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immunology and diabetes

Juho Jalkanen, Maija Hollmén, Mikael Maksimow, Sirpa Jalkanen, Harri Hakovirta
Different cardiovascular risk factors present a heterogenic manifestation of lower limb atherosclerosis. The molecular mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain unknown. We aimed to clarify this phenomenon by studying the association of major cardiovascular risk factors with the profile of serum cytokines in 226 consecutive patients with lower limb atherosclerosis treated at a department of Vascular Surgery during a one-year enrollment period. Increasing age independently associated with higher levels of IFN-γ inducible factors MIG, CTACK and IP-10 (P < 0...
November 13, 2018: Cytokine
Marsha Pellegrino, Francesca Ceccacci, Stefania Petrini, Marco Cappa, Giovanna Mancini, Alessandra Fierabracci
In autoimmune diseases as Type 1 diabetes, the actual treatment that provides the missing hormones is not able, however, to interrupt the underlining immunological mechanism. Importantly, novel immunotherapies are exploited to protect and rescue the remaining hormone producing cells. Among probable targets of immunotherapy, the C1858T mutation in the PTPN22 gene, which encodes for the lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (Lyp) variant R620W, reveals an autoimmunity related pathophysiological role. Our scope was to establish new C1858T PTPN22 siRNA duplexes delivered by liposomal carriers (lipoplexes) to patients PBMC...
November 12, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Olga Wawrzyniak, Żaneta Zarębska, Katarzyna Rolle, Anna Gotz-Więckowska
Long non-coding RNAs are 200 nucleotide long RNA molecules which lack or have limited protein-coding potential. They can regulate protein formation through several different mechanisms. Similarly, circular RNAs are reported to play a critical role in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Changes in the expression pattern of these molecules are established to underline various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular, neurological and immunological disorders. Recent studies suggest that they are differentially expressed both in healthy ocular tissues as well as in eye pathologies, such as neovascularization, proliferative vitreoretinopathy, glaucoma, cataract, ocular malignancy or even strabismus...
November 14, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
Felipe Beccaria Casagrande, Sabrina de Souza Ferreira, Fernanda Peixoto Barbosa Nunes, Lavínia Maria Dal'Mas Romera, Suelen Silvana Dos Santos, Fernando Henrique Galvão Tessaro, Paula Regina Knox de Souza, Sandro Rogério Almeida, Joilson Oliveira Martins
Paracoccidioidomycosis, a key issue for Brazilian health service, can be aggravated in patients with impaired immunological responses, such as diabetic patients. We evaluated the role of insulin in inflammatory parameters in diabetic and nondiabetic mice using a systemic mycosis Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb) model. Diabetic C57BL-6 mice and controls were infected with Pb18 and treated with insulin for 12 days prior to experiments. After 55 days, infected diabetic mice exhibited fewer leukocytes in both peritoneal lavage fluid (PeLF) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and reduced secretion of interleukin- (IL-) 6 in lungs...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Luigi Elio Adinolfi, Luca Rinaldi, Riccardo Nevola
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with extrahepatic manifestations, among these there is an increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease as well as an increased cardiovascular mortality. Several direct and indirect HCV pro-atherogenic mechanisms have been proposed. HCV lives and replicates within carotid plaques, promoting a local environment of pro-atherogenic factors. In addition, it causes conditions such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hepatic steatosis, cryoglobulinemia and endotoxinemia that are associated with the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease...
November 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Sheng Gao, Yongdong Yi, Guojun Xia, Chengyang Yu, Chenmin Ye, Fuyang Tu, Leibin Shen, Wenqian Wang, Chunyan Hua
Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) engagement can directly trigger inflammation or amplify an inflammatory response by synergizing with TLRs or NLRs. Autoimmune diseases are a family of chronic systemic inflammatory disorders. The pivotal role of TREM-1 in inflammation makes it important to explore its immunological effects in autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the structural and functional characteristics of TREM-1. Particularly, we discuss recent findings on TREM-1 pathway regulation in various autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), type 1 diabetes (T1D), and psoriasis...
November 5, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
Anuradha Rajamanickam, Saravanan Munisankar, Yukthi Bhootra, Chandrakumar Dolla, Kannan Thiruvengadam, Thomas B Nutman, Subash Babu
Background: Human and animal studies have demonstrated that helminth infections are associated with a decreased prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, very little is known about the biochemical and immunological interactions between the two. Methods: To assess the relationship between a soil-transmitted helminth, Strongyloides stercoralis (Ss) and T2DM, we examined a variety of analytes associated with glycemic control, metabolic processes and T cell driven inflammation at the time of Ss diagnosis and then 6 months after definitive anthelmintic treatment...
