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auditory evoked responses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138310/sparsity-enables-estimation-of-both-subcortical-and-cortical-activity-from-meg-and-eeg
#1
Pavitra Krishnaswamy, Gabriel Obregon-Henao, Jyrki Ahveninen, Sheraz Khan, Behtash Babadi, Juan Eugenio Iglesias, Matti S Hämäläinen, Patrick L Purdon
Subcortical structures play a critical role in brain function. However, options for assessing electrophysiological activity in these structures are limited. Electromagnetic fields generated by neuronal activity in subcortical structures can be recorded noninvasively, using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG). However, these subcortical signals are much weaker than those generated by cortical activity. In addition, we show here that it is difficult to resolve subcortical sources because distributed cortical activity can explain the MEG and EEG patterns generated by deep sources...
November 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136104/focal-suppression-of-distractor-sounds-by-selective-attention-in-auditory-cortex
#2
Zachary P Schwartz, Stephen V David
Auditory selective attention is required for parsing crowded acoustic environments, but cortical systems mediating the influence of behavioral state on auditory perception are not well characterized. Previous neurophysiological studies suggest that attention produces a general enhancement of neural responses to important target sounds versus irrelevant distractors. However, behavioral studies suggest that in the presence of masking noise, attention provides a focal suppression of distractors that compete with targets...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135872/the-role-of-auditory-evoked-potentials-in-the-context-of-cochlear-implant-provision
#3
Sebastian Hoth, Oliver Christian Dziemba
: Auditory evoked potentials (AEP) are highly demanded during the whole process of equipping patients with cochlear implants (CI). They play an essential role in preoperative diagnostics, intraoperative testing, and postoperative monitoring of auditory performance and success. The versatility of AEP's is essentially enhanced by their property to be evokable by acoustic as well as electric stimuli. Thus, the electric responses of the auditory system following acoustic stimulation and recorded by the conventional surface technique as well as by transtympanic derivation from the promontory (Electrocochleography [ECochG]) are used for the quantitative determination of hearing loss and, additionally, electrically evoked compound actions potentials (ECAP) can be recorded with the intracochlear electrodes of the implant just adjacent to the stimulation electrode to check the functional integrity of the device and its coupling to the auditory system...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135685/olivocochlear-efferent-activity-is-associated-with-the-slope-of-the-psychometric-function-of-speech-recognition-in-noise
#4
Ian B Mertes, Erin C Wilbanks, Marjorie R Leek
OBJECTIVES: The medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent system can modify cochlear function to improve sound detection in noise, but its role in speech perception in noise is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between MOC efferent activity and performance on two speech-in-noise tasks at two signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). It was hypothesized that efferent activity would be more strongly correlated with performance at the more challenging SNR, relative to performance at the less challenging SNR...
November 9, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134751/cortical-hemispheric-asymmetries-are-present-at-young-ages-and-further-develop-into-adolescence
#5
Hiroshi Yamazaki, Vijayalakshmi Easwar, Melissa Jane Polonenko, Salima Jiwani, Daniel D E Wong, Blake Croll Papsin, Karen Ann Gordon
Specialization of the auditory cortices for pure tone listening may develop with age. In adults, the right hemisphere dominates when listening to pure tones and music; we thus hypothesized that (a) asymmetric function between auditory cortices increases with age and (b) this development is specific to tonal rather than broadband/non-tonal stimuli. Cortical responses to tone-bursts and broadband click-trains were recorded by multichannel electroencephalography in young children (5.1 ± 0.8 years old) and adolescents (15...
November 13, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129037/eye-movement-abnormalities-in-middle-cerebellar-peduncle-strokes
#6
Sung-Hee Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
The middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) is a major conduit for cortico-ponto-cerebellar fibers that convey information related to eye movements. This study aims to elucidate eye movement abnormalities that arise from lesions confined to the MCP. In 23 patients with acute strokes restricted to unilateral MCPs, we investigated the clinical features and ocular motor findings including spontaneous nystagmus, saccades, smooth pursuit, ocular tilt reaction, and head impulse tests. Bithermal caloric tests and audiometry were also performed...
November 11, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122423/efferent-modulation-of-pre-neural-and-neural-distortion-products
#7
S B Smith, K Ichiba, D S Velenovsky, B Cone
Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and distortion product frequency following responses (DPFFRs) are respectively pre-neural and neural measurements associated with cochlear nonlinearity. Because cochlear nonlinearity is putatively linked to outer hair cell electromotility, DPOAEs and DPFFRs may provide complementary measurements of the human medial olivocochlear (MOC) reflex, which directly modulates outer hair cell function. In this study, we first quantified MOC reflex-induced DPOAE inhibition at spectral fine structure peaks in 22 young human adults with normal hearing...
