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immunology and diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546003/thymic-epithelial-cell-specific-deletion-of-jmjd6-reduces-aire-protein-expression-and-exacerbates-disease-development-in-a-mouse-model-of-autoimmune-diabetes
#1
Toyoshi Yanagihara, Takahiro Tomino, Takehito Uruno, Yoshinori Fukui
Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) establish spatially distinct microenvironments in which developing T cells are selected to mature or die. A unique property of medullary TECs is their expression of thousands of tissue-restricted self-antigens that is largely under the control of the transcriptional regulator Aire. We previously showed that Jmjd6, a lysyl hydroxylase for splicing regulatory proteins, is important for Aire protein expression and that transplantation of Jmjd6-deficient thymic stroma into athymic nude mice resulted in multiorgan autoimmunity...
May 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543817/influence-of-diabetes%C3%A2-mellitus-on-the-immunity-to-human-tuberculosis
#2
REVIEW
Nathella Pavan Kumar, Subash Babu
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for the development of active pulmonary tuberculosis, with development of DM pandemic in countries where tuberculosis (TB) is also endemic. Understanding the impact of DM on TB and the determinants of co-morbidity is essential in responding to this growing public health problem with improved therapeutic approaches. Despite the clinical and public health significance posed by the dual burden of TB and DM, little is known about the immunological and biochemical mechanisms of susceptibility...
May 22, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543531/isolation-structure-and-bioactivities-of-polysaccharides-from-cyclocarya-paliurus-batal-iljinskaja
#3
REVIEW
Qiqiong Li, Jielun Hu, Jianhua Xie, Shaoping Nie, Ming-Yong Xie
Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja, a well-known edible and medicinal plant, has been widely used in China as a traditional medicine for treating hypertension and diabetes. C. paliurus possesses various bioactivities, such as antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, antihypertensive, anticancer, antifatigue, antioxidation, antimicrobial, colon health-promoting, and immunological activities. Polysaccharides, as natural macromolecules with various biological activities, are considered to be the main effective components in C...
May 22, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533125/markers-of-immune-mediated-inflammation-in-the-brains-of-young-adults-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-and-fatal-diabetic-ketoacidosis-is-there-a-difference
#4
William H Hoffman, Carol M Artlett, Dallas Boodhoo, Mary G F Gilliland, Luis Ortiz, Dries Mulder, David H T Tjan, Alvaro Martin, Alexandru Tatomir, Horea Rus
Due to the limited data on diabetic ketoacidosis and brain edema (DKA/BE) in children/adolescents and the lack of recent data on adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D), we addressed the question of whether neuroinflammation was present in the fatal DKA of adults. We performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies on the brains of two young adults with T1D and fatal DKA and compared them with two teenagers with poorly controlled diabetes and fatal DKA. C5b-9, the membrane attack complex (MAC) had significantly greater deposits in the grey and white matter of the teenagers than the young adults (p=0...
May 19, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529699/evolution-immunity-and-the-emergence-of-brain-superautoantigens
#5
Serge Nataf
While some autoimmune disorders remain extremely rare, others largely predominate the epidemiology of human autoimmunity. Notably, these include psoriasis, diabetes, vitiligo, thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Thus, despite the quasi-infinite number of "self" antigens that could theoretically trigger autoimmune responses, only a limited set of antigens, referred here as superautoantigens, induce pathogenic adaptive responses. Several lines of evidence reviewed in this paper indicate that, irrespective of the targeted organ (e...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520799/nonenzymatic-glycosylation-of-human-serum-albumin-and-its-effect-on-antibodies-profile-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Alok Raghav, Jamal Ahmad, Khursheed Alam
BACKGROUND: Albumin glycation and subsequent formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) correlate with diabetes and associated complications. METHODS: Human Serum Albumin (HSA) was modified with D-glucose for a 40 day period under sterile conditions at 37°C. Modified samples along with native HSA (unmodified) were analyzed for structural modifications by UV and fluorescence, FTIR, Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) and X-ray crystallography...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515940/nivolumab-induced-autoimmune-diabetes-mellitus-presenting-as-diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-lung-cancer
#7
James Luke Godwin, Shuchie Jaggi, Imali Sirisena, Pankaj Sharda, Ajay D Rao, Ranee Mehra, Colleen Veloski
BACKGROUND: Advances in cancer immunotherapy have generated encouraging results in multiple malignancies refractory to standard chemotherapies. As the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) proliferates, the incidence of autoimmune side effects associated with these agents, termed immune related adverse events (irAE), is expected to increase. The frequency of significant irAE in ICI treated patients is about 10-20% and early recognition is critical to prevent serious morbidity and even mortality...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515464/systems-immunology-of-diabetes-tuberculosis-comorbidity-reveals-signatures-of-disease-complications
#8
Cesar A Prada-Medina, Kiyoshi F Fukutani, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Leonardo Gil-Santana, Subash Babu, Flávio Lichtenstein, Kim West, Shanmugam Sivakumar, Pradeep A Menon, Vijay Viswanathan, Bruno B Andrade, Helder I Nakaya, Hardy Kornfeld
Comorbid diabetes mellitus (DM) increases tuberculosis (TB) risk and adverse outcomes but the pathological interactions between DM and TB remain incompletely understood. We performed an integrative analysis of whole blood gene expression and plasma analytes, comparing South Indian TB patients with and without DM to diabetic and non-diabetic controls without TB. Luminex assay of plasma cytokines and growth factors delineated a distinct biosignature in comorbid TBDM in this cohort. Transcriptional profiling revealed elements in common with published TB signatures from cohorts that excluded DM...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507211/autologous-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-%C3%AE-like-cells-for-diabetes-cellular-therapy
#9
Jeffrey R Millman, Felicia W Pagliuca
Development of stem cell technologies for cell replacement therapy has progressed rapidly in recent years. Diabetes has long been seen as one of the first applications for stem cell-derived cells because of the loss of only a single cell type-the insulin-producing β-cell. Recent reports have detailed strategies that overcome prior hurdles to generate functional β-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells in vitro, including from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Even with this accomplishment, addressing immunological barriers to transplantation remains a major challenge for the field...
