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Systematic review diagnostic

Kelsey Connelly, David Collister, Navdeep Tangri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with the development of mineral bone disorder (MBD), osteoporosis, and fragility fractures. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on recent findings in the diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis in patients with CKD. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple observational studies have shown that bone mineral density measurement using DEXA is equally predictive in CKD stages 1-3, as in the general population...
March 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Franka Metzner, Stephanie Pahlke, Alice Diesing, Nina Marin, Fionna Klasen, Silke Pawils, Michael Schulte-Markwort, Hertha Richter-Appelt
Complex Trauma-related Disorders in Research and Practice Frequent traumata in childhood and adolescence are long-term or repeated interpersonal traumata caused by perpetrators in the close environment of the minors. For the description of the extensive symptoms after interpersonal Type II traumata, the complex trauma-related disorders Complex Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (CPTSD) or Disorder of Extreme Stress Not Otherwise Specified (DESNOS) and the Developmental Trauma Disorder (DTD) are being discussed for inclusion in the classification systems for mental disorders...
March 2018: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
Mattia Bonzi, Giulia Cernuschi, Monica Solbiati, Giuliano Giusti, Nicola Montano, Elisa Ceriani
Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease, and accurate diagnosis is essential. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) as the reference standard, in patients with suspected IE of the native valves. We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library searching for studies that enrolled adult patients with suspected native valves IE where data about both TTE and TEE could be extracted...
March 15, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Han-Xi Ding, Zhi Lv, Yuan Yuan, Qian Xu
Background: CircRNAs, a type of non-coding RNAs with special loop structure, of which the aberrant expression is closely related to tumor growth, proliferation, metastasis and recurrence. It remains unclear whether they have the potential to be biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of cancers. The study aims to clarify the relationship of circRNAs expression with cancers diagnosis and prognosis. Materials and Methods: Sensitivity, specificity, area under curve (AUC) and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) were calculated to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy; Hazard ratio (HR) of overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS) and recurrence free survival (RFS) were calculated to evaluate the association between circRNAs expression and survival of cancer patients...
February 20, 2018: Oncotarget
Lee-Fay Low, Margaret McGrath, Kate Swaffer, Henry Brodaty
The aim of this study is to systematically review practitioners' practices and attitudes in regards to communicating a diagnosis of dementia. A systematic search was conducted of Scopus, Web of Science and PubMed for English language original empirical papers. A sequential explanatory mixed studies analysis approach was used. Twenty-five quantitative descriptive, two intervention, six mixed methods descriptive and 21 qualitative studies were included. Pooled analysis showed that 34% of GPs and 48% of specialists usually/routinely tell the person with dementia their diagnosis, and 89% of GPs and 97% specialists usually/routinely tell the family the diagnosis...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Jennifer Karmouch, Alexandros Protonotarios, Petros Syrris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To date 16 genes have been associated with arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM). Mutations in these genes can lead to a broad spectrum of phenotypic expression ranging from disease affecting predominantly the right or left ventricle, to biventricular subtypes. Understanding the genetic causes of ACM is important in diagnosis and management of the disorder. This review summarizes recent advances in molecular genetics and discusses the application of next-generation sequencing technology in genetic testing in ACM...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
E Laurin, K K Thakur, I A Gardner, P Hick, N J G Moody, M S J Crane, I Ernst
Design and reporting quality of diagnostic accuracy studies (DAS) are important metrics for assessing utility of tests used in animal and human health. Following standards for designing DAS will assist in appropriate test selection for specific testing purposes and minimize the risk of reporting biased sensitivity and specificity estimates. To examine the benefits of recommending standards, design information from published DAS literature was assessed for 10 finfish, seven mollusc, nine crustacean and two amphibian diseases listed in the 2017 OIE Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Hong Truong, Leonard G Gomella, Mathew L Thakur, Edouard J Trabulsi
PURPOSE: Current approaches to prostate cancer screening and diagnosis are plagued with limitations in diagnostic accuracy. There is a compelling need for biomolecular imaging that will not only detect prostate cancer early but also distinguish prostate cancer from benign lesions accurately. In this topic paper, we review evidence that supports further investigation of VPAC1-targeted PET/CT imaging in the primary diagnosis of prostate cancer. METHODS: A non-systematic review of Medline/PubMed was performed...
March 14, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Juan Huang, Xuelei Ma, Lei Zhang, Hongyuan Jia, Feng Wang
A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the accuracy of optical coherence tomography (OCT) for diagnostic accuracy studies in bladder cancer patients. English language studies reporting the diagnostic accuracy of OCT for bladder cancer were retrieved from the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases in December 2014. Histopathology was a reference standard. Sensitivities, specificities, positive likelihood ratios and negative likelihood ratios were calculated, and summary receiver operating characteristic curves were drawn to determine the diagnostic accuracy of OCT...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Yanlu Xiong, Tao Wang, Mingxing Wang, Jinbo Zhao, Xiaofei Li, Zhipei Zhang, Yongsheng Zhou, Jiabao Liu, Lintao Jia, Yong Han
Objectives: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is associated with high morbidity and mortality, leading the understanding the pathogenesis paramount. Recent studies suggest that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in NSCLC. We conducted a systematic review to examine the relationship between lncRNAs and NSCLC. Materials and Methods: We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to estimate overall survival (OS), and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs to assess clinicopathological parameters...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Xin Wang, Yubei Huang, Lian Li, Hongji Dai, Fengju Song, Kexin Chen
BACKGROUND: The Gail model has been widely used and validated with conflicting results. The current study aims to evaluate the performance of different versions of the Gail model by means of systematic review and meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis (TSA). METHODS: Three systematic review and meta-analyses were conducted. Pooled expected-to-observed (E/O) ratio and pooled area under the curve (AUC) were calculated using the DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model...
