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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329429/racial-disparity-in-life-expectancies-and-life-years-lost-associated-with-multiple-obesity-related-chronic-conditions
#1
Su-Hsin Chang, Yao-Chi Yu, Nils P Carlsson, Xiaoyan Liu, Graham A Colditz
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated racial disparity in life expectancies (LEs) and life years lost (LYL) associated with multiple obesity-related chronic conditions (OCCs). METHODS: Data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 2008-2012, were used. Four OCCs were studied: diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke. LE for each subpopulation was simulated by Markov modelling. LYL associated with a disease for a subpopulation was computed by taking the difference between LEs for members of that subpopulation without disease and LEs for members of that subpopulation who had that disease...
March 22, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329121/very-low-calorie-diets-for-weight-loss-in-obese-older-adults-a-randomized-trial
#2
Cilla J Haywood, Luke A Prendergast, Katrina Purcell, Lauren Le Fevre, Wen Kwang Lim, Mary Galea, Joseph Proietto
Background: Obesity contributes to disability in older adults, and this is offset by weight loss and exercise. Very Low Calorie Diets (VLCDs) achieve rapid weight loss; however, these have not been rigorously evaluated in older people. Methods: A randomized trial was conducted from August 2012 through December 2015. The intervention was 12 weeks of thrice weekly exercise combined with either healthy eating advice (Ex/HE), hypocaloric diet (Ex/Diet), or VLCD (Ex/VLCD)...
February 20, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329091/association-between-sleep-timing-obesity-diabetes-the-hispanic-community-health-study-study-of-latinos-hchs-sol-cohort-study-sleep-timing-obesity-and-diabetes
#3
Kristen L Knutson, Donghong Wu, Sanjay R Patel, Jose S Loredo, Susan Redline, Jianwen Cai, Linda C Gallo, Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, Alberto R Ramos, Yanping Teng, Martha L Daviglus, Phyllis C Zee
Study Objectives: Recent studies implicate inadequate sleep duration and quality in metabolic disease. Fewer studies have examined the timing of sleep, which may be important because of its potential impact on circadian rhythms of metabolic function. We examined the association between sleep timing and metabolic risk among Hispanic/Latino adults. Methods.: Cross-sectional data from community-based study of 13,429 participants aged 18-74 years. People taking diabetes medications were excluded...
January 28, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329031/who-take-naps-self-reported-and-objectively-measured-napping-in-very-old-women
#4
Yue Leng, Katie Stone, Sonia Ancoli-Israel, Kenneth Covinsky, Kristine Yaffe
Background: Despite the widespread belief that napping is common among older adults, little is known about the correlates of napping. We examined the prevalence and correlates of self-reported and objectively measured napping among very old women. Methods: We studied 2,675 community-dwelling women (mean age 84.5 ± 3.7 years; range 79-96). Self-reported napping was defined as a report of regular napping for ≥1 hour per day. Individual objective naps were defined as ≥5 consecutive minutes of inactivity as measured by actigraphy and women were characterized as "objective nappers" if they had at least 60 minutes of naps per day...
February 18, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328996/diaphragmatic-function-is-enhanced-in-fatty-and-diabetic-fatty-rats
#5
Audrey De Jong, Serge Carreira, Na Na, Aude Carillion, Cheng Jiang, Maud Beuvin, Jean-Marc Lacorte, Dominique Bonnefont-Rousselot, Bruno Riou, Catherine Coirault
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with a decrease in mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) (the "obesity paradox"). We hypothesized that obesity may paradoxically improve diaphragmatic function. METHODS: Diaphragm contractility was prospectively recorded in vitro in adult male Zucker lean (control), fatty, and diabetic fatty rats, at rest, after 12h mechanical ventilation and after fatigue. We analyzed diaphragm morphology, cytokines, and protein expression of the protein kinase signaling pathways...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328638/complications-after-reduction-mammaplasty-a-comparison-of-wise-pattern-inferior-pedicle-and-vertical-scar-superomedial-pedicle
#6
Adeyemi A Ogunleye, Ofelia Leroux, Norman Morrison, Aviva B Preminger
Reduction mammaplasty is a commonly-performed procedure among plastic surgeons. Although several methods exist, the Wise pattern/inferior pedicle (IP) technique is the most widely used. The vertical scar/superomedial pedicle (SP) technique has gained acceptance for its shorter scar and more durable projection results, but some hesitation remains with its use in larger volume reductions.The incidence of complications in 124 consecutively performed breast reductions (246 breasts) at a single institution using either the Wise pattern/IP technique or vertical scar/SP technique, as well as risk factors associated with them, was determined...
