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immunology and diabetes

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769238/strength-in-numbers-opportunities-for-enhancing-the-development-of-effective-treatments-for-type-1-diabetes-the-trialnet-experience
#1
Carla J Greenbaum, Cate Speake, Jeffrey Krischer, Jane Buckner, Peter A Gottlieb, Desmond A Schatz, Kevan C Herold, Mark A Atkinson
The early to mid-1980s were an inflection point in the history of type 1 diabetes research. Two landmark events occurred: the initiation of immune-based interventions seeking to prevent type 1 diabetes and the presentation of an innovative model describing the disorder's natural history. Both formed the basis for hundreds of subsequent studies designed to achieve a dramatic therapeutic goal-a means to prevent and/or reverse type 1 diabetes. However, the need to screen large numbers of individuals and prospectively monitor them using immunologic and metabolic tests for extended periods of time suggested such efforts would require a large collaborative network...
May 16, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765386/design-of-a-type-1-diabetes-vaccine-candidate-using-edible-plants-expressing-a-major-autoantigen
#2
Edoardo Bertini, Matilde Merlin, Elisa Gecchele, Andrea Puggia, Annalisa Brozzetti, Mauro Commisso, Alberto Falorni, Vittorio Bini, Victor Klymyuk, Mario Pezzotti, Linda Avesani
Type-1 diabetes (T1D) is a metabolic disease involving the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. It is often diagnosed by the detection of autoantibodies, typically those recognizing insulin itself or the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65). Oral insulin can be used to induce systemic immunological tolerance and thus prevent or delay the onset of T1D, suggesting that combination treatments with other autoantigens such as GAD65 could be even more successful. GAD65 has induced oral tolerance and prevented T1D in preclinical studies but it is difficult to produce in sufficient quantities for clinical testing...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751249/stressful-life-events-predict-one-year-change-of-leukocyte-composition-in-peripheral-blood
#3
Marlene Penz, Clemens Kirschbaum, Angelika Buske-Kirschbaum, Magdalena K Wekenborg, Robert Miller
A plethora of cross-sectional studies suggest that psychological stress resulting from experiencing stressful life events (SLE) can result in an altered immune response. Potential maladaptive immune changes may outlast the event and affect the organism long after stress cessation. As a consequence, an increased vulnerability for immune-mediated pathologies (e.g. arthritis, diabetes) may develop over the life span. The objective of the present study was to monitor the longitudinal kinetics of peripheral white blood cells (WBCs; neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes) in response to SLE...
May 4, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745910/misdiagnosed-patient-with-latent-autoimmune-diabetes-in-adults-case-report
#4
H Petreski
Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA) is often misdiagnosed because it lacks both awareness and standardized diagnostic criteria. A 30-year-old patient with high blood glucose, HbA1c level 10.1% and positive GAD antibodies was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes but LADA was not ruled out. Patient refused to receive insulin therapy. He chose to follow the dietary restrictions and therapy with sulfonylurea, initiated by another physician. Following 7 months the patient's HbA1c values decreased, but never achieved the goal...
April 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735033/pancreas-transplantation-for-patients-with-type-1-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-the-united-states-a-registry-report
#5
REVIEW
Angelika C Gruessner, Rainer W G Gruessner
Successful pancreas transplantation is still the only method to restore short-term and long-term insulin independence and good metabolic control for patients with diabetes. Since the first transplant in 1966, tremendous progress in outcome was made; however, transplant numbers have declined since 2004. This article describes the development and risk factors of pancreas transplantation with or without a kidney graft between 2001 and 2016. Patient survival and graft function improved significantly owing to careful recipient and donor selection, which reduced technical failure and immunologic graft loss rates...
June 2018: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731924/the-spectrum-of-histopathological-changes-in-the-renal-allograft-a-12-months-protocol-biopsy-study
#6
Galina Severova-Andreevska, Ladislava Grcevska, Gordana Petrushevska, Koco Cakalaroski, Aleksandar Sikole, Olivera Stojceva-Taneva, Ilina Danilovska, Ninoslav Ivanovski
INTRODUCTION: Renal transplantation became a routine and successful medical treatment for Chronic Kidney Disease in the last 30 years all over the world. Introduction of Luminex based Single Antigen Beads (SAB) and recent BANFF consensus of histopathological phenotypes of different forms of rejection enables more precise diagnosis and changes the therapeutic approach. The graft biopsies, protocol or cause, indicated, remain a golden diagnostic tool for clinical follow up of kidney transplant recipients (KTR)...
