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obesity diabetes

Zi Qin Ng, Sharin Pradhan, Kim Cheah, Ruwan Wijesuriya
Haemorrhagic cholecystitis is a rare entity of acute cholecystitis that carries a high morbidity and mortality rate if management is delayed. Its clinical course can mirror that of acute cholecystitis. Characteristic findings on ultrasound or CT scan are useful clues to early diagnosis. Urgent cholecystectomy is required prior to progressing to perforation of gallbladder. Most of the literature are case reports with causes associated with anticoagulation. Herein, we described a morbidly obese patient with poorly controlled diabetes presenting with non-specific right upper quadrant pain and was subsequently diagnosed with haemorrhagic cholecystitis...
September 21, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Subhan Mohammed, Vidya S Kollu
A 64-year-old woman with a medical history of morbid obesity, chronic hepatitis C, essential hypertension, multiple episodes of abdominal cellulitis, diabetes mellitus type 2 on insulin, intravenous and subcutaneous drug abuse presented to the emergency department complaining of left lower chest pain for 6 weeks along with multiple episodes of vomiting. Initial laboratory data revealed leucocytosis of 17 200×103 /μL with left shift. She reported multiple episodes of fever spikes. Abdominal and pelvic CT showed a splenic hypodense lesion...
September 21, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Wendy Ingram, Douglas Webb, Rod S Taylor, Nana Anokye, Lucy Yardley, Kate Jolly, Nanette Mutrie, John L Campbell, Sarah Gerard Dean, Colin Greaves, Mary Steele, Jeffrey D Lambert, Chloe McAdam, Ben Jane, Jennie King, Ray B Jones, Paul Little, Anthony Woolf, Jo Erwin, Nigel Charles, Rohini H Terry, Adrian H Taylor
INTRODUCTION: Physical activity is recommended for improving health among people with common chronic conditions such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, osteoarthritis and low mood. One approach to promote physical activity is via primary care exercise referral schemes (ERS). However, there is limited support for the effectiveness of ERS for increasing long-term physical activity and additional interventions are needed to help patients overcome barriers to ERS uptake and adherence.This study aims to determine whether augmenting usual ERS with web-based behavioural support, based on the LifeGuide platform, will increase long-term physical activity for patients with chronic physical and mental health conditions, and is cost-effective...
September 21, 2018: BMJ Open
Unjali P Gujral, Viswanathan Mohan, Rajendra Pradeepa, Mohan Deepa, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, K M Venkat Narayan
AIMS: Type 2 diabetes in lean individuals has recently come to attention. We assessed type 2 diabetes prevalence and the associated risk factors in underweight and normal weight individuals in two ethnic populations. METHODS: We conducted cross-sectional analyses, using representative samples of 4,930 Asian Indians from the CARRS-Chennai Study and 2,868 Whites from the NHANES Survey. Diabetes was defined as use of glucose lowering medication, fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dl, or 2 hour glucose ≥ 200 mg/dl...
September 20, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Alper Sonmez, Cem Haymana, Fahri Bayram, Serpil Salman, Oguzhan Sitki Dizdar, Eren Gurkan, Ayse Kargili Carlıoglu, Cem Barcin, Tevfik Sabuncu, Ilhan Satman
AIMS: Turkey has the highest prevalence of diabetes in Europe. It is therefore essential to know the overall cardiovascular risk and reveal the predictors of metabolic control in Turkish adults with diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A nationwide, multicenter survey consecutively enrolled patients who were under follow up for at least a year. Optimal control was defined as HbA1c<7%, home arterial blood pressure (ABP) <135/85 mmHg, or LDL-C <100 mg/dL. Achieving all parameters indicated triple metabolic control...
September 20, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Maria A Ramos-Roman
The prevention of diabetes and obesity in the young starts with the prevention and treatment of modifiable maternal risk factors encompassing the period from before conception until weaning. Major modifiable variables are characteristics and behaviors that include prepregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, glycemia, and intensity and duration of breastfeeding. Much of the early programming of resistance or vulnerability to age-related diseases is influenced by the integrated balance of maternal hormones transferred to the offspring by milk...