March 13, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Jasper M Smit, Reinder Raadsen, Michiel J Blans, Manfred Petjak, Peter M Van de Ven, Pieter R Tuinman
BACKGROUND: Insertion of a central venous catheter (CVC) is common practice in critical care medicine. Complications arising from CVC placement are mostly due to a pneumothorax or malposition. Correct position is currently confirmed by chest x-ray, while ultrasonography might be a more suitable option. We performed a meta-analysis of the available studies with the primary aim of synthesizing information regarding detection of CVC-related complications and misplacement using ultrasound (US)...
March 13, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Elliot B Tapper, Neehar D Parikh, Akbar K Waljee, Michael Volk, Noelle E Carlozzi, Anna S-F Lok
OBJECTIVES: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is common, characterized by deficits in reaction time and executive function, and strongly associated with disability and mortality. Point-of-care diagnostics performed without specialized skills or equipment are now available, albeit with limited data regarding their generalizability. METHODS: We systematically reviewed MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Scopus for diagnostic studies of MHE using broad search terms including HE and minimal, covert, or the names of published diagnostic modalities...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Gwendolien Vanderschaeghe, Kris Dierickx, Rik Vandenberghe
BACKGROUND: Today, many healthcare or dementia organizations, clinicians, and companies emphasize the importance of detection of Alzheimer's disease in an early phase. This idea has gained considerable momentum due to the development of biomarkers, the recent FDA and EMA approval of three amyloid tracers, and the failure of a number of recent therapeutic trials conducted in the early dementia phase. On the one hand, an early etiological diagnosis can lead to early and more efficacious intervention...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
Roshanak Alialy, Sasan Tavakkol, Elham Tavakkol, Amir Ghorbani-Aghbologhi, Alireza Ghaffarieh, Seon Ho Kim, Cyrus Shahabi
The advent of the digital pathology has introduced new avenues of diagnostic medicine. Among them, crowdsourcing has attracted researchers' attention in the recent years, allowing them to engage thousands of untrained individuals in research and diagnosis. While there exist several articles in this regard, prior works have not collectively documented them. We, therefore, aim to review the applications of crowdsourcing in human pathology in a semi-systematic manner. We first, introduce a novel method to do a systematic search of the literature...
2018: Journal of Pathology Informatics
Christina Duftner, Christian Dejaco, Alexandre Sepriano, Louise Falzon, Wolfgang Andreas Schmidt, Sofia Ramiro
Objectives: To perform a systematic literature review on imaging techniques for diagnosis, outcome prediction and disease monitoring in large vessel vasculitis (LVV) informing the European League Against Rheumatism recommendations for imaging in LVV. Methods: Systematic literature review (until 10 March 2017) of diagnostic and prognostic studies enrolling >20 patients and investigating ultrasound, MRI, CT or positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with suspected and/or established primary LVV...
2018: RMD Open
Leen Naji, Harkanwal Randhawa, Zahra Sohani, Brittany Dennis, Deanna Lautenbach, Owen Kavanagh, Monica Bawor, Laura Banfield, Jason Profetto
PURPOSE: Although the digital rectal examination (DRE) is commonly performed to screen for prostate cancer, there is limited data to support its use in primary care. This review and meta-analysis aims to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of DRE in screening for prostate cancer in primary care settings. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, DARE (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) from their inception to June 2016...
March 2018: Annals of Family Medicine
Isabel Lane, Ashley Bryce, Suzanne M Ingle, Alastair D Hay
Purpose: Antimicrobial resistance is a significant threat to public health. Diagnostic uncertainty is a key driver of antimicrobial prescribing. We sought to determine whether locally relevant, real-time syndromic or microbiological infection epidemiology can improve prescribing by reducing diagnostic uncertainty. Methods: Eligible studies investigated effects on primary care prescribing for common infections in Organisation For Economic Co-Operation And Development countries...
February 26, 2018: Family Practice
Ali Rezaie, Phillip Gu, Gilaad G Kaplan, Mark Pimentel, Ahmed K Al-Darmaki
Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients often continue to experience nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms despite quiescent disease. Unlike non-IBD patients, IBD patients with dyssynergic defecation (DD) may present with various symptoms such as diarrhea, fecal incontinence, constipation, and rectal discomfort. Despite its importance and treatability, DD in IBD patients is not well recognized in practice. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence, diagnosis, and management of DD in IBD patients with ongoing defecatory symptoms...
February 24, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Matthew G Crockett, Marcus J Drake
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Benign prostatic obstruction (BPO) is a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in elderly men. However, such symptoms are often caused by primary detrusor overactivity or underactivity. Surgical management where BPO is absent or merely incidental has a lower chance of success, and exposes the patient to the potential complications of surgery. This review discusses the diagnostic challenges facing this common presentation. RECENT FINDINGS: Most evidence comes from small, historical prospective cohort studies...
March 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Urology
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