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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434079/cell-culture-complications-due-to-mechanical-release-of-atp-and-activation-of-purinoceptors
#1
REVIEW
Geoffrey Burnstock, Gillian E Knight
There is abundant evidence that ATP (adenosine 5'-triphosphate) is released from a variety of cultured cells in response to mechanical stimulation. The release mechanism involved appears to be a combination of vesicular exocytosis and connexin and pannexin hemichannels. Purinergic receptors on cultured cells mediate both short-term purinergic signalling of secretion and long-term (trophic) signalling such as proliferation, migration, differentiation and apoptosis. We aim in this review to bring to the attention of non-purinergic researchers using tissue culture that the release of ATP in response to mechanical stress evoked by the unavoidable movement of the cells acting on functional purinergic receptors on the culture cells is likely to complicate the interpretation of their data...
April 22, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432874/delayed-changes-in-auditory-status-in-cochlear-implant-users-with-preserved-acoustic-hearing
#2
Rachel A Scheperle, Viral D Tejani, Julia K Omtvedt, Carolyn J Brown, Paul J Abbas, Marlan R Hansen, Bruce J Gantz, Jacob J Oleson, Marie V Ozanne
This retrospective review explores delayed-onset hearing loss in 85 individuals receiving cochlear implants designed to preserve acoustic hearing at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics between 2001 and 2015. Repeated measures of unaided behavioral audiometric thresholds, electrode impedance, and electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) amplitude growth functions were used to characterize longitudinal changes in auditory status. Participants were grouped into two primary categories according to changes in unaided behavioral thresholds: (1) stable hearing or symmetrical hearing loss and (2) delayed loss of hearing in the implanted ear...
April 12, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432866/shared-genetic-influences-among-childhood-shyness-social-competences-and-cortical-responses-to-emotions
#3
Marco Battaglia, Giorgia Michelini, Elettra Pezzica, Anna Ogliari, Corrado Fagnani, Maria-Antonietta Stazi, Eleonora Bertoletti, Simona Scaini
Visual event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by facial expressions are useful to map socioemotional responses among shy children and to predict transition into social phobia. We investigated the sources of covariation among childhood shyness, social competences, and ERPs to other children's happy, neutral, and angry expressions. Electrophysiological and twin analyses examined the phenotypic and etiological association among an index of childhood shyness, an index of social competences, and ERP responses to facial expressions in 200 twins (mean age=9...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432693/multimodal-neurophysiological-monitoring-in-healthy-infants-born-at-term-normative-continuous-somatosensory-evoked-potentials-data
#4
Silvia Lori, Simonetta Gabbanini, Maria Bastianelli, Giovanna Bertini, Iuri Corsini, Carlo Dani
AIM: To describe accurate, standardized 1h-multimodal neurophysiological monitoring (1h-MNM), while simultaneously recording VEEG, aEEG, and SEP-C bilaterally from median nerves, and to collect neonatal normative SEP-C data related to behavioural states. METHOD: Twenty healthy, term newborn infants (13 males, 7 females; gestational age 37-42wks; mean 39.6wks, standard deviation [SD] 1.3wks) underwent 1h-MNM within 2 days of life, with focus on recording of the SEP-C (band-pass setting 1-100 Hz, rate of stimulation 1...
April 22, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432471/differentiating-middle-ear-and-medial-olivocochlear-effects-on-transient-evoked-otoacoustic-emissions
#5
Kendra L Marks, Jonathan H Siegel
The response of the inner ear is modulated by the middle ear muscle (MEM) and olivocochlear (OC) efferent systems. Both systems can be activated reflexively by acoustic stimuli delivered to one or both ears. The acoustic middle ear muscle reflex (MEMR) controls the transmission of acoustic signals through the middle ear, while reflex activation of the medial component of the olivocochlear system (the MOCR) modulates cochlear mechanics. The relative prominence of the two efferent systems varies widely between species...
April 21, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432372/evaluation-of-the-auditory-pathway-in-traffic-policemen
#6
Vipul Indora, Farah Khaliq, Neelam Vaney
BACKGROUND: Traffic policemen working at heavy traffic junctions are continuously exposed to high level of noise and its health consequences. OBJECTIVE: To assess the hearing pathway in traffic policemen by means of brainstem evoked response audiometry (BERA), mid-latency response (MLR), and slow vertex response (SVR). METHODS: In this observational comparative study, BERA, MLR, and SVR were tested in 35 male traffic policemen with field posting of more than 3 years...
