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Publication bias

Maria Celeste Buompadre, Kathleen Andres, Lee-Anne Slater, Hadi Mohseni-Bod, Anne-Marie Guerguerian, Helen Branson, Suzanne Laughlin, Derek Armstrong, Mahendranath Moharir, Gabrielle deVeber, Tilman Humpl, Osami Honjo, Shaf Keshavjee, Rebecca Ichord, Vitor Pereira, Nomazulu Dlamini
The updated American Heart Association/American Stroke Association guidelines include recommendation for thrombectomy in certain adult stroke cases. The safety and efficacy of thrombectomy in children are unknown. An 8-year-old girl experienced acute stroke symptoms on two occasions while therapeutically anticoagulated on Novalung. Computed tomography scans showed proximal vessel thrombi, which were retrieved using a Trevo device without hemorrhagic complications. Postprocedural assessment found respective decreases in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score from 10 to 4 and 12 to 7...
September 14, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Khursheed Ahmad, Ved P Kumar, Bheem Dutt Joshi, Mohamed Raza, Parag Nigam, Anzara Anjum Khan, Surendra P Goyal
BACKGROUND: The Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii), or chiru, is an endangered antelope, distributed in China [Xinjiang, Xizang, Qinghai, Zhuolaihu Lake (Breeding habitat)], and India (Aksai Chin and Ladakh). There is a global demand for the species prized wool, which is used in weaving shahtoosh shawls. Over the years, the population of the Tibetan antelope has drastically declined from more than a million to a few thousand individuals, mainly due to poaching. Field studies undertaken in Ladakh, India also indicated winter migration of the population to Tibet...
October 21, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Vadim V Yerokhin, Branden K Carr, Guy Sneed, Matt Vassar
BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses that do not include unpublished data in their analyses may be prone to publication bias, which in some cases has been shown to have deleterious consequences on determining the efficacy of interventions. METHODS: We retrieved systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in the past 8 years (January 1, 2007-December 31, 2015) from the top 20 journals in the Pregnancy and Childbirth literature, as rated by Google Scholar's h5-index...
October 21, 2016: BMC Research Notes
William M Jackson, Nicholas Davis, Stephen A Sands, Robert A Whittington, Lena S Sun
RESEARCH QUESTION: Is there an association between regular exercise, defined as a structured program of increased physical activity at least 1 month in duration, and improvements in measures of executive functions compared with children who engage in their normal daily activities? CONTEXT: The association between increased physical activity and changes in performance on tasks of executive functions have not been well elucidated in children. Executive functioning is important to intellectual development and academic success in children, and inexpensive, nonpharmacological methods for the treatment of executive dysfunction represent an attractive interventional target...
October 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Rabeea'h W Aslam, Vickie Bates, Yenal Dundar, Juliet Hounsome, Marty Richardson, Ashma Krishan, Rumona Dickson, Angela Boland, Eleanor Kotas, Joanne Fisher, Sudip Sikdar, Louise Robinson
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a growing public health concern, and is one of the most distinctive characteristics of all dementias. The timely recognition of dementia syndromes can be beneficial, as some causes of dementia are treatable and are fully or partially reversible. Several automated cognitive assessment tools for assessing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia are now available. Proponents of these tests cite as benefits the tests' repeatability and robustness and the saving of clinicians' time...
October 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Sean Lewis, Marisa Earley, Richard Rosenfeld, Joshua Silverman
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To determine if open surgical treatment options for adult and adolescent laryngotracheal stenosis are more successful than endoscopic procedures. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: Embase and MEDLINE were searched for publications on adult and adolescent patients (>13 years old) with laryngotracheal stenosis. Cause of stenosis (intubation, idiopathic, or trauma) and treatments (open laryngotracheal resection with anastomosis, open laryngotracheal reconstruction with expansion grafting, or endoscopic procedures) were included...
