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immunology and diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230336/the-endothelial-border-to-health-mechanistic-evidence-of-the-hyperglycemic-culprit-of-inflammatory-disease-acceleration
#1
REVIEW
Nina Waerling Hansen, Anker Jon Hansen, Anette Sams
The endothelial cell (EC) layer constitutes a barrier that controls movements of fluid, solutes and cells between blood and tissue. Further, the endothelial layer regulates vascular tone and directs local humoral and cellular inflammatory processes. The strategic position makes it an important player for maintenance of health and for development of a number of diseases. Endothelial dysfunction is known to be an important component of type 2 diabetes, but is also assumed to be involved in many other diseases, for example, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and cardiovascular diseases...
March 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223728/levothyroxine-therapy-and-impaired-clearance-are-the-strongest-contributors-to-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-results-of-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#2
Thorsten Brechmann, Andre Sperlbaum, Wolff Schmiegel
AIM: To identify a set of contributors, and weight and rank them on a pathophysiological basis. METHODS: Patients who have undergone a lactulose or glucose hydrogen breath test to rule out small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) for various clinical symptoms, including diarrhoea, weight loss, abdominal pain, cramping or bloating, were seen as eligible for inclusion in a retrospective single-centre study. Clinical data such as co-morbidities, medication, laboratory parameters and other possible risk factors have been identified from the electronic data system...
February 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205558/plant-based-vaccines-for-oral-delivery-of-type-1-diabetes-related-autoantigens-evaluating-oral-tolerance-mechanisms-and-disease-prevention-in-nod-mice
#3
Amanda L Posgai, Clive H Wasserfall, Kwang-Chul Kwon, Henry Daniell, Desmond A Schatz, Mark A Atkinson
Autoantigen-specific immunological tolerance represents a central objective for prevention of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Previous studies demonstrated mucosal antigen administration results in expansion of Foxp3(+) and LAP(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), suggesting oral delivery of self-antigens might represent an effective means for modulating autoimmune disease. Early preclinical experiments using the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model reported mucosal administration of T1D-related autoantigens [proinsulin or glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD)] delayed T1D onset, but published data are conflicting regarding dose, treatment duration, requirement for combinatorial agents, and extent of efficacy...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196317/common-skin-conditions-in-children-noninfectious-rashes
#4
Brian Z Rayala, Dean S Morrell
Cutaneous adverse drug reactions are among the most common noninfectious rashes of childhood. Cutaneous adverse drug reactions are classified as morbilliform, urticarial, bullous, pustular, or psoriasiform. Atopic dermatitis is one of the most common inflammatory cutaneous eruptions, and is characterized by pruritus and flexural distribution. Emollients and topical corticosteroids are first-line therapies. Topical calcineurin inhibitors are second-line, steroid-sparing drugs for certain conditions, such as face and eyelid eczema...
February 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192530/non-enzymatic-glucosylation-induced-neo-epitopes-on-human-serum-albumin-a-concentration-based-study
#5
Km Neelofar, Zarina Arif, Jamal Ahmad, Khursheed Alam
Hyperglycaemia induced non enzymatic glycation is accelerated in diabetic patients and aggressively involved in diabetes progression. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in blood circulation. In hyperglycaemia, it undergoes fast glycation and results in the impairment of structure. Our previous study has demonstrated structural alterations in Amadori-albumin modified with different glucose concentrations from physiological to pathophysiological range. Here, we focused on immunological characterization of Amadori-albumin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190773/%C3%AE-cells-that-resist-immunological-attack-develop-during-progression-of-autoimmune-diabetes-in-nod-mice
#6
Jinxiu Rui, Songyan Deng, Arnon Arazi, Ana Luisa Perdigoto, Zongzhi Liu, Kevan C Herold
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease that involves immune-mediated destruction of β cells. How β cells respond to immune attack is unknown. We identified a population of β cells during the progression of T1D in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice that survives immune attack. This population develops from normal β cells confronted with islet infiltrates. Pathways involving cell movement, growth and proliferation, immune responses, and cell death and survival are activated in these cells. There is reduced expression of β cell identity genes and diabetes antigens and increased immune inhibitory markers and stemness genes...
February 4, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176480/de-novo-thrombotic-microangiopathy-following-simultaneous-pancreas-and-kidney-transplantation-managed-with-eculizumab
#7
REVIEW
Lani Shochet, John Kanellis, Ian Simpson, Joseph Ta, William Mulley
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a well-recognised complication following transplantation, often due to an underlying genetic predisposition, medications or rejection. The use of eculizumab in these settings has been previously described, but its role still remains to be clarified. A 45-year-old man, with a history of type 1 diabetes mellitus and subsequent end-stage kidney failure, presented for a simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant. Immunologically, he was well matched with the donor, and he received standard induction immunosuppression including tacrolimus...
