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obesity diabetes

Kamal Sharma, Komal Shah, Poonam Brahmbhatt, Yogini Kandre
Background/Introduction: Nutritional studies have indicated a critical role of dietary habits in development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Aim: We aimed to compare the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in habitual "breakfast skippers" with those of "habitual breakfast eaters" in Western part of India. We also planned to compare the cardiometabolic profile of both the groups. Design: In this prospective, case-control study of 1607 individuals; 980 were patients of CAD (cases) undergoing various cardiac interventions for revascularization and other 627 were healthy individuals (controls) who were free from CVD...
July 16, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Yingxue Wang, Bridgette A Christopher, Kirkland A Wilson, Deborah Muoio, Robert W McGarrah, Henri Brunengraber, Guo-Fang Zhang
High concentrations of propionate and its metabolites are found in several diseases that are often associated with the development of cardiac dysfunction, such as obesity, diabetes, propionic acidemia, and methylmalonic acidemia. In the present work, we employed a stable isotope-based metabolic flux approach to understand propionate-mediated perturbation of cardiac energy metabolism. Propionate led to accumulation of propionyl-CoA (increased by ~101-fold) and methylmalonyl-CoA (increased by 36-fold). This accumulation caused significant mitochondrial CoA trapping and inhibited fatty acid oxidation...
July 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Brian D Piccolo, James L Graham, Kimber L Stanhope, Intawat Nookaew, Kelly E Mecer, Sree V Chintapalli, Umesh D Wankhade, Kartik Shankar, Peter J Havel, Sean H Adams
The composition of the gut microbiome is altered in obesity and type 2 diabetes; however, it is not known whether these alterations are mediated by dietary factors or related to declines in metabolic health. To address this, cecal contents were collected from age-matched, chow-fed male UCD-T2DM rats before the onset of diabetes (pre-diabetic PD, n=15); 2 wk recently-diabetic (RD, n=10); 3 mo (D3M, n=11); and 6 mo (D6M, n=8) post-onset of diabetes. Bacterial species and functional gene counts were assessed by shotgun metagenomic sequencing of bacterial DNA in cecal contents, while metabolites were identified by GC-QTOF-MS...
July 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Atefeh Tajmohammadi, Bibi Marjan Razavi, Hossein Hosseinzadeh
Metabolic syndrome describes a complex metabolic risk factors including obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. This syndrome is diagnosed by medical conditions such as weight gain, high blood pressure, high blood glucose, and disturbance in lipid profile. Metabolic syndrome has become as an important and increasing global health problem, so finding potentially novel solutions with less adverse effects is favorable for health problems. Herbal therapy plays an important role for treatment of different diseases...
July 17, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Yosuke Seki, Kazunori Kasama, Tatsuro Tanaka, Satoshi Baba, Masayoshi Ito, Yoshimochi Kurokawa
This case involved a 64-year-old female patient with a BMI of 35.3 kg/m2 and poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Preoperative upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed chronic, atrophic gastritis. Helicobacter pylori antibody was negative. The patient underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy with duodenal-jejunal bypass as a metabolic surgery to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. At 1 year postoperatively, routine endoscopy detected a flat elevated lesion at the distal gastric sleeve, near the posterior wall of the antrum; biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma...
July 17, 2018: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
Helena E Miettinen, Kristiina Rönö, Saila B Koivusalo, Johan G Eriksson, Helena Gylling
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Impaired glucose metabolism during pregnancy may associate with changes in fetal cholesterol metabolism. We investigated if gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) affects newborn cholesterol metabolism as determined by cord blood squalene and non-cholesterol sterols. Furthermore, we examined potential correlations between cord blood and maternal serum non-cholesterol sterols. METHODS: Pregnant women at risk for GDM (BMI>30 kg/m2 ) were enrolled from maternity clinics in Finland...
June 22, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Huynh Nga Nguyen, Yong Joo Ahn, Edward Antonio Medina, Reto Asmis
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We demonstrated that dietary ursolic acid (UA) reduces atherosclerotic lesion size and improves kidney function in diabetic mice. Based on structure-function analyses of naturally occurring UA analogs, we synthesized 23-hydroxy ursolic acid (23-OHUA), a compound with structural features predicted to enhance its bioavailability and anti-atherogenic properties compared to UA. The goal of this study was to determine the anti-obesogenic and atheroprotective properties of 23-OHUA and its mechanism of action...
June 27, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Ahmed A Nassr, Sherif A Shazly, Mari C Trinidad, Sherif A El-Nashar, Amber M Marroquin, Brian C Brost
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association of ultrasound measurement of maternal abdominal subcutaneous and pre-peritoneal fat thickness in relation to the subsequent diagnosis of gestational diabetes (GDM), and to assess the association of body fat index (BFI), compared to conventional body mass index (BMI), with respect to the development of some obstetric related complications. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study included non-diabetic pregnant women who were scheduled for fetal anatomic survey...
July 6, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Paola Saroufim, Sophia A Zweig, Devon S Conway, Farren B S Briggs
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular conditions are associated with poorer outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS). Whether the burden of cardiovascular conditions differs between those with demyelinating disease and unaffected controls is not clear. The objective of this study is to investigate the burden and age of onset of cardiovascular conditions in a US population with MS, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), or transverse myelitis (TM) to unaffected controls adjusting for likely confounders...
July 10, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Claire Chang, Sonia Khurana, Rachel Strodel, Anne Camp, Elizabeth Magenheimer, Nicola Hawley
Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine perceived barriers to physical activity among low-income Latina women who were at risk for type 2 diabetes, as well as the demographic factors that influence these perceived barriers. Methods Recruited in the waiting room of a community health center in a low-income neighborhood (n = 160), Latina women between the ages of 18 and 49 years completed a survey to assess demographic characteristics and perceived barriers to physical inactivity. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to identify barriers to physical activity and the associations between demographic factors and perceived barriers...
