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obesity diabetes

Abraham Giacoman-Martínez, Francisco J Alarcón-Aguilar, Alejandro Zamilpa, Sergio Hidalgo-Figueroa, Gabriel Navarrete-Vázquez, Rebeca García-Macedo, Rubén Román-Ramos, Julio C Almanza-Pérez
Hibiscus sabdariffa is a medicinal plant consumed as a diuretic and anti-obesity remedy. Several pharmacological studies have shown its beneficial effects in metabolism. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors δ and γ may play a role in the actions of H. sabdariffa. These nuclear receptors regulate lipid and glucose metabolism and are therapeutic targets for type 2 diabetes. This research aimed to perform a phytochemical study guided by a bioassay from H. sabdariffa to identify compounds with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist activity, supported by messenger ribonucleic acid expression, molecular docking, lipid accumulation, and an antihyperglycemic effect...
January 16, 2019: Planta Medica
Olga Spadaro, Vishwa Deep Dixit
The role of the immune system in homeostasis of pancreatic β cells in type 2 diabetes mellitus is poorly characterized. In a recent issue of Cell Metabolism, Ying et al. (2018) report that two subpopulations of macrophages expand during obesity to impair β cell function.
January 15, 2019: Immunity
Danielle K Longmore, Elizabeth L M Barr, I-Lynn Lee, Federica Barzi, Marie Kirkwood, Cherie Whitbread, Vanya Hampton, Sian Graham, Paula Van Dokkum, Christine Connors, Jacqueline A Boyle, Patrick Catalano, Alex D H Brown, Kerin O'Dea, Jeremy Oats, H David McIntyre, Jonathan E Shaw, Louise J Maple-Brown
BACKGROUND: In-utero exposures likely influence the onset and severity of obesity in youth. With increasing rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and maternal adiposity in pregnancy globally, it is important to assess the impact of these factors on neonatal adipose measures. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the contribution of maternal ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, and hyperglycaemia to neonatal adiposity. METHODS: Pregnancy and Neonatal Diabetes Outcomes in Remote Australia (PANDORA) is a longitudinal cohort study of Australian mother and neonate pairs...
January 16, 2019: Pediatric Obesity
Dorte Worm, Sten Madsbad, Dorte L Hansen
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolically healthy obese (MHO) subjects among morbidly obese subjects is poorly described. AIM: To describe the prevalence of metabolically healthy subjects in a group of morbidly obese referred for bariatric surgery. METHODS: Descriptive cross-sectional study, 1209 subjects (825 women/384 men) mean body mass index (BMI) of 45.6 (range: 35-72.6) kg/m2 and mean age of 42.9 (range: 18-72) years were included...
January 16, 2019: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
Jiyao Li, Xiaoyin Wu, Allen Lee, Shi-Yi Zhou, Chung Owyang
Hyperphagia is common in diabetes and may worsen hyperglycemia and diabetic complications. The responsible mechanisms are not well understood. The hypothalamus is a key center for the control of appetite and energy homeostasis. The ventromedial nucleus (VMH) and arcuate nucleus (ARC) are two critical nuclei involved in these processes. We have reported that R-spondin 1 (Rspo1) and its receptor LGR4 in the VMH and ARC suppressed appetite, but the downstream neuronal pathways are unclear. Here we show that neurons containing cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in ARC express both LGR4 and insulin receptor; intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of Rspo1 induced c-Fos expression in CART neurons of ARC; and silencing CART in ARC attenuated the anorexigenic actions of Rspo1...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Neurophysiology
Yinji Liang, Chenli Lin, Shuxin Huang, Yun Xu
The incidence of obesity and obesity-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, is increasing worldwide, which threatens quality of life and human health. "The toxins in the stool enter the body and blood and then cause a variety of diseases"; this quote illustrates that the Chinese ancients recognized the negative effects of harmful intestinal metabolites on the body. As the largest microecosystem in the human body, intestinal microbiota and their metabolites affect the nutrition, metabolism, and immune function of the host, which is an important pathogenic factor in obesity and obesity-related diseases...
January 10, 2019: Holistic Nursing Practice
M K Lim, S C N Ha, K H Luk, W K Yip, C S H Tsang, M C S Wong
The Hong Kong Reference Framework for Hypertension Care for Adults in Primary Care Settings is updated regularly to ensure it reflects the latest medical development and best practice. In 2017, guidelines from the United States included a major change, adopting the lower blood pressure values of 130/80 mm Hg in defining hypertension, in contrast to the prevailing international consensus of 140/90 mm Hg. After thorough review of the literature and international guidelines, the Advisory Group on Hong Kong Reference Framework for Care of Diabetes and Hypertension in Primary Care Settings (Advisory Group) recommends that the definition of hypertension adopted in the Reference Framework should remain unchanged as a blood pressure of ≥140/90 mm Hg, as there is currently inadequate evidence and lack of general consensus to support such change in Hong Kong...
