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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232311/lithium-colchicine-a-potential-strategy-to-reduce-pro-inflammatory-effects-of-lithium-treatment
#1
John J Mooney, Roscoe O Brady
PURPOSE: Rosenblat and McIntyre (Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2015;132: 180-191) propose that immune disorders are important mediators between bipolar disorders and medical comorbidities. Rosenblat et al (Bipolar Disord. 2016;18:89-101) present a meta-analysis showing that adjunctive anti-inflammatory agents could evoke moderate antidepressant responses in bipolar disorders. We propose using the anti-inflammatory drug colchicine to improve the long-term safety and efficacy of lithium treatment for bipolar disorders...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232296/morbid-obesity-does-not-increase-morbidity-or-mortality-in-robotic-cardiac-surgery
#2
Hiroto Kitahara, Brooke Patel, Mackenzie McCrorey, Sarah Nisivaco, Husam H Balkhy
OBJECTIVE: Morbid obesity (body mass index ≥ 35 kg/m) usually confers a higher perioperative risk in cardiac surgery. Robotic cardiac surgery may have many advantages for these high-risk patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients undergoing robotic cardiac surgery from July 2013 to April 2017 at our institution. We compared the outcomes of morbidly obese patients versus nonobese patients. RESULTS: A total of 486 patients underwent robotic cardiac surgery (322 men, median age = 65 years)...
December 7, 2017: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231926/predictors-of-physical-fitness-among-southwestern-native-american-adolescents-at-risk-for-diabetes
#3
M D Ehrhart, V Shah, L Colip, P Sandy, D Ghahate, J Bobelu, T Faber, M R Burge
The prevalence of obesity is increasing among children nationally. Native American children from Zuni Pueblo appear to be at increased risk for obesity, which also increases the risk for the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. While exercise and physical fitness can prevent or forestall these developments, predictors of physical fitness in this population are unknown. Forty-seven Native American adolescents completed four aspects of the Presidential Fitness Challenge (push-ups, sit-ups, step-ups, and timed walking) during screening for another study, and fitness was empirically summarized with a Presidential Fitness Index...
2017: J Pediatr Endocrinol (Jersey City)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231919/-non-alcoholic-liver-disease-diagnosis-and-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Anna Sarosiekjeznach-Steinhagen, Joanna Ostrowska, Aneta Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Iwona Boniecka
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently the most common chronic liver disease in the developed world (15% to 40% of the adult population). Introduction of lifestyle changes including dietary intervention and increased physical activity is most often the first-line treatment and is intended to support not only the treatment of liver disease, but also for diseases associated with obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and dyslipidemia. In addition to well-known metformin, there are new classes of antidiabetic drugs, including GLP-1analog, SGLT-2 antagonist, pioglitazon...
November 23, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230714/obesity-phenotypes-depot-differences-in-adipose-tissue-and-their-clinical-implications
#5
REVIEW
Valeria Guglielmi, Paolo Sbraccia
Obesity, defined as excess fat mass, increases risks for multiple chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and several types of cancer. Beyond adiposity per se, the pattern of fat distribution, android or truncal as compared to gynoid or peripheral, has a profound influence on systemic metabolism and hence risk for obesity complications. Not only factors as genetics, environment, gender, and age account for the apparent compartmentalization of white adipose tissue (WAT) in the body...
December 11, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229948/assessment-of-lipid-and-metabolite-changes-in-obese-calf-muscle-using-multi-echo-echo-planar-correlated-spectroscopic-imaging
#6
Rajakumar Nagarajan, Catherine L Carpenter, Cathy C Lee, Navin Michael, Manoj K Sarma, Raissa Souza, Edward Xu, S Sendhil Velan, Theodore J Hahn, Vay-Liang Go, M Albert Thomas
Obesity-related conditions including heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes are leading causes of preventable death. Recent evidence suggests that altered myocellular lipid metabolism in obesity may lead to increased insulin resistance (IR) that predisposes to these disorders. To test the hypothesis that muscles rich in type I vs. type II muscle fibers would exhibit similar changes in intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL) content in obesity, we utilized a new four-dimensional multi echo echo-planar correlated spectroscopic imaging technique that allows separate determination of IMCL and EMCL content in individual calf muscles in obese vs...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229738/hdac5-integrates-er-stress-and-fasting-signals-to-regulate-hepatic-fatty-acid-oxidation
#7
Xinchen Qiu, Jian Li, Sihan Lv, Jiamin Yu, Junkun Jiang, Jindong Yao, Yang Xiao, Bingxin Xu, Haiyan He, Fangfei Guo, Zhen-Ning Zhang, Chao Zhang, Bing Luan
Disregulation of fatty acid oxidation, one of the major mechanisms to maintain hepatic lipid homeostasis under fasting conditions, leads to hepatic steatosis. Although obesity and type 2 diabetes-induced ER stress contributes to hepatic steatosis, it is largely unknown how ER stress regulates fatty acid oxidation. Here we show that fasting glucagon stimulates the dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of HDAC5, where it interacts with PPARα and promotes transcriptional activity of PPARα. As a result, overexpression of HDAC5 but not PPARα binding-deficient HDAC5 in liver improves lipid homeostasis, while RNAi-mediated knockdown of HDAC5 deteriorates hepatic steatosis...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229382/is-incident-type-2-diabetes-associated-with-cumulative-excess-weight-and-abdominal-adiposity-tehran-lipid-and-glucose-study
#8
Fatemeh Zameni, Mahmood Bakhtiyari, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Azra Ramezankhani, Fereidoun Azizi, Farzad Hadaegh
AIMS: To examine the association of the risk of incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) with cumulative excess weight (CEW) and cumulative excess waist circumference (CEWC) scores. METHODS: Adults participants without T2D (n=4,635) aged ≥20 years were included in the study. The differences between the body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) values and their normal references were calculated until the incident T2D. The CEW and CEWC scores represent the accumulation of BMI and WC deviations from normal values over time, i...