November 8, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Murad Alahdal, Jing Liangliang, Lu Shiping, Xing Yun, Huashan Gao, Zhou Jialei, Waseem Hassan, Liang Jin, Cao Rongyue
Therapeutic efficacy of P277 against type 1 diabetes was extensively investigated and clinically evidenced. Clinical trials Phases I and II concluded promising results, while the data of P277 immunogenicity in Phase III trials represented weak responses that led to abolish medical use. But, a therapeutic performance of P277 cannot be forgotten. So, in order to exploit its therapeutic benefits and improve its immunogenicity, we developed a new analogue VP to optimize therapeutic efficacy and enhancing immunosuppressive modulations...
November 1, 2018: Autoimmunity
Cristina M Sánchez-González, Alfredo Castillo-Mora, Itzel N Alvarado-Maldonado, Carlos Ortega-González, Nayeli Martínez-Cruz, Lidia Arce-Sánchez, Mabel Ramos-Valencia, Anayansi Molina-Hernández, Guadalupe Estrada-Gutierrez, Salvador Espino Y Sosa, Yesenia Recio-López, Ruth Hernández-Sánchez, Enrique Reyes-Muñoz
BACKGROUND: The reference intervals for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in pregnant Mexican women without diabetes are not well defined. The study aims to determine the reference intervals for HbA1c at each trimester in healthy Mexican pregnant women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included healthy Mexican pregnant women in trimester 1 (T1), 6-13.6 weeks of gestation (WG), trimester 2 (T2), 14-27 WG, and trimester 3 (T3), ≥27-36 WG, with a maternal age > 18 years, and pregestational body mass index (BMI) ranging between 18...
October 29, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Dinesh Kumar Chellappan, Nandhini S Sivam, Kai Xiang Teoh, Wai Pan Leong, Tai Zhen Fui, Kien Chooi, Nico Khoo, Fam Jia Yi, Jestin Chellian, Lim Lay Cheng, Rajiv Dahiya, Gaurav Gupta, Gautam Singhvi, Srinivas Nammi, Philip Michael Hansbro, Kamal Dua
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by T cell-mediated self-destruction of insulin-secreting islet β cells. Management of T1DM is challenging and complicated especially with conventional medications. Gene therapy has emerged as one of the potential therapeutic alternatives to treat T1DM. This review primarily focuses on the current status and the future perspectives of gene therapy in the management of T1DM. A vast number of the studies which are reported on gene therapy for the management of T1DM are done in animal models and in preclinical studies...
October 1, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Maha Sellami, Maha Gasmi, Joshua Denham, Lawrence D Hayes, Dan Stratton, Johnny Padulo, Nicola Bragazzi
Immunosenescence is characterized by deterioration of the immune system caused by aging which induces changes to innate and adaptive immunity. Immunosenescence affects function and phenotype of immune cells, such as expression and function of receptors for immune cells which contributes to loss of immune function (chemotaxis, intracellular killing). Moreover, these alterations decrease the response to pathogens, which leads to several age-related diseases including cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and diabetes in older individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
T Kakhniashvili, L Nikoleishvili, E Sherozia, R Shakarishvili, R Kurashvili
Our aim was to study OSA prevalence in patients with T2DM referred to the ,,Diacor'' and to evaluate the microangiopathy rate among this two groups. Data were obtained from T2DM patients enrolled in a prospective, cohort study. The study was being carried out in the clinic ,,Diacor'' Tbilisi, Georgia. Patients were screened for OSA with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Patients scoring more than 11 points were invited to do Nocturnal, laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG) for final diagnoses. The following data were collected: medical anamnesis; demographic and anthropometric data; laboratory (complete blood count, biochemistry, immunology, complete urine test, including microalbuminuria) and instrumental investigation (fundoscophy, laboratory polysomnography) data...
