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Chiro-Inositol AND Insulin

Maria A Sortino, Salvatore Salomone, Michele O Carruba, Filippo Drago
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by hormonal abnormalities that cause menstrual irregularity and reduce ovulation rate and fertility, associated to insulin resistance. Myo-inositol (cis-1,2,3,5-trans-4,6-cyclohexanehexol, MI) and D-chiro-inositol (cis-1,2,4-trans-3,5,6-cyclohexanehexol, DCI) represent promising treatments for PCOS, having shown some therapeutic benefits without substantial side effects. Because the use of inositols for treating PCOS is widespread, a deep understanding of this treatment option is needed, both in terms of potential mechanisms and efficacy...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Anna Rita Maurizi, Marika Menduni, Rossella Del Toro, Shadi Kyanvash, Daria Maggi, Chiara Guglielmi, Angelo Lauria Pantano, Giuseppe Defeudis, Elvira Fioriti, Silvia Manfrini, Paolo Pozzilli
AIMS: To improve insulin sensitivity, insulin-sensitizing drugs such as metformin are commonly used in overweight and obese T1D patients. Similarly to metformin, D-chiro-inositol (DCI), as putative mediator of intracellular insulin action, can act as insulin sensitizer. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the hypothesis that DCI plus folic acid may improve glucose control reducing insulin resistance in overweight or obese T1D patients. METHODS: A 24-week randomized control trial was carried out in 26 overweight or obese T1D patients, undergoing intensive insulin therapy...
April 2017: Acta Diabetologica
Giovanni Monastra, Vittorio Unfer, Abdel Halim Harrath, Mariano Bizzarri
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a relevant cause of infertility, is a heterogeneous, endocrine disorder affecting up to 10-15% of women in reproductive age. Besides hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance (IR) plays a key role in such syndrome. Insulin-sensitizing drugs, such as Metformin, are effective in treating hyper-insulinemic PCOS patients. Recently, inositols - myo-inositol (MI) and D-chiro-inositol (DCI) - have shown to be an efficient and safe alternative in PCOS management, as both inositol isoforms are able to counteract downstream consequences of insulin resistance...
January 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
Mario Mancini, Alice Andreassi, Michela Salvioni, Fiore Pelliccione, Gianna Mantellassi, Giuseppe Banderali
Myoinositol and D-chiro inositol, which are inositol isomers, have been shown to possess insulin-mimetic properties and to improve insulin resistance, especially in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. However, it has not been determined if this relationship exists also in children. Based on these previous findings, we hypothesized that inositol could be effective in improving insulin sensitivity in children with insulin resistance. To evaluate this hypothesis, we administered both inositol formulations before carrying out an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a group of obese insulin-resistant male children with high basal insulin levels and compared the values obtained with an OGTT previously conducted without inositol, in the same group, with unchanged BMI...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Vittorio Unfer, John E Nestler, Zdravko A Kamenov, Nikos Prapas, Fabio Facchinetti
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder, with complex etiology and pathophysiology, which remains poorly understood. It affects about 5-10% of women of reproductive age who typically suffer from obesity, hyperandrogenism, ovarian dysfunction, and menstrual irregularity. Indeed, PCOS is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility in industrialized nations, and it is associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and increased cardiovascular risk. Although insulin resistance is not included as a criterion for diagnosis, it is a critical pathological condition of PCOS...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Basilio Pintaudi, Giacoma Di Vieste, Matteo Bonomo
Inositol has been used as a supplement in treating several pathologies such as PCOS, metabolic syndrome, and gestational diabetes. Both myo-inositol and its isomer d-chiro-inositol showed insulin mimetic effects in conditions of insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a condition typically caused by insulin resistance. There is a lack of evidence of inositol use in T2DM. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of myo-inositol and d-chiro-inositol treatment in T2DM. This was a pilot study involving a consecutive sample of patients with T2DM with suboptimal glycemic control (HbA1c 7...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Deepika Garg, Reshef Tal
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of women in reproductive age and is characterized by oligo/amenorrhea, androgen excess, insulin resistance, and typical polycystic ovarian morphology. It is the most common cause of infertility secondary to ovulatory dysfunction. The underlying etiology is still unknown but is believed to be multifactorial. Insulin-sensitizing compounds such as inositol, a B-complex vitamin, and its stereoisomers (myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol) have been studied as an effective treatment of PCOS...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Kai I Cheang, Sakita N Sistrun, Kelley S Morel, John E Nestler
Background. A deficiency of D-chiro-inositol-inositolphosphoglycan mediator (DCI-IPG) may contribute to insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Whether the relationship between impaired DCI-IPG release and insulin resistance is specific to PCOS rather than obesity is unknown. We assessed insulin-released DCI-IPG and its relationship to insulin sensitivity at baseline and after weight loss in obese women with and without PCOS. Methods. Obese PCOS (n = 16) and normal (n = 15) women underwent 8 weeks of a hypocaloric diet...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Alessandro D Genazzani
Studies over the last decade have demonstrated that some polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients have abnormal insulin sensitivity (insulin resistance), independently from being overweight or obese. This induces the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in such PCOS patients. The use of insulin sensitizers (i.e. metformin), reduces such metabolic, and most hormonal, impairments. As metformin often induces side effects, new integrative strategies have been proposed to treat insulin resistance, such as the use of inositols...
