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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922063/design-and-mechanistic-insight-into-ultrafast-calcium-indicators-for-monitoring-intracellular-calcium-dynamics
#1
Nordine Helassa, Borbala Podor, Alan Fine, Katalin Török
Calmodulin-based genetically encoded fluorescent calcium indicators (GCaMP-s) are powerful tools of imaging calcium dynamics from cells to freely moving animals. High affinity indicators with slow kinetics however distort the temporal profile of calcium transients. Here we report the development of reduced affinity ultrafast variants of GCaMP6s and GCaMP6f. We hypothesized that GCaMP-s have a common kinetic mechanism with a rate-limiting process in the interaction of the RS20 peptide and calcium-calmodulin...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922053/electrophysiological-properties-of-ca1-pyramidal-neurons-along-the-longitudinal-axis-of-the-mouse-hippocampus
#2
Giampaolo Milior, Maria Amalia Di Castro, Livio Pepe' Sciarria, Stefano Garofalo, Igor Branchi, Davide Ragozzino, Cristina Limatola, Laura Maggi
Evidence for different physiological properties along the hippocampal longitudinal axis is emerging. Here, we examined the electrophysiological features of neurons at different dorso-ventral sites of the mouse CA1 hippocampal region. Cell position was defined with respect to longitudinal coordinates of each slice. We measured variations in neuronal excitability, subthreshold membrane properties and neurotransmitter responses along the longitudinal axis. We found that (i) pyramidal cells of the dorsal hippocampus (DH) were less excitable than those of the ventral hippocampus (VH)...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921068/voltage-sensitive-dye-imaging-of-mouse-neocortex-during-a-whisker-detection-task
#3
Alexandros Kyriakatos, Vijay Sadashivaiah, Yifei Zhang, Alessandro Motta, Matthieu Auffret, Carl C H Petersen
Sensorimotor processing occurs in a highly distributed manner in the mammalian neocortex. The spatiotemporal dynamics of electrical activity in the dorsal mouse neocortex can be imaged using voltage-sensitive dyes (VSDs) with near-millisecond temporal resolution and [Formula: see text] spatial resolution. Here, we trained mice to lick a water reward spout after a 1-ms deflection of the C2 whisker, and we imaged cortical dynamics during task execution with VSD RH1691. Responses to whisker deflection were highly dynamic and spatially highly distributed, exhibiting high variability from trial to trial in amplitude and spatiotemporal dynamics...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921067/parallel-pathways-from-whisker-and-visual-sensory-cortices-to-distinct-frontal-regions-of-mouse-neocortex
#4
Varun Sreenivasan, Alexandros Kyriakatos, Celine Mateo, Dieter Jaeger, Carl C H Petersen
The spatial organization of mouse frontal cortex is poorly understood. Here, we used voltage-sensitive dye to image electrical activity in the dorsal cortex of awake head-restrained mice. Whisker-deflection evoked the earliest sensory response in a localized region of primary somatosensory cortex and visual stimulation evoked the earliest responses in a localized region of primary visual cortex. Over the next milliseconds, the initial sensory response spread within the respective primary sensory cortex and into the surrounding higher order sensory cortices...
July 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920095/functional-characterization-of-the-left-ventrolateral-premotor-cortex-in-humans-a-direct-electrophysiological-approach
#5
L Fornia, V Ferpozzi, M Montagna, M Rossi, M Riva, F Pessina, F Martinelli Boneschi, P Borroni, R N Lemon, L Bello, G Cerri
In monkeys, motor outputs from premotor cortex (PM) involve cortico-cortical connections with primary motor cortex (M1). However, in humans, the functional organization of PM and its relationship with the corticospinal tract (CST) is still uncertain. This study was carried out in 21 patients undergoing intraoperative brain mapping prior to tumor resection. The left ventrolateral premotor cortex (vlPM-BA6) was identified preoperatively by functional magnetic resonance imaging, and then investigated intraoperatively using high frequency direct electrical stimulation (HF-DES) of the convexity of M1 and vlPM-BA6, with simultaneous recording of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from oro-facial, hand and arm muscles...
