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immunology and diabetes

Beatriz Tavira, Hugo Barcenilla, Jeannette Wahlberg, Peter Achenbach, Johnny Ludvigsson, Rosaura Casas
GAD-alum given into lymph nodes to type 1 diabetes patients participating in an open-label pilot trial resulted in preservation of C-peptide similar to promising results from other trials. Here, we compared the immunomodulatory effect of giving GAD-alum directly into lymph nodes versus that induced by subcutaneous administration. Samples from T1D patients ( n = 6) who received 4  μ g GAD-alum into lymph nodes (LNs), followed by two booster injections one month apart, and from patients ( n = 6) who received two subcutaneous injections (SC) (20  μ g) given one month apart were compared...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Matthew W Becker, Jennifer A Simonovich, Edward A Phelps
The pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes is a complex process involving tightly controlled microenvironments, a number of highly specific immune cell - islet cell interactions, and the eventual breaking of immune tolerance leading to beta cell death. Modeling this process can provide researchers with powerful insights into how and when to best provide treatment, but has proven difficult to accurately model due to its complex nature and differences between animal models and humans. Much progress has been made in determining the genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of type 1 diabetes, yet translating that knowledge to clinical treatments remains challenging...
July 3, 2018: Biomaterials
Yu Tai, Qingtong Wang, Heinrich Korner, Lingling Zhang, Wei Wei
The interaction between T cell and dendritic cells (DCs) that leads to T cell activation affects the progression of the immune response including autoimmune diseases. Antigen presentation on immune cell surface, formation of an immunological synapse (IS), and specific identification of complex by T cells including two activating signals are necessary steps that lead to T cell activation. The formation of stimulatory IS involves the inclusion of costimulatory molecules, such as ICAM-1/LFA-1 and CD28/B7-1, and so on...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Orlando Garner, Ana Ramirez, Alfredo Iardino
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurological disorder characterised by parieto-occipital vasogenic oedema seen on MRI. Infection and sepsis has been reported as a possible cause for this disorder.We present a 19-year-old immunocompetent Caucasian man with known type 1 diabetes mellitus who presented to the emergency department with acute onset of bilateral visual loss, headaches and hypertension; he had been discharged 2 weeks ago for severe diabetic ketoacidosis and Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia...
July 10, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Tanner R Henrie, John G Skedros
Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic systemic inflammatory disorder characterized histologically by noncaseating granulomas. The pathogenesis likely includes genetic, immunologic, and environmental factors. The lungs, skin, and eyes are most commonly affected. Although bone involvement is possible, sarcoidosis of the humerus is rare, with few cases reported. Furthermore, we are unaware of any reports of sarcoidosis of the upper humerus with a coexisting rotator cuff tear. We report the case of a 50-year-old female with sarcoidosis of the humerus and a coexisting tear of the supraspinatus tendon...
2018: Case Reports in Radiology
Bárbara Nascimento Albuquerque, Milena Moreira Araújo, Tarcília Aparecida Silva, Luís Otávio Miranda Cota, Sheila Cavalca Cortelli, Fernando Oliveira Costa
There are few studies on the clinical and immunological periodontal status of intensive care unit (ICU) in-patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the periodontal condition among ICU in-patients through clinical and immunological periodontal parameters. From the sample of 373 hospitalized ICU patients, 182 were submitted' to a thorough clinical periodontal and immunological evaluation. Data on bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were collected and gingival sulcular fluid samples were quantified through ELISA on IL-1, IL-6, and MMP-2 for immunological evaluation...