January 3, 2019: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
Xiaobo Hu, Cong Hu, Caiping Zhang, Min Zhang, Shiyin Long, Zhaohui Cao
Obesity is defined as a chronic and excessive growth of adipose tissue. It has been associated with a high risk for development and progression of obesity-associated malignancies, while adipokines may mediate this association. Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-derived adipokines, with significant anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic and anti-proliferative properties. Plasma adiponectin levels are decreased in obese individuals, and this feature is closely correlated with development of several metabolic, immunological and neoplastic diseases...
January 3, 2019: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Alireza Sepehri Shamloo, Nikolaos Dagres, Arash Arya, Gerhard Hindricks
Atrial fibrillation (AF), as the most common cardiac arrhythmia worldwide, is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Successful therapeutic strategies have been introduced so far, but they are associated with significant costs. Therefore, identification of modifiable risk factors of AF and the development of appropriate preventive strategies may play a substantial role in promoting community health and reducing health care system costs. Modifiable cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, alcohol consumption, smoking, and sedentary lifestyles have been proposed as possible contributors to the development and progression of AF...
December 1, 2018: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
Yu-Ting Kuo, Chih-Chan Lin, Hsiao-Tzu Kuo, Jui-Hsiang Hung, Ching-Hsuan Liu, Alagie Jassey, Ming-Hong Yen, Shu-Jing Wu, Liang-Tzung Lin
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia that can lead to long-term complications including heart diseases, stroke, retinopathy, and renal failure. Treatment strategies include stimulating glucose uptake and controlling blood glucose level. Bofutsushosan (BOF) and Daisaikoto (DAI) are two herb-based kampo medicines that have been demonstrated to improve metabolism-associated disorders including obesity, hyperlipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver. Given their bioactivities against metabolic syndromes, we explored in this study the effect of BOF and DAI extracts on glucose absorption and used them as source to identify phytochemical stimulator of glucose absorption...
January 2019: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
Durgarao Y, Poornima A Manjrekar, Prabha Adhikari, Chakrapani M, Rukmini Ms
Vitamin D, a steroid hormone is primarily known for its role in calcium and bone mineral homeostasis. Over the years, vitamin D has been implicated in various non-skeletal diseases. The extraskeletal phenomenon can be attributed to the presence of vitamin D receptors (VDRs) in almost all cells and identification of 1-α hydroxylase in extrarenal tissues. The vitamin D deficiency (VDD) pandemic was globally reported with increasing evidence and paralleled the prevalence of diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs)...
January 14, 2019: Cardiovascular & Hematological Disorders Drug Targets
Apoorva B Badiger, Triveni M Gowda, Khyati Chandra, Dhoom Singh Mehta
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterised by destruction of the supporting structures of the teeth which is a common cause of tooth mortality in all individuals throughout the world. Diabetes is a group of metabolic dysregulation, primarily of carbohydrate metabolism, characterized by hyperglycemia that results from defects in insulin secretion, impaired insulin action, or both. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis have shown that the prevalance of periodontitis is increased in diabetic patients...
January 15, 2019: Current Diabetes Reviews
An M Van Berendoncks, Luc Van Gaal, Christophe De Block, Davy Buys, Rodrigo Salgado, Christiaan Vrints, Bharati Shivalkar
AIMS: In addition to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, the prevalence of diabetic cardiomyopathy is increasingly recognized in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We aimed to identify the occurrence of subclinical markers of cardiovascular risk and cardiac dysfunction and assess their relation to clinical parameters in asymptomatic patients with T1DM. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 102 patients (mean age 46 years [20-73], 62% male) with a history of T1DM ranging from 5 to 47 years underwent standard 2D and pulse-wave tissue Doppler echocardiography (Philips iE33) and computerized tomography for assessment of coronary calcium score (CACS) and visceral fat...
January 15, 2019: Echocardiography
William L Lowe, Lynn P Lowe, Alan Kuang, Patrick M Catalano, Michael Nodzenski, Octavious Talbot, Wing-Hung Tam, David A Sacks, David McCance, Barbara Linder, Yael Lebenthal, Jean M Lawrence, Michele Lashley, Jami L Josefson, Jill Hamilton, Chaicharn Deerochanawong, Peter Clayton, Wendy J Brickman, Alan R Dyer, Denise M Scholtens, Boyd E Metzger
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Maternal type 2 diabetes during pregnancy and gestational diabetes are associated with childhood adiposity; however, associations of lower maternal glucose levels during pregnancy with childhood adiposity, independent of maternal BMI, remain less clear. The objective was to examine associations of maternal glucose levels during pregnancy with childhood adiposity in the Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) cohort. METHODS: The HAPO Study was an observational epidemiological international multi-ethnic investigation that established strong associations of glucose levels during pregnancy with multiple adverse perinatal outcomes...