September 2018: Georgian Medical News
Yuliia I Komisarenko, Maryna I Bobryk
Introduction: Combined endocrine pathology is a serious healthcare problem in Ukraine. This prospective study assessed the blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and markers of immune function in response to vitamin D intervention in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM, respectively) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT). Objective: This study evaluated the relationship between the metabolic and immune status of DM + AIT patients with respect to their vitamin D status and changes after vitamin D3 supplementation...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Yori Gidron, Reginald Deschepper, Marijke De Couck, Julian F Thayer, Brigitte Velkeniers
Global burden of diseases (GBD) includes non-communicable conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These share important behavioral risk factors (e.g., smoking, diet) and pathophysiological contributing factors (oxidative stress, inflammation and excessive sympathetic activity). This article wishes to introduce to medicine and public health a new paradigm to predict, understand, prevent and possibly treat such diseases based on the science of neuro-immunology and specifically by focusing on vagal neuro-modulation...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Jing He, Yong-Ping Lu, Jian Li, Tao-Yuan Li, Xin Chen, Xu-Jing Liang, Wen-Jing Chen, Sai-Nan Pi, Berthold Hocher, You-Peng Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The maternal and fetal Renin-Angiotensin-System is involved in the control of pregnancy outcomes such as blood pressure control and gestational age. However, very little is known about the impact of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on pregnancy outcome. We thus performed a prospective clinical observational study analyzing the association of maternal and fetal ACE2 gene rs2074192 polymorphism with fetal growth during pregnancy. METHODS: 898 singleton pregnant women were prospectively recruited...
2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Katharina Ronacher, Roma Sinha, Michelle Cestari
Approximately 10% of individuals latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) develop active tuberculosis (TB) during their lifetime. Although it is well recognized that T-helper 1 immune responses are crucial for containing latent TB infection, the full array of host factors conferring protective immunity from TB progression are not completely understood. IL-22 is produced by cells of the innate and adaptive immune system including innate lymphoid cells, and natural killer cells as well as T lymphocytes (Th1, Th17, and Th22) and binds to its cognate receptor, the IL-22R1, which is expressed on non-hematopoietic cells such as lung epithelial cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Durai Sellegounder, Chung-Hsiang Yuan, Phillip Wibisono, Yiyong Liu, Jingru Sun
Upon pathogen infection, the nervous system regulates innate immunity to confer coordinated protection to the host. However, the precise mechanisms of such regulation remain unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated that OCTR-1, a putative G protein-coupled receptor for catecholamine, functions in the sensory neurons designated "ASH" to suppress innate immune responses in Caenorhabditis elegans It is unknown what molecules act as OCTR-1 ligands in the neural immune regulatory circuit. Here we identify neurotransmitter octopamine (OA) as an endogenous ligand for OCTR-1 in immune regulation and show that the OA-producing RIC neurons function in the OCTR-1 neural circuit to suppress innate immunity...
October 9, 2018: MBio
Camilla Virili, Poupak Fallahi, Alessandro Antonelli, Salvatore Benvenga, Marco Centanni
About two third of the human microbial commensal community, namely the gut microbiota, is hosted by the gastrointestinal tract which represents the largest interface of the organism to the external environment. This microbial community co-evolved in a symbiotic relationship with the human beings. Growing evidence support the notion that the microbiota plays a significant role in maintaining nutritional, metabolic and immunologic homeostasis in the host. Microbiota, beside the expected role in maintaining gastrointestinal homeostasis also exerts metabolic functions in nutrients digestion and absorption, detoxification and vitamins' synthesis...
October 8, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Minsun Kim, Qing Cai, Youngman Oh
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT), an alpha globulin glycoprotein, is a member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. The clinical significance of AAT is highlighted by AAT deficiency. Genetic deficiency of AAT can present as several neutrophilic diseases associated with emphysema, liver cirrhosis, panniculitis, and systemic vasculitis. Recently, animal and human studies have shown that AAT can control inflammatory, immunological, and tissue-protective responses. In addition, AAT treatment can prevent overt hyperglycemia, increase insulin secretion, and reduce cytokine-mediated apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells in diabetes...
September 2018: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
Lucien Marchand, Arnaud Thivolet, Stéphane Dalle, Karim Chikh, Sophie Reffet, Julien Vouillarmet, Nicole Fabien, Christine Cugnet-Anceau, Charles Thivolet
AIMS: Programmed cell death-1 and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) inhibitors restore antitumor immunity, but many autoimmune side-effects have been described. Diabetes mellitus is a rare complication, and little data concerning its pathophysiology and phenotype have been published. This study aimed to describe both pancreatic endocrine and exocrine functions, immunological features and change in pancreas volume in subjects with diabetes mellitus induced by PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors...
October 4, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
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