July 1, 2018: Diabetes Educator
Ting Bao, Han-Wei Yang, You-Juan Wang, Huai-Rong Tang, Yan Huang, Lin-Na Wu
OBJECTIVE: To determine component changes of metabolic syndrome in pre-elderly people with healthy obese phenotype. METHODS: A total of 1 686 adults aged between 45-59 yr. who underwent health examinations from 2010 to 2016 in West China Hospital of Sichuan University participated in this study. The participants had healthy obese phenotype at the baseline but no history of diabetes,high blood pressure,high cholesterol and cardiovascular disease. Component changes of metabolic syndrome (MS) and associated factors over the seven-year period were analysed using logistic regression modeling...
May 2018: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
Stergios A Polyzos, Andrew N Margioris
Sarcopenic obesity, a chronic condition, is today a major public health problem with increasing prevalence worldwide, which is due to progressively aging populations, the increasing prevalence of obesity, and the changes in lifestyle during the last several decades. Patients usually present to healthcare facilities for obesity and related comorbidities (type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease) or for non-specific symptoms related to sarcopenia per se (e...
July 16, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ann A Coulter, Candida J Rebello, Frank L Greenway
For many years, obesity was believed to be a condition of overeating that could be resolved through counseling and short-term drug treatment. Obesity was not recognized as a chronic disease until 1985 by the scientific community, and 2013 by the medical community. Pharmacotherapy for obesity has advanced remarkably since the first class of drugs, amphetamines, were approved for short-term use. Most amphetamines were removed from the obesity market due to adverse events and potential for addiction, and it became apparent that obesity pharmacotherapies were needed that could safely be administered over the long term...
July 16, 2018: Drugs
Jean B Guerrier, Zachary C Dietch, Bruce D Schirmer, Peter T Hallowell
PURPOSE: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has rapidly gained popularity as a single-stage operation for the treatment of morbid obesity, as patients undergoing LSG have been shown to achieve similar weight loss and resolution of obesity-related comorbidities in comparison to those undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), the "gold standard" bariatric operation. Although LSG poses fewer technical challenges than RYGB, little is known about differences in short-term outcomes among patients undergoing LSG and RYGB...
July 16, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Benjamin Kirchweger, Jadel M Kratz, Angela Ladurner, Ulrike Grienke, Thierry Langer, Verena M Dirsch, Judith M Rollinger
The G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (GPBAR1) has been recognized as a promising new target for the treatment of diverse diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis. The identification of novel and potent GPBAR1 agonists is highly relevant, as these diseases are on the rise and pharmacological unmet therapeutic needs are pervasive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a proficient workflow for the in silico prediction of GPBAR1 activating compounds, primarily from natural sources...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Chih-Yuan Wang, Tse-Ya Yu, Shyang-Rong Shih, Kuo-Chin Huang, Tien-Chun Chang
This study examined associations of thyroid hormone levels and insulin resistance (IR) in non-diabetic individuals. Using a cross-sectional design, 2007-2008 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. NHANES participants ≥20 years of age with complete data of interest were included. The homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) was used to quantify IR, and treated as a continuous variable. Self-reported diabetes or a fasting glucose ≥7 mmol/L were used as criteria to exclude diabetic subjects...
July 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tatsuya Maekawa, Takeshi Ohta, Shinichi Kume
In recent years, a relationship between diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer disease or depression, has been proposed. In this study, pathophysiological changes in the brain, especially in the hippocampus, of male SDT fatty rats with obesity and hyperglycemia were investigated. Brains of SD rats and SDT fatty rats were collected at 32 and 58 weeks of age, and parietal cortical thickness and number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 and 3 (CA1 and CA3) regions were measured...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Maisa N Feghali, Christina M Scifres
Diabetes is a common complication of pregnancy, and the prevalence of all types of the disease is increasing worldwide. Diabetes in pregnancy is associated with short term and long term adverse effects for mother and child. The goal of treatment of diabetes in pregnancy is to minimize maternal and fetal adverse events related to hyperglycemia. Treatment options vary by type of diabetes, from a focus on lifestyle modifications in gestational diabetes to continuous glucose monitoring and insulin pumps in pregestational diabetes...
July 16, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Keith C Norris, M Edwina Barnett, Yuan-Xiang Meng, David Martins, Susanne B Nicholas, Gary H Gibbons, Jae Eun Lee
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and related disorders remain a leading cause of health disparities and premature death for African Americans. Hypovitaminosis D is disproportionately prevalent in African Americans and has been linked to CVD and CVD risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Thus, hypovitaminosis D may represent a common pathway influencing CV risk factors in a select subgroup of persons. The purpose of this paper is to report the study design of a prospective eight week prospective double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled trial (n = 330 allocated 2:1 to intervention vs...
July 13, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Nicole D Ford, Jere R Behrman, John F Hoddinott, John A Maluccio, Reynaldo Martorell, Manuel Ramirez-Zea, Aryeh D Stein
BACKGROUND: Low-income and middle-income countries with populations that are chronically undernourished in early life are undergoing a nutrition transition and are experiencing an epidemic of cardiometabolic disease. These dual burdens are thought to be causally related; therefore, the extent to which improvements in early-life nutrition can offset adult-onset disease is important. The aim of this study was to examine whether improvement of protein-energy nutrition from conception to age 2 years can attenuate the risk of cardiometabolic disease...
August 2018: Lancet Global Health
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