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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933672/single-neuron-activity-and-theta-modulation-in-the-posterior-parietal-cortex-in-a-visuospatial-attention-task
#1
Fang-Chi Yang, T K Jacobson, R D Burwell
The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is implicated in directing and maintaining visual attention to locations in space. We hypothesized that the PPC also engages other cognitive processes in the transformation of behaviorally relevant visual inputs into appropriate actions, for example, monitoring of multiple locations, selection of responses to locations in space, and monitoring the outcome of response selections. We recorded single cells and local field potentials in the rat PPC during performance on a novel visuospatial attention (VSA) task that requires visually monitoring locations in space in order to make appropriate stimulus-guided locomotor responses...
December 9, 2016: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931809/report-on-the-rat-pig-a-assay-using-an-anti-rat-erythroid-marker-his49-antibody-in-a-single-dose-study-of-1-2-dimethylhydrazine
#2
Satsuki Chikura, Yuki Okada, Takafumi Kimoto, Hideshi Kaneko, Daishiro Miura, Yoshinori Kasahara
As part of a collaborative study in the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study (MMS) Group of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society (JEMS), we investigated the in vivo genotoxicity profile of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) using a Pig-a assay in total red blood cells (RBC Pig-a assay) or a reticulocyte Pig-a assay (PIGRET assay). We also assessed the genotoxic potential of DMH using both a bone marrow micronucleus test and a liver comet assay as follow-up studies. Single administration of 25, 50, 100mg/kg DMH to male rats did not show time- or dose-related increases in Pig-a mutant frequency (MF) in either the RBC Pig-a or PIGRET assays up to 4 weeks after treatment...
November 15, 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931588/evaluation-of-mannose-binding-lectin-is-a-useful-approach-to-predict-the-risk-of-infectious-complications-following-autologous-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#3
Z B Radnay, M Udvardy, M Papp, J Hársfalvi, L Rejto, I Pál, Á Illés, A Kiss
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) associated immunocompromised state carries high risk of infectious complications. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is an acute phase protein involved in innate immune response. Serum MBL level is genetically determined and quite stable. According to literature, significant association was shown between low MBL concentrations and serious infections. The association between serum MBL level and frequency and severity of infections was studied in 186 patients following autologous HSCT...
December 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931227/epigenetics-of-amphetamine-induced-sensitization-hdac5-expression-and-microrna-in-neural-remodeling
#4
Philip K Liu, Christina H Liu
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities modify chromatin structure and play a role in learning and memory during developmental processes. Studies of adult mice suggest HDACs are involved in neural network remodeling in brain repair, but its function in drug addiction is less understood. We aimed to examine in vivo HDAC5 expression in a preclinical model of amphetamine-induced sensitization (AIS) of behavior. We generated specific contrast agents to measure HDAC5 levels by in vivo molecular contrast-enhanced (MCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in amphetamine-naïve mice as well as in mice with AIS...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928216/low-frequency-fatigue-assessed-as-double-to-single-twitch-ratio-after-two-bouts-of-eccentric-exercise-of-the-elbow-flexors
#5
Damian Janecki, Anna Jaskólska, Jarosław Marusiak, Artur Jaskólski
The aim of this study was to assess low-frequency fatigue as a double to single twitch ratio after repeated eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Maximal isometric torque, single and double twitch responses and low-frequency fatigue were assessed on the elbow flexors in 16 untrained male volunteers before, immediately after, 24 and 48 hours following two bouts of eccentric exercise consisted of 30 repetitions of lowering a dumbbell adjusted to ~75% of each individual's maximal isometric torque. Maximal isometric torque and electrically evoked responses decreased significantly in all measurements after the first bout of eccentric exercise (p < 0...
