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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052241/symbol-grounding-without-direct-experience-do-words-inherit-sensorimotor-activation-from-purely-linguistic-context
#1
Fritz Günther, Carolin Dudschig, Barbara Kaup
Theories of embodied cognition assume that concepts are grounded in non-linguistic, sensorimotor experience. In support of this assumption, previous studies have shown that upwards response movements are faster than downwards movements after participants have been presented with words whose referents are typically located in the upper vertical space (and vice versa for downwards responses). This is taken as evidence that processing these words reactivates sensorimotor experiential traces. This congruency effect was also found for novel words, after participants learned these words as labels for novel objects that they encountered either in their upper or lower visual field...
October 19, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051552/auditory-evoked-bold-responses-in-awake-compared-to-lightly-anaesthetized-zebra-finches
#2
L Van Ruijssevelt, J Hamaide, M T Van Gurp, M Verhoye, A Van der Linden
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is increasingly used in cognitive neuroscience and has become a valuable tool in the study of auditory processing in zebra finches, a well-established model of learned vocal communication. Due to its sensitivity to head motion, most fMRI studies in animals are performed in anaesthetized conditions, which might significantly impact neural activity evoked by stimuli and cognitive tasks. In this study, we (1) demonstrate the feasibility of fMRI in awake zebra finches and (2) explore how light anaesthesia regimes affect auditory-evoked BOLD responses to biologically relevant songs...
October 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051305/acoustic-change-complex-in-background-noise-phoneme-level-and-timing-effects
#3
Curtis J Billings, Leslie D Grush, Nashrah Maamor
The effects of background noise on speech-evoked cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) can provide insight into the physiology of the auditory system. The purpose of this study was to determine background noise effects on neural coding of different phonemes within a syllable. CAEPs were recorded from 15 young normal-hearing adults in response to speech signals /s/, /ɑ/, and /sɑ/. Signals were presented at varying signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The effects of SNR and context (in isolation or within syllable) were analyzed for both phonemes...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051085/40hz-auditory-steady-state-response-in-schizophrenia-sensitivity-to-stimulation-type-clicks-versus-flutter-amplitude-modulated-tones
#4
Inga Griskova-Bulanova, Kastytis Dapsys, Sigita Melynyte, Aleksandras Voicikas, Valentinas Maciulis, Sergejus Andruskevicius, Milena Korostenskaja
Auditory steady-state response (ASSR) at 40Hz has been proposed as a potential biomarker for schizophrenia. The ASSR studies in patients have used click stimulation or amplitude-modulated tones. However, the sensitivity of 40Hz ASSRs to different stimulation types in the same group of patients has not been previously evaluated. Two stimulation types for ASSRs were tested in this study: (1) 40Hz clicks and (2) flutter-amplitude modulated tones. The mean phase-locking index, evoked amplitude and event-related spectral perturbation values were compared between schizophrenia patients (n=26) and healthy controls (n=20)...
October 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050394/cortical-neurons-and-networks-are-dormant-but-fully-responsive-during-isoelectric-brain-state
#5
Tristan Altwegg-Boussac, Adrien E Schramm, Jimena Ballestero, Fanny Grosselin, Mario Chavez, Sarah Lecas, Michel Baulac, Lionel Naccache, Sophie Demeret, Vincent Navarro, Séverine Mahon, Stéphane Charpier
A continuous isoelectric electroencephalogram reflects an interruption of endogenously-generated activity in cortical networks and systematically results in a complete dissolution of conscious processes. This electro-cerebral inactivity occurs during various brain disorders, including hypothermia, drug intoxication, long-lasting anoxia and brain trauma. It can also be induced in a therapeutic context, following the administration of high doses of barbiturate-derived compounds, to interrupt a hyper-refractory status epilepticus...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049087/raising-mean-arterial-pressure-alone-restores-20-of-intraoperative-neuromonitoring-losses
#6
Joshua Yang, David L Skaggs, Priscella Chan, Suken A Shah, Michael G Vitale, Geraldine Neiss, Nicholas Feinberg, Lindsay M Andras
STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter prospective. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of intraoperative interventions in restoring intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) signals in pediatric spine surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: No prior studies have prospectively examined the rate of return of IONM signals by increasing blood pressure (BP) alone. METHODS: Patients undergoing posterior spinal deformity surgery were enrolled at their preoperative appointment...
