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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244855/vitreous-hyper-reflective-dots-in-pseudophakic-cystoid-macular-edema-assessed-with-optical-coherence-tomography
#1
Wilfried Glatz, Gernot Steinwender, Lisa Tarmann, Eva Maria Malle, Marlene Schörkhuber, Werner Wackernagel, Goran Petrovski, Andreas Wedrich, Domagoj Ivastinovic
PURPOSE: This study compares the presence of vitreous hyper-reflective dots (VHDs) detected with optical coherence tomography (OCT) between eyes with pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (CME) and those with no CME after cataract surgery. In addition, we evaluated the impact of VHDs on the responsiveness of pseudophakic CME to cortisone treatment. SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Graz, Austria. DESIGN: Retrospective, monocenter case-controlled study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243811/decrease-of-superficial-serine-and-lactate-in-the-stratum-corneum-due-to-repetitive-frictional-trauma
#2
Lai San Wong, Atsushi Otsuka, Hideaki Tanizaki, Yumi Nonomura, Chisa Nakashima, Yosuke Yamamoto, Yu Ta Yen, Pawinee Rerknimitr, Tetsuya Honda, Kenji Kabashima
BACKGROUND: Repetitive frictional trauma can be induced in daily and occupational activities, such as daily ablutions with washcloths. The influence of frictional trauma on the skin barrier function, especially in the perspective of the components of stratum corneum (SC), has not yet been studied in detail. Raman spectroscopy is a noninvasive optical technique based on inelastic light scattering that is capable of measuring several components in the skin. In this study, we used Raman spectroscopy to investigate the change in natural moisturizing factor (NMF) components in the SC following repetitive physical friction...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243137/activation-of-ankle-muscles-following-rapid-displacement-of-a-light-touch-contact-during-treadmill-walking
#3
Tania Shiva, John E Misiaszek
The first exposure of a rapid displacement of a light touch reference induces an inappropriate balance corrective response during standing in a proportion of participants that is extinguished with repeated exposures. We hypothesized that if the spatial touch reference was critical to performing of a task the evoked response would be more consistently expressed across participants and observed with repeated exposures to the disturbance. To test this, 20 participants received either forward (N = 10) or backward right-touch displacements at right-heel strike during motorized treadmill walking without visual feedback...
December 15, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242920/delivering-bad-news-attitudes-feelings-and-practice-characteristics-among-speech-language-pathologists
#4
Rinat Gold, Azgad Gold
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes, feelings, and practice characteristics of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in Israel regarding the subject of delivering bad news. Method: One hundred and seventy-three Israeli SLPs answered an online survey. Respondents represented SLPs in Israel in all stages of vocational experience, with varying academic degrees, from a variety of employment settings. The survey addressed emotions involved in the process of delivering bad news, training on this subject, and background information of the respondents...
December 13, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242822/abstinence-from-cocaine-induced-conditioned-place-preference-produces-discrete-changes-in-glutamatergic-synapses-onto-deep-layer-5-6-neurons-from-prelimbic-and-infralimbic-cortices
#5
José I Pena-Bravo, Carmela M Reichel, Antonieta Lavin
Glutamatergic signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a critical role in drug addiction and relapse. The mPFC is functionally subdivided into dorsal (prelimbic, PL) and ventral (infralimbic, IL) regions, and evidence suggests a differential role of these two divisions in the control of drug seeking and taking; however, there is a dearth of information on the cocaine-induced adaptations in PL- and IL-mPFC synaptic glutamate transmission and their regulation of behavioral responses to cocaine-associated stimuli...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242041/long-term-outcomes-for-neoadjuvant-versus-adjuvant-chemotherapy-in-early-breast-cancer-meta-analysis-of-individual-patient-data-from-ten-randomised-trials
#6
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for early breast cancer can make breast-conserving surgery more feasible and might be more likely to eradicate micrometastatic disease than might the same chemotherapy given after surgery. We investigated the long-term benefits and risks of NACT and the influence of tumour characteristics on outcome with a collaborative meta-analysis of individual patient data from relevant randomised trials. METHODS: We obtained information about prerandomisation tumour characteristics, clinical tumour response, surgery, recurrence, and mortality for 4756 women in ten randomised trials in early breast cancer that began before 2005 and compared NACT with the same chemotherapy given postoperatively...
December 11, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241041/inhibiting-the-plasmodium-eif2%C3%AE-kinase-pk4-prevents-artemisinin-induced-latency
#7
Min Zhang, Julio Gallego-Delgado, Cristina Fernandez-Arias, Norman C Waters, Ana Rodriguez, Moriya Tsuji, Ronald C Wek, Victor Nussenzweig, William J Sullivan
Artemisinin and its derivatives (ARTs) are frontline antimalarial drugs. However, ART monotherapy is associated with a high frequency of recrudescent infection, resulting in treatment failure. A subset of parasites is thought to undergo ART-induced latency, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we report that ART treatment results in phosphorylation of the parasite eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF2α), leading to repression of general translation and latency induction. Enhanced phosphorylated eIF2α correlates with high rates of recrudescence following ART, and inhibiting eIF2α dephosphorylation renders parasites less sensitive to ART treatment...