December 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928009/influence-of-plasma-cell-niche-factors-on-the-recruitment-and-maintenance-of-irf4hi-plasma-cells-and-plasmablasts-in-vaccinated-siv-infected-rhesus-macaques-with-low-and-high-viremia
#6
Julia M Shaw, Leia K Miller-Novak, Venkatramanan Mohanram, Katherine McKinnon, Thorsten Demberg, Diego A Vargas-Inchaustegui, David Venzon, Marjorie Robert-Guroff
: In a recent study, we found protection following SIV exposure correlated with rectal plasma cell frequency in vaccinated female rhesus macaques. We sought to determine if these same macaques maintained high mucosal plasma cell frequencies post-infection and if this translated to reduced viremia. Although delayed SIV acquisition did not predict subsequent viral control, alterations existed in the distribution of plasma cells and plasmablasts between macaques that exhibited high or low viremia...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926988/prognosis-of-teeth-in-the-line-of-jaw-fractures
#7
Kamaldeep K Aulakh, Tejinder Kaur, Sumeet Sandhu
BACKGROUND/AIM: The decision as to whether teeth in the line of jaw fractures should be extracted or retained remains a controversial issue. The aim of this study was to assess the prognosis of teeth directly in the line of, and adjacent to jaw fracture sites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study consisted of 50 patients with facial fractures in the dentate region, the diagnosis of which was made on the basis of clinical and radiographic examinations. A total of 124 teeth were present in 69 fracture sites (50 patients), of which 89 teeth were evaluated both, clinically (tooth mobility, pocket depth, pulp sensibility) and with periapical radiographs (degree of fracture displacement, marginal bone loss, root resorption)...
December 7, 2016: Dental Traumatology: Official Publication of International Association for Dental Traumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925472/image-guided-radiotherapy-for-prostate-cancer-in-the-united-kingdom-a-national-survey
#8
Hemal Ariyaratne, Hayley Chesham, Roberto Alonzi
OBJECTIVES: To survey the technology and practice of image-guided radiotherapy for prostate cancer in the United Kingdom Methods: A pre-tested semi-structured online questionnaire was sent to NHS and private radiotherapy providers in the United Kingdom between March and April 2014. The survey was carried out on the Opinio© online platform. RESULTS: There was a high survey response rate of 83%. There is widespread use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy and advanced verification imaging modalities...
December 7, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922101/social-determinants-of-eyeblinks-in-adult-male-macaques
#9
Sébastien Ballesta, Clayton P Mosher, Jeno Szep, Kate D Fischl, Katalin M Gothard
Videos with rich social and emotional content elicit natural social behaviors in primates. Indeed, while watching videos of conspecifics, monkeys engage in eye contact, gaze follow, and reciprocate facial expressions. We hypothesized that the frequency and timing of eyeblinks also depends on the social signals contained in videos. We monitored the eyeblinks of four male adult macaques while they watched videos of conspecifics displaying facial expressions with direct or averted gaze. The instantaneous blink rate of all four animals decreased during videos...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921166/outcome-in-unresectable-glioblastoma-mgmt-promoter-methylation-makes-the-difference
#10
Niklas Thon, Jun Thorsteinsdottir, Sabina Eigenbrod, Ulrich Schüller, Jürgen Lutz, Simone Kreth, Claus Belka, Jörg-Christian Tonn, Maximilian Niyazi, Friedrich Wilhelm Kreth
In 2011, we reported a predominant prognostic/predictive role of MGMT promoter methylation status on progression-free survival (PFS) in unresectable glioblastoma patients undergoing upfront radiotherapy plus concomitant and maintenance temozolomide (RTX/TMZ → TMZ). We, here, present the final results of this prospective study focussing on the prognostic/predictive value of MGMT promoter methylation status for death risk stratification. Overall, 56 adult patients with unresectable, biopsy proven glioblastoma were prospectively assigned to upfront RTX/TMZ → TMZ treatment between March 2006 and August 2008...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918724/telotristat-ethyl-a-tryptophan-hydroxylase-inhibitor-for-the-treatment-of-carcinoid-syndrome
