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obesity diabetes

Emad Yuzbashian, Golaleh Asghari, Mehdi Hedayati, Maryam Zarkesh, Parvin Mirmiran, Alireza Khalaj
We aimed to illustrate determinants of VDR gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue among individuals without diabetes. We gathered visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues during an elective abdominal surgery form 33 morbidly obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2 ), 23 obese (BMI = 30-40 kg/m2 ), and 35 non-obese (BMI<30 kg/m2 ) participants who were free of diabetes. Participants were classified according to their degree of obesity. Before the surgery, habitual dietary intake, physical activity, 25(OH)D, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and HOMA-IR was gathered...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Srinivas Ayyadevara, Akshatha Ganne, Rachel D Hendrix, Meenakshisundaram Balasubramaniam, Robert J Shmookler Reis, Steven W Barger
BACKGROUND: Events that instigate disease may involve biochemical events distinct from changes in the steady-state levels of proteins. Even chronic degenerative disorders appear to involve changes such as post-translational modifications. NEW METHOD: We have begun a series of proteomics analyses on proteins that have been fractionated by functional status. Because Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with metabolic perturbations such as Type-2 diabetes, fractionation hinged on binding to phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate (PIP3), key to insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Alejandro López Suárez
Overweight and obesity constitute a global pandemic with devastating consequences that affect >2 billion people. Obesity plays a central role in morbidity and mortality of diseases of multiple organs and systems, and it is a major contributor to the growing incidence of cancer. There is now sufficient level of evidence for the association between overweight and 11 types of cancer, among which are two of the most common cancers worldwide, those of the colorectum and postmenopausal breast. Sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, and excessive alcohol intake also account for the burden of cancer by promoting obesity...
November 6, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Yun-Jing Zhang, Shi-Liang Han, Xi-Feng Sun, Shu-Xiang Wang, Hong-Yun Wang, Xiao Liu, Li Chen, Ling Xia
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency and tolerability of empagliflozin (EMPA) as monotherapy or add-on to existing therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing efficacy and safety of EMPA vs placebo or EMPA plus other antidiabetes drugs vs placebo plus other oral antidiabetes drugs (OADs) in T2DM were recruited from electronic database Pubmed, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), supplemented by a hand search of the reference lists of selected articles...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Meryem Demir, Oğuzhan Deyneli, Yusuf Yılmaz
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is highly prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential usefulness of transient elastography (TE), which is a technique that allows measuring both fibrosis and liver fat content simultaneously, as a screening tool for hepatic involvement in Turkish patients with T2DM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained liver stiffness measurements (LSMs, as a measure of fibrosis) and controlled attenuation parameter (CAP, as a marker of steatosis) in 124 (46 males and 78 females; mean body mass index (BMI): 33...
November 9, 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
Y Q Lee, C E Collins, A Gordon, K M Rae, K G Pringle
Evidence from animal models indicates that exposure to an obesogenic or hyperglycemic intrauterine environment adversely impacts offspring kidney development and renal function. However, evidence from human studies has not been evaluated systematically. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to synthesize current research in humans that has examined the relationship between gestational obesity and/or diabetes and offspring kidney structure and function. Systematic electronic database searches were conducted of five relevant databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, MEDLINE and Scopus)...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Wei-Neng Zhou, Yan-Min Zhang, Xin Qiao, Jing Pan, Ling-Feng Yin, Lu Zhu, Jun-Nan Zhao, Shuai Lu, Tao Lu, Ya-Dong Chen, Hai-Chun Liu
Acetyl-CoA Carboxylases (ACC) has been an important target for therapy of metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and some other disease. In this study, virtual screening strategy combined Bayesian categorization modeling, molecular docking and binding site analysis with protein ligand interaction fingerprint (PLIF) was adopted to validate some potent ACC inhibitors...
