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immunology and diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644050/hba1c-analysis-by-capillary-electrophoresis-comparison-with-chromatography-and-an-immunological-method
#1
Olav Klingenberg, Torill Furuset, Camilla R Hestbråten, Marit H Hallberg, Astrid Steiro, Iren R Orset, Jens P Berg
BACKGROUND: Haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has become an even more important analyte for clinical laboratories during recent years with the introduction of its diagnostic use for diabetes mellitus. Several different analytical principles can be used, each with their advantages and disadvantages. AIM: We wanted to compare Sebia Capillarys 2 Flex Piercing (Capillarys) with our routine HbA1c methods, which were an HPLC method (Tosoh G7) and an immunoassay (Tina-Quant on Roche Modular P) by analysing a large clinical material...
June 23, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630069/degradation-of-incretins-and-modulation-of-blood-glucose-levels-by-periodontopathic-bacterial-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4
#2
Yuko Ohara-Nemoto, Manami Nakasato, Yu Shimoyama, Tomomi T Baba, Takeshi Kobayakawa, Toshio Ono, Takashi Yaegashi, Shigenobu Kimura, Takayuki K Nemoto
Severe periodontitis is known to aggravate diabetes mellitus, though molecular events related to that link have not been fully elucidated. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major pathogen of periodontitis, expresses dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), which is involved in regulation of blood glucose levels by cleaving incretins in humans. We examined the enzymatic characteristics of DPP4 from P. gingivalis as well as two other periodontopathic bacteria, Tannerella forsythia and Prevotella intermedia, and determined whether it is capable of regulating blood glucose levels...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625830/bioengineering-strategies-for-inducing-tolerance-in-autoimmune-diabetes
#3
Steinunn Baekkeskov, Jeffrey A Hubbell, Edward A Phelps
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease marked by the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreatic islets. Strategies to delay onset or prevent the autoimmune recognition of beta cell antigens or T cell-mediated killing of beta cells have mainly focused on systemic immunomodulation and antigen-specific immunotherapy. To bridge the fields of type 1 diabetes immunology and biomaterials engineering, this article will review recent trends in the etiology of type 1 diabetes immunopathology and will focus on the contributions of emerging bioengineered strategies in the fight against beta cell autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes...
June 15, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620093/increased-interleukin-35-levels-in-patients-with-type-1-diabetes-with-remaining-c-peptide
#4
Daniel Espes, Kailash Singh, Stellan Sandler, Per-Ola Carlsson
OBJECTIVE: Many patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes have remaining functional β-cells. This study investigated immunological differences between patients with or without measurable remaining endogenous insulin production after ≥10 years duration of disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients (n = 113; ≥18 years of age) with type 1 diabetes and with disease duration of ≥10 years were recruited at Uppsala University Hospital. Residual β-cell function was determined with an ultrasensitive C-peptide ELISA...
June 15, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616206/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-genetic-association-studies-for-the-role-of-inflammation-and-the-immune-system-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#5
Maria Tziastoudi, Ioannis Stefanidis, Georgios M Hadjigeorgiou, Konstantinos Stravodimos, Elias Zintzaras
Background: Despite the certain contribution of metabolic and haemodynamic factors in diabetic nephropathy (DN), many lines of evidence highlight the role of immunologic and inflammatory mechanisms. To elucidate the contribution of the immune system in the development of DN, we explored the contribution of gene variants (polymorphisms) in relevant pathophysiologic pathways. Methods: We selected six major pathways related to immune response from the Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes database and thereafter we traced all available genetic association studies (GASs) involving gene variants in these pathways from PubMed and HuGE Navigator...
June 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611473/apc-targeted-proinsulin-expression-inactivates-insulin-specific-memory-cd8-t-cells-in-nod-mice
#6
Peta Ls Reeves, Rajeev Rudraraju, Xiao Liu, F Susan Wong, Emma E Hamilton-Williams, Raymond J Steptoe
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from T-cell mediated autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β cells. Effector T-cell responses emerge early in disease development and expand as disease progresses. Following β cell destruction, a long-lived T-cell memory is generated that represents a barrier to islet transplantation and other cellular insulin-replacement therapies. Development of effective immunotherapies that control or ablate β cell destructive effector and memory T cell responses has the potential to prevent disease progression and recurrence...
June 14, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611472/cd11a-icam-1-blockade-combined-with-il-2-targeting-therapy-causes-a-paradoxical-acceleration-of-type-1-diabetes
#7
Ekua W Brenu, Timothy J Bartley, Casey M Wright, Emma Hamilton-Williams
Enhancement of regulatory T cell (Treg) function is the goal of many immunotherapies aimed at treating type 1 diabetes (T1D). The use of IL-2 is hindered by its effects on other populations such as effector T cells and NK cells. Combination therapies aimed at suppressing effector T cells while using IL-2 to expand Tregs could be beneficial and have been trialed in T1D patients. We have investigated a combination therapy using IL-2 and αCD11a blocking antibody to simultaneously expand Tregs and suppress the activation and migration of autoreactive T cells...