October 26, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121295/disruption-of-cortical-network-activity-by-the-general-anaesthetic-isoflurane
#8
H Hentschke, A Raz, B M Krause, C A Murphy, M I Banks
Background: Actions of general anaesthetics on activity in the cortico-thalamic network likely contribute to loss of consciousness and disconnection from the environment. Previously, we showed that the general anaesthetic isoflurane preferentially suppresses cortically evoked synaptic responses compared with thalamically evoked synaptic responses, but how this differential sensitivity translates into changes in network activity is unclear. Methods: We investigated isoflurane disruption of spontaneous and stimulus-induced cortical network activity using multichannel recordings in murine auditory thalamo-cortical brain slices...
October 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121103/central-conduction-time-in-auditory-brainstem-response-and-ear-advantage-in-dichotic-listening-across-menstrual-cycle
#9
Xu-Jun Hu, Chi-Chuen Lau
The ovarian hormones fluctuate during the menstrual cycle in women. Such fluctuation of sex hormones, in particular estrogen, is believed to affect the central conduction time in auditory function as well as the language lateralization in cognitive function. However, findings are inconsistent. The underlying mechanisms are also unclear. This paper examined if there was any relation between the central conduction time and the language lateralization at different times during the menstrual cycle. Twenty young women with normal menstrual cycle were tested four times (5 to 7 days apart) across the menstrual cycle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114213/visually-evoked-visual-auditory-changes-associated-with-auditory-performance-in-children-with-cochlear-implants
#10
Maojin Liang, Junpeng Zhang, Jiahao Liu, Yuebo Chen, Yuexin Cai, Xianjun Wang, Junbo Wang, Xueyuan Zhang, Suijun Chen, Xianghui Li, Ling Chen, Yiqing Zheng
Activation of the auditory cortex by visual stimuli has been reported in deaf children. In cochlear implant (CI) patients, a residual, more intense cortical activation in the frontotemporal areas in response to photo stimuli was found to be positively associated with poor auditory performance. Our study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which visual processing in CI users activates the auditory-associated cortex during the period after cochlear implantation as well as its relation to CI outcomes. Twenty prelingually deaf children with CI were recruited...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114043/subplate-neurons-are-the-first-cortical-neurons-to-respond-to-sensory-stimuli
#11
Jessica M Wess, Amal Isaiah, Paul V Watkins, Patrick O Kanold
In utero experience, such as maternal speech in humans, can shape later perception, although the underlying cortical substrate is unknown. In adult mammals, ascending thalamocortical projections target layer 4, and the onset of sensory responses in the cortex is thought to be dependent on the onset of thalamocortical transmission to layer 4 as well as the ear and eye opening. In developing animals, thalamic fibers do not target layer 4 but instead target subplate neurons deep in the developing white matter...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112533/abo-blood-group-and-cochlear-status-otoacoustic-emission-markers
#12
Welen Weilu Chen, Kin Tsun Chow, Bradley McPherson
OBJECTIVES: There are an increasing number of research studies examining the effects of ABO blood group on susceptibility to disease. However, little is known regarding the potential relationship between blood group and hearing. Higher risk of noise-induced hearing loss was linked to blood group O in several occupational health studies. Based on this finding, a recent study of cochlear status was conducted with normal-hearing female participants representing equal numbers of the four blood groups in the ABO blood group system...
November 4, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108871/effects-of-the-cannabinoid-cb1-agonist-acea-on-salicylate-ototoxicity-hyperacusis-and-tinnitus-in-guinea-pigs
#13
Joel I Berger, Ben Coomber, Samantha Hill, Steve P H Alexander, William Owen, Alan R Palmer, Mark N Wallace
Cannabinoids have been suggested as a therapeutic target for a variety of brain disorders. Despite the presence of their receptors throughout the auditory system, little is known about how cannabinoids affect auditory function. We sought to determine whether administration of arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA), a highly-selective CB1 agonist, could attenuate a variety of auditory effects caused by prior administration of salicylate, and potentially treat tinnitus. We recorded cortical resting-state activity, auditory-evoked cortical activity and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs), from chronically-implanted awake guinea pigs, before and after salicylate + ACEA...
October 31, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106871/test-retest-reliability-of-speech-evoked-auditory-brainstem-response-in-healthy-children-at-a-low-sensation-level
#14
Mohd Normani Zakaria, Bahram Jalaei
OBJECTIVE: Auditory brainstem responses evoked by complex stimuli such as speech syllables have been studied in normal subjects and subjects with compromised auditory functions. The stability of speech-evoked auditory brainstem response (speech-ABR) when tested over time has been reported but the literature is limited. The present study was carried out to determine the test-retest reliability of speech-ABR in healthy children at a low sensation level. METHODS: Seventeen healthy children (6 boys, 11 girls) aged from 5 to 9 years (mean = 6...