October 18, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046507/subretinal-implantation-of-okayama-university-type-retinal-prosthesis-ourep-tm-in-canine-eyes-by-vitrectomy
#7
Toshihiko Matsuo, Tetsuya Uchida, Makoto Nitta, Koichiro Yamashita, Shigiko Takei, Daisuke Ido, Mamoru Tanaka, Masao Oguchi, Toshinori Furukawa
Okayama University-type retinal prosthesis (OUReP(TM)) is a photoelectric dye-coupled polyethylene film which generates electric potential in response to light and stimulates nearby neurons. This study aims to test surgical feasibility of subretinal implantation and functional durability of dye-coupled films in the subretinal space. The dye-coupled films were implanted subretinally by 25-gauge vitrectomy in the right eye of 11 normal beagle dogs: 2 dogs served for film removal after 5-month film implantation, 3 dogs for film removal after 3-month film implantation, 3 dogs for 3-month film implantation and pathological examination, and 3 dogs for sham surgery...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046427/different-contributions-of-primary-motor-cortex-reticular-formation-and-spinal-cord-to-fractionated-muscle-activation
#8
Boubker Zaaimi, Lauren R Dean, Stuart N Baker
Coordinated movement requires patterned activation of muscles. In this study we examined differences in selective activation of primate upper limb muscles by cortical and sub-cortical regions. Five macaque monkeys were trained to perform a reach and grasp task, and electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from 10-24 muscles while weak single-pulse stimuli were delivered through microelectrodes inserted in the motor cortex (M1), reticular formation (RF) or cervical spinal cord (SC). Stimulus intensity was adjusted to a level just above threshold...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046360/a-erk-rsk-mediated-negative-feedback-loop-regulates-m-csf-evoked-pi3k-akt-activation-in-macrophages
#9
Lijun Wang, Caterina Iorio, Kevin Yan, Howard Yang, Sunao Takeshita, Sumin Kang, Benjamin G Neel, Wentian Yang
Activation of the RAS/ERK and its downstream signaling components is essential for growth factor-induced cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. The Src homology-2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2), encoded by protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 (Ptpn11), is a positive mediator required for most, if not all, receptor tyrosine kinase-evoked RAS/ERK activation, but differentially regulates the PI3K/AKT signaling cascade in various cellular contexts. The precise mechanisms underlying the differential effects of SHP2 deficiency on the PI3K pathway remain unclear...
October 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045729/knockout-mice-for-dyslexia-susceptibility-gene-homologs-kiaa0319-and-kiaa0319l-have-unaffected-neuronal-migration-but-display-abnormal-auditory-processing
#10
Luiz G Guidi, Jane Mattley, Isabel Martinez-Garay, Anthony P Monaco, Jennifer F Linden, Antonio Velayos-Baeza, Zoltán Molnár
Developmental dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects reading ability caused by genetic and non-genetic factors. Amongst the susceptibility genes identified to date, KIAA0319 is a prime candidate. RNA-interference experiments in rats suggested its involvement in cortical migration but we could not confirm these findings in Kiaa0319-mutant mice. Given its homologous gene Kiaa0319L (AU040320) has also been proposed to play a role in neuronal migration, we interrogated whether absence of AU040320 alone or together with KIAA0319 affects migration in the developing brain...
October 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045579/auditory-frequency-representations-in-human-somatosensory-cortex
#11
Alexis Pérez-Bellido, Kelly Anne Barnes, Lexi E Crommett, Jeffrey M Yau
Recent studies have challenged the traditional notion of modality-dedicated cortical systems by showing that audition and touch evoke responses in the same sensory brain regions. While much of this work has focused on somatosensory responses in auditory regions, fewer studies have investigated sound responses and representations in somatosensory regions. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we measured BOLD signal changes in participants performing an auditory frequency discrimination task and characterized activation patterns related to stimulus frequency using both univariate and multivariate analysis approaches...
October 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044675/-oh-my-god-i-can-t-handle-this-trainees-emotional-responses-to-complex-situations
#12
Esther Helmich, Laura Diachun, Radha Joseph, Kori LaDonna, Nelleke Noeverman-Poel, Lorelei Lingard, Sayra Cristancho
CONTEXT: Dealing with emotions is critical for medical trainees' professional development. Taking a sociocultural and narrative approach to understanding emotions, we studied complex clinical situations as a specific context in which emotions are evoked and influenced by the social environment. We sought to understand how medical trainees respond to emotions that arise in those situations. METHODS: In an international constructivist grounded theory study, 29 trainees drew two rich pictures of complex clinical situations, one exciting and one frustrating...
October 16, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044123/ire1%C3%AE-xbp1s-branch-of-upr-links-hif1%C3%AE-activation-to-mediate-angii-dependent-endothelial-dysfunction-under-particulate-matter-pm-2-5-exposure
#13
Xiuduan Xu, Aodeng Qimuge, Hongli Wang, Chen Xing, Ye Gu, Shasha Liu, Huan Xu, Meiru Hu, Lun Song
Short- and long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) 2.5 instigates adverse health effect upon the cardiovascular (CV) system. Disclosing the molecular events by which PM2.5 evokes CV injuries is essential in developing effective risk-reduction strategy. Here we found that rats after intratracheally instillation with PM2.5 displayed increased circulating level of ANGII, the major bioactive peptide in renin-angiotensin-system (RAS), which resulted from the elevation of ANGII production in the vascular endothelium...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042271/blockade-of-the-orexin-receptors-in-the-ca1-region-of-hippocampus-decreased-the-lateral-hypothalamic-induced-antinociceptive-responses-in-the-model-of-orofacial-formalin-test-in-the-rats
#14
Amir Haghparast, Iman Shafiei, Amir-Mohammad Alizadeh, Somayeh Ezzatpanah, Abbas Haghparast
The role of hippocampus and lateral hypothalamus (LH) in modulation of formalin-induced nociception has been established. The present study aims to examine the role of orexin receptors in the Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) region of hippocampus in modulation of the LH-induced antinociception in the orofacial formalin test. Male Wistar rats were unilaterally implanted with two cannulae into the LH and CA1. Intra-LH microinjection of carbachol was done 5min after intra-CA1 administration of SB-334867 (OX1R antagonist) or TCS OX2 29 (OX2R antagonist)...
