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immunology and diabetes

Uppala Radhakrishna, Sangeetha Vishweswaraiah, Avinash M Veerappa, Rita Zafra, Samet Albayrak, Prajna H Sitharam, Nazia M Saiyed, Nitish K Mishra, Chittibabu Guda, Ray Bahado-Singh
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common Critical Congenital Heart Defect (CCHD). The etiology of TOF is unknown in most cases. Preliminary data from our group and others suggest that epigenetic changes may play an important role in CHD. Epidemiologically, a significant percentage of CHD including TOF fail to be diagnosed in the prenatal and early newborn period which can negatively affect health outcomes. We performed genome-wide methylation assay in newborn blood in 24 non-syndromic TOF cases and 24 unaffected matched controls using Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChips...
2018: PloS One
Chantal Mathieu, Riitta Lahesmaa, Ezio Bonifacio, Peter Achenbach, Timothy Tree
Immune biomarkers of type 1 diabetes are many and diverse. Some of these, such as the autoantibodies, are well established but not discriminative enough to deal with the heterogeneity inherent to type 1 diabetes progression. As an alternative, high hopes are placed on T cell assays, which give insight into the cells that actually target the beta cell or play a crucial role in maintaining tolerance. These assays are approaching a level of robustness that may allow for solid conclusions on both disease progression and therapeutic efficacy of immune interventions...
September 12, 2018: Diabetologia
Peggy P Ho, Lauren J Lahey, Foteini Mourkioti, Peggy E Kraft, Antonio Filareto, Moritz Brandt, Klas E G Magnusson, Eric E Finn, Jeffrey S Chamberlain, William H Robinson, Helen M Blau, Lawrence Steinman
In gene therapy for Duchenne muscular dystrophy there are two potential immunological obstacles. An individual with Duchenne muscular dystrophy has a genetic mutation in dystrophin, and therefore the wild-type protein is "foreign," and thus potentially immunogenic. The adeno-associated virus serotype-6 (AAV6) vector for delivery of dystrophin is a viral-derived vector with its own inherent immunogenicity. We have developed a technology where an engineered plasmid DNA is delivered to reduce autoimmunity...
September 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kalle Kurppa, Anna Laitinen, Daniel Agardh
Coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes are the most common paediatric autoimmune disorders. Both conditions have increasing incidence and can often coexist in a patient. The diseases share many genetic and immunological features, but diagnostic and treatment approaches vary substantially worldwide. Because of the often subtle presentation of coeliac disease in children with type 1 diabetes, many are diagnosed only upon screening for coeliac disease. In this Review, we summarise approaches to diagnosis and treatment of children with type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease, with a specific emphasis on those with a double diagnosis...
February 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Laura M Jacobsen, Brittney N Newby, Daniel J Perry, Amanda L Posgai, Michael J Haller, Todd M Brusko
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine was first reported to lower daily insulin dose and improve glycemic control in patients with new-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) in 1984. While renal toxicity limited cyclosporine's extended use, this observation ignited collaborative efforts to identify immunotherapeutic agents capable of safely preserving β cells in patients with or at risk for T1D. RECENT FINDINGS: Advances in T1D prediction and early diagnosis, together with expanded knowledge of the disease mechanisms, have facilitated trials targeting specific immune cell subsets, autoantigens, and pathways...
