameworks for agri-food and biotechnology products in genetically modified (GM) crop- adopting nations will provide value by clarifying the evidence used to commercialize these technologies...
January 17, 2018: New Biotechnology
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