December 5, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919576/ocular-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-and-the-importance-of-the-bifid-response
#6
EDITORIAL
Eleftherios S Papathanasiou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 19, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919363/the-effects-of-statin-treatment-on-adrenal-and-sexual-function-and-nitric-oxide-levels-in-hypercholesterolemic-male-patients-treated-with-a-statin
#7
Osman Baspınar, Fahri Bayram, Selda Korkmaz, Murat Aksu, Derya Kocer, Oğuzhan Sıtkı Dizdar, Yasin Simsek, Peter P Toth
BACKGROUND: Erectile dysfunction complaints among men treated with a statin are not uncommon. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to target levels using varying doses of atorvastatin therapy in hypercholesterolemic male patients on adrenocortical hormones, sexual functions, and serum nitric oxide (NO) levels. METHODS: Eleven hypercholesterolemic male patients who had LDL-C levels greater than 160 mg/dL were included in the study and 11 healthy male individuals served as controls...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918972/a-typical-antipsychotics-normalize-low-gamma-evoked-oscillations-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#8
Manuel Alegre, Patricio Molero, Miguel Valencia, Guillermo Mayner, Felipe Ortuño, Julio Artieda
The symptoms of schizophrenia might be mediated by a cortical network disconnection which may disrupt the cortical oscillatory activity. Steady-state responses are an easy and consistent way to explore cortical oscillatory activity. A chirp-modulated tone (increasing the frequency of the modulation in a linear manner) allows a fast measure of the steady-state response to different modulation rates. With this approach, we studied the auditory steady-state responses in two groups of patients with schizophrenia (drug-naive and treated with atypical antipsychotic drugs), in order to assess the differences in their responses with respect to healthy subjects, and study any potential effect of medication...
November 26, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918279/the-sensory-features-of-a-food-cue-influence-its-ability-to-act-as-an-incentive-stimulus-and-evoke-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-core
#9
Bryan F Singer, Myranda A Bryan, Pavlo Popov, Raymond Scarff, Cody Carter, Erin Wright, Brandon J Aragona, Terry E Robinson
The sensory properties of a reward-paired cue (a conditioned stimulus; CS) may impact the motivational value attributed to the cue, and in turn influence the form of the conditioned response (CR) that develops. A cue with multiple sensory qualities, such as a moving lever-CS, may activate numerous neural pathways that process auditory and visual information, resulting in CRs that vary both within and between individuals. For example, CRs include approach to the lever-CS itself (rats that "sign-track"; ST), approach to the location of reward delivery (rats that "goal-track"; GT), or an "intermediate" combination of these behaviors...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918061/serotonin-modifies-the-spontaneous-spiking-activity-of-gracile-nucleus-neurons-in-rats-role-of-5-ht1a-and-5-ht2-receptors
#10
C Grasso, G Li Volsi, M Barresi
We tested the effects of microiontophoretic application of serotonin (5-HT) on the firing rate of neurons located in the gracile nucleus (GN) of rats. Application of 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 agonists and antagonists respectively mimicked/ modulated and blocked the effects produced by the amine, respectively. Among the tested neurons, 88.2% modified their background firing activity in the presence of 5-HT. Responsive neurons decreased their mean firing activity (MFA) in 56.7% of cases and increased it in the remaining 43...
June 1, 2016: Archives Italiennes de Biologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917413/efficacy-of-s-lacosamide-in-preclinical-models-of-cephalic-pain
#11
Aubin Moutal, Nathan Eyde, Edwin Telemi, Ki Duk Park, Jennifer Y Xie, David W Dodick, Frank Porreca, Rajesh Khanna
Migraine is one of the world's most common neurological disorders. Current acute migraine treatments have sub-optimal efficacy and new therapeutic options are needed. Approaches targeting calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) signaling are clinically effective but small molecule antagonists have not been advanced due to toxicity. In this study, we explored the axonal growth/specification collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP2) as a novel "druggable" target for inhibiting CGRP release and for potential relevance for treatment of migraine pain...
June 2016: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916666/rhythmic-entrainment-source-separation-optimizing-analyses-of-neural-responses-to-rhythmic-sensory-stimulation
#12
Michael X Cohen, Rasa Gulbinaite
Steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs) are rhythmic brain responses to rhythmic sensory stimulation, and are often used to study perceptual and attentional processes. We present a data analysis method for maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio of the narrow-band steady-state response in the frequency and time-frequency domains. The method, termed rhythmic entrainment source separation (RESS), is based on denoising source separation approaches that take advantage of the simultaneous but differential projection of neural activity to multiple electrodes or sensors...
December 1, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916379/admission-hyperglycemia-is-associated-with-different-outcomes-after-blunt-versus-penetrating-trauma
#13
Jonathan P Meizoso, Juliet J Ray, Charles A Karcutskie, Laura F Teisch, Casey J Allen, Nicholas Namias, Carl I Schulman, Kenneth G Proctor
BACKGROUND: Stress-induced hyperglycemia is associated with worse outcomes after trauma; however, the effect of mechanism of injury has not been studied. To fill this gap, we tested the hypothesis that blunt and penetrating trauma evoke different glycemic responses which are associated with different outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study comparing adults with blunt (n = 835) or penetrating trauma (n = 858) and admission glucose levels ≥ 106 mg/dL, ≥150 mg/dL, and ≥200 mg/dL at a level 1 trauma center from 02, 2011 to 08, 2013...