December 13, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238221/selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-and-the-risk-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-hepatitis-b-virus-infected-patients
#8
Chia-Ming Chang, Ming-Shun Hsieh, Tsung-Chieh Yang, Vivian Chia-Rong Hsieh, Jen-Huai Chiang, Hsien-Hao Huang, Chorng-Kuang How, Sung-Yuan Hu, David Hung-Tsang Yen
Background: This study aimed to investigate the association between the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study by using claims data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). The study cohort comprised 1380 newly diagnosed HBV-infected patients with SSRI use who were frequency matched by age, sex, liver cirrhosis, and index year with HBV-infected patients without SSRI use in the comparison cohort...
2017: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237455/molecular-and-histological-effects-of-mr-guided-pulsed-focused-ultrasound-to-the-rat-heart
#9
Kee W Jang, Tsang-Wei Tu, Matthew E Nagle, Bobbi K Lewis, Scott R Burks, Joseph A Frank
BACKGROUND: Image-guided high intensity focused ultrasound has been used as an extracorporeal cardiac pacing tool and to enhance homing of stem cells to targeted tissues. However, molecular changes in the myocardium after sonication have not been widely investigated. Magnetic-resonance (MR)-guided pulsed focused ultrasound (pFUS) was targeted to the rat myocardium over a range of pressures and the microenvironmental and histological effects were evaluated over time. METHODS: Eight-to-ten-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats received T2-weighted MR images to target pFUS to the left ventricular and septum without cardiac or respiratory gating...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236910/role-of-t-cruzi-exposure-in-the-pattern-of-t-cell-cytokines-among-chronically-infected-hiv-and-chagas-disease-patients
#10
Tania Regina Tozetto-Mendoza, Dewton de Moraes Vasconcelos, Karim Yaqub Ibrahim, Ana Marli Christovam Sartori, Rita C Bezerra, Vera Lúcia Teixeira de Freitas, Maria Aparecida Shikanai-Yasuda
OBJECTIVES: The impact of Chagas disease (CD) in HIV-infected patients is relevant throughout the world. In fact, the characterization of the adaptive immune response in the context of co-infection is important for predicting the need for interventions in areas in which HIV and Chagas disease co-exist. METHODS: We described and compared the frequency of cytokine-producing T cells stimulated with soluble antigen of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) using a cytometric assay for the following groups: individuals with chronic Chagas disease (CHR, n=10), those with Chagas disease and HIV infection (CO, n=11), those with only HIV (HIV, n=14) and healthy individuals (C, n=15)...
November 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233287/a-community-based-partnership-collaborative-practice-agreement-project-to-teach-innovation-in-care-delivery
#11
Kenneth C Hohmeier, Christina A Spivey, Marie Chisholm-Burns
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To explore students' perceptions (self-assessment) of their preparedness to develop collaborative practice agreements (CPAs) before and after delivery of one CPA-focused classroom lectures and 2) a CPA development student project in partnership with a local community-based pharmacy. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY AND SETTING: A CPA-focused didactic lecture and subsequent project were given to second-year (P2) pharmacy students enrolled in a community pharmacy elective course at the University of Tennessee College of Pharmacy...
May 2017: Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233097/individualized-support-for-informal-caregivers-of-people-with-dementia-effectiveness-of-the-german-adaptation-of-reach-ii
#12
Martin Berwig, Stephanie Heinrich, Jenny Spahlholz, Nina Hallensleben, Elmar Brähler, Hermann-Josef Gertz
BACKGROUND: Individualized, outreach and structured multicomponent interventions are a promising intervention approach to relieve the burden of informal caregivers of people with dementia. In this study, we adapted and evaluated a multicomponent intervention (Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health II, REACH II), which was developed in the USA, to the German health-care system. Therefore the project is called the German adaptation of REACH II (in German: Deutsche Adaptation der REACH II, DE-REACH)...
December 12, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229400/tumor-necrosis-factor-producing-t-regulatory-cells-are-associated-with-severe-liver-injury-in-patients-with-acute-hepatitis-a
#13
Yoon Seok Choi, Min Kyung Jung, Jeewon Lee, Seong Jin Choi, Sung Hoon Choi, Hyun Woong Lee, Jong-Joo Lee, Hyung Joon Kim, Sang Hoon Ahn, Dong Hyeon Lee, Won Kim, Su-Hyung Park, Jun R Huh, Hyoung-Pyo Kim, Jun Yong Park, Eui-Cheol Shin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T-regulatory (Treg) cells control immune responses and maintain immune homeostasis. However, under inflammatory conditions, Treg cells produce cytokines that promote inflammation. We investigated production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by Treg cells in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA), and examined the characteristics of these cells and association with clinical factors. METHODS: We analyzed blood samples collected from 63 patients with AHA at the time of hospitalization (and some at later time points) and 19 healthy donors in South Korea...