February 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167127/-with-a-little-help-from-my-friends-the-role-of-microbiota-in-thyroid-hormone-metabolism-and-enterohepatic-recycling
#8
Camilla Virili, Marco Centanni
The gut microbiota is composed of over 1200 species of anaerobes and aerobes bacteria along with bacteriophages, viruses and fungal species. Increasing evidence indicates that the intestinal microbiota, beside digestive equilibrium, is also crucial for immunologic, hormonal and metabolic homeostasis. The intestinal microbiota interacts with distant organs by signals which may be part of the bacteria themselves or their metabolites. Dysbiosis has been observed in inflammatory or autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis or type 1 diabetes as well as in obesity and type 2 diabetes...
February 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155806/human-immunology-of-tuberculosis
#9
Thomas J Scriba, Anna K Coussens, Helen A Fletcher
Immunology is a central theme when it comes to tuberculosis (TB). The outcome of human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the ability of the immune response to clear or contain the infection. In cases where this fails, the bacterium replicates, disseminates within the host, and elicits a pathologic inflammatory response, and disease ensues. Clinical presentation of TB disease is remarkably heterogeneous, and the disease phenotype is largely dependent on host immune status. Onward transmission of M...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117227/beta-cell-fragility-as-a-common-underlying-risk-factor-in-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes
#10
REVIEW
Adrian Liston, John A Todd, Vasiliki Lagou
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are distinct clinical entities primarily driven by autoimmunity and metabolic dysfunction, respectively. However, there is a growing appreciation that they may share an etiopathological factor, namely the role of variation in beta-cell sensitivity to stress factors. Increased sensitivity increases the risk of beta-cell death or insulin secretion dysfunction. The beta-cell fragility model proposes that this variation contributes to the risk of developing either type 1 or type 2 diabetes, in the presence of immunological and/or metabolic stress factors...
January 20, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100901/pancreas-transplant-with-duodeno-duodenostomy-and-caval-drainage-using-a-diamond-patch-graft-a-single-center-experience
#11
Je Ho Ryu, Tae Beom Lee, Young Mok Park, Kwang Ho Yang, Chong Woo Chu, Jung Hee Lee, Taeun Kim, Byung Hyun Choi
BACKGROUND The surgical technique used in pancreas transplant is essential for patient safety and graft survival, and problems exist with conventional strategies. When enteric exocrine drainage is performed, there is no method of immunologic monitoring other than direct graft pancreas biopsy. The most common cause of early graft failure is graft thrombosis, and adequate preventive and treatment strategies are unclear. To overcome these disadvantages, we suggest a modified surgical technique. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eleven patients underwent pancreas transplant with our modified technique...
January 19, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068891/immunological-variation-due-to-genetics-of-inflammatory-snps-and-age-and-impact-on-disease-manifestation
#12
Gary R Burleson
The immune system is a critical component in defense against viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal diseases. Immunological mechanisms, including immunological mediators, innate immunity, cell-mediated immunity, and humoral-mediated immunity, serve to maintain homeostasis and protect the host from disease. Immunological variation can impact defense mechanisms, however. Two factors in particular that can influence immune function are the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and aging. SNPs affecting inflammatory cytokines are an important modifier involved in a number of diseases such as asthma, periodontal disease, atherosclerosis, diabetic retinopathy, psoriasis, and osteoporosis...
January 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061809/oxidative-stress-biomarkers-and-their-relationship-with-cytokine-concentrations-in-overweight-obese-pregnant-women-and-their-neonates
#13
María Hernández-Trejo, Araceli Montoya-Estrada, Yessica Torres-Ramos, Aurora Espejel-Núñez, Alberto Guzmán-Grenfell, Rosa Morales-Hernández, Maricruz Tolentino-Dolores, Estibalitz Laresgoiti-Servitje
BACKGROUND: Oxidative damage present in obese/overweight mothers may lead to further oxidative stress conditions or inflammation in maternal and cord blood samples. Thirty-four pregnant women/newborn pairs were included in this study to assess the presence of oxidative stress biomarkers and their relationship with serum cytokine concentrations. Oxidative stress biomarkers and antioxidant enzymes were compared between the mother/offspring pairs. The presence of 27 cytokines was measured in maternal and cord blood samples...