November 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916007/characteristics-and-clinical-use-of-ocular-and-cervical-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-for-evaluating-paediatric-candidates-for-cochlear-implants
#14
X-D Xu, J Hu, Q Zhang, Y Zhang, X-T Zhang, Y-F Chen, M Xu
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to define the characteristics and use of ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials for evaluating paediatric cochlear implant candidates. METHODS: Ocular and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials of 34 paediatric cochlear implant candidates were analysed. All patients also underwent a routine audiological examination, including computed tomography. RESULTS: In all, 27 patients with normal inner-ear structures had absent or impaired vestibular evoked myogenic potential responses...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915379/nr2a-and-nr2b-nmda-receptors-and-drebrin-within-postsynaptic-spines-of-the-hippocampus-correlate-with-hunger-evoked-exercise
#15
Yi-Wen Chen, Hannah Actor-Engel, Ang Doma Sherpa, Lauren Klingensmith, Tara G Chowdhury, Chiye Aoki
Hunger evokes foraging. This innate response can be quantified as voluntary wheel running following food restriction (FR). Paradoxically, imposing severe FR evokes voluntary FR, as some animals choose to run rather than eat, even during limited periods of food availability. This phenomenon, called activity-based anorexia (ABA), has been used to identify brain changes associated with FR and excessive exercise (EX), two core symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN), and to explore neurobiological bases of AN vulnerability...
December 3, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914441/comparisons-of-transient-evoked-otoacoustic-emissions-using-chirp-and-click-stimuli
#16
Douglas H Keefe, M Patrick Feeney, Lisa L Hunter, Denis F Fitzpatrick
Transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) responses (0.7-8 kHz) were measured in normal-hearing adult ears using click stimuli and chirps whose local frequency increased or decreased linearly with time over the stimulus duration. Chirp stimuli were created by allpass filtering a click with relatively constant incident pressure level over frequency. Chirp TEOAEs were analyzed as a nonlinear residual signal by inverse allpass filtering each chirp response into an equivalent click response. Multi-window spectral and temporal averaging reduced noise levels compared to a single-window average...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914370/concurrent-measures-of-contralateral-suppression-of-transient-evoked-otoacoustic-emissions-and-of-auditory-steady-state-responses
#17
Ian B Mertes, Marjorie R Leek
Contralateral suppression of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) is frequently used to assess the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent system, and may have clinical utility. However, OAEs are weak or absent in hearing-impaired ears, so little is known about MOC function in the presence of hearing loss. A potential alternative measure is contralateral suppression of the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) because ASSRs are measurable in many hearing-impaired ears. This study compared contralateral suppression of both transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) and ASSRs in a group of ten primarily older adults with either normal hearing or mild sensorineural hearing loss...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914171/clinical-feasibility-of-brain-computer-interface-based-on-steady-state-visual-evoked-potential-in-patients-with-locked-in-syndrome-case-studies
#18
Han-Jeong Hwang, Chang-Hee Han, Jeong-Hwan Lim, Yong-Wook Kim, Soo-In Choi, Kwang-Ok An, Jun-Hak Lee, Ho-Seung Cha, Seung Hyun Kim, Chang-Hwan Im
Although the feasibility of brain-computer interface (BCI) systems based on steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) has been extensively investigated, only a few studies have evaluated its clinical feasibility in patients with locked-in syndrome (LIS), who are the main targets of BCI technology. The main objective of this case report was to share our experiences of SSVEP-based BCI experiments involving five patients with LIS, thereby providing researchers with useful information that can potentially help them to design BCI experiments for patients with LIS...
December 3, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914166/trauma-related-dissociation-psychological-features-and-psychophysiological-responses-to-script-driven-imagery-in-borderline-personality-disorder
#19
Dana Bichescu-Burian, Jürgen Steyer, Tilman Steinert, Benjamin Grieb, Stefan Tschöke
Defense reactions to threatening situations are vital adaptations to stress that protect organisms from injury and ensure survival. We retrospectively investigated the role of peritraumatic dissociation (PD) in the occurrence of severe psychopathology and dissociative patterns of reactions in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We recruited 28 patients with a clinical diagnosis of BPD and 15 healthy controls. The BPD group was divided according to the level of PD (low vs. high): BPD and PD (n = 15) and BPD only (n = 13)...
December 3, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913592/complexin-mutants-reveal-partial-segregation-between-recycling-pathways-that-drive-evoked-and-spontaneous-neurotransmission
#20
Nadezhda Sabeva, Richard W Cho, Alexander Vasin, Agustin Gonzalez, J Troy Littleton, Maria Bykhovskaia
: Synaptic vesicles fuse at morphological specializations in the presynaptic terminal termed active zones (AZs). Vesicle fusion can occur spontaneously or in response to an action potential. Following fusion, vesicles are retrieved and recycled within nerve terminals. It is still unclear whether vesicles that fuse spontaneously or following evoked release share similar recycling mechanisms. Genetic deletion of the SNARE-binding protein complexin dramatically increases spontaneous fusion, with the protein serving as the synaptic vesicle fusion clamp at Drosophila synapses...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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