June 14, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606749/cardiovascular-disease-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-comprehensive-update
#8
REVIEW
Mayra Giannelou, Clio P Mavragani
Heightened rates of both cardiovascular (CV) events and subclinical atherosclerosis, documented by imaging and vascular function techniques are well established in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). While traditional CV factors such as smoking, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, central obesity and hyperhomocysteinemia have been reported to be prevalent in lupus patients, they do not fully explain the high rates of ischemic events so far reported, implying that other factors inherent to disease itself could account for the enhanced risk, including disease duration, activity and chronicity, psychosocial factors, medications, genetic variants and altered immunological mechanisms...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603863/identification-of-ptpn22-st6gal1-and-jazf1-as-psoriasis-risk-genes-demonstrates-shared-pathogenesis-between-psoriasis-and-diabetes
#9
Honglei Wang, Zhenzhen Wang, Parimi Leela Rani, Xi'an Fu, Wenjun Yu, Fangfang Bao, Gongqi Yu, Jianke Li, Lulu Li, Lele Sun, Zhenhua Yue, Qing Zhao, Qing Pan, Jing Cao, Chuan Wang, Xiaojun Chi, Yaru Wang, Qing Yang, Zihao Mi, Hong Liu, Furen Zhang
The biological connections between psoriasis and diabetes have been suggested by epidemiological, immunological and genetic studies. To identify additional shared susceptibility loci and investigate shared pathogenesis between these two diseases, we genotyped 89 reported diabetes susceptibility loci in 4,456 psoriasis cases and 6,027 controls of Chinese population using the MassARRAY system from Sequenom. We discovered three significant associations at rs6679677 on 1p13.2 (P = 6.15 × 10(-5) , OR = 5.07), rs16861329 on 3q27...
June 12, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597957/early-childhood-infections-precede-development-of-beta-cell-autoimmunity-and-type-1-diabetes-in-children-with-hla-conferred-disease-risk
#10
N Mustonen, H Siljander, A Peet, V Tillmann, T Härkönen, J Ilonen, H Hyöty, M Knip
BACKGROUND: The etiology of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is largely unknown. Infections and microbial exposures are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis and in the development of islet autoimmunity in genetically susceptible individuals. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationships between early childhood infections, islet autoimmunity, and progression to T1D in genetically predisposed children. METHODS: Children with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-conferred disease susceptibility (N=790; 51...
June 9, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595751/pancreas-transplantation-50-years-of-experience
#11
Daniel Casanova
In December 1966, the first pancreas transplant ever was performed at the University of Minnesota. R. Lillehei and W. Kelly, transplanted a kidney and a pancreas in a diabetic patient on dialysis, getting function of both organs. Since then, the technical and immunological advances in this transplant have resulted in graft and patient survival results as the rest of the abdominal solid organ transplants. The balance of these 50 years is that more than 50,000 diabetic patients have been transplanted in more than 200 centers around the world...
May 2017: Cirugía Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593827/liposome-based-immunotherapy-against-autoimmune-diseases-therapeutic-effect-on-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Irma Pujol-Autonell, Maria-Jose Mansilla, Silvia Rodriguez-Fernandez, Mary Cano-Sarabia, Juan Navarro-Barriuso, Rosa-Maria Ampudia, Aleix Rius, Sonia Garcia-Jimeno, David Perna-Barrull, Eva Martinez-Caceres, Daniel Maspoch, Marta Vives-Pi
AIM: Based on the ability of apoptosis to induce immunological tolerance, liposomes were generated mimicking apoptotic cells, and they arrest autoimmunity in Type 1 diabetes. Our aim was to validate the immunotherapy in other autoimmune disease: multiple sclerosis. MATERIALS & METHODS: Phosphatidylserine-rich liposomes were loaded with disease-specific autoantigen. Therapeutic capability of liposomes was assessed in vitro and in vivo. RESULTS: Liposomes induced a tolerogenic phenotype in dendritic cells, and arrested autoimmunity, thus decreasing the incidence, delaying the onset and reducing the severity of experimental disease, correlating with an increase in a probably regulatory CD25(+) FoxP3(-) CD4(+) T-cell subset...
June 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585734/immunological-function-of-vitamin-d-during-human-pregnancy
#13
Jin-Lu Ji, Kahinho P Muyayalo, Yong-Hong Zhang, Xiao-Hui Hu, Ai-Hua Liao
The well-established classic role of vitamin D is implicated in the regulation of the balance between calcium and phosphorus. Furthermore, vitamin D is also involved in many non-classic physiological processes, mainly including the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and immune function, participation in the inflammatory response and maintenance of genome stability function. During pregnancy, vitamin D receptor and its metabolic enzymes are expressed at the placenta and decidua, indicating the potential role in the mechanism of immunomodulation at the maternal-fetal interface...
