Read by QxMD icon Read

immunology and diabetes

Cong Tang, Stefan Offermanns
The short-chain fatty acid receptors FFA2 (GPR43) and FFA3 (GPR41) are activated by acetate, propionate, and butyrate. These ligands are produced by bacteria in the gut. In addition, the body itself can in particular produce acetate, and acetate plasma levels have been shown to be increased, e.g., in diabetic patients or during periods of starvation. FFA2 and FFA3 are both expressed by enteroendocrine cells and pancreatic β-cells. In addition, FFA2 is found on immune cells and adipocytes, whereas FFA3 is expressed by some peripheral neurons...
October 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Peter Nilsson
A number of chronic disease conditions tend to cluster in families with an increased risk in first-degree relatives, but also an increased risk in second-degree relatives. This fact is most often referred to as the heritability (heredity) of these diseases and explained by the influence of genetic factors, or shared environment, even if the more specific details or mechanism leading to disease are not known. New methods have to be explored in screening studies and register linkage studies to define and measure consequences of a positive family history of disease...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Huiting Su, Ning Na, Xiaodong Zhang, Yong Zhao
CD74 (MHC class II invariant chain, Ii) is a non-polymorphic type II transmembrane glycoprotein. It is clear that, in addition to be an MHC class II chaperone, CD74 has a diversity of biological functions in physiological and pathological situations. CD74 also participates in other non-MHC II protein trafficking, such as angiotensin II type I receptor. In addition, CD74 is a cell membrane high-affinity receptor for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT/MIF-2) and bacterial proteins...
October 17, 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Thomas J Scriba, Anna K Coussens, Helen A Fletcher
Immunology is a central theme when it comes to tuberculosis (TB). The outcome of human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the ability of the immune response to clear or contain the infection.In cases where this fails, the bacterium replicates, disseminates within the host, and elicits a pathologic inflammatory response, and disease ensues. Clinical presentation of TB disease is remarkably heterogenous, and the disease phenotype is largely dependent on host immune status. Onward transmission of M...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Rahul Krishnan, David Ko, Clarence E Foster, Wendy Liu, A M Smink, Bart de Haan, Paul De Vos, Jonathan R T Lakey
Transplantation of alginate-encapsulated islets has the potential to treat patients suffering from type I diabetes, a condition characterized by an autoimmune attack against insulin-secreting beta cells. However, there are multiple immunological challenges associated with this procedure, all of which must be adequately addressed prior to translation from trials in small animal and nonhuman primate models to human clinical trials. Principal threats to graft viability include immune-mediated destruction triggered by immunogenic alginate impurities, unfavorable polymer composition and surface characteristics, and release of membrane-permeable antigens, as well as damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) by the encapsulated islets themselves...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Riccardo Calafiore, Giuseppe Basta, Pia Montanucci
Microencapsulation technology, based on use of alginic acid biopolymers, has been devised many years ago. However, when intended for enveloping human islets for transplantation purposes, the method needs to be up-scaled and implemented with care being taken to comply with simple but important measures. It is almost indispensable to rely on an ultrapurified alginic polymers: in fact, any, even minimal, alginate contamination with endotoxins, pyrogens, and proteins could provoke the host's inflammatory reaction upon graft, with heavy adverse consequences on the capsules immunoprotective properties, hence on graft survival per se...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Cornelis R van der Torren, Jessica S Suwandi, DaHae Lee, Ernst-Jan T van 't Wout, Gaby Duinkerken, Godelieve Swings, Arend Mulder, Frans H J Claas, Zhidong Ling, Pieter Gillard, Bart Keymeulen, Peter In 't Veld, Bart O Roep
Transplantation of islet allografts into type 1 diabetic recipients usually requires multiple pancreas donors to achieve insulin independence. This adds to the challenges of immunological monitoring of islet transplantation currently relying on surrogate immune markers in peripheral blood. We investigated donor origin and infiltration of islets transplanted in the liver of a T1D patient who died of hemorrhagic stroke four months after successful transplantation with two intraportal islet grafts combining six donors...