October 21, 2016: Laryngoscope
Marie Congiusta, Analia Veitz-Keenan
Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, US National Institutes of Health Trials Register, WHO-Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials.Study selectionOnly randomised and quasi-randomised studies were pursued. No restrictions were placed on language or date of publication. The primary outcome sought was treatment success (complete healing or incomplete healing), uncertain healing and failure after one year of treatment, between one and four years and more than four years after treatment...
September 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Jianguo Zhu, Jukun Song, Zezhen Liu, Jin Han, Heng Luo, Yunlin Liu, Zhenyu Jia, Yuanbo Dong, Wei Zhang, Funeng Jiang, Chinlee Wu, Zaolin Sun, Weide Zhong
Association between allergic conditions and prostate cancer risk has been investigated for many years. However, the results from available evidence for the association are inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between allergic conditions (asthma, atopy, hay fever and "any allergy") and risk of prostate cancer. The PubMed and Embase databases were searched to screen observational studies meeting our meta-analysis criteria. Study selection and data extraction from included studies were independently performed by two authors...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
James Raftery, Steve Hanney, Trish Greenhalgh, Matthew Glover, Amanda Blatch-Jones
BACKGROUND: This report reviews approaches and tools for measuring the impact of research programmes, building on, and extending, a 2007 review. OBJECTIVES: (1) To identify the range of theoretical models and empirical approaches for measuring the impact of health research programmes; (2) to develop a taxonomy of models and approaches; (3) to summarise the evidence on the application and use of these models; and (4) to evaluate the different options for the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) programme...
October 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Brian J Song, Lloyd Paul Aiello, Louis R Pasquale
Diabetes mellitus represents a growing international public health issue with a near quadrupling in its worldwide prevalence since 1980. Though it has many known microvascular complications, vision loss from diabetic retinopathy is one of the most devastating for affected individuals. In addition, there is increasing evidence to suggest that diabetic patients have a greater risk for glaucoma as well. Though the pathophysiology of glaucoma is not completely understood, both diabetes and glaucoma appear to share some common risk factors and pathophysiologic similarities with studies also reporting that the presence of diabetes and elevated fasting glucose levels are associated with elevated intraocular pressure-the primary risk factor for glaucomatous optic neuropathy...
December 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Lidiane Raquel Verola Mataveli, Márcia Liane Buzzo, Luciana Juncioni de Arauz, Maria de Fátima Henriques Carvalho, Edna Emy Kumagai Arakaki, Richard Matsuzaki, Paulo Tiglea
This study is aimed at investigating a suitable method for rice sample preparation as well as validating and applying the method for monitoring the concentration of total arsenic, cadmium, and lead in rice by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Various rice sample preparation procedures were evaluated. The analytical method was validated by measuring several parameters including limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), linearity, relative bias, and repeatability. Regarding the sample preparation, recoveries of spiked samples were within the acceptable range from 89...
2016: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Peter N Lee, Alison J Thornton, Barbara A Forey, Jan S Hamling
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to review the epidemiological evidence relating environmental tobacco smoke exposure to stroke in never smokers. METHODS: The study is similar to our review in 2006, with searches extended to March 2016. RESULTS: Twelve further studies were identified. A total of 28 studies varied considerably in design, exposure indices used, and disease definition. Based on 39 sex-specific estimates and the exposure index current spousal exposure (or nearest equivalent), the meta-analysis gave an overall fixed-effect relative risk estimate of 1...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
J E Isenor, N T Edwards, T A Alia, K L Slayter, D M MacDougall, S A McNeil, S K Bowles
BACKGROUND: Underutilization of vaccination programs remains a significant public health concern. Pharmacists serve as educators, facilitators, and in some jurisdictions, as administrators of vaccines. Though pharmacists have been involved with immunizations in various ways for many years, there has yet to be a systematic review assessing the impact of pharmacists as immunizers in these three roles. OBJECTIVE: To complete a systematic review of the literature on the impact of pharmacists as educators, facilitators, and administrators of vaccines on immunization rates...