April 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432140/visually-evoked-3-5-hz-membrane-potential-oscillations-reduce-the-responsiveness-of-visual-cortex-neurons-in-awake-behaving-mice
#7
Michael C Einstein, Pierre-Olivier Polack, Duy T Tran, Peyman Golshani
Low frequency membrane potential (Vm) oscillations were once thought to only occur in sleeping and anesthetized states. Recently, low frequency Vm oscillations have been described in inactive awake animals, but it is unclear if they shape sensory processing in neurons and whether they occur during active awake behavioral states. To answer these questions, we performed two-photon guided whole-cell Vm recordings from primary visual cortex layer 2/3 excitatory and inhibitory neurons in awake mice during passive visual stimulation and performance of visual and auditory discrimination tasks...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431987/patterns-of-brain-and-cardiovascular-activation-while-solving-rule-discovery-and-rule-application-numeric-tasks
#8
Tytus Sosnowski, Andrzej Rynkiewicz, Małgorzata Wordecha, Anna Kępkowicz, Adrianna Majewska, Aleksandra Pstrągowska, Tomasz Oleksy, Marek Wypych, Artur Marchewka
It is known that solving mental tasks leads to tonic increase in cardiovascular activity. Our previous research showed that tasks involving rule application (RA) caused greater tonic increase in cardiovascular activity than tasks requiring rule discovery (RD). However, it is not clear what brain mechanisms are responsible for this difference. The aim of two experimental studies was to compare the patterns of brain and cardiovascular activity while both RD and the RA numeric tasks were being solved. The fMRI study revealed greater brain activation while solving RD tasks than while solving RA tasks...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431617/short-term-outcome-of-functional-integrity-of-the-auditory-brainstem-in-term-infants-who-suffer-perinatal-asphyxia
#9
Ze D Jiang, Cao Chen
OBJECTIVES: To assess short-term outcome of impaired functional integrity of the auditory brainstem in term infants who suffer perinatal asphyxia. METHODS: Maximum length sequence brainstem auditory evoked response (MLS BAER) was recorded and analyzed at a mean age of 3months in term infants after perinatal asphyxia. The data were compared with age-matched normal term infants. RESULTS: The infants after asphyxia showed an increase in the latency of MLS BAER wave III at 91, 455 and 910/s, and wave V at all click rates of 91-910/s...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431226/the-impact-of-automatic-devices-for-capillary-blood-collection-on-efficiency-and-pain-response-in-newborns-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
G Sorrentino, M Fumagalli, S Milani, I Cortinovis, A Zorz, G Cavallaro, F Mosca, L Plevani
BACKGROUND: The heel stick is the method of choice in most neonatal units for capillary blood sampling, and it represents the most common event among all painful procedures performed on newborns. The type and design of heel stick device and the clinical procedure to collect a blood sample may have an impact on newborn pain response as well. OBJECTIVE: To compare the pain response and efficiency of different automated devices for capillary blood collection in newborns...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430708/the-somatosensory-evoked-potential-in-reaction-time-is-gated-and-elicited-earlier-when-the-motor-response-to-a-somatosensory-cue-is-faster
#11
Koichi Hiraoka, Chisato Kori, Kana Sato
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP) is gated and elicited earlier when a motor response to a somatosensory stimulus is faster. In healthy humans, the left index finger and thumb were pinched in response to a somatosensory stimulus administered over the left median nerve. The SEP elicited by this stimulus when producing a fast motor response was compared with that when producing a slow motor response. The amplitudes of N18 and frontal P40 when producing a fast motor response were smaller than those when producing a slow motor response...
April 20, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429785/natriuretic-peptide-receptor-guanylyl-cyclase-a-pathway-counteracts-glomerular-injury-evoked-by-aldosterone-through-p38-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-inhibition
#12
Yukiko Kato, Kiyoshi Mori, Masato Kasahara, Keisuke Osaki, Akira Ishii, Keita P Mori, Naohiro Toda, Shoko Ohno, Takashige Kuwabara, Takeshi Tokudome, Ichiro Kishimoto, Moin A Saleem, Taiji Matsusaka, Kazuwa Nakao, Masashi Mukoyama, Motoko Yanagita, Hideki Yokoi
Guanylyl cyclase-A (GC-A) signaling, a natriuretic peptide receptor, exerts renoprotective effects by stimulating natriuresis and reducing blood pressure. Previously we demonstrated massive albuminuria with hypertension in uninephrectomized, aldosterone-infused, and high salt-fed (ALDO) systemic GC-A KO mice with enhanced phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in podocytes. In the present study, we examined the interaction between p38 MAPK and GC-A signaling. The administration of FR167653, p38 MAPK inhibitor, reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP), urinary albumin excretion, segmental sclerosis, podocyte injury, and apoptosis...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429784/sight-and-sound-persistently-out-of-synch-stable-individual-differences-in-audiovisual-synchronisation-revealed-by-implicit-measures-of-lip-voice-integration
#13
Alberta Ipser, Vlera Agolli, Anisa Bajraktari, Fatimah Al-Alawi, Nurfitriani Djaafara, Elliot D Freeman
Are sight and sound out of synch? Signs that they are have been dismissed for over two centuries as an artefact of attentional and response bias, to which traditional subjective methods are prone. To avoid such biases, we measured performance on objective tasks that depend implicitly on achieving good lip-synch. We measured the McGurk effect (in which incongruent lip-voice pairs evoke illusory phonemes), and also identification of degraded speech, while manipulating audiovisual asynchrony. Peak performance was found at an average auditory lag of ~100 ms, but this varied widely between individuals...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428739/high-salt-intake-augments-excitability-of-pvn-neurons-in-rats-role-of-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-ca-2-store
