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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087766/control-of-amygdala-circuits-by-5-ht-neurons-via-5-ht-and-glutamate-co-transmission
#1
Ayesha Sengupta, Marco Bocchio, David M Bannerman, Trevor Sharp, Marco Capogna
: The serotonin (5-HT) system and the amygdala are key regulators of emotional behavior. Several lines of evidence suggest that 5-HT transmission in the amygdala is implicated in the susceptibility and drug treatment of mood disorders. Thus, elucidating the physiological mechanisms through which midbrain 5-HT neurons modulate amygdala circuits could be pivotal in understanding emotional regulation in health and disease. To shed light on these mechanisms, we performed patch-clamp recordings from basal amygdala (BA) neurons in brain slices from mice with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) genetically targeted to 5-HT neurons...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087339/differential-behavioral-sensitivity-to-carbon-dioxide-co2-inhalation-in-rats
#2
Andrew Winter, Rebecca Ahlbrand, Devanshi Naik, Renu Sah
Inhalation of carbon dioxide (CO2) is frequently employed as a biological challenge to evoke intense fear and anxiety. In individuals with panic disorder, CO2 reliably evokes panic attacks. Sensitivity to CO2 is highly heterogeneous among individuals, and although a genetic component is implicated, underlying mechanisms are not clear. Preclinical models that can simulate differential responsivity to CO2 are therefore relevant. In the current study we investigated CO2-evoked behavioral responses in four different rat strains: Sprague-Dawley (SD), Wistar (W), Long Evans (LE) and Wistar-Kyoto, (WK) rats...
January 10, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080967/affective-touch-and-attachment-style-modulate-pain-a-laser-evoked-potentials-study
#3
Charlotte Krahé, Marianne M Drabek, Yannis Paloyelis, Aikaterini Fotopoulou
Affective touch and cutaneous pain are two sub-modalities of interoception with contrasting affective qualities (pleasantness/unpleasantness) and social meanings (care/harm), yet their direct relationship has not been investigated. In 50 women, taking into account individual attachment styles, we assessed the role of affective touch and particularly the contribution of the C tactile (CT) system in subjective and electrophysiological responses to noxious skin stimulation, namely N1 and N2-P2 laser-evoked potentials...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079118/thermal-grill-conditioning-effect-on-contact-heat-evoked-potentials
#4
Catherine R Jutzeler, Freda M Warner, Johann Wanek, Armin Curt, John L K Kramer
The 'thermal grill illusion' (TGI) is a unique cutaneous sensation of unpleasantness, induced through the application of interlacing warm and cool stimuli. While previous studies have investigated optimal parameters and subject characteristics to evoke the illusion, our aim was to examine the modulating effect as a conditioning stimulus. A total of 28 healthy control individuals underwent three testing sessions on separate days. Briefly, 15 contact heat stimuli were delivered to the right hand dorsum, while the left palmar side of the hand was being conditioned with either neutral (32 °C), cool (20 °C), warm (40 °C), or TGI (20/40 °C)...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077802/nmi-promotes-hepatocellular-carcinoma-progression-via-bdkrb2-and-mapk-erk-pathway
#5
Jing Zhao, Qiong-Zhu Dong, Fan Zhong, Li-Li Cai, Zhao-Yu Qin, Yang Liu, Cheng-Zhao Lin, Lun-Xiu Qin, Fu-Chu He
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent and aggressive malignant tumors. The involvement of N-myc (and STAT) interactor (NMI) and its possible functional mechanisms in HCC progression still remain to be elucidated. In this study, we found that NMI was overexpressed in metastatic HCC cell lines compared with non-metastatic ones; and the expression levels of NMI in the HCC samples with metastasis were higher than that in the non-metastatic specimens. Furthermore, NMI depletion significantly decreased HCC cell proliferation and invasiveness in vitro, and also inhibited tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo in nude mice models bearing human HCC...
