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Systematic review diagnostic

Mohammad Zamani, Vahid Zamani, Behzad Heidari, Hadi Parsian, Seyed Mokhtar Esmaeilnejad-Ganji
A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted on the prevalence of osteoporosis in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. The overall pooled prevalence of osteoporosis was 24.4%. The prevalence has increased significantly over the recent years. The highest pooled prevalence was in Saudi Arabia (32.7%), and the lowest was in Kuwait (15.1%). PURPOSE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence of osteoporosis in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), as defined by the World Health Organization...
November 17, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Christian Kreis, Eliane Doessegger, Judith E Lupatsch, Ben D Spycher
The aetiology of childhood cancers remains largely unknown. Space-time clustering of cases might imply an aetiological role of infections. We aimed to review the evidence of space-time clustering of specific childhood cancers. We searched Medline and Embase for population-based studies that covered a pre-defined study area, included cases under 20 years of age and were published before July 2016. We extracted all space-time clustering tests and calculated the proportion of positive tests per diagnostic group...
November 16, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Allan Dong, Alex Stagnaro-Green
BACKGROUND: The reported prevalence of thyroid disease in pregnancy varies widely through the published literature. These discrepancies are due to differences in criteria for euthyroidism, nationality, iodine status and gestational age at screening. As a result, there does not currently exist an accepted rate of prevalence for the various thyroid diseases in pregnancy. Understanding the true prevalence rates of these disorders has important implications for clinical management and the ongoing discussion regarding universal screening...
November 16, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Sébastien Grenier, Marie-Christine Payette, Bruno Gunther, Sorayya Askari, Frédérique F Desjardins, Béatrice Raymond, Djamal Berbiche
OBJECTIVES: To provide an estimate of 12-month and lifetime prevalence of DSM-IV anxiety disorders in older adults based on published studies on this topic, and to identify the impact of gender and age. METHODS/DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. Six databases were searched and manual searches through reference lists of selected articles and reviews were performed. When the information was available, summary effects were calculated for the prevalence of each anxiety disorder and for every age and gender subgroups...
November 15, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Shanshan Wu, Zhirong Yang, Jialing Zhou, Na Zeng, Zhiying He, Siyan Zhan, Jidong Jia, Hong You
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Non-invasive fibrosis assessment has been highly recommended in many liver diseases. However, comparative diagnostic accuracy of laboratory markers, ultrasound and magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for fibrosis in autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) patients has not been established. METHODS: Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library were searched. Primary outcome was significant fibrosis (SF), advanced fibrosis (AF) and cirrhosis, defined as Metavir stage F ≥ 2, F ≥ 3 and F = 4 according to liver biopsy...
November 15, 2018: Hepatology International
Ghadeer Olleik, Wassim Kassouf, Armen Aprikian, Jason Hu, Marie Vanhuyse, Fabio Cury, Stuart Peacock, Elin Bonnevier, Ebba Palenius, Alice Dragomir
Background: Inaccurate risk classification and the burden of unnecessary biopsies are a challenge due to the limited ability of current risk assessment tools and modalities to diagnose prostate cancer (PCa) and distinguish indolent from aggressive disease. This systematic review assesses newly developed tests and interventions with high evidence of clinical utility that might be adopted in clinical practice during PCa management before initial and repeat biopsy, after positive biopsy, and after radical treatment...
November 2018: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network: JNCCN
Ian Gerard Parker, Gunter Hartel, Jennifer Paratz, Nancy Low Choy, Ann Rahmann
OBJECTIVES: To determine the typical proportions of diagnoses for patients presenting with dizziness or vertigo based on clinical speciality and to assess the change in proportions of diagnoses over time. DATA SOURCES: Following PRISMA guidelines, systematic searches of PubMed and CINAHL databases and follow-up reference searches were performed for articles published in English up to October 2016. STUDY SELECTION: Analysis of searches yielded 42 studies meeting the criteria of case series of adult patients with dizziness and/or vertigo presenting to general practice, emergency departments or specialist outpatient clinics...