December 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Ewa M Milewska, Adam Czyzyk, Blazej Meczekalski, Alessandro D Genazzani
Inositol is an organic compound of high biological importance that is widely distributed in nature. It belongs to the sugar family and is mainly represented by its two dominant stereoisomers: myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol that are found in the organism in the physiological serum ratio 40:1. Inositol and its derivatives are important components of the structural phospholipids of the cell membranes and are precursors of the second messengers of many metabolic pathways. A high concentration of myoinositol is found in the follicular fluid and in semen...
September 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Antonio Simone Laganà, Paola Rossetti, Massimo Buscema, Sandro La Vignera, Rosita Angela Condorelli, Giuseppe Gullo, Roberta Granese, Onofrio Triolo
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by chronical anovulation and hyperandrogenism which may be present in a different degree of severity. Insulin-resistance and hyperinsulinemia are the main physiopathological basis of this syndrome and the failure of inositol-mediated signaling may concur to them. Myo (MI) and D-chiro-inositol (DCI), the most studied inositol isoforms, are classified as insulin sensitizers. In form of glycans, DCI-phosphoglycan and MI-phosphoglycan control key enzymes were involved in glucose and lipid metabolism...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Stefano Palomba, Antonio Simone Laganà, Francesco Orio
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex syndrome characterized by reproductive and metabolic implications. Lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, are considered first-line treatment for women affected by PCOS. Pharmacologic treatments target the hormonal and metabolic dysregulations associated to the disease such as insulin resistance, anovulation, hirsutism and menstrual irregularities. OBJECTIVE: To focus on the role of inositol isoforms, as well as Mediterranean and ketogenic diets, as possible therapeutic strategies in PCOS women...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Elena Benelli, Scilla Del Ghianda, Caterina Di Cosmo, Massimo Tonacchera
Introduction. We evaluated the effects of a therapy that combines myo-inositol (MI) and D-chiro-inositol (DCI) in young overweight women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), characterized by oligo- or anovulation and hyperandrogenism, correlated to insulin resistance. Methods. We enrolled 46 patients affected by PCOS and, randomly, we assigned them to two groups, A and B, treated, respectively, with the association of MI plus DCI, in a 40 : 1 ratio, or with placebo (folic acid) for six months. Thus, we analyzed pretreatment and posttreatment FSH, LH, 17-beta-Estradiol, Sex Hormone Binding Globulin, androstenedione, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, HOMA index, and fasting glucose and insulin...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
P M Rendle, F Kassibawi, K A Johnston, J B Hart, S A Cameron, A Falshaw, G F Painter, K M Loomes
d-chiro-inositol (DCI, 1) evokes therapeutic actions in diabetes and insulin resistance but has sub-optimal pharmacokinetic profiles. To investigate what positions on the DCI cyclohexanol ring may be amenable to modification to improve pharmaceutical formulations, a series of analogues based on DCI were synthesised. These compounds were then evaluated for their ability to stimulate glucose transport using 3T3-L1 adipocytes as a model system. Positional analyses indicate that the hydroxyl group at position 1 is not essential for activity and can be modified without affecting glucose uptake...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Yun-Feng Gao, Meng-Na Zhang, Tian-Xin Wang, Tian-Chen Wu, Ru-Dan Ai, Ze-Sheng Zhang
In this investigation, a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was used on Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to clarify more details of the mechanism in the therapy of T2DM. D-chiro-inositol (DCI) was administrated to the diabetic rats as two doses [30, 60 mg/(kg·body weight·day)]. The biochemical indices revealed that DCI had a positive effect on hypoglycemic activity and promoted the glycogen synthesis. The rats in DCI high-dosage group had a blood glucose reduction rate of 21.5% after 5 weeks of treatment, and had insulin content in serum about 15...