September 20, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Thorya S El-Deeb, Sally M Bakkar, Lobna Eltoony, Madeha M Zakhary, Amira A Kamel, Amany M Nafee, Helal F Hetta
Chemerin and fetuin-A are recently discovered as metabolic regulator hormone in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, elevated levels of chemerin and fetuin-A have been associated with insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. The present study aimed to investigate the significance of serum chemerin and fetuin-A levels in obese diabetic patients. Also, to determine whether, chemerin and fetuin-A along with markers of inflammation (IL6 and CRP) and obesity-related parameters in T2DM patients. Serum levels of chemerin and fetuin-A were evaluated using ELISA in 71 T2DM patients and 14 apparently healthy controls...
January 2018: Egyptian Journal of Immunology
Priska Stahel, Shawn K Sud, So Jeong Lee, Timothy Jackson, David R Urbach, Allan Okrainec, Johane P Allard, Anne S Bassett, Andrew D Paterson, Sanjeev Sockalingam, Satya Dash
CONTEXT: Adult extreme obesity (EO) is a growing health concern. The prevalence of known obesity associated co-morbidities namely cardio-metabolic and neuro-psychiatric disease in EO is not fully established. The contribution of pathogenic genetic variants, previously implicated in early childhood onset obesity, to adult EO is also not established. OBJECTIVE: We undertook phenotypic and genetic analysis of adult patients with extreme obesity (EO, BMI > 50)...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Guido Frosina, Jean Louis Ravetti, Renzo Corvò, Mauro Fella, Maria Luisa Garrè, Fabrizio Levrero, Diana Marcello, Daniela Marubbi, Giovanni Morana, Michele Mussap, Carlo Emanuele Neumaier, Aldo Profumo, Alessandro Raso, Francesca Rosa, Stefano Vagge, Donatella Vecchio, Antonio Verrico, Gianluigi Zona, Antonio Daga
It has been reported that the ATM kinase inhibitor KU60019 preferentially radiosensitizes orthotopic high grade gliomas (HGG) driven by established U87 and U1242 cell lines bearing specific TP53 mutations. We wished to determine whether those results could be extended to tumors driven by primary glioma initiating cells (GIC) that closely mimic clinical tumors. Orthotopic HGG were developed in immunodeficient non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficient (NOD-SCID) mice by intracranial injection of primary GIC isolated from the adult glioblastoma COMI (acronym of patient's name) and the pediatric anaplastic astrocytoma 239/12...
September 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jessica R Lunsford-Avery, Matthew M Engelhard, Ann Marie Navar, Scott H Kollins
Sleep disturbances, including insufficient sleep duration and circadian misalignment, confer risk for cardiometabolic disease. Less is known about the association between the regularity of sleep/wake schedules and cardiometabolic risk. This study evaluated the external validity of a new metric, the Sleep Regularity Index (SRI), among older adults (n = 1978; mean age 68.7 ± 9.2), as well as relationships between the SRI and cardiometabolic risk using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)...
September 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sergio Susmallian, Royi Barnea, Yossi Weiss, Asnat Raziel
BACKGROUND: People are living longer than they were expected to 2 decades ago. Increased life expectancy and reduced mortality encompasses a simultaneous increase in the number of older adults with obesity that entails an increase of co-morbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, cancer, and many other diseases. The aim of our study was to compare the outcomes of bariatric surgery in patients age ≥65 in comparison with younger patients. METHODS: This retrospective study compares bariatric surgeries performed in a private institution between the years 2013 and 2015...
August 11, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Alexandra K Adams, Emily J Tomayko, Kate A Cronin, Ronald J Prince, Kyungmann Kim, Lakeesha Carmichael, Tassy Parker
OBJECTIVE: To describe sociodemographic factors and health behaviors among American Indian (AI) families with young children and determine predictors of adult and child weight status among these factors. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional baseline data. SETTING: One urban area and 4 rural AI reservations nationwide. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 450 AI families with children aged 2-5years participating in the Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 intervention...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Symielle A Gaston, W Braxton Jackson, David R Williams, Chandra L Jackson
OBJECTIVES: To investigate Black-White disparities in suboptimal sleep and cardiometabolic health by government-assisted rental housing status. DESIGN: National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) pooled cross-sectional data (2004-2016). SETTING: United States. PARTICIPANTS: Black and White adult participants (n = 80,880). MEASUREMENTS: Poisson regression with robust variance was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals for self-reported unrecommended (<6 hours), short (≤6-<7 hours), and long (>9 hours) sleep duration (each separately vs recommended (≤7-9 hours)) and sleep difficulties (eg, trouble falling/staying asleep ≥3 days/week) (yes vs no) among Blacks compared to Whites within rental housing categories (government-assisted vs unassisted), separately, for men and women...