March 21, 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327105/association-of-physical-activity-on-body-composition-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-and-prevalence-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-the-korean-population-from-the-fifth-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2008-2011
#7
Gwang-Sil Kim, Eui Im, Ji-Hyuck Rhee
BACKGROUND: Data regarding associations among physical activity (PA) level, body composition, and prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in Asian populations are rare. METHODS: The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was utilized to estimate PA levels and analyze the association of PA level with various body composition parameters and the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases by using data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011...
March 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327086/design-of-the-lifestyle-interventions-for-severe-mentally-ill-outpatients-in-the-netherlands-lion-trial-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-study-of-a-multidimensional-web-tool-intervention-to-improve-cardiometabolic-health-in-patients-with-severe-mental-illness
#8
Anne Looijmans, Frederike Jörg, Richard Bruggeman, Robert Schoevers, Eva Corpeleijn
BACKGROUND: The cardiometabolic health of persons with a severe mental illness (SMI) is alarming with obesity rates of 45-55% and diabetes type 2 rates of 10-15%. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours play a large role in this. Despite the multidisciplinary guideline for SMI patients recommending to monitor and address patients' lifestyle, most mental health care professionals have limited lifestyle-related knowledge and skills, and (lifestyle) treatment protocols are lacking. Evidence-based practical lifestyle tools may support both patients and staff in improving patients' lifestyle...
March 21, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326830/do-statin-users-adhere-to-a-healthy-diet-and-lifestyle-the-australian-diabetes-obesity-and-lifestyle-study
#9
Simran Johal, Kris M Jamsen, J Simon Bell, Kevin P Mc Namara, Dianna J Magliano, Danny Liew, Taliesin E Ryan-Atwood, Claire Anderson, Jenni Ilomäki
Background Lifestyle and dietary advice typically precedes or accompanies the prescription of statin medications. However, evidence for adherence to this advice is sparse. The objective was to compare saturated fat intake, exercise, alcohol consumption and smoking between statin users and non-users in Australia. Methods Data were analysed for 4614 participants aged ≥37 years in the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study in 2011-2012. Statin use, smoking status and physical activity were self-reported...
April 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326193/associations-of-diabetes-and-obesity-with-risk-of-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-in-men
#10
Lu Wang, Luc Djousse, Yiqing Song, Akintunde O Akinkuolie, Chisa Matsumoto, JoAnn E Manson, J Michael Gaziano, Howard D Sesso
Background. The associations of diabetes and obesity with the risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are inconclusive in previous studies. Subjects/Methods. We conducted prospective analysis in the Physicians' Health Study. Among 25,554 male physicians aged ≥ 50 years who reported no AAA at baseline, 471 reported a newly diagnosed AAA during a mean of 10.4 years' follow-up. Results. Compared with men who had baseline body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m(2), the multivariable hazard ratio (HR [95% CI]) of newly diagnosed AAA was 1...