November 8, 2018: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
Antonio E Pontiroli, Ahmed S Zakaria, Giancarlo Micheletto, Chiara Osio, Alessandro Saibene, Franco Folli
AIMS: Long-term comparisons between bariatric surgical techniques have been performed for gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), and biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) vs gastric banding (LAGB), but short-term studies (6 months-4 years) have only compared biliointestinal bypass (BIBP) and LAGB. The participating institutions regularly perform both BIBP and LAGB with a common protocol, and the aim of this retrospective study was to compare long-term effects of the two procedures on body weight, on clinical and metabolic variables, and on resolution of obesity and of diabetes...
November 9, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Sally Abbott, Naomi Dindol, Abd A Tahrani, Milan K Piya
Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is increasing in prevalence worldwide, and is closely linked to obesity. Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Night Eating Syndrome (NES) are eating disorders that are common in obesity, and may affect the management as well as long term outcomes of T2DM. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the prevalence and associations of BED or NES in adults with T2DM. Methods: We conducted a systematic review. The databases MEDLINE, CINAHL and AMED were searched for articles which met the inclusion criteria; including patients > 18 years old, with T2DM, and BED and/or NES...
2018: Journal of Eating Disorders
Maki Gouda, Miyuki Matsukawa, Hiroaki Iijima
Purpose: To investigate the impact of poor eating habits on glycemic and metabolic control, we analyzed the associations between eating behaviors and HbA1c and body mass index (BMI) in Japanese workers with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Subjects and methods: The Japan Medical Data Center database of workers' medical health insurance claims was used to identify individuals with T2DM who were receiving antidiabetic medication between April 2012 and March 2015 (the primary analysis population)...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
Valérie Coats, Jean-Pierre Després, Natalie Alméras, Mickaël Martin, Don D Sin, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, Éric Larose, Wan C Tan, Jean Bourbeau, François Maltais
Rationale: Obesity/overweight is the most prevalent body composition abnormality in COPD. However, little is known about the impact of fat distribution on cardiometabolic health in COPD. Objective: To study the associations between ectopic adiposity, cardiometabolic health, and COPD. Methods: A total of 263 subjects (166 males; age=65±9 years) were randomly selected from the general population. Subjects were classified as non-COPD controls and COPD, according to the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification, and the presence of cardiometabolic comorbidities was recorded...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
W H Wilson Tang, Daniel Y Li, Stanley L Hazen
Advances in our understanding of how the gut microbiota contributes to human health and diseases have expanded our insight into how microbial composition and function affect the human host. Heart failure is associated with splanchnic circulation congestion, leading to bowel wall oedema and impaired intestinal barrier function. This situation is thought to heighten the overall inflammatory state via increased bacterial translocation and the presence of bacterial products in the systemic blood circulation. Several metabolites produced by gut microorganisms from dietary metabolism have been linked to pathologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
November 8, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Hee-Weon Lee, Suhkneung Pyo
Obesity is a critical risk factor for various diseases including type II diabetes, cerebral infarction, cardiovascular diseases, and various cancers. Acrylamide (ACR) is present in wide range of foods, including fried potato products, root vegetables, bakery products, chips, cakes, cereals, and coffee. In this study, ACR treatment dramatically increased the accumulation of lipid droplets. We also examined expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ (PPARγ), CCAAT enhancer binding protein α (c/EBPα), and CCAAT enhancer binding protein β (c/EBPβ) as adipogenic transcription factors for adipocyte differentiation...
October 26, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Bingyu Shi, Jingjing Qi, Genhong Yao, Ruihai Feng, Zhuoya Zhang, Dandan Wang, Chen Chen, Xiaojun Tang, Liwei Lu, Wanjun Chen, Lingyun Sun
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to be effective in treating autoimmune diseases including Sjögren's syndrome (SS). We aim to compare the effects of MSC transplantation (MSCT) and the role of serum interleukin-12 (IL-12) in SS. METHODS: IL-12 levels were measured by ELISA. IL-12 mRNA transcripts in dendritic cells (DCs) were determined by RT-PCR. After co-culturing with MSCs, IL-12 mRNA transcripts in mouse and human DCs were detected...
