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Publication bias

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636179/discontinuation-and-non-publication-of-neurodegenerative-disease-trials-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#1
J D Stefaniak, T C H Lam, N E Sim, R Al-Shahi Salman, D P Breen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Trial discontinuation and non-publication represent major sources of research waste in clinical medicine. No previous studies have investigated non-dissemination bias in clinical trials of neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: ClinicalTrials.gov was searched for all randomized, interventional, phase II-IV trials that were registered between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2009 and included adults with Alzheimer's disease, motor neurone disease, multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635968/sex-biased-dispersal-creates-spatial-genetic-structure-in-a-parthenogenetic-ant-with-a-dependent-lineage-reproductive-system
#2
A Kuhn, D Bauman, H Darras, S Aron
Reproduction and dispersal are key aspects of species life history that influence spatial genetic structure in populations. Several ant species in the genus Cataglyphis have evolved a unique breeding system in which new reproductives (that is, queens and males) are produced asexually by parthenogenesis; in contrast, non-reproductives (that is, workers) are produced via sexual reproduction by mates from distinct genetic lineages. We investigated how these two coexisting reproductive methods affect population-level spatial genetic structure using the ant Cataglyphis mauritanica as a model...
June 21, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635950/genetically-predicted-high-body-mass-index-was-associated-with-increased-gastric-cancer-risk
#3
Yingying Mao, Caiwang Yan, Qun Lu, Meng Zhu, Fei Yu, Cheng Wang, Juncheng Dai, Hongxia Ma, Zhibin Hu, Hongbing Shen, Guangfu Jin
Epidemiological studies have linked body mass index (BMI) with risk of gastrointestinal cancers. However, for gastric cancer, the relationship is more controversial. In particular, it is unclear whether the observed association is due to confounding or bias inherent in conventional observational studies. To investigate whether BMI is causally associated with gastric cancer risk, we applied Mendelian randomization using individual-level data from 2631 gastric cancer cases and 4373 cancer-free controls. We derived a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) using 37 BMI-associated genetic variants as an instrumental variable...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635682/relationship-between-human-mutl-homolog-1-hmlh1-hypermethylation-and-colorectal-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#4
Hui-Feng Zhang, You-Wang Lu, Zhen-Rong Xie, Kun-Hua Wang
BACKGROUND Hypermethylation of CpG islands in gene promoter regions is an important mechanism of gene inactivation in cancers. Promoter hypermethylation of human mutL homolog 1 (hMLH1) has been implicated in a subset of colorectal cancers that show microsatellite instability (MSI), while the connection of the epigenetic inactivation of hMLH1 in colorectal cancers remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the promoter hypermethylation of hMLH1 and colorectal cancers by performing a meta-analysis...
June 21, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635353/a-systematic-review-of-supported-accommodation-programs-for-people-released-from-custody
#5
Bethany Growns, Stuart A Kinner, Elizabeth Conroy, Eileen Baldry, Sarah Larney
One of the challenges that people recently released from custody face is securing housing. Many individuals rely on supported accommodation programs for housing in the immediate post-release period. However, the value of supported accommodation programs in producing positive criminal justice and health outcomes for people released from custody has not been widely examined. This article reviews the current literature on supported accommodation programs and the elements of these services that contribute to positive outcomes for individuals released from custody...
June 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635303/increased-pulse-wave-velocity-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-meta-analysis
#6
Peng Wang, Yan-Mei Mao, Chan-Na Zhao, Li-Na Liu, Xiao-Mei Li, Xiang-Pei Li, Hai-Feng Pan
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This study aims to derive a more precise estimation on pulse wave velocity (PWV) level in patients with SLE and related factors. A literature search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library databases, studies published up to February 28, 2017, in English. Pooled standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated by fixed-effect or random-effect model analysis. Heterogeneity test was performed by the Q statistic and quantified using I(2); publication bias was evaluated using a funnel plot and Egger's linear regression test...
January 1, 2017: Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635182/the-effect-of-flaxseed-supplementation-on-body-weight-and-body-composition-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-45-randomized-placebo-controlled-trials
#7
REVIEW
M Mohammadi-Sartang, Z Mazloom, H Raeisi-Dehkordi, R Barati-Boldaji, N Bellissimo, J O Totosy de Zepetnek
Flaxseed consumption may be inversely associated with obesity; however, findings of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are conflicting. The present study aimed to systematically review and analyse RCTs assessing the effects of flaxseed consumption on body weight and body composition. PubMed, Medline via Ovid, SCOPUS, EMBASE and ISI Web of Sciences databases were searched up to November 2016. Mean changes in body composition indices including body weight, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were extracted...