2017: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326003/effects-of-organic-food-consumption-on-human-health-the-jury-is-still-out
#11
Marcin Barański, Leonidas Rempelos, Per Ole Iversen, Carlo Leifert
The most recent systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses have indicated significant and nutritionally-relevant composition differences between organic and conventional foods. This included higher antioxidant, but lower cadmium and pesticide levels in organic crops, and higher omega-3 fatty acids concentrations in organic meat and dairy products. Also, results from a small number of human cohort studies indicate that there are positive associations between organic food consumption and reduced risk/incidence of certain acute diseases (e...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325919/sex-differences-in-the-clinical-features-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage-a-large-hospital-based-stroke-registry-in-china
#12
Yonghong Xing, Zhongping An, Xianghui Zhang, Ning Yu, Wenjuan Zhao, Xianjia Ning, Jinghua Wang
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is common in China. However, the sex differences in clinical features, risk factors, and outcomes of ICH remain controversial. Between 2005 and 2014, we recruited patients with primary ICH in Tianjin, China, and evaluated sex differences in clinical features, risk factors, and outcomes at 3, 12, and 36 months after ICH. The 1,325 patients included 897 men (67.7%) and 428 women (32.3%). The mean age at ICH onset was younger among men (59.14 years) than among women (63.12 years, P < 0...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325853/deletion-of-macrophage-mineralocorticoid-receptor-protects-hepatic-steatosis-and-insulin-resistance-through-er%C3%AE-hgf-met-pathway
#13
Yu-Yao Zhang, Chao Li, Gao-Feng Yao, Lin-Juan Du, Yuan Liu, Xiao-Jun Zheng, Shuai Yan, Jian-Yong Sun, Yan Liu, Ming-Zhu Liu, Xiaoran Zhang, Gang Wei, Wenxin Tong, Xiaobei Chen, Yong Wu, Shuyang Sun, Suling Liu, Qiurong Ding, Ying Yu, Huiyong Yin, Sheng-Zhong Duan
Although the importance of macrophages in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been recognized, it remains elusive how macrophages impact hepatocytes. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) has been implied to play important roles in NAFLD and T2DM. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we report that myeloid MR knockout (MRKO) improves glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in obese mice. Estrogen signaling is sufficient and necessary for such improvements...
March 21, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325825/very-long-term-sequelae-of-craniopharyngioma
#14
Mark Wijnen, Marry M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Joseph A M J L Janssen, Coriene E Catsman-Berrevoets, Erna M C Michiels, Marie-Lise C van Veelen-Vincent, Alof H G Dallenga, Jan H van den Berge, Carolien M van Rij, A J Van der Lely, Sebastian J C M M Neggers
OBJECTIVE: Studies investigating long-term health conditions in patients with craniopharyngioma are limited by short follow-up durations and do generally not compare long-term health effects according to initial craniopharyngioma treatment approach. In addition, studies comparing long-term health conditions between patients with childhood- and adult-onset craniopharyngioma report conflicting results. The objective of this study was to analyse a full spectrum of long-term health effects in patients with craniopharyngioma according to initial treatment approach and age group at craniopharyngioma presentation...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324596/blood-pressure-and-metabolic-changes-after-3-month-cpap-therapy-in-a-very-elderly-obese-with-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Francesco Spannella, Federico Giulietti, Chiara Di Pentima, Francesca Elena Lombardi, Elisabetta Borioni, Riccardo Sarzani
Age is one of the main risk factor for the presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This syndrome is associated with hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment and metabolic abnormalities, such as type 2 diabetes. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) represents the gold standard therapy, but its benefit is still to be determined in very elderly. We report the blood pressure and metabolic changes in a very elderly obese with severe OSA after 3-month CPAP therapy. We have evaluated a very elderly obese male affected by severe symptomatic OSA, poor controlled nocturnal hypertension and insulin resistance...