May 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499411/paraneoplastic-acral-vascular-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-melanoma-under-immune-checkpoint-blockade
#10
Thilo Gambichler, Stefanie Strutzmann, Andrea Tannapfel, Laura Susok
BACKGROUND: Paraneoplastic acral vascular syndrome (PAVS) is a rare phenomenon which is observed in patients with adenocarcinomas and other malignancies. Various potential pathogenic mechanisms such as tumour invasion of sympathetic nerves, hyperviscosity, hypercoagulability, vasoactive tumour-secreted substances, and immunological mechanisms have been suggested. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 60-year-old Caucasian male attended our hospital with a bulky lymph node mass in the right axilla...
May 12, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499359/cystic-fibrosis-carriership-and-tuberculosis-hints-toward-an-evolutionary-selective-advantage-based-on-data-from-the-brazilian-territory
#11
Lander Bosch, Barbara Bosch, Kris De Boeck, Tim Nawrot, Isabelle Meyts, Dominique Vanneste, Cleonice Alexandre Le Bourlegat, Julio Croda, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira da Silva Filho
BACKGROUND: The reason why Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most common fatal genetic disease among Caucasians has been incompletely studied. We aimed at deepening the hypothesis that CF carriers have a relative protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. METHODS: Applying spatial epidemiology, we studied the link between CF carriership rate and tuberculosis (TB) incidence in Brazil. We corrected for 5 potential environmental and 2 immunological confounders in this relation: monthly income, sanitary provisions, literacy rates, racial composition and population density along with AIDS incidence rates and diabetes mellitus type 2...
May 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489277/pancreas-after-islet-pai-transplantation-in-non-uremic-type-1-diabetes-a-strategy-for-restoring-durable-insulin-independence
#12
S A Wisel, J M Gardner, G R Roll, J Harbell, C E Freise, S Feng, S M Kang, R Hirose, D B Kaufman, A Posselt, P G Stock
Islet transplantation offers a minimally-invasive approach for beta cell replacement in diabetic patients with hypoglycemic unawareness. Attempts at insulin independence may require multiple islet re-infusions from distinct donors, thus increasing the risk for allogeneic sensitization. Currently, solid organ pancreas transplant is the only remaining surgical option following failed islet transplantation in the US. However, the immunologic impact of repeated exposure to donor antigens on subsequent pancreas transplantation is unclear...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467202/a-rationally-designed-peptide-ia-2-p2-against-type-1-diabetes-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-mice
#13
Lili Shen, Shiping Lu, Dongcheng Huang, Guoliang Li, Kunfeng Liu, Rongyue Cao, Li Zong, Liang Jin, Jie Wu
Recent studies have investigated the potential of type 1 diabetes mellitus-related autoantigens, such as heat shock protein 60, to induce immunological tolerance or to suppress the immune response. A functional 24-residue peptide derived from heat shock protein 60 (P277) has shown anti-type 1 diabetes mellitus potential in experimental animals and in clinical studies, but it also carries a potential atherogenic effect. In this study, we have modified P277 to retain an anti-type 1 diabetes mellitus effect and minimize the atherogenic potential by replacing the P277 B epitope with another diabetes-associated autoantigen, insulinoma antigen-2 (IA-2), to create the fusion peptide IA-2-P2...