November 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106852/postoperative-objective-detecting-techniques-for-cochlear-implant-children-with-inner-ear-malformation
#15
Xiao-Feng Qiao, Xin Li, Qiang-Wei Zhang, Tong-Li Li, Dong Wang
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the changing characteristics and rules of electrically-evoked auditory brainstem response (EABR), electrically-evoked stapedius reflex threshold (ESRT) and neural response telemetry (NRT) after cochlear implant in children with inner ear malformation, and guide postoperative equipment debug. METHODS: A total of 88 children with either normal cochlea (control group) or inner ear malformation (test group) received Australian 24 multi-channel cochlear implants...
November 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105620/loud-music-exposure-and-cochlear-synaptopathy-in-young-adults-isolated-auditory-brainstem-response-effects-but-no-perceptual-consequences
#16
John H Grose, Emily Buss, Joseph W Hall
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that listeners with frequent exposure to loud music exhibit deficits in suprathreshold auditory performance consistent with cochlear synaptopathy. Young adults with normal audiograms were recruited who either did ( n = 31) or did not ( n = 30) have a history of frequent attendance at loud music venues where the typical sound levels could be expected to result in temporary threshold shifts. A test battery was administered that comprised three sets of procedures: (a) electrophysiological tests including distortion product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem responses, envelope following responses, and the acoustic change complex evoked by an interaural phase inversion; (b) psychoacoustic tests including temporal modulation detection, spectral modulation detection, and sensitivity to interaural phase; and (c) speech tests including filtered phoneme recognition and speech-in-noise recognition...
January 2017: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097251/fear-conditioned-alterations-of-motor-cortex-excitability-the-role-of-amygdala
#17
Selim Gökdemir, Ayşegül Gündüz, Çiğdem Özkara, Meral E Kızıltan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that fear-conditioning may increase motor cortical excitability in preparation for response to fear. We tested our hypothesis in healthy subjects and in the second step, to determine the role of amygdala in alterations of motor cortex excitability, we included a group of patients who previously underwent unilateral amygdalo-hippocampectomy for temporal lobe epilepsy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the first step, we included 16 healthy volunteers...
October 31, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092801/effect-of-consonant-duration-on-formation-of-consonant-vowel-syllable-evoked-auditory-cortical-potentials
#18
Mehmet Yaralı, Süha Yağcıoğlu
OBJECTIVE: To compare P1-N1-P2-N2 response latencies and amplitudes evoked by voiced and unvoiced consonant-vowel syllables (CVS) /bi/-/pi/ and /di/-/ti/ by analyzing how the cortical responses to consonants and vowels interact during the formation of a syllable-evoked response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Auditory late latency responses were recorded from 12 healthy individuals between the ages of 20 and 40 years with normal hearing while presenting /bi/-/pi/ and /di/-/ti/ tokens and individual consonant-vowel parts of syllables...
November 2, 2017: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092566/linear-combination-of-auditory-steady-state-responses-evoked-by-co-modulated-tones
#19
François Guérit, Jeremy Marozeau, Bastian Epp
Up to medium intensities and in the 80-100-Hz region, the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) to a multi-tone carrier is commonly considered to be a linear sum of the dipoles from each tone specific ASSR generator. Here, this hypothesis was investigated when a unique modulation frequency is used for all carrier components. Listeners were presented with a co-modulated dual-frequency carrier (1 and 4 kHz), from which the modulator starting phase Φi of the 1-kHz component was systematically varied. The results support the hypothesis of a linear superposition of the dipoles originating from different frequency specific ASSR generators...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084395/electrophysiological-evidence-of-the-basilar-membrane-travelling-wave-and-frequency-place-coding-of-sound-in-cochlear-implant-recipients
#20
Luke Campbell, Christofer Bester, Claire Iseli, David Sly, Adrian Dragovic, Anthony W Gummer, Stephen O'Leary
AIM: To obtain direct evidence for the cochlear travelling wave in humans by performing electrocochleography from within the cochlea in subjects implanted with an auditory prosthesis. BACKGROUND: Sound induces a travelling wave that propagates along the basilar membrane, exhibiting cochleotopic tuning with a frequency-dependent phase delay. To date, evoked potentials and psychophysical experiments have supported the presence of the travelling wave in humans, but direct measurements have not been made...
2017: Audiology & Neuro-otology
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