June 21, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634771/off-pump-versus-on-pump-coronary-surgery-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-a-meta-analysis
#8
Yushu Wang, Sui Zhu, Peijuan Gao, Juteng Zhou, Qing Zhang
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have worse adverse cardiovascular outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). However, the adverse cardiovascular outcomes between off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) versus on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (ONCAB) in these patients have been a subject of debate. METHODS: We undertook a comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library database to identify all relevant studies comparing techniques between OPCAB and ONCAB in CKD patients...
June 20, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634537/a-meta-analysis-of-antibacterial-envelope-use-in-prevention-of-cardiovascular-implantable-electronic-device-infection
#9
Sajid Ali, Yousuf Kanjwal, Steven R Bruhl, Mohammed Alo, Mohammed Taleb, Syed S Ali, Ameer Kabour, Owais Khawaja
OBJECTIVES: Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) infection has been a major clinical problem in addition to being a major financial burden. In spite of antimicrobial prophylaxis, CIED infection rates have been increasing disproportionately. We therefore conducted this meta-analysis to assess the role of TYRX antibiotic envelope for the prevention of CIED infection. METHODS: Using extensive online search, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies reporting CIED infections with versus without the use of TYRX antibiotic envelope...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633679/multistate-modeling-to-analyze-nosocomial-infection-data-an-introduction-and-demonstration
#10
Martin Wolkewitz, Maja von Cube, Martin Schumacher
OBJECTIVE Multistate and competing risks models have become an established and adequate tool with which to quantify determinants and consequences of nosocomial infections. In this tutorial article, we explain and demonstrate the basics of these models to a broader audience of professionals in health care, infection control, and hospital epidemiology. METHODS Using a publicly available data set from a cohort study of intensive care unit patients, we show how hospital infection data can be displayed and explored graphically and how simple formulas are derived under some simplified assumptions for illustrating the basic ideas behind multistate models...
June 21, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633650/effects-of-tolvaptan-in-patients-with-acute-heart-failure-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
Chunbin Wang, Bo Xiong, Lin Cai
BACKGROUND: Acute heart failure, which requires urgent evaluation and treatment, is a leading cause for admission to the emergency department. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of tolvaptan on acute heart failure and compare them with the effects of conventional therapy or placebo. METHODS: The electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trial registry were searched from their starting dates to October 24, 2016. Two authors independently read the trials and extracted related information from the included studies...
June 20, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633381/robust-tests-for-additive-gene-environment-interaction-in-case-control-studies-using-gene-environment-independence
#12
Gang Liu, Seunggeun Lee, Alice W Lee, Anna H Wu, Elisa V Bandera, Allan Jensen, Mary Anne Rossing, Kirsten B Moysich, Jenny Chang-Claude, Jennifer Doherty, Aleksandra Gentry-Maharaj, Lambertus Kiemeney, Simon A Gayther, Francesmary Modugno, Leon Massuger, Ellen L Goode, Brooke Fridley, Kathryn L Terry, Daniel W Cramer, Susan J Ramus, Hoda Anton-Culver, Argyrios Ziogas, Jonathan P Tyrer, Joellen M Schildkraut, Susanne K Kjaer, Penelope M Webb, Roberta B Ness, Usha Menon, Andrew Berchuck, Paul D Pharoah, Harvey Risch, Celeste Leigh Pearce, Bhramar Mukherjee
There have been recent proposals advocating the use of additive gene-environment interaction instead of the widely used multiplicative scale, as a more relevant public health measure. Using gene-environment independence enhances the power for testing multiplicative interaction in case-control studies. However, under departure from this assumption, substantial bias in the estimates and inflated Type I error in the corresponding tests can occur. This paper extends the empirical Bayes (EB) approach previously developed for multiplicative interaction that trades off between bias and efficiency in a data-adaptive way, to the additive scale...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631809/anabolic-steroids-for-treating-pressure-ulcers
#13
REVIEW
Cho Naing, Maxine A Whittaker
BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers, also known as bed sores, pressure sores or decubitus ulcers develop as a result of a localised injury to the skin or underlying tissue, or both. The ulcers usually arise over a bony prominence, and are recognised as a common medical problem affecting people confined to a bed or wheelchair for long periods of time. Anabolic steroids are used as off-label drugs (drugs which are used without regulatory approval) and have been used as adjuvants to usual treatment with dressings, debridement, nutritional supplements, systemic antibiotics and antiseptics, which are considered to be supportive in healing of pressure ulcers...