January 15, 2019: Diabetologia
Saruna Ghimire, Shiva Raj Mishra, Binaya Kumar Baral, Meghnath Dhimal, Karen E Callahan, Bihungum Bista, Krishna Kumar Aryal
Both the noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) burden and the population of older adults are increasing in Nepal. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of behavioral and biological risk factors of common NCDs among Nepali older adults aged 60-69 years. A subsample analysis of data from the 2013 Nepal STEPwise approach to Surveillance (STEPS) survey was conducted with 526 older adults aged 60-69 years. STEPS sample weighting and domain analyses were used to include the entire sample for variance estimation and to obtain prevalence estimates and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for our selected population of older adults...
January 15, 2019: Journal of Human Hypertension
Meijin Cai, See Ling Loy, Kok Hian Tan, Keith M Godfrey, Peter D Gluckman, Yap-Seng Chong, Lynette Pei-Chi Shek, Yin Bun Cheung, Ngee Lek, Yung Seng Lee, Shiao-Yng Chan, Jerry Kok Yen Chan, Fabian Yap, Seng Bin Ang
Importance: Global cesarean delivery (CD) rates have more than doubled over the past 2 decades, with an increasing contribution from elective CDs. Cesarean delivery has been linked to early childhood overweight and obesity, but limited studies have examined elective and emergency CDs separately. Objective: To investigate whether elective or emergency CD was associated with risk of early childhood overweight. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data were drawn from the Growing Up in Singapore Toward Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study, an ongoing prospective mother-child birth cohort study...
November 2, 2018: JAMA network open
Haris Riaz, Muhammad Shahzeb Khan, Tariq Jamal Siddiqi, Muhammad Shariq Usman, Nishant Shah, Amit Goyal, Sadiya S Khan, Farouk Mookadam, Richard A Krasuski, Haitham Ahmed
Importance: Although dyslipidemia has been consistently shown to be associated with atherogenesis, an association between obesity and cardiovascular disease outcomes remains controversial. Mendelian randomization can minimize confounding if variables are randomly and equally distributed in the population of interest. Objective: To assess evidence from mendelian randomization studies to provide a less biased estimate of any association between obesity and cardiovascular outcomes...
November 2, 2018: JAMA network open
Rachel Novotny, James Davis, Jean Butel, Carol J Boushey, Marie Kainoa Fialkowski, Claudio R Nigg, Kathryn L Braun, Rachael T Leon Guerrero, Patricia Coleman, Andrea Bersamin, Aufai Apulu Ropeti Areta, Leroy R Barber, Tayna Belyeu-Camacho, Joshua Greenberg, Travis Fleming, Elise Dela Cruz-Talbert, Ashley Yamanaka, Lynne R Wilkens
Importance: Pacific Islanders have among the highest rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes in the world. Targeting children is critical for primary prevention. Objectives: To prevent young child overweight and obesity and to improve health in the US-Affiliated Pacific region via the Children's Healthy Living Program. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this multijurisdictional, multilevel, multicomponent community randomized clinical trial, where all evaluable children were analyzed according to the random assignment of their community, hierarchical difference-in-difference models accounted for the community randomization, community clustering with jurisdictions, and these models were adjusted for the age and sex distribution of the community...
October 5, 2018: JAMA network open
Wang Xiaosong, Su Chongyu, Shen Xuqi, Yu Peiwu, Zhao Yongliang
OBJECTIVES: To explore the risk factors for relapse of hyperglycemia in obese patients with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who received laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on all obese patients with T2DM who underwent a LRYGB during the period 2011-2013. Demographics, preoperative body mass index (BMI), preoperative glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), adherence to lifestyle intervention, preoperative medication of insulin, and the time interval between surgery and diagnosis of T2DM were investigated and compared...
January 15, 2019: Obesity Surgery
S Meyhöfer, B Wilms, H Oster, S M Schmid
The circadian clock is a complex and highly specialized network of the human organism and is key for metabolic health. Circadian rhythms are modulated by behavioral patterns, physical activity, food intake as well as sleep loss and sleep disorders. Furthermore, an altered expression of clock genes (e. g. PERIOD1 and 2) can alter circadian rhythms. Chronodisruption, i. e. the alteration of circadian rhythms, is associated with a variety of mental and physical illnesses. Recent studies show a significant association between quantitative and qualitative sleep rhythm disturbances and an increasing prevalence of obesity...
January 15, 2019: Der Internist
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