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Evoked response

Nathalie Van Humbeeck, Tom Putzeys, Johan Wagemans
Two stimuli alternately presented at different locations can evoke a percept of a stimulus continuously moving between the two locations. The neural mechanism underlying this apparent motion (AM) is thought to be increased activation of primary visual cortex (V1) neurons tuned to locations along the AM path, although evidence remains inconclusive. AM masking, which refers to the reduced detectability of stimuli along the AM path, has been taken as evidence for AM-related V1 activation. AM-induced neural responses are thought to interfere with responses to physical stimuli along the path and as such impair the perception of these stimuli...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Petrina Yau-Pok Lau, Linda Katona, Peter Saghy, Kathryn Newton, Peter Somogyi, Karri P Lamsa
Long-term plasticity is well documented in synapses between glutamatergic principal cells in the cortex both in vitro and in vivo. Long-term potentiation (LTP) and -depression (LTD) have also been reported in glutamatergic connections to hippocampal GABAergic interneurons expressing parvalbumin (PV+) or nitric oxide synthase (NOS+) in brain slices, but plasticity in these cells has not been tested in vivo. We investigated synaptically-evoked suprathreshold excitation of identified hippocampal neurons in the CA1 area of urethane-anaesthetized rats...
October 25, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Yoshio Okada, Matti Hämäläinen, Kevin Pratt, Anthony Mascarenas, Paul Miller, Menglai Han, Jose Robles, Anders Cavallini, Bill Power, Kosal Sieng, Limin Sun, Seok Lew, Chiran Doshi, Banu Ahtam, Christoph Dinh, Lorenz Esch, Ellen Grant, Aapo Nummenmaa, Douglas Paulson
We developed a 375-channel, whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system ("BabyMEG") for studying the electrophysiological development of human brain during the first years of life. The helmet accommodates heads up to 95% of 36-month old boys in the USA. The unique two-layer sensor array consists of: (1) 270 magnetometers (10 mm diameter, ∼15 mm coil-to-coil spacing) in the inner layer, (2) thirty-five three-axis magnetometers (20 mm × 20 mm) in the outer layer 4 cm away from the inner layer. Additionally, there are three three-axis reference magnetometers...
September 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Amedeo Minichino, Roberto Delle Chiaie, Giorgio Cruccu, Serena Piroso, Di Stefano Giulia, Marta Francesconi, Francesco Saverio Bersani, Massimo Biondi, Andrea Truini
OBJECTIVES: Overlapping neural system dysfunctions, mainly involving the secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the anterior insular cortex (AIC), seem to be related to both pain-perception abnormalities and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). Laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) were used to investigate pain-perception and central pain-processing abnormalities in SCZ, bipolar I disorder (BD-I), and bipolar II disorder (BD-II), and to evaluate their relationship with history of psychosis, and social-cognitive and functional impairments...
October 26, 2016: Bipolar Disorders
Zhonghui Guan, Judith Hellman, Mark Schumacher
Tissue injury, whether by trauma, surgical intervention, metabolic dysfunction, ischemia, or infection, evokes a complex cellular response (inflammation) that is associated with painful hyperalgesic states. Although in the acute stages it is necessary for protective reflexes and wound healing, inflammation may persist well beyond the need for tissue repair or survival. Prolonged inflammation may well represent the greatest challenge mammalian organisms face, as it can lead to chronic painful conditions, organ dysfunction, morbidity, and death...
2016: F1000Research
Alexander G Huth, Tyler Lee, Shinji Nishimoto, Natalia Y Bilenko, An T Vu, Jack L Gallant
One crucial test for any quantitative model of the brain is to show that the model can be used to accurately decode information from evoked brain activity. Several recent neuroimaging studies have decoded the structure or semantic content of static visual images from human brain activity. Here we present a decoding algorithm that makes it possible to decode detailed information about the object and action categories present in natural movies from human brain activity signals measured by functional MRI. Decoding is accomplished using a hierarchical logistic regression (HLR) model that is based on labels that were manually assigned from the WordNet semantic taxonomy...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Jayantee Kalita, Sanjeev K Bhoi, Usha K Misra
BACKGROUND: Sensitization and impaired habituation of cortical neurons have been reported in migraineurs. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may change these phenomena and be the basis of therapeutic response. We report the effect of 10 Hz rTMS on sensitization and habituation of median somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) in migraineurs, and correlate these changes with clinical response. METHODS: Migraineurs having four or more episodes of headache per month were included and their clinical details were noted...