June 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631246/smoking-as-a-risk-factor-for-diabetic-nephropathy-a-meta-analysis
#14
Sensen Su, Wanning Wang, Tao Sun, Fuzhe Ma, Yue Wang, Jia Li, Zhonggao Xu
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have investigated the connection between diabetic nephropathy and smoking, and reported widely varying rates. This study aimed to systematically analyze the impact of smoking on diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: We searched the PubMed and EMBASE electronic databases to identify relevant English-language studies published up to March 2016. Eligible studies were selected using inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data for each study were extracted independently by two authors...
June 19, 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631182/association-between-the-8-oxoguanine-dna-glycosylase-gene-ser326cys-polymorphism-and-age-related-cataract-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Xiao-Cui Liu, Xiao-Hui Guo, Bing Chen, Zhao-Hui Li, Xiao-Fei Liu
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between the 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) gene Ser326Cys (rs1052133) polymorphism and age-related cataract (ARC). METHODS: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched to identify potential studies published before May 19, 2017, investigating the association between the OGG1 gene Ser326Cys polymorphism and ARC risk. The quality of eligible studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale tool. The association between the OGG1 gene Ser326Cys polymorphism and ARC was analyzed using meta-analysis...
June 19, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631099/discontinuation-of-pharmacological-treatment-of-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-meta-analysis-of-63-studies-enrolling-11-788-patients
#16
M Riera, X Castells, A Tobias, R Cunill, L Blanco, D Capellà
BACKGROUND: The risk-benefit balance of pharmacological treatment for children and adolescents with ADHD and the factors that moderate this relationship are unclear. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trials (RPCCTs) investigating the efficacy of pharmacological treatment in children or adolescents with ADHD was carried out. Meta-analysis of treatment discontinuation, clinician-, parent- and teacher-rated efficacy and adverse events was performed...
June 19, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630747/global-patterns-in-coronavirus-diversity
#17
Simon J Anthony, Christine K Johnson, Denise J Greig, Sarah Kramer, Xiaoyu Che, Heather Wells, Allison L Hicks, Damien O Joly, Nathan D Wolfe, Peter Daszak, William Karesh, W I Lipkin, Stephen S Morse, Jonna A K Mazet, Tracey Goldstein
Since the emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrom Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) it has become increasingly clear that bats are important reservoirs of CoVs. Despite this, only 6% of all CoV sequences in GenBank are from bats. The remaining 94% largely consist of known pathogens of public health or agricultural significance, indicating that current research effort is heavily biased towards describing known diseases rather than the 'pre-emergent' diversity in bats...
January 2017: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629646/memory-and-time-backward-and-forward-telescoping-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Mohamad El Haj, Steve M J Janssen, Pascal Antoine
Backward and forward telescoping are opposite timing biases. The former refers to misattributing events to earlier dates, whereas the latter refers to misattributing events to later dates. The present study investigated both biases in participants with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and healthy older adults, matched on age, sex, and education level. Participants were asked to recall the years when five remote and five recent public events had occurred. They were also assessed with a cognitive and clinical battery that included a context memory task on which they had to associate letters and locations...
June 16, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629445/effects-of-perioperative-statin-use-on-cardiovascular-complications-in-patients-submitted-to-non-cardiac-surgery-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis
#19
Erica Aranha Suzumura, Rodrigo Antonini Ribeiro, Leticia Kawano-Dourado, Pedro Gabriel de Barros E Silva, Claudia Oliveira, Mabel Fernandes Figueiró, Alexandre Biasi Cavalcanti, Renato D Lopes, Otavio Berwanger
BACKGROUND: Preliminary evidence suggests statins may reduce major perioperative vascular events. However, evidence is limited to observational studies, underpowered trials, and non-comprehensive systematic reviews. This review aims to assess the effects of perioperative statin use on cardiovascular complications in patients submitted to non-cardiac surgery. METHODS: We will search MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, CENTRAL, Web of Science, and CINAHL for randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of perioperative statin use in adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery and reporting cardiovascular complications...
June 19, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628919/effect-of-influenza-vaccination-on-risk-of-stroke-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Kyu Rae Lee, Jeong Hun Bae, In Cheol Hwang, Kyoung Kon Kim, Heuy Sun Suh, Ki Dong Ko
BACKGROUND: Despite the presence of a strong association between influenza infection and stroke, whether influenza vaccination reduces the risk of stroke is yet a matter of controversy. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether influenza vaccination protects against stroke. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from database inception date to November 18, 2016, without language restrictions, to identify studies investigating the effect of influenza vaccination on subsequent risk of stroke...
June 21, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
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