January 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077717/complexin-mutants-reveal-partial-segregation-between-recycling-pathways-that-drive-evoked-and-spontaneous-neurotransmission
#6
Nadezhda Sabeva, Richard W Cho, Alexander Vasin, Agustin Gonzalez, J Troy Littleton, Maria Bykhovskaia
: Synaptic vesicles fuse at morphological specializations in the presynaptic terminal termed active zones (AZs). Vesicle fusion can occur spontaneously or in response to an action potential. Following fusion, vesicles are retrieved and recycled within nerve terminals. It is still unclear whether vesicles that fuse spontaneously or following evoked release share similar recycling mechanisms. Genetic deletion of the SNARE-binding protein complexin dramatically increases spontaneous fusion, with the protein serving as the synaptic vesicle fusion clamp at Drosophila synapses...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077712/changes-in-properties-of-auditory-nerve-synapses-following-conductive-hearing-loss
#7
Xiaowen Zhuang, Wei Sun, Matthew A Xu-Friedman
: Auditory activity plays an important role in the development of the auditory system. Decreased activity can result from conductive hearing loss (CHL) associated with otitis media, which may lead to long-term perceptual deficits. The effects of CHL have been mainly studied at later stages of the auditory pathway, but early stages remain less examined. However, changes in early stages could be important because they would affect how information about sounds is conveyed to higher-order areas for further processing and localization...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077705/processing-of-intraoral-olfactory-and-gustatory-signals-in-the-gustatory-cortex-of-awake-rats
#8
Chad L Samuelsen, Alfredo Fontanini
: The integration of gustatory and olfactory information is essential to the perception of flavor. Human neuroimaging experiments have pointed to the gustatory cortex (GC) as one of the areas involved in mediating flavor perception. Although GC's involvement in encoding the chemical identity and hedonic value of taste stimuli is well studied, it is unknown how single GC neurons process olfactory stimuli emanating from the mouth. In this study, we relied on multielectrode recordings to investigate how single GC neurons respond to intraorally delivered tastants and tasteless odorants dissolved in water and whether/how these two modalities converge in the same neurons...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077641/chikungunya-influenza-nipah-and-semliki-forest-chimeric-viruses-with-vesicular-stomatitis-virus-actions-in-the-brain
#9
Anthony N van den Pol, Guochao Mao, Anasuya Chattopadhyay, John K Rose, John N Davis
: Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based chimeric viruses that include genes from other viruses show promise as vaccines and oncolytic viruses. However, the critical safety concern is the neurotropic nature conveyed by the VSV glycoprotein. VSVs that include the VSV glycoprotein gene, even in most recombinant attenuated strains, can still show substantial adverse or lethal actions in the brain. Here we test 4 chimeric viruses in the brain including those in which glycoprotein genes from Nipah, chikungunya, or influenza H5N1 viruses were substituted for the VSV glycoprotein gene...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076368/functional-laterality-of-task-evoked-activation-in-sensorimotor-cortex-of-preterm-infants-an-optimized-3-t-fmri-study-employing-a-customized-neonatal-head-coil
#10
Lukas Scheef, Jurek A Nordmeyer-Massner, Adam Pr Smith-Collins, Nicole Müller, Gaby Stegmann-Woessner, Jacob Jankowski, Jürgen Gieseke, Mark Born, Hermann Seitz, Peter Bartmann, Hans H Schild, Klaas P Pruessmann, Axel Heep, Henning Boecker
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in neonates has been introduced as a non-invasive method for studying sensorimotor processing in the developing brain. However, previous neonatal studies have delivered conflicting results regarding localization, lateralization, and directionality of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses in sensorimotor cortex (SMC). Amongst the confounding factors in interpreting neonatal fMRI studies include the use of standard adult MR-coils providing insufficient signal to noise, and liberal statistical thresholds, compromising clinical interpretation at the single subject level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074885/first-objective-evaluation-of-taste-sensitivity-to-6-n-propylthiouracil-prop-a-paradigm-gustatory-stimulus-in-humans
#11
Giorgia Sollai, Melania Melis, Danilo Pani, Piero Cosseddu, Ilenia Usai, Roberto Crnjar, Annalisa Bonfiglio, Iole Tomassini Barbarossa
Practical and reliable methods for the objective measure of taste function are critically important for studying eating behavior and taste function impairment. Here, we present direct measures of human gustatory response to a prototypical bitter compound, 6-n-propyltiouracil (PROP), obtained by electrophysiological recordings from the tongue of subjects who were classified for taster status and genotyped for the specific receptor gene (TAS2R38), and in which taste papilla density was determined. PROP stimulation evoked negative slow potentials that represent the summated depolarization of taste cells...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074292/reliability-of-the-nociceptive-blink-reflex-evoked-by-electrical-stimulation-of-the-trigeminal-nerve-in-humans
#12
Yuri Martins Costa, Lene Baad-Hansen, Leonardo Rigoldi Bonjardim, Paulo César Rodrigues Conti, Peter Svensson
OBJECTIVE: The nociceptive blink reflex (nBR) can be useful to investigate trigeminal nociceptive function. The aim of this study was to estimate the reliability of the nBR evoked by electrical stimulation of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve under the following conditions: over time (test-retest and intrarater reliability) and by two examiners (interrater reliability). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one healthy participants were evaluated in two sessions (24 h apart)...
January 10, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074232/vasoactive-actions-of-nitroxyl-hno-are-preserved-in-resistance-arteries-in-diabetes
#13
Marianne Tare, Rushita S R Kalidindi, Kristen J Bubb, Helena C Parkington, Wee-Ming Boon, Xiang Li, Christopher G Sobey, Grant R Drummond, Rebecca H Ritchie, Barbara K Kemp-Harper
Endothelial dysfunction is a major risk factor for the vascular complications of diabetes. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, a hallmark of diabetes, reduces the bioavailability of endothelial vasodilators, including nitric oxide (NO·). The vascular endothelium also produces the one electron reduced and protonated form of NO·, nitroxyl (HNO). Unlike NO·, HNO is resistant to scavenging by superoxide anions (·O2(─)). The fate of HNO in resistance arteries in diabetes is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the vasodilator actions of endogenous and exogenous HNO are preserved in resistance arteries in diabetes...