November 8, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Yeong-Chan Kim, Jun-Won Chung, Jeong-Heum Baek, Won-Suk Lee, Doojin Kim, Yeon-Ho Park, Jun-Young Yang, Woon-Kee Lee
BACKGROUND: Right colonic diverticulitis (RCD) is more common in Asian countries than in Western countries, and the risk factors for recurrence of RCD are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to assess the risk factors for recurrence of RCD. METHODS: We analyzed 296 patients admitted for treatment of RCD in the Gachon University Gil Medical Center from December 2001 to October 2014. Gender, age, BMI, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, smoking, Hinchey classification, and hospital stay were investigated as risk factors for recurrence...
November 8, 2018: Digestive Surgery
Shibba Takkar Chhabra, Tripat Kaur, Sarbjit Masson, Ravinder K Soni, Namita Bansal, Brijesh Takkar, Rohit Tandon, Abhishek Goyal, Bhupinder Singh, Naved Aslam, Bishav Mohan, Gurpreet Singh Wander
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the very young is a rare entity, with limited data. We aimed to study patterns and profile of ACS in patients aged 20-30 years in comparison with those above 30 years. METHODS: In this retrospective record-based study, the demographic and clinical profile of all patients with ACS in the last 12 years (n = 35259) was analysed: group I (20-30 years) and group II (above 30 years). Patients in group II were selected by systematic sampling...
October 19, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Vítor Spínola, Joana Pinto, Eulogio J Llorent-Martínez, Helena Tomás, Paula C Castilho
Rubus grandifolius Lowe (wild blackberries) is an endemic species from Madeira Archipelago (Portugal) used in folk medicine for alleviating diabetic complications. In this work, R. grandifolius methanolic extracts were analysed for in vitro inhibitory effect on digestive enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes, as well as aldose reductase activity and protein glycation. The phenolic composition, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were also determined. Methanolic extracts exhibited strong inhibition of glucosidases (α- and β), but were less potent for α-amylase and pancreatic lipase when compared to current pharmaceutical drugs...
November 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Christopher L Axelrod, Ciarán E Fealy, Anny Mulya, John P Kirwan
AIMS: Mitochondria exist as a morphologically plastic network driven by cellular bioenergetic demand. Induction of fusion and fission machinery allows the organelle to regulate quality control and substrate flux. Physiologic stressors promote fragmentation of the mitochondrial network, a process implicated in the onset of metabolic disease, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. It is well known that exercise training improves skeletal muscle mitochondrial volume, number, and density...
November 8, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Anne-Laure Borel, Sandrine Coumes, Fabian Reche, Stéphane Ruckly, Jean-Louis Pépin, Renaud Tamisier, Nelly Wion, Catherine Arvieux
METHODS: Data from women (n = 305, aged 43 [34; 53] years-old, BMI 44.2 [40.8; 48.2] kg/m2) included in the Severe Obesity Outcome Network (SOON) cohort were analyzed (i) to evaluate collinearity between the different anthropometric markers, (ii) to compare the association of markers with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and other cardiometabolic risks. RESULTS: Hip, waist and neck circumferences correlated with BMI with respectively less collinearity (r = 0...
2018: PloS One
Widet Gallo, Jonathan Lou S Esguerra, Lena Eliasson, Olle Melander
Our aim was to identify serum microRNAs (miRNAs) in healthy humans which associate with future onset of both diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. We performed global profiling of 753 mature human miRNAs in serum of 12 pilot subjects followed by measurement of 47 consistently expressed miRNAs in fasting serum of 553 healthy subjects from the baseline exam (1991-1994) of the population based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study Cardiovascular Cohort (MDC-CC), of whom 140 developed diabetes, and 169 cardiovascular diseases during follow-up...
2018: PloS One
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