April 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706950/bullous-pemphigoid-triggered-by-thermal-burn-under-medication-with-a-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-inhibitor-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#7
Yosuke Mai, Wataru Nishie, Kazumasa Sato, Moeko Hotta, Kentaro Izumi, Kei Ito, Kazuyoshi Hosokawa, Hiroshi Shimizu
Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a common autoimmune blistering disease in which autoantibodies mainly target the hemidesmosomal component BP180 (also known as type XVII collagen) in basal keratinocytes. Various triggering factors are known to induce BP onset, including radiotherapy, burns, ultraviolet exposure, surgery, and the use of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors (DPP4i), which are widely used antihyperglycemic drugs. Here, we present a case of BP triggered by a thermal burn under medication with DPP4i. A 60-year-old man with type II diabetes had been treated with the DPP4i linagliptin for 1 year...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706647/the-microbiome-and-autoimmunity-a-paradigm-from-the-gut-liver-axis
#8
REVIEW
Bo Li, Carlo Selmi, Ruqi Tang, M E Gershwin, Xiong Ma
Microbial cells significantly outnumber human cells in the body, and the microbial flora at mucosal sites are shaped by environmental factors and, less intuitively, act on host immune responses, as demonstrated by experimental data in germ-free and gnotobiotic studies. Our understanding of this link stems from the established connection between infectious bacteria and immune tolerance breakdown, as observed in rheumatic fever triggered by Streptococci via molecular mimicry, epitope spread and bystander effects...
April 30, 2018: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702999/immunological-markers-as-predictors-of-developing-steroid-induced-diabetes-mellitus-in-pemphigus-vulgaris-patients-an-observational-study
#9
Ana Sorina Dănescu, Ioana Bâldea, Daniel Corneliu Leucuţa, Iulia Lupan, Gabriel Samaşca, Cassian Sitaru, Roxana Chiorean, Adrian Baican
The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical importance of autoantibodies in pemphigus vulgaris patients who developed steroid-induced diabetes mellitus (SID) because of the glucocorticoid therapy of pemphigus.A total of 137 patients with pemphigus vulgaris were studied. Patients with SID and pemphigus were compared with those that had only pemphigus. The variables recorded were: age at diagnosis, sex, body mass index, presence of diabetes mellitus (DM), cumulative cortisone dose, treatment duration, value of anti-desmoglein 1 and 3, and anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691600/a-proinflammatory-cd4-t-cell-phenotype-in-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Angela Sheu, Yixian Chan, Angela Ferguson, Mohammad B Bakhtyari, Wendy Hawke, Chris White, Yuk Fun Chan, Patrick J Bertolino, Heng G Woon, Umaimainthan Palendira, Frederic Sierro, Sue Mei Lau
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Numerous adaptations of the maternal immune system are necessary during pregnancy to maintain immunological tolerance to the semi-allogeneic fetus. Several complications of pregnancy have been associated with dysregulation of these adaptive mechanisms. While gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been associated with upregulation of circulating inflammatory factors linked to innate immunity, polarisation of the adaptive immune system has not been extensively characterised in this condition...
April 24, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679335/bariatric-surgery-in-immunocompromised-patients-outcomes-from-one-year-follow-up
#11
Manish Khaitan, Aparna Hegde, P D Rekha
BACKGROUND: Recent Research evidences from across the world indicate the usefulness of bariatric surgery in improving the immunological co-morbidities in patients with morbid obesity. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the outcome from bariatric surgery in patients presenting with diabetes mellitus and or morbid obesity with immunological co-morbidities. METHODS: It was a retrospective cross-sectional study. Study included patients with morbid obesity with immunological co-morbidities, and additional co- morbidity of type 2 diabetes mellitus in about one third of the cases, who had undergone bariatric surgery during the period 2014-2016 at our center...
April 20, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670917/pancreatic-beta-cell-death-novel-potential-mechanisms-in-diabetes-therapy
#12
REVIEW
Joselyn Rojas, Valmore Bermudez, Jim Palmar, María Sofía Martínez, Luis Carlos Olivar, Manuel Nava, Daniel Tomey, Milagros Rojas, Juan Salazar, Carlos Garicano, Manuel Velasco
Purpose of Review: Describing the diverse molecular mechanisms (particularly immunological) involved in the death of the pancreatic beta cell in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent Findings: Beta cell death is the final event in a series of mechanisms that, up to date, have not been entirely clarified; it represents the pathophysiological mechanism in the natural history of diabetes mellitus. These mechanisms are not limited to an apoptotic process only, which is characteristic of the immune-mediated insulitis in type 1 diabetes mellitus...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669317/palmitate-activates-ccl4-expression-in-human-monocytic-cells-via-tlr4-myd88-dependent-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mapk-pi3k-signaling-systems
#13
Shihab Kochumon, Ajit Wilson, Betty Chandy, Steve Shenouda, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Sardar Sindhu, Rasheed Ahmad
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obesity is associated with adipose tissue inflammation which plays a key role in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Saturated free fatty acids (SFAs) levels are found to be elevated in obesity and T2D. Chemokines are known to have potent inflammatory functions in a wide range of biological processes linked to immunological disorders. Since CCL4 (Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4), also known as macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β), plays an important role in the migration of monocytes into the adipose tissue, we investigated the expression of CCL4 in monocytic cells/macrophages following activation with free fatty acid palmitate...
