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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549782/central-trkb-blockade-attenuates-icv-angiotensin-ii-hypertension-and-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#1
Bryan K Becker, Hanjun Wang, Irving H Zucker
Increased sympathetic nerve activity and the activation of the central renin-angiotensin system are commonly associated with cardiovascular disease states such as hypertension and heart failure, yet the precise mechanisms contributing to the long-term maintenance of this sympatho-excitation are incompletely understood. Due to the established physiological role of neurotrophins contributing toward neuroplasticity and neuronal excitability along with recent evidence linking the renin-angiotensin system and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) along with its receptor (TrkB), it is likely the two systems interact to promote sympatho-excitation during cardiovascular disease...
May 19, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549333/endoplasmic-reticulum-er-stress-and-camp-pka-pathway-mediated-zn-induced-hepatic-lipolysis
#2
Yu-Feng Song, Christer Hogstrand, Chuan-Chuan Wei, Kun Wu, Ya-Xiong Pan, Zhi Luo
The present study was performed to determine the effect of Zn exposure influencing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, explore the underlying molecular mechanism of Zn-induced hepatic lipolysis in a fish species of significance for aquaculture, yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. We found that waterborne Zn exposure evoked ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), and activated cAMP/PKA pathway, and up-regulated hepatic lipolysis. The increase in ER stress and lipolysis were associated with activation of cAMP/PKA signaling pathway...
May 23, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548877/role-of-osgin1-in-mediating-smoking-induced-autophagy-in-the-human-airway-epithelium
#3
Guoqing Wang, Haixia Zhou, Yael Strulovici-Barel, Mohammed Al-Hijji, Xuemei Ou, Jacqueline Salit, Matthew S Walters, Michelle R Staudt, Robert J Kaner, Ronald G Crystal
Enhanced macroautophagy/autophagy is recognized as a component of the pathogenesis of smoking-induced airway disease. Based on the knowledge that enhanced autophagy is linked to oxidative stress and the DNA damage response, both of which are linked to smoking, we used microarray analysis of the airway epithelium to identify smoking upregulated genes known to respond to oxidative stress and the DNA damage response. This analysis identified OSGIN1 (oxidative stress induced growth inhibitor 1) as significantly upregulated by smoking, in both the large and small airway epithelium, an observation confirmed by an independent small airway microarray cohort, TaqMan PCR of large and small airway samples and RNA-Seq of small airway samples...
May 26, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546809/comparison-of-brain-activation-during-motor-imagery-and-motor-movement-using-fnirs
#4
Alyssa M Batula, Jesse A Mark, Youngmoo E Kim, Hasan Ayaz
Motor-activity-related mental tasks are widely adopted for brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) as they are a natural extension of movement intention, requiring no training to evoke brain activity. The ideal BCI aims to eliminate neuromuscular movement, making motor imagery tasks, or imagined actions with no muscle movement, good candidates. This study explores cortical activation differences between motor imagery and motor execution for both upper and lower limbs using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)...
2017: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546281/neurons-within-the-trigeminal-mesencephalic-nucleus-encode-for-the-kinematic-parameters-of-the-whisker-pad-macrovibrissae
#5
Ombretta Mameli, Marcello A Caria, Francesca Biagi, Marco Zedda, Vittorio Farina
It has been recently shown in rats that spontaneous movements of whisker pad macrovibrissae elicited evoked responses in the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Me5). In the present study, electrophysiological and neuroanatomical experiments were performed in anesthetized rats to evaluate whether, besides the whisker displacement per se, the Me5 neurons are also involved in encoding the kinematic properties of macrovibrissae movements, and also whether, as reported for the trigeminal ganglion, even within the Me5 nucleus exists a neuroanatomical representation of the whisker pad macrovibrissae...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546109/background-activity-and-visual-responsiveness-of-caudate-nucleus-neurons-in-halothane-anaesthetised-and-in-awake-behaving-cats
#6
Balázs Barkóczi, Tamás Nagypál, Diána Nyujtó, Xénia Katona, Gabriella Eördegh, Balázs Bodosi, György Benedek, Gábor Braunitzer, Attila Nagy
This study focuses on the important question whether brain activity recorded from anaesthetised, paralyzed animals is comparable to that recorded from awake, behaving ones. We compared neuronal activity recorded from the caudate nucleus (CN) of two halothane-anaesthetised, paralyzed and two awake, behaving cats. In both models, extracellular recordings were made from the CN during static and dynamic visual stimulation. The anaesthesia was maintained during the recordings by a gaseous mixture of air and halothane (1...
May 22, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545519/staff-s-normative-attitudes-towards-coercion-the-role-of-moral-doubt-and-professional-context-a-cross-sectional-survey-study
#7
Bert Molewijk, Almar Kok, Tonje Husum, Reidar Pedersen, Olaf Aasland
BACKGROUND: The use of coercion is morally problematic and requires an ongoing critical reflection. We wondered if not knowing or being uncertain whether coercion is morally right or justified (i.e. experiencing moral doubt) is related to professionals' normative attitudes regarding the use of coercion. METHODS: This paper describes an explorative statistical analysis based on a cross-sectional survey across seven wards in three Norwegian mental health care institutions...