May 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Elke Gülden, Chen Chao, Ningwen Tai, James A Pearson, Jian Peng, Monika Majewska-Szczepanik, Zhiguang Zhou, F Susan Wong, Li Wen
The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. In recent years, the gut microbiota have been identified to be an important environmental factor that could modify diabetes susceptibility. We have previously shown that Myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), a major adaptor protein downstream of most innate immune Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, is important for mediating diabetes susceptibility in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of human T1D...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Emma V Morris, Claire M Edwards
Obesity has become a global epidemic influencing the establishment and progression of a wide range of diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In 2016, International Agency for Research on Cancer reported that obesity is now associated with 13 different cancers, one of which is multiple myeloma (MM), a destructive cancer of plasma cells that predominantly reside in the bone marrow. Obesity is the accumulation of excess body fat, which causes metabolic, endocrine, immunologic, and inflammatory-like changes...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Francesco Ursini, Emilio Russo, Gianluca Pellino, Salvatore D'Angelo, Agostino Chiaravalloti, Giovambattista De Sarro, Roberto Manfredini, Roberto De Giorgio
Metformin ( dimethyl biguanide ) is a synthetic derivative of guanidine, isolated from the extracts of Galega officinalis , a plant with a prominent antidiabetic effect. Since its discovery more than 50 years ago, metformin represents a worldwide milestone in treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recent evidence in humans indicates novel pleiotropic actions of metformin which span from its consolidated role in T2D management up to various regulatory properties, including cardio- and nephro-protection, as well as antiproliferative, antifibrotic, and antioxidant effects...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
David Bleich, David H Wagner
Context: Immunotherapy trials to prevent type 1 diabetes have been unsuccessful for more than fifteen years. Understanding pitfalls and knowledge gaps in the immunology of type 1 diabetes should lead us in new directions that will yield better trial outcomes. A proposal is made for precision medicine trial design in future type 1 diabetes studies. Evidence Acquisition: High quality peer-reviewed basic science and clinical research trials for type 1 diabetes were used in this Perspectives article...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Vishnu Jayakumar Sunandhakumari, Arun Sadasivan, Elizabeth Koshi, Aswathy Krishna, Aneesh Alim, Aneesh Sebastian
For years the pathogenesis of periodontitis was under an immunological Th1/Th2 paradigm. Th1 cells are considered to afford protection against the intracellular pathogens. These cells produce the interferons (IFN) that are involved in macrophage activation, which, in turn, plays an important role in phagocytosis, complement fixation, and opsonization. Th2 cells are thought to have evolved as a form of protection against parasitic helminthes. Th17 subset of CD4Not Necessary+ T cells was identified in the year 2005, which added greater complexity to Th function and are pro inflammatory in nature...
June 13, 2018: Dentistry journal
Olivier Gaudin, Vannina Seta, Marina Alexandre, Gérôme Bohelay, Françoise Aucouturier, Sabine Mignot-Grootenboer, Saskia Ingen-Housz-Oro, Céline Bernardeschi, Pierre Schneider, Benoît Mellottee, Frédéric Caux, Catherine Prost-Squarcioni
Mucous membrane pemphigoids (MMPs) and bullous pemphigoid (BP) are autoimmune bullous diseases that share physiopathological features: both can result from autoantibodies directed against BP180 or BP230 antigens. An association has been reported between BP and intake of gliptins, which are dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical and immunological differences have been reported between gliptin-induced BPs and classical BPs: mucosal involvement, non-inflammatory lesions, and target BP180 epitopes other than the NC16A domain...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Beverley M Shields, Timothy J McDonald, Richard Oram, Anita Hill, Michelle Hudson, Pia Leete, Ewan R Pearson, Sarah J Richardson, Noel G Morgan, Andrew T Hattersley
OBJECTIVE: The decline in C-peptide in the 5 years after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes has been well studied, but little is known about the longer-term trajectory. We aimed to examine the association between log-transformed C-peptide levels and the duration of diabetes up to 40 years after diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We assessed the pattern of association between urinary C-peptide/creatinine ratio (UCPCR) and duration of diabetes in cross-sectional data from 1,549 individuals with type 1 diabetes using nonlinear regression approaches...
