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immunology and diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936426/comparison-of-diabetic-and-non-diabetic-human-leukocytic-responses-to-different-capsule-types-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-responsible-for-causing-pyogenic-liver-abscess
#1
I Russel Lee, Ethel Sng, Kok-Onn Lee, James S Molton, Monica Chan, Shirin Kalimuddin, Ezlyn Izharuddin, David C Lye, Sophia Archuleta, Yunn-Hwen Gan
The major risk factor for Klebsiella liver abscess (KLA) is type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), but the immunological mechanisms involved in the increased susceptibility are poorly defined. We investigated the responses of neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP), the causative agent of KLA. DNA and myeloperoxidase levels were elevated in the plasma of KLA patients compared to uninfected individuals indicating neutrophil activation, but diabetic status had no effect on these neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) biomarkers in both subject groups...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936425/gut-dysbiosis-in-animals-due-to-environmental-chemical-exposures
#2
REVIEW
Cheryl S Rosenfeld
The gut microbiome consists of over 10(3)-10(4) microorganism inhabitants that together possess 150 times more genes that the human genome and thus should be considered an "organ" in of itself. Such communities of bacteria are in dynamic flux and susceptible to changes in host environment and body condition. In turn, gut microbiome disturbances can affect health status of the host. Gut dysbiosis might result in obesity, diabetes, gastrointestinal, immunological, and neurobehavioral disorders. Such host diseases can originate due to shifts in microbiota favoring more pathogenic species that produce various virulence factors, such as lipopolysaccharide...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931462/paradoxical-development-of-polymyositis-like-autoimmunity-through-augmented-expression-of-autoimmune-regulator-aire
#3
Hitoshi Nishijima, Tatsuya Kajimoto, Yoshiki Matsuoka, Yasuhiro Mouri, Junko Morimoto, Minoru Matsumoto, Hiroshi Kawano, Yasuhiko Nishioka, Hisanori Uehara, Keisuke Izumi, Koichi Tsuneyama, Il-Mi Okazaki, Taku Okazaki, Kazuyoshi Hosomichi, Ayako Shiraki, Makoto Shibutani, Kunitoshi Mitsumori, Mitsuru Matsumoto
Autoimmunity is prevented by the function of the autoimmune regulator [AIRE (Aire in mice)], which promotes the expression of a wide variety of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) from medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) and from a subset of peripheral antigen-presenting cells (APCs). We examined the effect of additive expression of human AIRE (huAIRE) in a model of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Unexpectedly, we observed that mice expressing augmented AIRE/Aire developed muscle-specific autoimmunity associated with incomplete maturation of mTECs together with impaired expression of Aire-dependent TRAs...
September 17, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926876/-advances-in-the-research-of-characteristics-and-treatment-of-burns-in-the-elderly
#4
R Liu, Z Y Li
With the development of society and the improvement of medical level, the average life span of human has been increasing year by year. The proportion of elderly burn patients is also increasing yearly, which has become a social problem that can not be ignored. Because of physiological characteristics, such as decreased function of heart, lung, and kidney, degenerative changes of neural system, reduced gastrointestinal function and immunological function, and mostly accompanied by primary diseases of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, elderly burn patients suffer from high shock rate and mortality, and their wounds are not easy to heal...