May 25, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543684/multiparity-modifies-contractile-properties-of-pelvic-muscles-affecting-the-genesis-of-vaginal-pressure-in-rabbits
#8
Rhode López-Juárez, René Zempoalteca, Dora Luz Corona-Quintanilla, Ismael Jiménez-Estrada, Francisco Castelán, Margarita Martínez-Gómez
AIMS: To characterize the contractile properties of the bulbospongiosus (Bsm), isquiocavernosus (Ism), and pubococcygeus muscles (Pcm), and their involvement in the genesis of vaginal pressure in nulliparous and multiparous rabbits. METHODS: Age-matched nulliparous and multiparous rabbits were used to record the isometric contractile responses of each muscle as well as the intravaginal pressure evoked by single square electrical pulses and stimulation trains of ascending frequency...
May 24, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543585/a-score-test-for-genetic-class-level-association-with-nonlinear-biomarker-trajectories
#9
Jing Qian, Sara Nunez, Soohyun Kim, Muredach P Reilly, Andrea S Foulkes
Emerging data suggest that the genetic regulation of the biological response to inflammatory stress may be fundamentally different to the genetic underpinning of the homeostatic control (resting state) of the same biological measures. In this paper, we interrogate this hypothesis using a single-SNP score test and a novel class-level testing strategy to characterize protein-coding gene and regulatory element-level associations with longitudinal biomarker trajectories in response to stimulus. Using the proposed class-level association score statistic for longitudinal data, which accounts for correlations induced by linkage disequilibrium, the genetic underpinnings of evoked dynamic changes in repeatedly measured biomarkers are investigated...
May 23, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543395/contact-urticaria-syndrome-with-ige-antibody-against-a-cefotiam-unique-structure-evoked-by-nonapparent-exposure-to-cefotiam
#10
S Takahagi, A Tanaka, K Iwamoto, K Ishii, M Hide
A 26-year-old woman presented with recurrent attacks of widespread urticaria and systemic symptoms. The patient was a nurse, and the attacks occurred only in her workplace, without an apparent trigger. A patch test to cefotiam (CTM) induced an immediate skin reaction. ELISA detected the patient's serum IgE antibody binding to CTM conjugated with human serum albumin (CTM-HSA), and her basophils released histamine in response to CTM-HSA in a histamine release assay (HRA). Both reactions in ELISA and HRA were inhibited by pretreatment of the patient's serum or basophils with cefotiam...
May 22, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542572/arachidonic-acid-containing-phosphatidylcholine-increases-due-to-microglial-activation-in-ipsilateral-spinal-dorsal-horn-following-spared-sciatic-nerve-injury
#11
Tomohiro Banno, Takao Omura, Noritaka Masaki, Hideyuki Arima, Dongmin Xu, Ayako Okamoto, Michael Costigan, Alban Latremoliere, Yukihiro Matsuyama, Mitsutoshi Setou
Peripheral nerve injury induces substantial molecular changes in the somatosensory system that leads to maladaptive plasticity and cause neuropathic pain. Understanding the molecular pathways responsible for the development of neuropathic pain is essential to the development of novel rationally designed therapeutics. Although lipids make up to half of the dry weight of the spinal cord, their relation with the development of neuropathic pain is poorly understood. We aimed to elucidate the regulation of spinal lipids in response to neuropathic peripheral nerve injury in mice by utilizing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry, which allows visualization of lipid distribution within the cord...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542290/new-paradigm-for-auditory-paired-pulse-suppression
#12
Nobuyuki Takeuchi, Shunsuke Sugiyama, Koji Inui, Kousuke Kanemoto, Makoto Nishihara
Sensory gating is a mechanism of sensory processing used to prevent an overflow of irrelevant information, with some indexes, such as prepulse inhibition (PPI) and P50 suppression, often utilized for its evaluation. In addition, those are clinically important for diseases such as schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated long-latency paired-pulse suppression of change-related cortical responses using magnetoencephalography. The test change-related response was evoked by an abrupt increase in sound pressure by 15 dB in a continuous sound composed of a train of 25-ms pure tones at 65 dB...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542001/acetaminophen-metabolite-n-acylphenolamine-induces-analgesia-via-transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-1-receptors-expressed-on-the-primary-afferent-terminals-of-c-fibers-in-the-spinal-dorsal-horn
#13
Nobuko Ohashi, Daisuke Uta, Mika Sasaki, Masayuki Ohashi, Yoshinori Kamiya, Tatsuro Kohno
BACKGROUND: The widely used analgesic acetaminophen is metabolized to N-acylphenolamine, which induces analgesia by acting directly on transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 or cannabinoid 1 receptors in the brain. Although these receptors are also abundant in the spinal cord, no previous studies have reported analgesic effects of acetaminophen or N-acylphenolamine mediated by the spinal cord dorsal horn. We hypothesized that clinical doses of acetaminophen induce analgesia via these spinal mechanisms...