June 6, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570148/an-official-american-thoracic-society-workshop-report-obesity-and-metabolism-an-emerging-frontier-in-lung-health-and-disease
#14
Benjamin T Suratt, Niki D J Ubags, Deepa Rastogi, Kelan G Tantisira, Benjamin J Marsland, Irina Petrache, Janice B Allen, Jason H T Bates, Fernando Holguin, Meredith C McCormack, Evangelos D Michelakis, Stephen M Black, Manu Jain, Ana L Mora, Viswanathan Natarajan, Yury I Miller, Michael B Fessler, Konstantin G Birukov, Ross S Summer, Stephanie A Shore, Anne E Dixon
The world is in the midst of an unprecedented epidemic of obesity. This epidemic has changed the presentation and etiology of common diseases. For example, steatohepatitis, directly attributable to obesity, is now the most common cause of cirrhosis in the United States. Type 2 diabetes is increasingly being diagnosed in children. Pulmonary researchers and clinicians are just beginning to appreciate the impact of obesity and altered metabolism on common pulmonary diseases. Obesity has recently been identified as a major risk factor for the development of asthma and for acute respiratory distress syndrome...
June 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562254/intractable-hypoglycemia-in-the-setting-of-autoimmune-overlap-syndrome
#15
Kanika Shanker, Tanicia Daley, Robert Semple, Kelly Rouster-Stevens, J Nina Ham
Evaluation of hypoglycemia in a patient with known diabetes mellitus, although usually straightforward, can at times be challenging. We present the case of an 8 year-old Latina girl initially diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus in the setting of multiple autoimmune disorders, including dermatomyositis and lupus nephritis. She subsequently developed signs of insulin resistance and severe hypoglycemia, which was found to be due to insulin-receptor autoantibodies. This condition, known as type B insulin resistance, is a rare, heterogeneous metabolic disease that may feature hypoglycemia in the setting of extreme insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia and, in this case, masqueraded as type 1 diabetes mellitus...
May 10, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559203/is-antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-an-effective-treatment-for-chronic-periodontitis-in-diabetes-mellitus-and-cigarette-smokers-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Nawwaf Al-Hamoudi
BACKGROUND: To determine whether treatment with antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) improves clinical, microbiological and immunological outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cigarette smokers with chronic periodontitis (CP). METHODS: Databases (MEDLINE, PubMed; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register) were searched up to and including May 2017. The addressed PICO question was: "Does aPDT as an adjunct to SRP improves clinical, microbiological and immunological outcomes in T2DM and smokers with CP?" RESULTS: Six randomized clinical trials were included...
May 27, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546003/thymic-epithelial-cell-specific-deletion-of-jmjd6-reduces-aire-protein-expression-and-exacerbates-disease-development-in-a-mouse-model-of-autoimmune-diabetes
#17
Toyoshi Yanagihara, Takahiro Tomino, Takehito Uruno, Yoshinori Fukui
Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) establish spatially distinct microenvironments in which developing T cells are selected to mature or die. A unique property of medullary TECs is their expression of thousands of tissue-restricted self-antigens that is largely under the control of the transcriptional regulator Aire. We previously showed that Jmjd6, a lysyl hydroxylase for splicing regulatory proteins, is important for Aire protein expression and that transplantation of Jmjd6-deficient thymic stroma into athymic nude mice resulted in multiorgan autoimmunity...
July 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543817/influence-of-diabetes%C3%A2-mellitus-on-the-immunity-to-human-tuberculosis
#18
REVIEW
Nathella Pavan Kumar, Subash Babu
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for the development of active pulmonary tuberculosis, with development of DM pandemic in countries where tuberculosis (TB) is also endemic. Understanding the impact of DM on TB and the determinants of co-morbidity is essential in responding to this growing public health problem with improved therapeutic approaches. Despite the clinical and public health significance posed by the dual burden of TB and DM, little is known about the immunological and biochemical mechanisms of susceptibility...
May 22, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543531/isolation-structure-and-bioactivities-of-polysaccharides-from-cyclocarya-paliurus-batal-iljinskaja
#19
REVIEW
Qiqiong Li, Jielun Hu, Jianhua Xie, Shaoping Nie, Ming-Yong Xie
Cyclocarya paliurus (Batal.) Iljinskaja, a well-known edible and medicinal plant, has been widely used in China as a traditional medicine for treating hypertension and diabetes. C. paliurus possesses various bioactivities, such as antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, antihypertensive, anticancer, antifatigue, antioxidation, antimicrobial, colon health-promoting, and immunological activities. Polysaccharides, as natural macromolecules with various biological activities, are considered to be the main effective components in C...
May 22, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533125/markers-of-immune-mediated-inflammation-in-the-brains-of-young-adults-and-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-and-fatal-diabetic-ketoacidosis-is-there-a-difference
#20
William H Hoffman, Carol M Artlett, Dallas Boodhoo, Mary G F Gilliland, Luis Ortiz, Dries Mulder, David H T Tjan, Alvaro Martin, Alexandru Tatomir, Horea Rus
Due to the limited data on diabetic ketoacidosis and brain edema (DKA/BE) in children/adolescents and the lack of recent data on adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D), we addressed the question of whether neuroinflammation was present in the fatal DKA of adults. We performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) studies on the brains of two young adults with T1D and fatal DKA and compared them with two teenagers with poorly controlled diabetes and fatal DKA. C5b-9, the membrane attack complex (MAC) had significantly greater deposits in the grey and white matter of the teenagers than the young adults (p=0...
May 19, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
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