October 25, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Simin Liang, Jie Li, Xin Gou, Daihui Chen
BACKGROUND: Bladder disorders associated with interstitial cystitis are frequently characterized by increased contractility and pain. The purposes of this study were to examine (1) the effects of blocking mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) on the exaggerated bladder activity and pain evoked by cystitis and (2) the underlying mechanisms responsible for the role of mTOR in regulating cystic sensory activity. RESULTS: The expression of p-mTOR, mTOR-mediated phosphorylation of p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 (p-S6K1), 4 E-binding protein 4 (p-4 E-BP1), as well as phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (p-PI3K) pathway were amplified in cyclophosphamide rats as compared with control rats...
2016: Molecular Pain
Tijl Grootswagers, Susan G Wardle, Thomas A Carlson
Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) or brain decoding methods have become standard practice in analyzing fMRI data. Although decoding methods have been extensively applied in brain-computer interfaces, these methods have only recently been applied to time series neuroimaging data such as MEG and EEG to address experimental questions in cognitive neuroscience. In a tutorial style review, we describe a broad set of options to inform future time series decoding studies from a cognitive neuroscience perspective...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Lutz Menzel, Lisa Kleber, Carina Friedrich, Regina Hummel, Larissa Dangel, Jennifer Winter, Katja Schmitz, Irmgard Tegeder, Michael K E Schäfer
In response to traumatic brain injury (TBI) microglia/macrophages and astrocytes release inflammatory mediators with dual effects on secondary brain damage progression. The neurotrophic and anti-inflammatory glycoprotein progranulin (PGRN) attenuates neuronal damage and microglia/macrophage activation in brain injury but mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we studied histopathology, neurology and gene expression of inflammatory markers in PGRN-deficient mice (Grn(-/-) ) 24 h and 5 days after experimental TBI...
October 25, 2016: Glia
Anna M Borghi, Edoardo Zarcone
One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Mercedes Valido Quintana, Ángeles Oviedo Santos, Silvia Borkoski Barreiro, Alfredo Santana Rodríguez, Ángel Ramos Macías
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Sixty percent of prelingual hearing loss is of genetic origin. A family history of permanent childhood hearing loss is a risk factor. The objective of the study is to determine the relationship between this risk factor and hearing loss. We have evaluated clinical and epidemiological characteristics and related nonsyndromic genetic variation. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This was a retrospective, descriptive and observational study of newborns between January 2007 and December 2010 with family history as risk factor for hearing loss using transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem response...
October 21, 2016: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
K V Simonyan, V A Chavushyan
BACKGROUND: The hippocampus is a target of ovarian hormones, and is necessary for memory. Ovarian hormone loss is associated with a progressive reduction in synaptic strength and dendritic spine. Teucrium polium has beneficial effects on learning and memory. However, it remains unknown whether Teucrium polium ameliorates hippocampal cells spike activity and morphological impairments induced by estrogen deficiency. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the effects of hydroponic Teucrium polium on hippocampal neuronal activity and morpho-histochemistry of bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) rats...
October 24, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Chao-Ying Chen, Tonya L Rich, Jessica M Cassidy, Bernadette T Gillick
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used as an assessment or intervention to evaluate or influence brain activity in children with hemiparetic cerebral palsy (CP) commonly caused by perinatal stroke. This communication report analyzed data from two clinical trials using TMS to assess corticospinal excitability in children and young adults with hemiparetic CP. The results of this communication revealed a higher probability of finding a motor evoked potential (MEP) on the non-lesioned hemisphere compared to the lesioned hemisphere (p = 0...