October 14, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042259/widespread-optogenetic-expression-in-macaque-cortex-obtained-with-mr-guided-convection-enhanced-delivery-ced-of-aav-vector-to-the-thalamus
#15
Azadeh Yazdan-Shahmorad, Nan Tian, Viktor Kharazia, Lluis Samaranch, Adrian Kells, John Bringas, Jiwei He, Krystof Bankiewicz, Philip N Sabes
BACKGROUND: In non-human primate (NHP) optogenetics, infecting large cortical areas with viral vectors is often a difficult and time-consuming task. Previous work has shown that parenchymal delivery of adeno-associated virus (AAV) in the thalamus by convection-enhanced delivery (CED) can lead to large-scale transduction via axonal transport in distal areas including cortex. We used this approach to obtain widespread cortical expression of light-sensitive ion channels. NEW METHOD: AAV vectors co-expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) genes were infused into thalamus of three rhesus macaques under MR-guided CED...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041870/fluid-biomarker-and-electrophysiological-outcome-measures-for-progressive-ms-trials
#16
Christian Barro, Letizia Leocani, David Leppert, Giancarlo Comi, Ludwig Kappos, Jens Kuhle
Progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by insidious clinical worsening that is difficult to accurately quantify and predict. Biofluid markers and electrophysiological measures are potential candidate outcome measures in clinical trials, allowing the quantification of nervous damage occurring in the disease. Neurofilaments are highly specific neuronal proteins. They may have come closest to such applications by their higher concentrations repeatedly demonstrated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in all stages of MS, during relapses, their responsiveness to disease-modifying treatments in relapsing and progressive MS and their associations with measures of inflammatory and degenerative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040750/cool-callous-and-in-control-superior-inhibitory-control-in-frequent-players-of-video-games-with-violent-content
#17
Laura Stockdale, Robert G Morrison, Robert Palumbo, James Garbarino, Rebecca L Silton
Research on the effects of media violence exposure has shown robust associations among violent media exposure, increased aggressive behavior, and decreased empathy. Preliminary research indicates that frequent players of violent video games may have differences in emotional and cognitive processes compared to infrequent or non-players, yet research examining the amount and content of game play and the relation of these factors with affective and cognitive outcomes is limited. The present study measured neural correlates of response inhibition in the context of implicit attention to emotion, and how these factors are related to empathic responding in frequent and infrequent players of video games with graphically violent content...
October 4, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040472/optogenetic-modulation-of-a-minor-fraction-of-parvalbumin-positive-interneurons-specifically-affects-spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-spontaneous-and-sensory-evoked-activity-in-mouse-somatosensory-cortex-in-vivo
#18
Jenq-Wei Yang, Pierre-Hugues Prouvot, Vicente Reyes-Puerta, Maik C Stüttgen, Albrecht Stroh, Heiko J Luhmann
Parvalbumin (PV) positive interneurons exert strong effects on the neocortical excitatory network, but it remains unclear how they impact the spatiotemporal dynamics of sensory processing in the somatosensory cortex. Here, we characterized the effects of optogenetic inhibition and activation of PV interneurons on spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity in mouse barrel cortex in vivo. Inhibiting PV interneurons led to a broad-spectrum power increase both in spontaneous and sensory-evoked activity. Whisker-evoked responses were significantly increased within 20 ms after stimulus onset during inhibition of PV interneurons, demonstrating high temporal precision of PV-shaped inhibition...
October 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038847/touching-lips-and-hearing-fingers-effector-specific-congruency-between-tactile-and-auditory-stimulation-modulates-n1-amplitude-and-alpha-desynchronization
#19
Guannan Shen, Andrew N Meltzoff, Peter J Marshall
Understanding the interactions between audition and sensorimotor processes is of theoretical importance, particularly in relation to speech processing. Although one current focus in this area is on interactions between auditory perception and the motor system, there has been less research on connections between the auditory and somatosensory modalities. The current study takes a novel approach to this omission by examining specific auditory-tactile interactions in the context of speech and non-speech sound production...
October 16, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038666/study-of-methylene-blue-ototoxicity-in-the-guinea-pig
#20
Sarah Belhassen, Musaed Alzahrani, Marc-Elie Nader, Louis Gaboury, Issam Saliba
BACKGROUND: Methylene blue is widely used in the medical field, especially as a blue dye for staining. It is also used as a photosensitizing agent in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy, which once photoactivated is effective for the eradication of several multi-resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to investigate the ototoxic potential of methylene blue and precise its use in otology. METHODS: It was a prospective animal study performed on guinea pigs in our tertiary medical center...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
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