October 10, 2016: Cell Transplantation
Thomas J Scriba, Anna K Coussens, Helen A Fletcher
Immunology is a central theme when it comes to tuberculosis (TB). The outcome of human infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dependent on the ability of the immune response to clear or contain the infection.In cases where this fails, the bacterium replicates, disseminates within the host, and elicits a pathologic inflammatory response, and disease ensues. Clinical presentation of TB disease is remarkably heterogenous, and the disease phenotype is largely dependent on host immune status. Onward transmission of M...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
M Incani, C Serafini, C Satta, L Perra, F Scano, P Frongia, R Ricciardi, C Ripoli, M Soro, A Strazzera, S Zampetti, R Buzzetti, M G Cavallo, E Cossu, M G Baroni
BACKGROUND: The incidence of T1DM In Sardinia is among the highest in the world (44.8 cases/100,000 person-years). Recommendations of the Immunology of Diabetes Society (IDS) advise evaluating autoantibody positivity in first-degree relatives (FDR) of patients with T1DM, for their higher risk to develop the disease. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of beta-cell autoimmunity in first-degree relatives of T1DM patients in Sardinia. METHODS: 188 Sardinian families were recruited in collaboration between Diabetes and Paediatric Units of University and District Hospitals in Sardinia...
October 11, 2016: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Junbi Xv, Qianwen Ming, Xiaotong Wang, Wenjing Zhang, Zheng Li, Shuai Wang, Yulin Li, Lisha Li
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease characterized by lack of insulin and irreversible destruction of islet β cells. In order to alleviate the symptoms, lifelong exogenous insulin administration has been the primary treatment of T1DM. In recent years, as a novel promising therapy, the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with or without pancreatic islets has achieved great therapeutic effects in animal models due to their multipotency along with their secretion of cytokines, angiogenic factors and immunomodulatory substances...
October 10, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Lamia Ysmail-Dahlouk, Wafa Nouari, Mourad Aribi
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with an imbalance between inflammation and repair. Recently, the biologically active form of vitamin D3, i.e. 1,25(OH)2D3, has been reported to have potent immunomodulatory effects on both innate and adaptive immune cells, as well as on the production of their specific cytokines. METHODS: We examined the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the production of proinflammatory Th1/Th17 and anti-inflammatory Th2/Treg related cytokines, as well as on the phosphorylation of monocyte-expressed STAT4 and STAT6 at the recent-onset human T1D...
October 4, 2016: Immunology Letters
John F Trant, Namrata Jain, Delfina M Mazzuca, James T McIntosh, Bo Fan, S M Mansour Haeryfar, Sebastien Lecommandoux, Elizabeth R Gillies
Nanoassemblies presenting multivalent displays of biologically active carbohydrates are of significant interest for a wide array of biomedical applications ranging from drug delivery to immunotherapy. In this study, glycodendron-lipid hybrids were developed as a new and tunable class of dendritic amphiphiles. A modular synthesis was used to prepare dendron-lipid hybrids comprising distearylglycerol and 0 through 4th generation polyester dendrons with peripheral protected amines. Following deprotection of the amines, an isothiocyanate derivative of C-linked α-galactose (α-Gal) was conjugated to the dendron peripheries, affording amphiphiles with 1 to 16 α-Gal moieties...
October 14, 2016: Nanoscale
Ivana Nikolic, Ivana Stojanovic, Milica Vujicic, Paolo Fagone, Katia Mangano, Stanislava Stosic-Grujicic, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Tamara Saksida
Bovine colostrum is a rich source of nutrients and immunologically active components that play a role in conveying passive immunity to the offspring, protection and maturation of new-born's gastrointestinal tract. Colostrum has exerted positive effects in diseases affecting gastrointestinal tract, as well as type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, health-promoting effects in type 1 diabetes have not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate therapeutic value of oral administration of standardized bovine colostrum derivative (SBCD) in three models of type 1 diabetes (T1D): spontaneously developed T1D in NOD mice and BB-DP rats, and in chemically induced T1D in C57BL/6 mice with multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLDS)...