September 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926600/publication-trends-of-research-on-diabetes-mellitus-and-t-cells-1997-2016-a-20-year-bibliometric-study
#5
Ye Gao, Yiran Wang, Xiao Zhai, Yifei He, Rong Chen, Jingjing Zhou, Ming Li, Qijin Wang
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a huge burden for human health. Recent studies show the close relationship between DM and T cells. We investigated the trend in DM and T cells research. METHODS: Using the Web of Science database, we searched the publications on DM and T cells in 1997-2016, and studied the source data using bibliometric methodology. Excel 2016, GraphPad Prism 5, and VOSviewer software were used to analyze the publication trend in DM and T cells research...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893184/the-canadian-hiv-and-aging-cohort-study-determinants-of-increased-risk-of-cardio-vascular-diseases-in-hiv-infected-individuals-rationale-and-study-protocol
#6
Madeleine Durand, Carl Chartrand-Lefebvre, Jean-Guy Baril, Sylvie Trottier, Benoit Trottier, Marianne Harris, Sharon Walmsley, Brian Conway, Alexander Wong, Jean-Pierre Routy, Colin Kovacs, Paul A MacPherson, Kenneth Marc Monteith, Samer Mansour, George Thanassoulis, Michal Abrahamowicz, Zhitong Zhu, Christos Tsoukas, Petronela Ancuta, Nicole Bernard, Cécile L Tremblay
BACKGROUND: With potent antiretroviral drugs, HIV infection is becoming a chronic disease. Emergence of comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become a leading concern for patients living with the infection. We hypothesized that the chronic and persistent inflammation and immune activation associated with HIV disease leads to accelerated aging, characterized by CVD. This will translate into higher incidence rates of CVD in HIV infected participants, when compared to HIV negative participants, after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors...
September 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891298/immune-checkpoint-molecule-pd-1-acts-as-a-novel-biomarker-for-the-pathological-process-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Xiaoying Ye, Songwen Ju, Houquan Duan, Yongliang Yao, Jianfen Wu, Shao Zhong, Lei Chen, ShaSha Cao, Yongfang Xu, Xiaocui Zheng, Haiyan Wang, Yan Ge, Songguang Ju
AIM: Accumulating evidence suggested that challenge of the maternal-fetal interaction during pregnancy might cause the impairment of immunological hemostasis and lead to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) pathological process. Immune checkpoint molecule PD-1 is one of the critical molecule balancing immune response and immunological tolerance. METHODS: PD-1 expressions on T-cell subsets of GDM patients and control groups were measured via flow cytometric analysis and followed up...
September 11, 2017: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887632/multipeptide-coupled-nanoparticles-induce-tolerance-in-humanised-hla-transgenic-mice-and-inhibit-diabetogenic-cd8-t-cell-responses-in-type-1-diabetes
#8
Xinyu Xu, Lingling Bian, Min Shen, Xin Li, Jing Zhu, Shuang Chen, Lei Xiao, Qingqing Zhang, Heng Chen, Kuanfeng Xu, Tao Yang
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Induction of antigen-specific immunological tolerance may provide an attractive immunotherapy in the NOD mouse model but the conditions that lead to the successful translation to human type 1 diabetes are limited. In this study, we covalently linked 500 nm carboxylated polystyrene beads (PSB) with a mixture of immunodominant HLA-A*02:01-restricted epitopes (peptides-PSB) that may have high clinical relevance in humans as they promote immune tolerance; we then investigated the effect of the nanoparticle-peptide complexes on T cell tolerance...
September 8, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874533/type-1-diabetes-induction-in-humanized-mice
#9
Shulian Tan, Yang Li, Jinxing Xia, Chun-Hui Jin, Zheng Hu, Gaby Duinkerken, Yuying Li, Mohsen Khosravi Maharlooei, Estefania Chavez, Grace Nauman, Nichole Danzl, Maki Nakayama, Bart O Roep, Megan Sykes, Yong-Guang Yang
There is an urgent and unmet need for humanized in vivo models of type 1 diabetes to study immunopathogenesis and immunotherapy, and in particular antigen-specific therapy. Transfer of patient blood lymphocytes to immunodeficient mice is associated with xenogeneic graft-versus-host reactivity that complicates assessment of autoimmunity. Improved models could identify which human T cells initiate and participate in beta-cell destruction and help define critical target islet autoantigens. We used humanized mice (hu-mice) containing robust human immune repertoires lacking xenogeneic graft-versus-host reactivity to address this question...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867704/evaluation-of-retinal-function-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats-by-using-the-electroretinography-and-immunohistochemistry-methods