April 13, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651674/intestinal-microbiota-and-kidney-diseases
#14
Ao Xie, Jie Sheng, Feng Zheng
Kidney diseases are common and the incidence rate is increasing. Gut microbiota is involved in metabolic and immune regulation of the host. Genetic, alimentary and environmental disease factors may change gut flora and increase opportunistic and pathogenic bacteria, contributing to immune or non-immune mediated kidney diseases including IgA nephropathy and diabetic nephropathy. Additionally, bacterial metabolites may be a source of uremic toxins. Thus, identififi cation of diversity, composition, and metabolic and immunologic features of gut bacteria in chronic kidney diseases may help understand pathogenetic mechanism and develop therapy for diseases...
April 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623227/fulminant-diabetes-in-a-patient-with-advanced-melanoma-on-nivolumab
#15
Nora Chokr, Hafsa Farooq, Elizabeth Guadalupe
Background: Anti-PD-1 agents were approved for advanced melanoma after the landmark trial Checkmate-037. Anti-PD-1 agents can breach immunologic tolerance. Fulminant diabetes is an immune endocrinopathy that results from a violent immune attack leading to complete destruction of pancreatic beta cells in genetically predisposed people. We present a rare case of fulminant diabetes precipitated by anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. Case: A 61-year-old male with advanced melanoma presented with a three-day history of nausea, vomiting, and malaise...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610415/psychiatric-and-medical-conditions-in-transition-aged-individuals-with-asd
#16
Meghan N Davignon, Yinge Qian, Maria Massolo, Lisa A Croen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a variety of medical and psychiatric conditions and an increased use of health care services. There is limited information about the prevalence of psychiatric and medical conditions in adolescents and young adults with ASD. Our objective was to describe the frequency of medical and psychiatric conditions in a large population of diverse, insured transition-aged individuals with ASD. METHODS: Participants included Kaiser Permanente Northern California members who were enrolled from 2013 to 2015 and who were 14 to 25 years old...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607596/epidemiological-clinical-and-mechanistic-perspectives-of-tuberculosis-in-older-people
#17
REVIEW
Wing W Yew, Takashi Yoshiyama, Chi C Leung, Denise P Chan
With the ageing population globally, tuberculosis (TB) in older people becomes a major clinical and public health challenge. In many Asian countries, especially those located in the eastern and southeastern parts of the continent, geriatric TB is a significant problem. TB in the older patients is more difficult to diagnose in the early course of disease, and has poorer treatment outcomes, largely as increased failure and death. More drug-induced adverse reactions are also experienced by this population during TB therapy...
April 1, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589072/the-resident-macrophages-in-murine-pancreatic-islets-are-constantly-probing-their-local-environment-capturing-beta-cell-granules-and-blood-particles
#18
Bernd H Zinselmeyer, Anthony N Vomund, Brian T Saunders, Michael W Johnson, Javier A Carrero, Emil R Unanue
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We studied here the interactions between the resident macrophages of pancreatic islets with beta cells and the blood vasculature. We also examined the immunological consequences of such interactions. METHODS: Islets were isolated from C57BL/6 mice expressing CX3C motif chemokine receptor 1-green fluorescent protein (CX3CR-GFP) and examined live by two-photon microscopy. Islets were also examined by electron microscopy to study the relationship of the intra-islet macrophages with the beta cells...
March 27, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547441/role-of-tlr4-asp299gly-polymorphism-in-the-development-of-cardiovascular-diseases-in-hiv-infected-patients
#19
Laura Tarancon-Diez, Rebeca S De Pablo-Bernal, José Luis Jiménez, Ana I Álvarez-Ríos, Miguel Genebat, Isaac Rosado-Sánchez, María-Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Manuel Leal
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are one of the main causes of morbimortality in HIV-infected patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. The objective of this work was to evaluate the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CVDs occurrence in HIV-infected patients. Additionally, the functional consequences of carrying these SNPs were analyzed. METHODS: The association of TLR4 SNPs, Asp299Gly/Thr399Ile with CVDs occurrence was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547392/visceral-adipose-tissue-in-patients-with-severe-mental-illness
#20
REVIEW
Kai G Kahl, Michael Deuschle, Brendon Stubbs, Ulrich Schweiger
Background Severe mental illnesses (SMIs), i.e. major depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, are associated with an elevated risk for the development of type-2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disorders. Several factors have been associated with increased cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality in SMI, including lifestyle factors (smoking, inactivity, unhealthy diet), endocrine and immunologic alterations; however, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully uncovered. It is now well accepted that visceral adipose tissue (VAT) promotes the development of cardiometabolic disorders, at least in part by inflammatory and metabolic functions...
March 16, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
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