September 24, 2016: Immunobiology
Donghee Kim, Song Mi Lee, Hee-Sook Jun
Type 1 diabetes results from autoimmune-mediated pancreatic beta cell destruction and TGF-β is known to play a preventive role in type 1 diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. In this study, we investigated the role of Smad4, a key molecule for Smad-dependent TGF-β signaling, in T cells of NOD mice in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. We generated T cell-specific Smad4 knockout (Smad4 tKO) NOD mice and assessed the pathological and immunological changes. Smad4 tKO showed earlier onset and increased incidence of diabetes than wild-type (WT) NOD mice...
September 30, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
Ranhua Xiong, Freya Joris, Sayuan Liang, Riet De Rycke, Saskia Lippens, Jo Demeester, Andre Skirtach, Koen Raemdonck, Uwe Himmelreich, Stefaan C De Smedt, Kevin Braeckmans
Long-term in vivo imaging of cells is crucial for the understanding of cellular fate in biological processes in cancer research, immunology, or in cell-based therapies such as beta cell transplantation in type I diabetes or stem cell therapy. Traditionally, cell labeling with the desired contrast agent occurs ex vivo via spontaneous endocytosis, which is a variable and slow process that requires optimization for each particular label-cell type combination. Following endocytic uptake, the contrast agents mostly remain entrapped in the endolysosomal compartment, which leads to signal instability, cytotoxicity, and asymmetric inheritance of the labels upon cell division...
October 3, 2016: Nano Letters
Periklis Dousdampanis, Kostantina Trigka, Athanasia Mouzaki
Kidney transplantation is recognised as the most effective treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Kidney transplantation continues to face several challenges including long-term graft and patient survival, and the side effects of immunosuppressive therapy. The tendency in kidney transplantation is to avoid the side effects of immunosuppresants and induce immune tolerance. Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) contribute to self-tolerance, tolerance to alloantigen and transplant tolerance, mainly by suppressing the activation and function of reactive effector T-cells...
September 24, 2016: World Journal of Transplantation
Harish C Pal, Ross L Pearlman, Farrukh Afaq
Chronic inflammation is a prolonged and dysregulated immune response leading to a wide variety of physiological and pathological conditions such as neurological abnormalities, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, pulmonary diseases, immunological diseases, cancers, and other life-threatening conditions. Therefore, inhibition of persistent inflammation will reduce the risk of inflammation-associated chronic diseases. Inflammation-related chronic diseases require chronic treatment without side effects...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Michael J Haller, Stephen E Gitelman, Peter A Gottlieb, Aaron W Michels, Daniel J Perry, Andrew R Schultz, Maigan A Hulme, Jonathan J Shuster, Baiming Zou, Clive H Wasserfall, Amanda Posgai, Clayton E Mathews, Todd M Brusko, Mark A Atkinson, Desmond A Schatz
Low-dose anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) + pegylated granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) preserves beta cell function for at least 12-months in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Herein, we describe metabolic and immunologic parameters 24-months following treatment. Patients with established T1D (duration 4-24 months) were randomized to ATG and peg-G-CSF (N=17) or placebo (N=8). Primary outcomes included AUC C-peptide following mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) and flow cytometry. "Responders" (12-month C-peptide ≥ baseline), "Super-responders" (24-month C-peptide ≥ baseline), and "Non-responders" (12-month C-peptide < baseline) were evaluated for biomarkers of outcome...
September 26, 2016: Diabetes
Yasemin Oz, Iman Qoraan, Ali Oz, Ilknur Balta
BACKGROUND: Diabetes patients are particularly susceptible to fungal infections because their vascular and immunological systems are compromised. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to determine prevalences of tinea pedis and onychomycosis, factors predisposing to their development, and antifungal susceptibilities of causative fungal species against fluconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: Study groups were defined according to hemoglobin A1C rates of ≥6...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
Ann Haerskjold, Marie Linder, Lonny Henriksen, Simon Francis Thomsen, Helle Kieler, Henrik Ravn, Lone Graff Stensballe
BACKGROUND: Treatment with biologic pharmaceuticals may be associated with an increased risk of immune-mediated disease. Palivizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody designed to provide passive immunity against respiratory syncytial virus infection. Palivizumab is primarily used in preterm children known to be immunologically immature. The long-term effect of palivizumab in terms of autoimmune diseases has not yet been investigated. AIM: Our objective was to investigate whether exposure to palivizumab was associated with the development of autoimmune diseases in children...
September 24, 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"