October 2018: Sleep Health
Joseph Zhou, Scott Massey, Darren Story, Lixin Li
Metformin is a biguanide drug that has been used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus for more than 60 years. The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetic Study (UKPDS) has shown metformin to improve mortality rates in diabetes patients, and recent studies suggest metformin has additional effects in treating cancer, obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and metabolic syndrome. Metformin has also been shown to alleviate weight gain associated with antipsychotic medication...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Miriam S Udler, Jaegil Kim, Marcin von Grotthuss, Sílvia Bonàs-Guarch, Joanne B Cole, Joshua Chiou, Michael Boehnke, Markku Laakso, Gil Atzmon, Benjamin Glaser, Josep M Mercader, Kyle Gaulton, Jason Flannick, Gad Getz, Jose C Florez
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a heterogeneous disease for which (1) disease-causing pathways are incompletely understood and (2) subclassification may improve patient management. Unlike other biomarkers, germline genetic markers do not change with disease progression or treatment. In this paper, we test whether a germline genetic approach informed by physiology can be used to deconstruct T2D heterogeneity. First, we aimed to categorize genetic loci into groups representing likely disease mechanistic pathways...
September 2018: PLoS Medicine
Agnieszka Szadkowska, Arkadiusz Michalak, Aneta Chylińska-Frątczak, Anna Baranowska-Jaźwiecka, Marta Koptas, Iwona Pietrzak, Anna Hogendorf, Agnieszka Zmysłowska, Wojciech Młynarski, Beata Mianowska
Background Therapeutic goals have been established to decrease the risk of long-term complications of type 1 diabetes (T1DM). The effects of these guidelines should be constantly evaluated. Hence, the present study examines the frequency at which children with T1DM treated by one of the Polish reference centers complied with the therapeutic targets issued in 2014 by the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) and by the Diabetes Poland (PTD). Methods A retrospective analysis (years 2011-2014) was performed in patients with T1DM aged 6...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Caryn Carson, Heather A Lawson
The dramatic increase in global prevalence of metabolic disease is inexplicable when considering only environmental or only genetic factors, leading to the need to explore the possible roles of epigenetic factors. A great deal of progress has been made in this interdisciplinary field in recent years, with many studies investigating various aspects of the metabolic syndrome and its associated epigenetic changes. Rodent models of metabolic diseases have been particularly illuminating due to the ability to leverage tools such as genetic and environmental modifications...
September 21, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Mei-Chen Du, Yan-Qiong Ouyang, Xiao-Fei Nie, Yi Huang, Sharon R Redding
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are related to maternal and infant physical health, such as gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and macrosomia. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the effect of physical exercise on maternal and infant outcomes in overweight and obese pregnant women. METHODS: Two researchers independently searched Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and for English-language articles based on randomized controlled trials examining physical exercise in overweight and obese pregnant women and its effect on maternal and infant outcomes...
September 21, 2018: Birth
Deborah A Goldspink, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble
Gut hormones produced by gastrointestinal enteroendocrine cells modulate key physiological processes including glucose homeostasis and food intake, making them potential therapeutic candidates to treat obesity and diabetes. Understanding the function of enteroendocrine cells and the molecular mechanisms driving hormone production is a key step towards mobilising endogenous hormone reserves in the gut as a new therapeutic strategy. In this review we will discuss the variety of ex vivo and in vitro model systems driving this research and their contributions to our current understanding of nutrient sensing mechanisms in enteroendocrine cells...
September 14, 2018: Endocrinology
Xi Chen, Qiang Gan, Changgen Feng, Xia Liu, Qian Zhang
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), a key negative regulator in insulin signaling pathways, is regarded as a potential target for the treatment of type II diabetes and obesity. However, the mechanism underlying the selectivity of PTP1B inhibitors against T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP) remains controversial, which is due to the high similarity between PTP1B and TCPTP sequence and the fact that no ligand-protein complex of TCPTP has been established yet. Here, the accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) method was used to investigate structural dynamics of PTP1B and TCPTP that are bound by two chemically similar inhibitors with distinct selectivity...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
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