January 10, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071144/do-emotions-spark-interest-in-alternative-tobacco-products
#14
Lucy Popova, Jiyeon So, Angeline Sangalang, Torsten B Neilands, Pamela M Ling
BACKGROUND: Exposure to advertisements for tobacco products and tobacco warning labels evokes emotions. This study evaluated the association of discrete positive and negative emotions with interest in alternative tobacco products. METHOD: In 2013, 1,226 U.S. adult nonsmokers and current smokers viewed advertisements for moist snuff, snus, and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) with various warning labels and then indicated their emotional responses in terms of anger, anxiety, sadness, guilt, disgust, discouragement, hope, and contentment...
January 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069927/impact-of-altered-cholinergic-tones-on-the-neurovascular-coupling-response-to-whisker-stimulation
#15
Clotilde Lecrux, Claire H Sandoe, Sujaya Neupane, Pascal Kropf, Xavier Toussay, Xin-Kang Tong, María Lacalle-Aurioles, Amir Shmuel, Edith Hamel
Brain imaging techniques that use vascular signals to map changes in neuronal activity rely on the coupling between electrophysiology and hemodynamics, a phenomenon referred to "neurovascular coupling" (NVC). It is unknown whether this relationship remains reliable under altered brain states associated to acetylcholine (ACh) levels, such as attention and arousal, and in pathological conditions like Alzheimer's disease. We therefore assessed the effects of varying ACh tone on whisker evoked-NVC responses in rat barrel cortex, measured by cerebral blood flow (CBF) and neurophysiological recordings (local field potentials, LFPs)...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069762/orbitofrontal-cortex-neurons-respond-to-sound-and-activate-primary-auditory-cortex-neurons
#16
Daniel E Winkowski, Daniel A Nagode, Kevin J Donaldson, Pingbo Yin, Shihab A Shamma, Jonathan B Fritz, Patrick O Kanold
Sensory environments change over a wide dynamic range and sensory processing can change rapidly to facilitate stable perception. While rapid changes may occur throughout the sensory processing pathway, cortical changes are believed to profoundly influence perception. Prior stimulation studies showed that orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) can modify receptive fields and sensory coding in A1, but the engagement of OFC during listening and the pathways mediating OFC influences on A1 are unknown. We show in mice that OFC neurons respond to sounds consistent with a role of OFC in audition...
January 8, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068328/mll-enl-mediated-leukemia-initiation-at-the-interface-of-lymphoid-commitment
#17
A Ugale, P Säwén, M Dudenhöffer-Pfeifer, M Wahlestedt, G L Norddahl, D Bryder
Translocations involving the mixed lineage leukemia-1 are recurrent events in acute leukemia and associate with lymphoid (ALL), myeloid (AML) or mixed lineage (MLL) subtypes. Despite an association with ALL in humans, murine MLL fusion models are persistently restricted to AML. We here explored this issue using an inducible mixed lineage leukemia-eleven nineteen leukemia (MLL-ENL) mouse model. Although multiple progenitor cell types with myeloid potential are potent AML leukemia-initiating cells, also the earliest lymphoid progenitors were capable of initiating AML...
January 9, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067255/serelaxin-treatment-reverses-vascular-dysfunction-and-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-in-a-mouse-model-of-type-1-diabetes
#18
Hooi Hooi Ng, Chen Huei Leo, Darnel Prakoso, Chengxue Qin, Rebecca H Ritchie, Laura J Parry
Serelaxin prevents endothelial dysfunction in the mouse aorta ex vivo and inhibits apoptosis in cardiomyocytes under acute hyperglycaemia. Less is known about the effects of serelaxin in an in vivo mouse model of diabetes. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis in streptozotocin (STZ)-treated mice that serelaxin is able to reverse diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction and cardiac remodelling. Mice were divided into citrate buffer + placebo, STZ + placebo and STZ + serelaxin (0.5 mg/kg/d, 2 weeks) groups...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066889/enteric-glial-activity-regulates-secretomotor-function-in-the-mouse-colon-but-does-not-acutely-affect-gut-permeability
#19
Vladimir Grubišić, Brian D Gulbransen
Enteric glial cells are often implicated in the regulation of epithelial barrier and secretomotor functions of the intestines. But whether glial cell activity regulates these functions acutely under physiological conditions is not clear. We addressed this issue by using transgenic animal models to modify the activity of enteric glia, either reducing glial expression of connexin 43 in Sox10::CreER(T2+/-) /Cx43(f/f) mice or activating glial calcium responses in GFAP::hM3Dq mice, and tested the effects on colonic barrier function and electrogenic ion transport in Ussing chambers...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066630/lazarus-response-to-treatment-of-patients-with-lung-cancer-and-oncogenic-mutations-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#20
COMMENT
Chun-Ru Chien, Hung-Jen Chen
Novel targeted therapy for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and oncogenic mutations along with poor performance status (PS) sometimes evokes a "Lazarus" response. Moreover, for critically ill patients with NSCLC and respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) in the intensive care unit (ICU), only a few case reports have demonstrated positive outcomes with targeted therapy. This perspective review describes in detail the most recently published data in order to highlight the findings and the main pitfalls of targeted therapy for patients with NSCLC in the ICU...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
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