May 2017: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466023/adipose-tissue-specialized-immunologic-features-might-be-the-potential-therapeutic-target-of-prospective-medicines-for-obesity
#14
REVIEW
Fan Yao, Ming Zhang, Li Chen
Excessive lipid accumulation in adipose tissue is either the source of obesity or the cause and result of chronic local inflammation, and recent studies indicate that the accumulation may induce many other specialized immunologic features with macrophages and epidemic diseases. We analyze the effective stages of immune cells in adipose tissue, including macrophage recruitment, macrophage polarization, and macrophage-like phenotype preadipocyte possession to find optimal sites as drug targets. Subsequently, some main signaling pathways are summarized in this review, including the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, the JNK signaling pathway, and a novel one, the Notch signaling pathway...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465508/cd8-t-cells-contribute-to-lacrimal-gland-pathology-in-the-nonobese-diabetic-mouse-model-of-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome
#15
Jennifer Y Barr, Xiaofang Wang, David K Meyerholz, Scott M Lieberman
Sjögren syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by targeted destruction of the lacrimal and salivary glands resulting in symptoms of severe ocular and oral dryness. Despite its prevalence, the mechanisms driving autoimmune manifestations are unclear. In patients and in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of Sjögren syndrome, lymphocytic infiltrates consist of CD4 and CD8 T cells, although the role of CD8 T cells in disease pathogenesis has been largely unexplored. Here, we evaluated the contribution of CD8 T cells to lacrimal and salivary gland autoimmunity...
May 3, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464780/designed-ankyrin-repeat-proteins-a-look-at-their-evolving-use-in-medicine-with-a-focus-on-the-treatment-of-chorioretinal-vascular-disorders
#16
Elizabeth Smithwick, Michael W Stewart
BACKGROUND: Antibodies constitute an important drug development platform for drugs to treat several ophthalmic, oncologic, and immunologic conditions, but due to limitations inherent in antibody production and structure, a wide range of other protein binding scaffolds are being investigated. Designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) are simple to produce and offer a range of advantages over antibodies because of their stability, high binding affinity, and rigid structure. OBJECTIVE: DARPins are being developed for a wide variety of medical applications, and the most studied molecule, abicipar pegol, is used to treat chorioretinal vascular diseases...
May 1, 2017: Anti-inflammatory & Anti-allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464767/heterogeneity-of-type-1-diabetes-the-effect-of-ethnicity
#17
Mustafa Tosur, Maria Jose Redondo
BACKGROUND: Most of the current understanding of type 1 diabetes (T1D) etiology and pathogenesis stemmed from studies conducted in majoritarily Non-Hispanic White (NHW) populations. However, evidence is emerging that unique mechanisms of disease may contribute to the development of T1D in individuals of Hispanic ethnicity. OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the currently available literature on genetic, immunologic, metabolic and clinical characteristics of T1D in Hispanic as compared with NHW individuals...
May 1, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452737/immunological-distress-in-experimental-cranial-trauma-combined-with-insulin-dependent-diabetes-experimental-study
#18
M Korda, V Meretskyi, I Meretska
This article describes the immunological events and investigates important mediators of the inflammatory immune response after experimental cranial trauma combined with type I diabetes. It was shown that the rats with induced diabetes and traumatic brain injury suffered more profound damage to the immune system that was not restored back to the basal level within 14 days. Proinflammatory cytokine concentrations increased, while anti-inflammatory cytokine concentrations decreased by day 14, increasing risk for systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multi-organ failure...
February 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450222/probiotic-treatment-protects-against-the-pro-depressant-like-effect-of-high-fat-diet-in-flinders-sensitive-line-rats
#19
Anders Abildgaard, Betina Elfving, Marianne Hokland, Sten Lund, Gregers Wegener
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly associated with dysmetabolic conditions, such as obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2, and the gut microbiota may interact with both disease entities. We have previously shown that a high-fat diet (HFD) exacerbated depressive-like behaviour uniquely in Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats that inherently present with an increased level of depressive-like behaviour compared with Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats. We therefore investigated whether multispecies probiotics possessed anti-depressant-like effect in FSL rats or protected against the pro-depressant-like effect of HFD...
April 24, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448874/regulation-and-roles-of-cd26-dppiv-in-hematopoiesis-and-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Zeynab Aliyari Serej, Abbas Ebrahimi Kalan, Ahmad Mehdipour, Hojjatollah Nozad Charoudeh
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV),(1) on the surface of certain cells, where it is also referred to as CD26, is involved in a vast majority of biological and pathological processes. CD26/DPPIV function contributes to cancer and tumor metastasis as well as inhibition of its expression which alters the expression of immune response-related genes. CD26/DPPIV is a widely distributed multifunctional integral membrane and secreted protein that is defined as early predictive biomarker in HIV, cancer and autoimmunity diseases like diabetes and multiple sclerosis...
April 24, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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