#11
Matthew H Kulke, Dieter Hörsch, Martyn E Caplin, Lowell B Anthony, Emily Bergsland, Kjell Öberg, Staffan Welin, Richard R P Warner, Catherine Lombard-Bohas, Pamela L Kunz, Enrique Grande, Juan W Valle, Douglas Fleming, Pablo Lapuerta, Phillip Banks, Shanna Jackson, Brian Zambrowicz, Arthur T Sands, Marianne Pavel
Purpose Preliminary studies suggested that telotristat ethyl, a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, reduces bowel movement (BM) frequency in patients with carcinoid syndrome. This placebo-controlled phase III study evaluated telotristat ethyl in this setting. Patients and Methods Patients (N = 135) experiencing four or more BMs per day despite stable-dose somatostatin analog therapy received (1:1:1) placebo, telotristat ethyl 250 mg, or telotristat ethyl 500 mg three times per day orally during a 12-week double-blind treatment period...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918366/oculographic-clinical-test-of-sensory-integration-and-balance-and-computerized-dynamic-posturography-findings-in-patients-with-psoriatic-arthritis
#12
Juan Carlos Amor-Dorado, Maria P Barreira-Fernandez, Javier Llorca, Miguel A Gonzalez-Gay
OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency and characteristics of the oculographic findings and the usefulness of the clinical test of sensory integration and balance (CTSIB) for the evaluation of balance in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) by comparing this test with the computerized dynamic posturography (CDP). STUDY DESIGN: A series of consecutive patients that fulfilled the Moll and Wright criteria for PsA and matched controls were studied. SETTING: The study was performed at the Otolaryngology Division of a tertiary reference center...
December 1, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918289/a-bioreactor-with-an-electro-responsive-elastomeric-membrane-for-mimicking-intestinal-peristalsis
#13
Daniele Cei, Joana Costa, Giulia Gori, Gabriele Frediani, Claudio Domenici, Federico Carpi, Arti Ahluwalia
This study describes an actuated bioreactor which mimics the pulsatile contractile motion of the intestinal barrier using electro-responsive elastomers as smart materials that undergo deformation upon electrical stimulation. The device consists of an annular dielectric elastomer actuator working as a radial artificial muscle able to rhythmically contract and relax a central cell culture well. The bioreactor maintained up to 4 h of actuation at a frequency of 0.15 Hz and a strain of 8%-10%, to those of the cyclic contraction and relaxation of the small intestine...
December 5, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917478/emotional-abuse-history-and-migraine-among-young-adults-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-analysis-of-the-add-health-dataset
#14
Gretchen E Tietjen, Monita Karmakar, Aliaksandr A Amialchuk
OBJECTIVES: To define and examine the relationship between self-reported childhood abuse and migraine among young adults. BACKGROUND: Headache and migraine have been linked to childhood abuse in numerous studies, but there is incomplete characterization of headache types, and limited assessment of abuse types and frequency. Only one population-based study has examined the relationship between emotional abuse and migraine. None have investigated the temporal relationship between onset of abuse and of migraine...
December 5, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917264/systemic-to-pulmonary-artery-pressure-ratio-as-a-predictor-of-patient-outcome-following-liver-transplantation
#15
Annette Rebel, Dung Nguyen, Brooke Bauer, Paul A Sloan, Amy DiLorenzo, Zaki-Udin Hassan
AIM: To assess the value of the mean systemic-to-pulmonary artery pressure (MAP/mPAP) ratio for predicting outcomes following orthotopic liver transplant (OLT). METHODS: A retrospective data analysis was performed and data (mean arterial blood pressure, mean pulmonary artery pressure and Cardiac Index) were collected at several points during OLT. Outcomes evaluated were duration of postoperative endotracheal intubation [ET; minutes after intensive care unit (ICU) arrival], length of ICU stay, total hospitalization and frequency of immediate postoperative complications...