January 7, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061324/oral-corticosterone-administration-reduces-insulitis-but-promotes-insulin-resistance-and-hyperglycemia-in-male-nonobese-diabetic-mice
#14
Susan J Burke, Heidi M Batdorf, Adrianna E Eder, Michael D Karlstad, David H Burk, Robert C Noland, Z Elizabeth Floyd, J Jason Collier
Steroid-induced diabetes is the most common form of drug-induced hyperglycemia. Therefore, metabolic and immunological alterations associated with chronic oral corticosterone were investigated using male nonobese diabetic mice. Three weeks after corticosterone delivery, there was reduced sensitivity to insulin action measured by insulin tolerance test. Body composition measurements revealed increased fat mass and decreased lean mass. Overt hyperglycemia (>250 mg/dL) manifested 6 weeks after the start of glucocorticoid administration, whereas 100% of the mice receiving the vehicle control remained normoglycemic...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058228/corticosteroid-minimization-in-renal-transplantation-careful-patient-selection-enables-feasibility
#15
Georgios Vlachopanos, Julie M Bridson, Ajay Sharma, Ahmed Halawa
AIM: To explore the benefits and harms of corticosteroid (CS) minimization following renal transplantation. METHODS: CS minimization attempts to improve cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia), to enhance growth in children, to ameliorate bone disease and to lead to better compliance with immunosuppressive agents. Nevertheless, any benefit must be carefully weighed against the reduction in net immunosuppression and the potential harm to renal allograft function and survival...
December 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045403/immunologic-impact-of-the-intestine-in-metabolic-disease
#16
Daniel A Winer, Shawn Winer, Helen J Dranse, Tony K T Lam
Obesity and diabetes are associated with increased chronic low-grade inflammation and elevated plasma glucose levels. Although inflammation in the fat and liver are established features of obesity-associated insulin resistance, the intestine is emerging as a new site for immunologic changes that affect whole-body metabolism. Specifically, microbial and dietary factors incurred by diet-induced obesity influence underlying innate and adaptive responses of the intestinal immune system. These responses affect the maintenance of the intestinal barrier, systemic inflammation, and glucose metabolism...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038946/hmgb1-modulation-in-pancreatic-islets-using-a-cell-permeable-a-box-fragment
#17
Yong Hwa Hwang, Min Jun Kim, Yong-Kyu Lee, Minhyung Lee, Dong Yun Lee
Although pancreatic islet implantation is an attractive strategy for curing diabetes mellitus, implanted cells are immunologically eliminated due to early islet graft loss. One of main issues in early islet graft loss is the secretion of high-mobility group-box-1 (HMGB1) protein from the damaged islet cells, which is known as a cytokine-like factor. Therefore, regulating the activity of HMGB1 protein offers an alternative strategy for improving outcomes of islet cell therapy. To this end, we first demonstrated that HMGB1 protein could be bound to its A-box fragment (HMGB1 A-box) with higher binding affinity, resembling anti-HMGB1 antibody...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029082/probiotics-in-curing-allergic-and-inflammatory-conditions-research-progress-and-futuristic-vision
#18
Kuldeep Dhama, Shyma K Latheef, Ashok Kumar Munjal, Rekha Khandia, Hari Abdul Samad, Hafiz M N Iqbal, Sunil K Joshi
BACKGROUND: Probiotics constitute the viable and beneficial microbes, which offer a dietary means to sustain the balance of gastro-intestinal (GI) microflora. Owing to their multiple health benefits, these have recently gained wide attention among researchers for exploring their potential in safeguarding the health of humans and animals. Probiotics could also modulate host-immune responses, thereby help in counteracting the immunological dysfunctions. Probiotics can inhibit the systemic invasion of pathogens entering through the GI mucosa/ oral cavity and have been found to possess effective prophylactic and therapeutic utilities against various infectious pathogens as well as non-infectious diseases and disorders...
December 26, 2016: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027900/amorphous-aggregate-adducts-of-linker-histone-h1-turn-highly-immunologic-in-the-cancers-of-oesophagus-stomach-gall-bladder-and-ovary
#19
Abdul Rouf Mir, Moinuddin, Safia Habib
Hyperglycaemic influence on carcinogenesis and tumour progression is emerging as a link between diabetes and cancer. This work establishes the disturbed structural integrity of nucleosomal linker histone H1 by methyglyoxal (MG) and then correlates the role of modified H1 in the auto-immunopathogenesis of multiple cancers. MG modification caused a loss of free ε-amino groups in H1 and raised its β-sheet structural component with a consequence of non amyloid aggregation. It changed the folding-unfolding denaturation pattern of H1 and attached itself to the lysine residues of the protein eventually making up N(ε)-(carboxyethyl) lysine...
December 24, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008169/advances-in-islet-encapsulation-technologies
#20
REVIEW
Tejal Desai, Lonnie D Shea
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing islet cells of the pancreas. Although islet transplantation has proved to be successful for some patients with type 1 diabetes, its widespread use is limited by islet donor shortage and the requirement for lifelong immunosuppression. An encapsulation strategy that can prevent the rejection of xenogeneic islets or of stem cell-derived allogeneic islets can potentially eliminate both of these barriers. Although encapsulation technology has met several challenges, the convergence of expertise in materials, nanotechnology, stem cell biology and immunology is allowing us to get closer to the goal of encapsulated islet cell therapy for humans...
December 23, 2016: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
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