November 13, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Charlotte A Chun, Laurita Ciceron, Thomas R Kwapil
Schizotypy and schizophrenia involve disrupted context integration (CI), the ability to assimilate internal and external information into coherent mental representations. Research has primarily examined patients with schizophrenia, with fewer studies assessing CI in schizotypy-spectrum groups. The literature shows overall CI deficits, but mixed results for specific performance patterns and associations with clinical symptoms. Furthermore, conclusions are limited by small samples and heterogeneity across studies...
November 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Bat-Sheva Porat-Katz, Teresa W Johnson, Itai Katz, Shelly Rachman-Elbaum
BACKGROUND: Previously described as a subcategory of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), hoarding disorder was added to the fifth Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) as a stand-alone diagnosis for the first time. The first formal research in the 1990s surprisingly found no connection between material deprivation early in life and hoarding; however, later studies linked early traumatic life experiences with hoarding. Subsequent familial studies demonstrated a genetic predisposition for hoarding...
November 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Panagiotis Paliogiannis, Angelo Zinellu, Arduino A Mangoni, Giampiero Capobianco, Salvatore Dessole, Pier Luigi Cherchi, Ciriaco Carru
Anisocytosis has been associated with the severity and prognosis of several acute and chronic diseases, as well as physiological conditions such as pregnancy. Anisocytosis is quantified by the red blood cell distribution width (RDW), expressed as the ratio, multiplied by 100, between the standard deviation (SD) of red blood cell volumes and the mean corpuscular volume, or as the SD of erythrocyte volumes (RDW-SD). The aim of the present review was to report the state of the art on the physiological values and the putative diagnostic and prognostic roles of RDW in complicated pregnancy...
October 15, 2018: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
Tiago C C Pinto, Leonardo Machado, Tatiana M Bulgacov, Antônio L Rodrigues-Júnior, Maria L G Costa, Rosana C C Ximenes, Everton B Sougey
ABSTRACTObjective:To compare the accuracy of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in tracking mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). METHOD: A Systematic review of the PubMed, Bireme, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, and PsycInfo databases was conducted. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria and staring with 1,629 articles, 34 articles were selected. The quality of the selected research was evaluated through the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 tool (QUADAS-2)...
November 14, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
Massimo Bongiovanni, Luca Giovanella, Francesco Romanelli, Pierpaolo Trimboli
BACKGROUND: The recent introduction of non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasms with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) in the WHO classification of thyroid tumors has significantly modified the risk of malignancy of cytological diagnoses. In fact, while this tumor was previously classified as a carcinoma (the encapsulated, non-invasive form follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma), it is now considered a neoplasm with low malignant potential. Given that the NIFTP cytological features are not specific and overlap with other pathologic entities, there is no specific cytological diagnostic category for NIFTP...
November 14, 2018: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
M Bassetti, L Scudeller, D R Giacobbe, F Lamoth, E Righi, V Zuccaro, C Grecchi, C Rebuffi, M Akova, A Alastruey-Izquierdo, S Arıkan Akdagli, E Azoulay, S Blot, O Cornely, C Lass-Flörl, P Koehler, M Cuenca-Estrella, D W de Lange, F G De Rosa, J J De Waele, G Dimopoulos, J Garnacho-Montero, M Hoenigl, S S Kanj, J Maertens, I Martin-Loeches, P Muñoz, B J Kullberg, C Agvald-Ohman, G Poulakou, J Rello, M Sanguinetti, F S Taccone, J-F Timsit, A Torres, J A Vazquez, T Calandra
BACKGROUND: The reliability of diagnostic criteria for invasive fungal diseases (IFD) developed for severely immunocompromised patients is questionable in critically-ill adult patients in intensive care units (ICU). OBJECTIVES: To develop a standard set of definitions for IFD in critically-ill adult patients in ICU. METHODS: Based on a systematic literature review, a list of potential definitions to be applied to ICU patients will be developed by the ESCMID Study Group for Infections in Critically Ill Patients (ESGCIP) and the ESCMID Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG) chairpersons...