#14
Robert A Larson, Andrew D Chapp, Le Gui, Michael J Huber, Zixi Jack Cheng, Zhiying Shan, Qing-Hui Chen
High salt (HS) intake sensitizes central autonomic circuitry leading to sympathoexcitation. However, its underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We hypothesized that inhibition of PVN endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) store function would augment PVN neuronal excitability and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). We further hypothesized that a 2% (NaCl) HS diet for 5 weeks would reduce ER Ca(2+) store function and increase excitability of PVN neurons with axon projections to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (PVN-RVLM) identified by retrograde label...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426963/heterologous-expression-of-the-piezo1-asic1-chimera-induces-mechanosensitive-currents-with-properties-distinct-from-piezo1
#15
Qiancheng Zhao, Kun Wu, Shaopeng Chi, Jie Geng, Bailong Xiao
Piezo1 represents a prototype of the mammalian mechanosensitive cation channel, but its molecular mechanism remains elusive. In a recent study, we showed that C-terminal region, which contains the last two TMs, of 2189-2547 of Piezo1 forms the bona fide pore module, and systematically identified the pore-lining helix and key pore-property-determining residues (Zhao et al., 2016). Furthermore, we have engineered the Piezo1(1-2190)-ASIC1 chimera (fusing the N-terminal region of 1-2190 to the mechano-insensitive ASIC1) that mediated mechanical- and acid-evoked currents in HEK293T cells, indicating the sufficiency of the N-terminal region in mechanotransduction...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426553/greater-fear-of-visceral-pain-contributes-to-differences-between-visceral-and-somatic-pain-in-healthy-women
#16
Laura Ricarda Koenen, Adriane Icenhour, Katarina Forkmann, Annika Pasler, Nina Theysohn, Michael Forsting, Ulrike Bingel, Sigrid Elsenbruch
This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study addressed similarities and differences in behavioral and neural responses to experimental visceral compared to somatic pain stimuli and explored the contribution of fear of pain to differences between pain modalities. In N=22 healthy women, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses to rectal distensions and cutaneous heat stimuli matched for perceived pain intensity. Fear of pain and pain unpleasantness were assessed before and after scanning. Visceral pain was more fear-evoking, more unpleasant, and trial-by-trial intensity ratings failed to habituate across trials (all interactions modality X time/trial: p<...
April 18, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425701/the-effects-of-glutamate-receptor-activation-on-local-oxygen-changes
#17
Lindsay Walton, Nick G Boustead, Susan Carroll, R Mark Wightman
Glutamate is ubiquitous throughout the brain and serves as the primary excitatory neurotransmitter. Neurons require energy to fire, and energetic substrates (i.e., O2, glucose) are renewed via cerebral blood flow (CBF) to maintain metabolic homeostasis. Magnetic resonance brain functionality studies rely on the assumption that CBF and neuronal activity are coupled consistently throughout the brain; however, the origin of neuronal activity does not always coincide with signals indicative of energy consumption (e...
April 20, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425497/single-dose-memantine-improves-cortical-oscillatory-response-dynamics-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#18
Gregory A Light, Wen Zhang, Yash B Joshi, Savita Bhakta, Jo A Talledo, Neal R Swerdlow
Aberrant gamma band (30-80 Hz) oscillations may underlie cognitive deficits in schizophrenia (SZ). Gamma oscillations and their regulation by NMDA receptors can be studied via their evoked power (γEP) and phase locking (γPL) in response to auditory steady state stimulation; these Auditory Steady State Responses (ASSRs) may be biomarkers for target engagement and early therapeutic effects. We previously reported that memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, enhanced 2 biomarkers of early auditory information processing: prepulse inhibition (PPI) and mismatch negativity (MMN) in SZ patients and healthy subjects (HS)...
April 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424655/sustained-and-transient-vestibular-systems-a-physiological-basis-for-interpreting-vestibular-function
#19
REVIEW
Ian S Curthoys, Hamish G MacDougall, Pierre-Paul Vidal, Catherine de Waele
Otolithic afferents with regular resting discharge respond to gravity or low-frequency linear accelerations, and we term these the static or sustained otolithic system. However, in the otolithic sense organs, there is anatomical differentiation across the maculae and corresponding physiological differentiation. A specialized band of receptors called the striola consists of mainly type I receptors whose hair bundles are weakly tethered to the overlying otolithic membrane. The afferent neurons, which form calyx synapses on type I striolar receptors, have irregular resting discharge and have low thresholds to high frequency (e...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424600/systems-subjects-sessions-to-what-extent-do-these-factors-influence-eeg-data
#20
Andrew Melnik, Petr Legkov, Krzysztof Izdebski, Silke M Kärcher, W David Hairston, Daniel P Ferris, Peter König
Lab-based electroencephalography (EEG) techniques have matured over decades of research and can produce high-quality scientific data. It is often assumed that the specific choice of EEG system has limited impact on the data and does not add variance to the results. However, many low cost and mobile EEG systems are now available, and there is some doubt as to the how EEG data vary across these newer systems. We sought to determine how variance across systems compares to variance across subjects or repeated sessions...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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