October 20, 2016: Brain Sciences
Arvin Eskandari, Janine N Boodram, Paul B Cressey, Chunxin Lu, Peter M Bruno, Michael T Hemann, Kogularamanan Suntharalingam
We report the cancer stem cell (CSC) potency of a novel series of copper(ii)-phenanthroline complexes bearing nonsteriodial anti-inflammatory drugs: naproxen, tolfenamic acid, and indomethacin (2a-3c). Two of the complexes, 2a and 3c, kill breast CSC-enriched HMLER-shEcad cells (grown in both monolayer and three-dimensional cell cultures) to a significantly better extent than salinomycin, a well-established CSC toxin. The most potent complex in the series, 3c induces its cytotoxic effect by generating intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibiting cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2) activity...
October 24, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Mazen Al-Hommrani, Paramita Chakraborty, Shilpak Chatterjee, Shikhar Mehrotra
Cell, the basic unit of life depends for its survival on nutrients and thereby energy to perform its physiological function. Cells of lymphoid and myeloid origin are key in evoking an immune response against "self" or "non-self" antigens. The thymus derived lymphoid cells called T cells are a heterogenous group with distinct phenotypic and molecular signatures that have been shown to respond against an infection (bacterial, viral, protozoan) or cancer. Recent studies have unearthed the key differences in energy metabolism between the various T cell subsets, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and myeloid derived suppressor cells...
2016: J Immunol Res Ther
Joseph Bert, Maren L Mahowald, Sandra Frizelle, Christopher W Dorman, Sonia C Funkenbusch, Hollis E Krug
OBJECTIVE: Capsaicin (CAP) and Resiniferatoxin (RTX) are vanilloid receptor agonists that can normalize Evoked Pain Scores (EPS) and Automated Dynamic Weight Bearing (ADWB) measures in murine acute inflammatory arthritis when given by intra-articular (IA) injection. To determine whether these vanilloid receptor agonists have benefit in Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) induced chronic inflammatory arthritis pain, we measured changes in ADWB and EPS in arthritic mice with and without treatment with IA CAP and RTX...
2016: Intern Med Rev (Wash D C)
Masahiko Terakado, Hidehiro Suzuki, Kazuya Hashimura, Motoyuki Tanaka, Hideyuki Ueda, Hiroshi Kohno, Taku Fujimoto, Hiroshi Saga, Shinji Nakade, Hiromu Habashita, Yoshikazu Takaoka, Takuya Seko
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) evokes various physiological responses through a series of G protein-coupled receptors known as LPA1-6. A high throughput screen against LPA1 gave compound 7a as a hit. The subsequent optimization of 7a led to ONO-7300243 (17a) as a novel, potent LPA1 antagonist, which showed good efficacy in vivo. The oral dosing of 17a at 30 mg/kg led to reduced intraurethral pressure in rats. Notably, this compound was equal in potency to the α1 adrenoceptor antagonist tamsulosin, which is used in clinical practice to treat dysuria with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)...
October 13, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Zafer Iscan, Maria Nazarova, Tommaso Fedele, Evgeny Blagovechtchenski, Vadim V Nikulin
Inter- and intra-subject variability of the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) to TMS is a well-known phenomenon. Although a possible link between this variability and ongoing brain oscillations was demonstrated, the results of the studies are not consistent with each other. Exploring this topic further is important since the modulation of MEPs provides unique possibility to relate oscillatory cortical phenomena to the state of the motor cortex probed with TMS. Given that alpha oscillations were shown to reflect cortical excitability, we hypothesized that their power and variability might explain the modulation of subject-specific MEPs to single- and paired-pulse TMS (spTMS, ppTMS, respectively)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Chunyan Li, Malinda E C Fitzgerald, Nobel Del Mar, Anton Reiner
Preganglionic parasympathetic neurons of the ventromedial part of the superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) mediate vasodilation of orbital and choroidal blood vessels, via their projection to the nitrergic pterygopalatine ganglion (PPG) neurons that innervate these vessels. We recently showed that the baroresponsive part of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) innervates choroidal control parasympathetic preganglionic neurons of SSN in rats. As this projection provides a means by which blood pressure (BP) signals may modulate choroidal blood flow (ChBF), we investigated if activation of baroresponsive NTS evokes ChBF increases in rat eye, using Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) to measure ChBF transclerally...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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