October 17, 2016: Vaccine
Matthew Thomas Sims, Zachary Carter Sanchez, James Murphy Herrington, James Barrett Hensel, Nolan Michael Henning, Caleb Josiah Scheckel, Matt Vassar
INTRODUCTION: With the intent of improving transparency in clinical research, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) established guidelines in 2005 regarding prospective clinical trial registration. This action worked to address bias related to selective outcome reporting in the medical literature. The objective of this study was to assess and characterize the quality of registration of clinical trials appearing in shoulder arthroplasty-related medical journals...
2016: PloS One
Alex J Elliot, Helen E Hughes, John Astbury, Grainne Nixon, Kate Brierley, Roberto Vivancos, Thomas Inns, Valerie Decraene, Katherine Platt, Iain Lake, Sarah J O'Brien, Gillian E Smith
During August 2015, a boil water notice (BWN) was issued across parts of North West England following the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the public water supply. Using prospective syndromic surveillance, we detected statistically significant increases in the presentation of cases of gastroenteritis and diarrhoea to general practitioner services and related calls to the national health telephone advice service in those areas affected by the BWN. In the affected areas, average in-hours general practitioner consultations for gastroenteritis increased by 24...
October 13, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Sabina Sevcenco, Claudio Spick, Thomas H Helbich, Gertraud Heinz, Shahrokh F Shariat, Hans C Klingler, Michael Rauchenwald, Pascal A Baltzer
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature on the Bosniak classification system in CT to determine its diagnostic performance to diagnose malignant cystic lesions and the prevalence of malignancy in Bosniak categories. METHODS: A predefined database search was performed from 1 January 1986 to 18 January 2016. Two independent reviewers extracted data on malignancy rates in Bosniak categories and several covariates using predefined criteria. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS-2...
October 19, 2016: European Radiology
Zhao Xinke, Li Yingdong, Feng Mingxia, Liu Kai, Chen Kaibing, Lu Yuqing, Sun Shaobo, Song Peng, Liu Bin
BACKGROUND: Chinese herbal medicine has been used to treat hypertension in China and East Asia since centuries. In this study, we conduct an overview of systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of primary hypertension to 1) summarize the conclusions of these reviews, 2) evaluate the methodological quality of these reviews, and 3) rate the confidence in the effect on each outcome. METHODS: We comprehensively searched six databases to retrieve systematic reviews of Chinese herbal medicine for primary hypertension from inception to December 31, 2015...
October 20, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Daniel W Birch, Jerry T Dang, Noah J Switzer, Namdar Manouchehri, Xinzhe Shi, Ghassan Hadi, Shahzeer Karmali
BACKGROUND: Intraoperative hypothermia during both open and laparoscopic abdominal surgery may be associated with adverse events. For laparoscopic abdominal surgery, the use of heated insufflation systems for establishing pneumoperitoneum has been described to prevent hypothermia. Humidification of the insufflated gas is also possible. Past studies on heated insufflation have shown inconclusive results with regards to maintenance of core temperature and reduction of postoperative pain and recovery times...
October 19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Massimo Del Fabbro, Stefano Corbella, Patrick Sequeira-Byron, Igor Tsesis, Eyal Rosen, Alessandra Lolato, Silvio Taschieri
BACKGROUND: When primary root canal therapy fails, periapical lesions can be retreated with or without surgery. Root canal retreatment is a non-surgical procedure that involves removal of root canal filling materials from the tooth, followed by cleaning, shaping and obturating of the canals. Root-end resection is a surgical procedure that involves exposure of the periapical lesion through an osteotomy, surgical removal of the lesion, removal of part of the root-end tip, disinfection and, commonly, retrograde sealing or filling of the apical portion of the remaining root canal...
October 19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Zhao Chenhui, Wei Yi
BACKGROUND: Despite great advances in treatment of Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), yet, a consensus as to the most optimal timing of surgery has not been reached. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for English-language studies published up to May 2015. Before conducting the meta-analysis, the studies were evaluated for publication bias and heterogeneity. Fixed and random effect models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
December 7, 2015: Turkish Neurosurgery
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