November 18, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914656/chronic-oral-study-of-myosin-activation-to-increase-contractility-in-heart-failure-cosmic-hf-a-phase-2-pharmacokinetic-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#16
John R Teerlink, G Michael Felker, John J V McMurray, Scott D Solomon, Kirkwood F Adams, John G F Cleland, Justin A Ezekowitz, Assen Goudev, Peter Macdonald, Marco Metra, Veselin Mitrovic, Piotr Ponikowski, Pranas Serpytis, Jindrich Spinar, János Tomcsányi, Hans J Vandekerckhove, Adriaan A Voors, Maria Laura Monsalvo, James Johnston, Fady I Malik, Narimon Honarpour
BACKGROUND: Impaired contractility is a feature of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. We assessed the pharmacokinetics and effects on cardiac function and structure of the cardiac myosin activator, omecamtiv mecarbil. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind study, done at 87 sites in 13 countries, we recruited patients with stable, symptomatic chronic heart failure and left ventricular ejection fraction 40% or lower. Patients were randomly assigned equally, via an interactive web response system, to receive 25 mg oral omecamtiv mecarbil twice daily (fixed-dose group), 25 mg twice daily titrated to 50 mg twice daily guided by pharmacokinetics (pharmacokinetic-titration group), or placebo for 20 weeks...
November 30, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914400/a-comparative-study-of-seven-human-cochlear-filter-models
#17
Amin Saremi, Rainer Beutelmann, Mathias Dietz, Go Ashida, Jutta Kretzberg, Sarah Verhulst
Auditory models have been developed for decades to simulate characteristics of the human auditory system, but it is often unknown how well auditory models compare to each other or perform in tasks they were not primarily designed for. This study systematically analyzes predictions of seven publicly-available cochlear filter models in response to a fixed set of stimuli to assess their capabilities of reproducing key aspects of human cochlear mechanics. The following features were assessed at frequencies of 0...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913630/adaptive-nkg2c-nk-cell-response-and-the-risk-of-cytomegalovirus-infection-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#18
Dolores Redondo-Pachón, Marta Crespo, Jose Yélamos, Aura Muntasell, María José Pérez-Sáez, Silvia Pérez-Fernández, Joan Vila, Carlos Vilches, Julio Pascual, Miguel López-Botet
CMV infection in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) has been associated with an increased risk for graft loss and reduced host survival. CMV promotes persistent expansions of NK cells expressing the CD94/NKG2C receptor. The NKG2C (KLRC2) gene is frequently deleted, and copy number influences the adaptive response of NKG2C(+) NK cells. The distribution of NKG2C(+) NK cells and NKG2C genotypes (NKG2C(+/+), NKG2C(+/del), NKG2C(del/del)) were studied in cross-sectional (n = 253) and prospective (n = 122) KTR cohorts...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913590/control-of-spike-transfer-at-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses-in-vivo-by-gabaa-and-gabab-receptor-mediated-inhibition
#19
Stefano Zucca, Marilena Griguoli, Meryl Malézieux, Noëlle Grosjean, Mario Carta, Christophe Mulle
: Despite extensive studies in hippocampal slices and incentive from computational theories, the synaptic mechanisms underlying information transfer at mossy fiber (mf) connections between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons in vivo are still elusive. Here we used an optogenetic approach in mice to selectively target and control the activity of DG granule cells (GCs) while performing whole cell and juxtacellular recordings of CA3 neurons in vivo In CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs), mf-CA3 synaptic responses consisted predominantly of an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) at low stimulation frequency (0...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912982/should-recommendations-about-starting-inhaled-corticosteroid-treatment-for-mild-asthma-be-based-on-symptom-frequency-a-post-hoc-efficacy-analysis-of-the-start-study
#20
Helen K Reddel, William W Busse, Søren Pedersen, Wan C Tan, Yu-Zhi Chen, Carin Jorup, Dan Lythgoe, Paul M O'Byrne
BACKGROUND: Low-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are highly effective for reducing asthma exacerbations and mortality. Conventionally, ICS treatment is recommended for patients with symptoms on more than 2 days per week, but this criterion has scant evidence. We aimed to assess the validity of the previous symptom-based cutoff for starting ICS by establishing whether there was a differential response to budesonide versus placebo for severe asthma exacerbations, lung function, and asthma symptom control across subgroups identified by baseline asthma symptom frequency...
November 29, 2016: Lancet
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