August 30, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco, Carina Previate, Vander Silva Alves, Flávio Andrade Francisco, Veridiana Mota Moreira, Ana Maria Praxedes de Moraes, Rodrigo Mello Gomes, Maria Cecília Picinato, Maria Raquel Marçal Natali, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Particulate matter (PM) is an important risk factor for immunological system imbalance due to its small size, which can reach more distal regions of the respiratory tract, independently of its chemical composition. Some studies have suggested that PM exposure is associated with an increased incidence of diabetes, especially in industrialized urban regions. However, studies regarding the effects of PM exposure during perinatal life on glucose metabolism are limited. We tested whether exposure to PM from an urban area with poor air quality during pregnancy and lactation could cause short- and long-term dysfunction in rat offspring...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Rui Wang, Dianbao Zhang, Tao Zhang, Feng Zhao, Hongxin Lang, Xuewen Lin, Xining Pang
Type 1 diabetes involves the immunologically mediated destruction of insulin‑producing cells (IPCs) in the pancreatic islet. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to differentiate into IPCs and have become the most promising means for diabetes therapy. The present study demonstrated that human adipose‑derived stem cells (hADSCs) and human amniotic MSCs (hAMSCs) are able to differentiate into functional IPCs by knocking down neuronal restrictive silencing factor (NRSF) and Sonic hedgehog (SHH). In the current study, PEI@Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were used to deliver NRSF small interfering (si)RNA and SHH siRNA to hADSCs and hAMSCs...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Paige E Herman, Ona Bloom
In addition to changes in motor and sensory function, individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) experience immunological changes. These changes are clinically significant, as infections are the leading cause of death for this population. Along with increased infections, inflammation is commonly observed in persons with SCI, where it may promote many common medical consequences. These include elevated risk of cardiovascular disease, impaired wound healing, diabetes and neuropathic pain. It has also been proposed that chronic inflammation dampens neurological recovery...
September 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
A Niraula, S Thapa, S Kunwar, M Lamsal, N Baral, R Maskey
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders of carbohydrate metabolism in which glucose is underused, producing hyperglycemia. Diabetic patients are prone to opportunistic infection, thus serum ADA levels in these patients is very important as a screening test for Tuberculosis and autoimmune diseases. Thus, the present study was conducted to estimate the Serum ADA activity, glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting and postprandial glucose level in patients with T2DM and to correlate the serum level of ADA with glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting and postprandial glucose level in T2DM...
August 20, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Susan A Safley, Norma S Kenyon, Dora M Berman, Graham F Barber, Melissa Willman, Stephanie Duncanson, Neal Iwakoshi, Robert Holdcraft, Lawrence Gazda, Peter Thompson, I Raul Badell, Athanassios Sambanis, Camillo Ricordi, Collin J Weber
BACKGROUND: Xenogeneic donors would provide an unlimited source of islets for the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The goal of this study was to assess the function of microencapsulated adult porcine islets (APIs) transplanted ip in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic non-human primates (NHPs) given targeted immunosuppression. METHODS: APIs were encapsulated in: (a) single barium-gelled alginate capsules or (b) double alginate capsules with an inner, islet-containing compartment and a durable, biocompatible outer alginate layer...
August 17, 2018: Xenotransplantation
Angela Lombardi, Effie Tsomos, Sara S Hammerstad, Yaron Tomer
IFNα is a cytokine essential to a vast array of immunologic processes. Its induction early in the innate immune response provides a priming mechanism that orchestrates numerous subsequent pathways in innate and adaptive immunity. Despite its beneficial effects in viral infections IFNα has been reported to be associated with several autoimmune diseases including autoimmune thyroid disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, primary biliary cholangitis, and recently emerged as a major cytokine that triggers Type 1 Diabetes...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Teresa Grzelak, Klaudia Mikołajczyk
Cystic fibrosis - CF - is the most common recessively autosomally and inherited disorder in the Caucasian population. It is incurable, multi-systemic disease with progressive course. CF is caused by CFTR gene mutation, the product of which is Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR). CF patients are exposed to fat-soluble vitamins deficiency, including vitamin D. It is due to the fat malabsorption (caused by exacerbation exocrine pancreatic insufficiency), decreased sun exposure (caused by receiving antibiotics photophobia), reduction of adipose tissue and insufficient supply with food...
August 15, 2018: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
Shailima Rampogu, Saravanan Parameswaran, Mary Rampogu Lemuel, Keun Woo Lee
Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) is used as a spice throughout the world. It is known for its medicinal properties such as antidiabetic, anticarcinogenic, and immunological activities. The present study shows the properties and the nutritional quality of fenugreek seed extract and focuses on screening of active compounds in drug designing for type 2 diabetes and breast cancer. Quantitative analysis was used to calculate the percentages of protein, carbohydrates moisture, fatty acid, galactomannan, oil, and amino acid...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Khalaf Kridin, Reuven Bergman
Importance: The association of bullous pemphigoid (BP) with the use of dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors among patients with diabetes has recently emerged. The risk of developing BP during treatment with new DPP-4 inhibitor agents like linagliptin is yet to be established. The clinical features and the prognostic outcomes of patients with DPP-4 inhibitor-associated BP are yet to be established. Objectives: Primarily to estimate the association between DPP-4 inhibitor exposure and the development of BP, and secondarily to characterize the clinical features and history of patients with DPP-4 inhibitor-associated BP...