December 8, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228513/an-analysis-of-the-morbidity-and-mortality-of-diabetes-mellitus-in-a-forensic-context
#14
Chong Zhou, Roger W Byard
To investigate the spectrum of diseases seen in diabetes mellitus in a forensic context, all autopsy reports of diabetic individuals who presented to Forensic Science, South Australia (FSSA), over a 5-year period from 2005 to 2009 were studied. The leading cause of death was cardiovascular disease (55.0%), followed by unnatural deaths (15.4%) and infections (9.4%). In type 1 diabetics, principal causes of death included cardiovascular disease (44.7%), acute metabolic complications (18.7%), unnatural deaths (17...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226974/acute-bronchiolitis-influence-of-viral-co-infection-in-infants-hospitalized-over-12-consecutive-epidemic-seasons
#15
Laura Petrarca, Raffaella Nenna, Antonella Frassanito, Alessandra Pierangeli, Salvatore Leonardi, Carolina Scagnolari, Guido Antonelli, Paola Papoff, Corrado Moretti, Fabio Midulla
Bronchiolitis is the first lower respiratory tract viral infection manifesting in infants younger than 12 months of age. Our aim was to evaluate clinical and serological differences in infants with bronchiolitis from a single or from multiple viruses. Our secondary aim was to investigate differences in recurrent wheezing episodes after 12-24-36 months of follow-up. We reviewed the clinical records for 486 full-term infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis with at least one virus detected in the nasopharyngeal aspirate...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225972/modulation-of-h-reflex-depression-with-paired-pulse-stimulation-in-healthy-active-humans
#16
Preeti D Oza, Shauna Dudley-Javoroski, Richard K Shields
Depression of the Hoffman reflex (H-reflex) is used to examine spinal control mechanisms during exercise, fatigue, and vibration and in response to training. H-reflex depression protocols frequently use trains of stimuli; this is time-consuming and prevents instantaneous assessment of motor neuronal excitability. The purpose of this study was to determine if paired-pulse H-reflex depression is reproducible and whether paired-pulse stimulation adequately estimates the depression induced by the more traditional ten-pulse train...
2017: Rehabilitation Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225569/elimination-of-left-right-reciprocal-coupling-in-the-adult-lamprey-spinal-cord-abolishes-the-generation-of-locomotor-activity
#17
J A Messina, Alison St Paul, Sarah Hargis, Wengora E Thompson, Andrew D McClellan
The contribution of left-right reciprocal coupling between spinal locomotor networks to the generation of locomotor activity was tested in adult lampreys. Muscle recordings were made from normal animals as well as from experimental animals with rostral midline (ML) spinal lesions (~13%→35% body length, BL), before and after spinal transections (T) at 35% BL. Importantly, in the present study actual locomotor movements and muscle burst activity, as well as other motor activity, were initiated in whole animals by descending brain-spinal pathways in response to sensory stimulation of the anterior head...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225117/rapid-response-events-in-hospitalized-patients-patient-symptoms-and-clinician-communication
#18
Charles A Austin, Summer Choudhury, Taylor Lincoln, Lydia H Chang, Christopher E Cox, Mark A Weaver, Laura C Hanson, Judith E Nelson, Shannon S Carson
CONTEXT: Patients triggering Rapid Response Team (RRT) intervention are at high risk for adverse outcomes. Data on symptom burden of these patients does not currently exist and current symptom management and communication practices of RRT clinicians are unknown. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify the symptom experience of Rapid Response Team (RRT) patients and observe how RRT clinicians communicate with patients and their families. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational study from August - December 2015...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224864/breeding-a-better-cow-will-she-be-adaptable
#19
D P Berry
Adaption is a process that makes an individual or population more suited to their environment. Long-term adaptation is predicated on ample usable genetic variation. Evolutionary forces influencing the extent and dynamics of genetic variation in a population include random drift, mutation, recombination, selection, and migration; the relative importance of each differs by population (i.e., drift is likely to be more influential in smaller populations) and number of generations exposed to selection (i.e., mutation is expected to contribute substantially to genetic variability following many generations of selection)...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223866/phase-delays-between-tone-pairs-reveal-interactions-in-scalp-recorded-envelope-following-responses
#20
Vijayalakshmi Easwar, Ashlee Banyard, Steven Aiken, David Purcell
Evoked potentials to envelope periodicity in sounds, such as vowels, are dependent on the stimulus spectrum. We hypothesize that phase differences between responses elicited by multiple frequencies spread tonotopically across the cochlear partition may contribute to variation in scalp-recorded amplitude. The present study evaluated this hypothesis by measuring envelope following responses (EFRs) to two concurrent tone pairs, p1 and p2, that approximated the first and second formant frequencies of a vowel, while controlling their relative envelope phase...
December 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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