#10
Noriko Hiramatsu, Saori Deguchi, Chiaki Yoshioka, Hiroko Otake, Naoki Yamamoto, Noriaki Nagai
 Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat (STZ rat) was used in many studies for the diabetic mellitus. In this study, we demonstrated whether the electroretinograms (ERG) was changed in the retina of STZ rats. In addition, we investigated the histopathological alteration in the retina of STZ rats by using the immunological method. The 100 mg/kg of STZ was injected continuously for 2 d (100 mg/kg×2). The insulin level was decreased, and the glucose level was enhanced 14 d after the injection of STZ. Moreover, the levels of a-wave, b-wave and OP amplitude were decreased in the rat at 14 d after the injection of STZ...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865932/the-role-of-nitric-oxide-in-diabetic-skin-patho-physiology
#11
REVIEW
Ana Stancic, Aleksandra Jankovic, Aleksandra Korac, Biljana Buzadzic, Vesna Otasevic, Bato Korac
The role of nitric oxide (NO) in cutaneous physiology/pathology became a growing research field since the discovery that almost all types of skin cells can synthetize this redox signaling molecule about 20 years ago. Now, it is evident that NO is an important player in skin physiological processes and in responses of cutaneous cells to external insults, while the impaired NO signaling has an important consequence in skin pathology. Skin disorders are common complications in diabetic conditions. Various metabolic/biochemical and immunological dysregulations in diabetic skin are tightly coupled with the disturbances in the redox state, primarily the ratio between NO and superoxide (О2(-))...
September 1, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852591/the-effects-of-allogenic-stem-cells-in-a-murine-model-of-hind-limb-diabetic-ischemic-tissue
#12
Jesús Álvarez García, Soledad García Gómez-Heras, Luis Riera Del Moral, Carlota Largo, Damián García-Olmo, Mariano García-Arranz
BACKGROUND: Diabetes is one of the major risk factors for peripheral arterial disease. In patients in whom surgery cannot be performed, cell therapy may be an alternative treatment. Since time is crucial for these patients, we propose the use of allogenic mesenchymal cells. METHODS: We obtained mesenchymal cells derived from the fat tissue of a healthy Sprague-Dawley rat. Previous diabetic induction with streptozotocin in 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats, ligation plus left iliac and femoral artery sections were performed as a previously described model of ischemia...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844471/remodeling-t-cell-compartments-during-anti-cd3-immunotherapy-of-type-1-diabetes
#13
S Alice Long, Jerill Thorpe, Kevan C Herold, Mario Ehlers, Srinath Sanda, Noha Lim, Peter S Linsley, Gerald T Nepom, Kristina M Harris
The immunological mechanism(s) of action whereby teplizumab preserves C-peptide levels in the progression of patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) is still not well understood. In the present study, we evaluated the kinetics of T cell modulation in peripheral blood following two 14-day courses of teplizumab therapy one year apart in recent onset T1D participants in the AbATE clinical trial. Transient rises in PD-1+Foxp3+ Treg and potentially anergic (CD57-KLRG1-PD-1+) cells in the circulating CD4 T cell compartment were paralleled by more profound increases in circulating CD8 T cells with traits of exhaustion (CD57-KLRG1+PD-1+, TIGIT+KLRG1+, and persistent down-modulation of CD127)...
August 18, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843649/change-in-nomenclature-for-the-immunologic-synapse-from-troxis-necrosis-to-trogocytosis
#14
Samuel W French
The immunologic synapse mechanism of liver necrosis was termed Troxis Necrosis meaning "nibbling". (Wang MX et al. and French SW. Exp Mol Pathol 2001, 71: 137-146). This mechanism of liver injury was first named "Piecemeal Necrosis" by Hans Popper. It is involved in autoimmune hepatitis, HCV, HBV, primary biliary cirrhosis and steatohepatitis. This process involves the T cell receptor (TCR) which binds to the hepatocyte antigen presenting major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on the hepatocytic plasma membrane which quickly leads to the removal of the complex from the liver and uptake by the CD4 lymphocyte...