August 8, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
Bruna Stevanato Higuchi, Nathália Rodrigues, Marina Ignácio Gonzaga, João Carlos Cicogna Paiolo, Nadine Stefanutto, Wellington Pine Omori, Daniel Guariz Pinheiro, João Luiz Brisotti, Euclides Matheucci, Vânia Sammartino Mariano, Gislane Lelis Vilela de Oliveira
Intestinal dysbiosis associated with immunological deregulation, leaky gut, bacterial translocation, and systemic inflammation has been associated with autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). The aim of this study was to investigate the intestinal dysbiosis in T1D patients and correlate these results with clinical parameters and cytokines. The present study was approved by the Barretos Cancer Hospital (Process number 903/2014), and all participants have signed the informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, and answered a questionnaire about dietary habits...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Sabrina Chiloiro, Tommaso Tartaglione, Ettore Domenico Capoluongo, Flavia Angelini, Vincenzo Arena, Antonella Giampietro, Antonio Bianchi, Angelo Zoli, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Cesare Colosimo, Laura De Marinis
Context: Primary autoimmune hypophysitis (PAH) evolves in most of untreated cases in irreversible hypopituitarism. PAH outcome, instead, after immunosuppressive treatment hasn't been completely clarified. Objective: To evaluate hypophysitis and pituitary function outcomes. Design: A prospective, double-arm study with a 2-year follow-up. Setting: Referral center for pituitary disease. Patients: 20 PAH cases...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Samreen Siddiqui, Swati Waghdhare, Sujeet Jha, Shweta Dubey
Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a condition which develops due to insulin resistance. There are a number of immunological markers (IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, etc), which play significant role during normal pregnancy and their irregular levels could likely cause some level of insulin resistance. There are studies which have compared the levels of different immunological mediators in GDM affected females and their healthy controls, but their findings are little controversial. Some of the studies have reported increased levels of IL-6, TNF-α, adiponectin, leptin, in females affected with GDM, while others do not confirm this...
July 30, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Tatiana Ţăranu, Mirela Grigorovici, Magda Constantin, Mihaela Paula Toader
Dear Editor, Subcutaneous granuloma annulare (SGA) is considered a rare clinical variant of granuloma annulare, a common self-healing chronic inflammatory disorder that may appear in childhood as well as in adult age (1-3). A 29-year-old female patient reported the onset of several small subcutaneous nodules on the dorsal aspect of the second interphalangeal joint of the left medius finger and the left elbow, accompanied by vague joint pain, had occurred 13 years ago. Specific markers for rheumatoid arthritis were negative, leading to a diagnosis of sero-negative rheumatoid arthritis, for which treatment with methotrexate was initiated...
December 2017: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
Kari-Matti Mäkelä, Aki Hietaharju, Antti Brander, Jukka Peltola
Background: There is scanty guidance in the literature on the management of patients with glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) antibody associated autoimmune epilepsy (GAD-epilepsy). GAD-epilepsy is a rare distinct neurological syndrome with a wide clinical spectrum. We describe six GAD-epilepsy patients with special emphasis on the treatment timing and the relationship between immunologic and anti-epileptic therapy. Methods: Six patients diagnosed with GAD-epilepsy in Tampere University Hospital who had received immunotherapy from 2013 to 2017 were retrospectively analyzed from patient records...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Rosie Jasper, Kimberly Skelding
Pregnancy related complications indicate a propensity for atherosclerotic disease. Epidemiologic data demonstrate early onset cardiovascular disease in women with a history of pregnancy loss, preterm pregnancy or pregnancy complicated by intrauterine growth restriction. Early onset diabetes, increased rates of MI and increased rates of stroke are more prevalent after gestational diabetes. In addition, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy mark significant pathophysiologic changes, including vascular dysfunction and immunologic changes, which induce atherogenesis and result in a substantial increase in rates of stroke, ischemic heart disease and cardiac mortality...
July 25, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
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