September 15, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Maria Elizabeth Miranda-Perez, Clara Ortega-Camarillo, Maria Del Carmen Escobar-Villanueva, Gerardo Blancas-Flores, Francisco Javier Alarcon-Aguilar
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE: Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché(C. ficifolia) is a plant used in Mexican traditional medicine to control type 2 diabetes (T2D). The hypoglycemic effect of the fruit of C. ficifolia has been demonstrated in different experimental models and in T2D patients. It has been proposed that D-chiro-inositol (DCI) is the active compound of the fruit. Additionally, it has been reported that C. ficifolia increases the mRNA expression of insulin and Kir 6.2 (a component of the ATP-sensitive potassium (K(+)ATP) channel, which is activated by sulphonylurea) in RINm5F cells...
July 21, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Anshu Gupta, Daniela Jakubowicz, John E Nestler
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) may be mediated, in part, by a deficiency in the insulin-stimulated release of a d-chiro-inositol-inositolphosphoglycan (DCI-IPG) mediator of insulin action. Supporting this idea, several studies have reported improved insulin sensitivity in both lean and obese women with PCOS after oral administration of DCI. Pioglitazone improves insulin sensitivity in women with PCOS, but it is unknown whether this may be contributed by enhanced insulin-stimulated release of the DCI-IPG second messenger...
October 2016: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Celia Bustos-Brito, Adolfo Andrade-Cetto, Juan David Giraldo-Aguirre, Angelina Daniela Moreno-Vargas, Leovigildo Quijano
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by tissue resistance to the action of insulin combined with a relative deficiency in insulin secretion. In Mexico, medicinal plants have traditionally been used to control the disease; in this work, we investigate the hypoglycemic effect of Ageratina petiolaris, a plant used in Mexico for the treatment of diabetes. METHODS: The hypoglycemic effects of aqueous and methanolic extracts prepared from aerial parts of Ageratina petiolaris in streptozotocin-nicotinamide (STZ-NA) induced diabetic rats were assessed...
June 5, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Cristiana Paul, Antonio Simone Laganà, Paolo Maniglio, Onofrio Triolo, David M Brady
The incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), type II diabetes (T2D) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has been progressively increasing. Insulin resistance (InsR) seems to play a key role in a majority of phenotypes of these conditions, altering metabolic homeostasis, within muscle, liver, adipose and other tissues. Hyperinsulinemia is often associated with InsR and causes hormonal imbalances especially within ovaries and adrenals. Inositol is a polyalcohol, naturally occurring as nine stereoisomers, including D-chiro-inositol (DCI) and myo-inositol (MI), which have prominent roles in the metabolism of glucose and free fatty acids...
June 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
Yoonjeong Jeon, Susan Aja, Gabriele V Ronnett, Eun-Kyoung Kim
The regulation of food intake is important for body energy homeostasis. Hypothalamic insulin signaling decreases food intake by upregulating the expression of anorexigenic neuropeptides and downregulating the expression of orexigenic neuropeptides. INS-2, a Mn(2+) chelate of 4-O-(2-amino-2-deoxy-β-D-galactopyranosyl)-3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol, acts as an insulin mimetic and sensitizer. We found that intracerebroventricular injection of INS-2 decreased body weight and food intake in mice. In hypothalamic neuronal cell lines, INS-2 downregulated the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY), an orexigenic neuropeptide, but upregulated the expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), an anorexigenic neuropeptide, via modulation of the AKT-forkhead box-containing protein-O1 (FoxO1) pathway...
February 19, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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