August 24, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819632/detection-of-islet-cell-immune-reactivity-with-low-glycemic-index-foods-is-this-a-concern-for-type-1-diabetes
#15
Datis Kharrazian, Martha Herbert, Aristo Vojdani
Dietary management of autoimmune diabetes includes low glycemic foods classified from the glycemic index, but it does not consider the role that immunoreactive foods may play with the immunological etiology of the disease. We measured the reactivity of either monoclonal or polyclonal affinity-purified antibodies to insulin, insulin receptor alpha, insulin receptor beta, zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8), tyrosine phosphatase-based islet antigen 2 (IA2), and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65 and 67 against 204 dietary proteins that are commonly consumed...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812216/an-overview-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-glycation-of-albumin-a-potential-disease-marker-in-diabetes-mellitus
#16
REVIEW
Km Neelofar, Jamal Ahmad
Non-enzymatic glycation of macromolecules, especially proteins leading to their oxidation is increased in diabetes mellitus due to hyperglycaemia and play an important role in associated complications of the disease. Protein glycation mostly occurs in intra chain lysine residues resulting in the formation of early stage Amadori products which are finally converted to advance glycation end products (AGEs). This review deals with the structural studies of in vitro and in vivo glycated human serum albumin (HSA)...
August 15, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772271/remission-phase-in-paediatric-type-1-diabetes-new-understanding-and-emerging-biomarkers
#17
Mireia Fonolleda, Marta Murillo, Federico Vázquez, Joan Bel, Marta Vives-Pi
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a metabolic disease of unknown aetiology that results from the autoimmune destruction of the β-cells. Clinical onset with classic hyperglycaemic symptoms occurs much more frequently in children and young adults, when less than 30% of β-cells remain. Exogenous insulin administration is the only treatment for patients. However, due to glucose dysregulation, severe complications develop gradually. Recently, an increase in T1D incidence has been reported worldwide, especially in children...
August 3, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770318/regulatory-t-cell-dysfunction-in-type-1-diabetes-what-s-broken-and-how-can-we-fix-it
#18
REVIEW
Caroline M Hull, Mark Peakman, Timothy I M Tree
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease characterised by the destruction of insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas. Whilst it remains unclear what the original triggering factors for this destruction are, observations from the natural history of human type 1 diabetes, including incidence rates in twins, suggest that the disease results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Whilst many different immune cells have been implicated, including members of the innate and adaptive immune systems, a view has emerged over the past 10 years that beta cell damage is mediated by the combined actions of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells with specificity for islet autoantigens...
August 2, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763831/preparation-related-structural-diversity-and-medical-potential-in-the-treatment-of-diabetes-mellitus-with-ginseng-pectins
#19
REVIEW
Qilei Chen, Lin Zhu, Yina Tang, Zhongzhen Zhao, Tao Yi, Hubiao Chen
Pectins isolated from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer are potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, a global health challenge. Soil-to-bench procedures of ginseng pectin preparation significantly affect the polysaccharide structures. Various forms of ginseng pectins rich in homogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan-I, rhamnogalacturonan-II, and arabinogalactan have demonstrated independent or collaborative effects on hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, immunological dysfunction, and neoplasms. Monosaccharide compositions, peptide contents, degrees of esterification and methylation, and inter- and intramolecular linkages all influence pectin bioactivity...
August 1, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761041/modified-western-blotting-for-insulin-and-other-diabetes-associated-peptide-hormones
#20
Naoyuki Okita, Yoshikazu Higami, Fumio Fukai, Masaki Kobayashi, Miku Mitarai, Takao Sekiya, Takashi Sasaki
Now, the quantification of proinsulin/insulin contents within organisms tends to be evaluated only by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), although assessing the adequacy of results by some quantification method is important. Remarkably, few scientific papers use detection by Western blotting (WB), another immunological assay, of proinsulin/insulin. We found two problems with quantification of insulin and proinsulin by general WB: the shape of an insulin band in gel electrophoresis is distorted, and the retention potency to a blotting membrane of the peptide hormones (mainly insulin) is low...
July 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
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