November 13, 2018: Mycoses
Naoki Nakano, Haitham Shoman, Vikas Khanduja
PURPOSE: There has been relatively little information about the treatment for ischiofemoral impingement (IFI) because of its rarity as well as the uncertainty of diagnosis. The aim of this study was to provide the reader with the available treatment strategies and their related outcomes for IFI based on the best available evidence, whilst highlighting classically accepted ways of treatment as well as relatively new surgical and non-surgical techniques. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature from Medline, Embase, AMED, Cochrane and Google Scholar was undertaken since inception to December 2017 following the PRISMA guidelines...
November 13, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Zowie Davy, Michael Toze
In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the American Psychiatric Association has changed the diagnosis of gender identity disorder to gender dysphoria (GD). In this critical narrative review we ask: What is gender dysphoria? We report on some of the inconsistencies in the articles that foreground distress while obfuscating the fact that not all trans and intersex people suffer stress or impaired functioning, and the inappropriate referencing to intersex people in the diagnostic criterion, claims about the GD diagnosis contributing to the depathologization of and reducing stigma surrounding trans people, the conceptualizations of "gender dysphoric" research subjects, and finally we question the etiological approaches using GD as a conceptual framework...
2018: Transgender Health
Rama Jayaraj, Chellan Kumarasamy, Madurantakam Royam Madhav, Venkatesh Pandey, Shanthi Sabarimurugan, N Ramesh, K M Gothandam, Siddhartha Baxi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Disease Markers
Wenmin Guan, Wei Yu, Qiang Lin, Zaizhu Zhang, Guiying Du, Junping Tian, Ying Xu, Evelyn Hsieh
INTRODUCTION: Bone mineral density measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the gold standard for diagnosis of osteoporosis. However, DXA interpretation can be influenced by analytic errors which can, in turn, interfere with diagnostic accuracy. One such source of potential error is the accurate identification of specific lumbar vertebrae on lumbar spine DXA images. Although the International Society for Clinical Densitometry has introduced several approaches to aid with this process, there remain individuals whose lumbar vertebrae cannot be labeled with certainty using these approaches...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Bo Yao, Jian-Yu Liu, Yun-Bo Sun
BACKGROUND: Fluid overloading is detrimental to organ function and results in a poor prognosis. It is necessary to evaluate fluid responsiveness before fluid loading. We performed a systematic meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic value of the respiratory variation in peripheral arterial blood flow peak velocity (△Vpeak PA) in predicting fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients. METHODS: PubMed, Embase and The Cochrane Library databases were searched for studies that used △Vpeak PA to predict fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients...
November 13, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
Sumanth Gandra, Anna Trett, Gerardo Alvarez-Uria, Joseph S Solomkin, Ramanan Laxminarayan
OBJECTIVE: Rising antibiotic resistance could reduce the effectiveness of antibiotics in preventing postoperative infections. We investigated trends in the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis regimens for 3 commonly performed surgical procedures-appendectomy, cesarean section, and colorectal surgery-and 1 invasive diagnostic procedure, transrectal prostate biopsy (TRPB). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Cochrane databases (through October 31, 2017) for randomized control trials (RCTs) that measured the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for 4 index procedures in preventing postoperative infections (surgical site infections [SSIs] following the 3 surgical procedures and a combination of urinary tract infections [UTIs] and sepsis following TRPB)...
November 12, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Ugo Grossi, Gian Luca Di Tanna, Henriette Heinrich, Stuart A Taylor, Charles H Knowles, S Mark Scott
BACKGROUND: Defecography is considered the reference standard for the assessment of pelvic floor anatomy and function in patients with a refractory evacuation disorder. However, the overlap of radiologically significant findings seen in patients with chronic constipation (CC) and healthy volunteers is poorly defined. AIM: To systematically review and rates of structural and functional abnormalities diagnosed by barium defecography and/or magnetic resonance imaging defecography (MRID) in patients with symptoms of CC and in healthy volunteers...
November 11, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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