May 25, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541956/nitric-oxide-pathway-presumably-does-not-contribute-to-antianxiety-and-memory-retrieval-effects-of-losartan
#14
Iraj Aghaei, Shokouh Arjmand, Shahrokh Yousefzadeh Chabok, Mahdi Tondar, Mohammad Shabani
Nitric oxide (NO) and angiotensin (AT) receptors have demonstrated well-established interactions in various physiological phenomena. AT1 receptors can play a part in stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; also, angiotensinergic neurotransmission plays a pivotal role in stress-evoked physiological responses. On the basis of the stress-modulating characteristics of NO, AT1, and AT2 receptors, the present study evaluated the roles of NO and AT1 receptors in the attenuation of stress-induced anxiety-like behaviors after administration of losartan, an AT1 antagonist...
May 24, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541783/cyclosporine-causes-no-hearing-defect-in-paediatric-patients-with-nephrotic-syndrome
#15
Belde Kasap-Demir, Derya Özmen, Günay Kırkım, Ersoy Doğan, Alper Soylu, Bülent Şerbetçioğlu, Salih Kavukçu
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the ototoxicity of cyclosporine A (CsA) in children with nephrotic syndrome (NS). DESIGN: Data of paediatric patients with NS followed in paediatric nephrology department were evaluated retrospectively, and hearing functions were evaluated by pure tone audiometry (PTA) and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs). Age, gender, type of NS, duration and cumulative doses of immunosuppressives were noted. STUDY SAMPLE: The patients who had received CsA (n: 16) and immunosuppressives other than CsA (n: 13) for at least 6 months formed two patient groups and healthy cases formed a control group (n: 20)...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540936/antigen-presenting-cell-targeted-lentiviral-vectors-do-not-support-the-development-of-productive-t-cell-effector-responses-implications-for-in-vivo-targeted-vaccine-delivery
#16
C Goyvaerts, Y De Vlaeminck, D Escors, S Lienenklaus, M Keyaerts, G Raes, K Breckpot
Targeting transgene expression specifically to antigen-presenting cells (APCs) has been put forward as a promising strategy to direct the immune system towards immunity. We developed the nanobody-display technology to restrict the tropism of lentiviral vectors (LVs) to APCs. However, we observed that immunization with APC-targeted LVs (DC2.1-LVs) did not evoke strong antigen-specific T-cell immunity when compared to immunization with broad tropism LVs (VSV.G-LVs). In this study, we report that VSV.G-LVs are more immunogenic than DC2...
May 25, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539909/neural-responses-to-rapid-facial-expressions-of-fear-and-surprise
#17
Ke Zhao, Jia Zhao, Ming Zhang, Qian Cui, Xiaolan Fu
Facial expression recognition is mediated by a distributed neural system in humans that involves multiple, bilateral regions. There are six basic facial expressions that may be recognized in humans (fear, sadness, surprise, happiness, anger, and disgust); however, fearful faces and surprised faces are easily confused in rapid presentation. The functional organization of the facial expression recognition system embodies a distinction between these two emotions, which is investigated in the present study. A core system that includes the right parahippocampal gyrus (BA 30), fusiform gyrus, and amygdala mediates the visual recognition of fear and surprise...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539893/more-than-attentional-tuning-investigating-the-mechanisms-underlying-practice-gains-and-preparation-in-task-switching
#18
Mike Wendt, Stina Klein, Tilo Strobach
In task switching, participants perform trials of task repetitions (i.e., the same task is executed in consecutive trials) and task switches (i.e., different tasks are executed in consecutive trials) and the longer reaction times in switch trials in comparison to these times in repetition trials are referred to as switch costs. These costs are reduced by lengthening of an interval following a cue that indicates the upcoming task; this effect demonstrated effective task preparation. To investigate the role of task switching practice for these preparation effects and task switch costs, we applied a task switching paradigm, involving two digit classification tasks, in six successive practice sessions and varied the length of the preparation interval...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539881/the-influence-of-mexican-hat-recurrent-connectivity-on-noise-correlations-and-stimulus-encoding
#19
Robert Meyer, Josef Ladenbauer, Klaus Obermayer
Noise correlations are a common feature of neural responses and have been observed in many cortical areas across different species. These correlations can influence information processing by enhancing or diminishing the quality of the neural code, but the origin of these correlations is still a matter of controversy. In this computational study we explore the hypothesis that noise correlations are the result of local recurrent excitatory and inhibitory connections. We simulated two-dimensional networks of adaptive spiking neurons with local connection patterns following Gaussian kernels...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539421/sound-making-actions-lead-to-immediate-plastic-changes-of-neuromagnetic-evoked-responses-and-induced-beta-band-oscillations-during-perception
#20
Bernhard Ross, Masihullah Barat, Takako Fujioka
Auditory and sensorimotor brain areas interact during the action-perception cycle of sound making. Neurophysiological evidence of a feedforward model of the action and its outcome has been associated with attenuation of the N1 wave of auditory evoked responses elicited by self-generated sounds, such as vocalization or playing a musical instrument. Moreover, neural oscillations at beta-band frequencies have been related to predicting the sound outcome after action initiation. We hypothesized that a newly learned action-perception association would immediately modify interpretation of the sound during subsequent listening...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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