March 21, 2017: High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention: the Official Journal of the Italian Society of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324453/analysis-of-the-main-risk-factors-for-gestational-diabetes-diagnosed-with-international-association-of-diabetes-and-pregnancy-study-groups-iadpsg-criteria-in-multiple-pregnancies
#16
M Cozzolino, C Serena, L Maggio, M P Rambaldi, S Simeone, G Mello, L Pasquini, M Di Tommaso, F Mecacci
INTRODUCTION: The aim is to investigate the proportion of multiple pregnancies with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosed using the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria and to identify the impact of age, body mass index (BMI), and mode of conception on incidence of GDM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a single center, retrospective cohort study on 656 multiple pregnancies screened for GDM with 75-g, 2-h oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks of gestation, between January 2010 and January 2016...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324172/enzymes-involved-in-branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolism-in-humans
#17
REVIEW
María M Adeva-Andany, Laura López-Maside, Cristóbal Donapetry-García, Carlos Fernández-Fernández, Cristina Sixto-Leal
Branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine) are structurally related to branched-chain fatty acids. Leucine is 2-amino-4-methyl-pentanoic acid, isoleucine is 2-amino-3-methyl-pentanoic acid, and valine is 2-amino-3-methyl-butanoic acid. Similar to fatty acid oxidation, leucine and isoleucine produce acetyl-coA. Additionally, leucine generates acetoacetate and isoleucine yields propionyl-coA. Valine oxidation produces propionyl-coA, which is converted into methylmalonyl-coA and succinyl-coA. Branched-chain aminotransferase catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolic pathway of branched-chain amino acids, a reversible transamination that converts branched-chain amino acids into branched-chain ketoacids...
March 21, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324025/clinical-and-genetic-features-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-renal-glycosuria
#18
Siqian Gong, Jiandong Guo, Xueyao Han, Meng Li, Lingli Zhou, Xiaoling Cai, Yu Zhu, Yingying Luo, Simin Zhang, Xianghai Zhou, Yumin Ma, Linong Ji
Context: A sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, which increases urinary glucose excretion, was recently reported to decrease blood glucose levels and deaths among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and established cardiovascular disease. Mutations in SLC5A2 and HNF1A are associated with renal glycosuria, but their contributions to renal glycosuria in patients with T2DM are not well understood. Objective: To assess the clinical features of T2DM patients with renal glycosuria and those with low urinary glucose excretion (LUGE) and identify variants in the coding regions of SLC5A2 and HNF1A in patients with renal glycosuria and T2DM...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324011/a-novel-fc-fgf21-with-improved-resistance-to-proteolysis-increased-affinity-towards-%C3%AE-klotho-and-enhanced-efficacy-in-mice-and-cynomolgus-monkeys
#19
Shanaka Stanislaus, Randy Hecht, Junming Yie, Todd Hager, Michael Hall, Chris Spahr, Wei Wang, Jennifer Weiszmann, Yang Li, Liying Deng, Dwight Winters, Stephen Smith, Lei Zhou, Yuesheng Li, Murielle M Véniant, Jing Xu
FGF21 is a natural hormone that modulates glucose, lipid, and energy metabolism. Previously, we engineered an Fc fusion FGF21 variant with two mutations, Fc-FGF21(RG), to extend the half-life and reduce aggregation and in vivo degradation of FGF21. We now describe a new variant developed to reduce the extreme C-terminal degradation and improve the binding affinity to β-Klotho. We demonstrate, by introducing one additional mutation located at the C-terminus of FGF21 (A180E) that the new molecule, Fc-FGF21(RGE), has gained many improved attributes...
January 26, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324004/bone-turnover-is-suppressed-in-insulin-resistance-independent-of-adiposity
#20
K T Tonks, C P White, J R Center, D Samocha-Bonet, J R Greenfield
Context: The contribution of insulin resistance vs. adiposity to bone mineral density (BMD), bone turnover and fractures in humans remains unclear. Objective: Evaluate BMD and bone turnover markers (BTM) in lean (n=18) and overweight/obese individuals with (n=17) and without type 2 diabetes (n=34, deemed insulin-sensitive [Obsensitive, n=15] or insulin-resistant [Obresistant, n=19] by HOMA-IR). Design: Observational study. Outcome measures: Insulin sensitivity assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp; whole body BMD and fat mass (FM) by DXA; and BTM (osteocalcin [OC], procollagen type-1 propeptide [P1NP] and collagen type-1 cross-linked C-telopeptide [CTx]) fasting and during clamp hyperinsulinemia...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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