July 2018: Diabetes Care
Hector A Olvera Alvarez, Laura D Kubzansky, Matthew J Campen, George M Slavich
Socially disadvantaged individuals are at greater risk for simultaneously being exposed to adverse social and environmental conditions. Although the mechanisms underlying joint effects remain unclear, one hypothesis is that toxic social and environmental exposures have synergistic effects on inflammatory processes that underlie the development of chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, depression, and certain types of cancer. In the present review, we examine how exposure to two risk factors that commonly occur with social disadvantage-early life stress and air pollution-affect health...
June 3, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Carla R Taddei, Ramon V Cortez, Rosiane Mattar, Maria Regina Torloni, Silvia Daher
This review summarizes recent findings on the changes that occur during pregnancy in the composition of the vaginal and gut microbiome and their association with metabolic, hormonal, and immunological factors. Despite many studies on the topic, the vaginal and gut microbial profiles and their influence on the course of pregnancy are still unclear. We present data suggesting that, contrary to traditional understanding, the placenta is not sterile but has a microbial community. We review and discuss new findings on changes in the richness and diversity of the microbiota of pregnant women with term or preterm births, obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Dan Du, Linbo Yao, Rui Zhang, Na Shi, Yan Shen, Xinmin Yang, Xiaoying Zhang, Tao Jin, Tingting Liu, Liqiang Hu, Zhihua Xing, David N Criddle, Qing Xia, Wei Huang, Robert Sutton
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Oxidative stress is a prominent feature of clinical acute pancreatitis (AP). Coreopsis tinctoria has been used traditionally to treat pancreas disorders like diabetes mellitus in China and Portugal and its flavonoid-rich fraction contain the main phytochemicals that have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effects of flavonoids isolated from C. tinctoria on experimental AP and explore the potential mechanism...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Carlos E B Couri, Kelen C R Malmegrim, Maria C Oliveira
Since the discovery of autoimmunity as the main pathophysiologic process involved in type 1 diabetes, many attempts have tried to delay or stop beta cell destruction. Most research protocols in humans have investigated the effects of therapeutic agents targeting specific steps of the autoimmune response. In spite of safety and some degree of beta cell preservation, the clinical impact of such approaches was similar to placebo. Recently, research groups have analyzed the effects of a more intense and wider immunologic approach in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic individuals with the "immunologic reset," i...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Giorgina Barbara Piccoli, Rossella Attini, Gianfranca Cabiddu
This multidisciplinary series is aimed at offering readers many opportunities to appreciate how a clinical and ethical approach to pregnancy has changed in patients with kidney diseases and with related conditions, including diabetes, hypertension, and immunologic diseases. Furthermore, this series aims to focus on the fact that many issues remain unreslved, that there are enormous gaps in knowledge, and that the bioethical approach needs to integrated in the clinical practice, which would allow for a deeper appreciation of different cultural and religious backgrounds...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Maaret Turtinen, Taina Härkönen, Anna Parkkola, Jorma Ilonen, Mikael Knip
OBJECTIVE: The present study tested the hypothesis that girls have a more aggressive disease process than boys at the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). METHODS: Demographic and clinical characteristics, the humoral autoantibody profile, and the genetic risk assessed by the presence of human leukocyte antigen DR-DQ haplotypes were analyzed in terms of sex in 4993 children and adolescents diagnosed with T1D between January 2003 and December 2016. RESULTS: A clear male preponderance (56...
June 3, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
S Brighenti, S A Joosten
Protective immunity in tuberculosis (TB) is subject of debate in the TB research community, as this is key to fully understand TB pathogenesis and to develop new promising tools for TB diagnosis and prognosis as well as a more efficient TB vaccine. IFN-γ producing CD4+ T cells are key in TB control, but may not be sufficient to provide protection. Additional subsets have been identified that contribute to protection such as multifunctional and cytolytic T-cell subsets, including classical and nonclassical T cells as well as novel innate immune cell subsets resulting from trained immunity...
May 27, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
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