December 8, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229313/emerging-role-of-adipocytokines-in-type-2-diabetes-as-mediators-of-insulin-resistance-and-cardiovascular-disease
#9
REVIEW
Ravindran Jaganathan, Rajeswari Ravindran, Sugapriya Dhanasekaran
Adipose tissue is an enormously active endocrine organ, secreting various hormones, such as adiponectin, leptin, resistin and visfatin, together with classical cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). All these adipocytokines plays significant roles in the regulation of energy metabolism, glucose and lipid metabolism, reproduction, cardiovascular function and immunity. Adipocytokines are significantly regulated by nutritional status and can directly influence other organ systems, including brain, liver and skeletal muscle...
December 8, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228975/prediabetes-and-cardiovascular-complications-study-paccs-international-collaboration-4%C3%A2-years-summary-and-future-direction
#10
E U Nwose, R S Richards, P T Bwititi, E O Igumbor, E J Oshionwu, K Okolie, I C Onyia, A Pokhrel, P Gyawali, J N Okuzor, V M Oguoma, F W Gardiner, L Wang
OBJECTIVE: The prediabetes and cardiovascular complications studies proposes to develop a screening protocol for diabetes cardiovascular risk, and strategies for holistic management amongst others. Over 500 participants were recruited in the first 2 years of rural community research screening. Specific for this report, various published findings were reviewed. The objective is to summarize research outcomes and itemize limitations as they constitute basis of future directions. RESULTS: Affordability and availability are major confounding behavioural change wheel factors in the rural community...
December 11, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228671/metformin-ameliorates-skeletal-muscle-insulin-resistance-by-inhibiting-mir-21-expression-in-a-high-fat-dietary-rat-model
#11
Jinyang Wang, Yanbin Gao, Lijun Duan, Suhong Wei, Jing Liu, Liming Tian, Jinxing Quan, Qi Zhang, Juxiang Liu, Jinkui Yang
Insulin resistance (IR) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of abdominal obesity, hypertension, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis and diabetes. miR-21 and TGF-β/smads is closely related to IR. However, it remained elusive whether metformin improved skeletal muscle insulin resistance (IRSM) by regulating miR-21 and its target signal TGF-β1/smads expression. In this study, high-fat diet rats with IR model and IR-skeletal muscle L6 cells (L6-SMCs) model were established, insulin sensitive index (ISI) and Homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) were applied, miR-21 and TGF-β1/smads mRNA expression were examined by RT-PCR, smad3 and smad7 protein were detected by western-blotting and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), the valid target of miR-21 was detected by luciferase reporter gene assay...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228169/endothelial-permeability-ldl-deposition-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-a-review
#12
Santa Mundi, Marika Massaro, Egeria Scoditti, Maria Annunziata Carluccio, Victor W M van Hinsbergh, M Luisa Iruela-Arispe, Raffaele De Caterina
Early atherosclerosis features functional and structural changes in the endothelial barrier function that affect the traffic of molecules and solutes between the vessel lumen and the vascular wall. Such changes are mechanistically related to the development of atherosclerosis.Proatherogenic stimuli and cardiovascular risk factors, such as dyslipidemias, diabetes, obesity, and smoking, all increase endothelial permeability sharing a common signalling denominator: an imbalance in the production/disposal of reactive oxygen species (ROS), broadly termed oxidative stress...
December 8, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228058/altered-intragenic-dna-methylation-of-hook2-gene-in-adipose-tissue-from-individuals-with-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#13
Sandra Rodríguez-Rodero, Edelmiro Menéndez-Torre, Gustavo Fernández-Bayón, Paula Morales-Sánchez, Lourdes Sanz, Estrella Turienzo, Juan José González, Ceferino Martinez-Faedo, Lorena Suarez-Gutiérrez, Jessica Ares, Lucia Díaz-Naya, Alicia Martin-Nieto, Juan L Fernández-Morera, Mario F Fraga, Elías Delgado-Álvarez
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Failure in glucose response to insulin is a common pathology associated with obesity. In this study, we analyzed the genome wide DNA methylation profile of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) samples in a population of individuals with obesity and assessed whether differential methylation profiles are associated with the presence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: More than 485,000 CpG genome sites from VAT samples from women with obesity undergoing gastric bypass (n = 18), and classified as suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2D) or not (no type 2 diabetes, NT2D), were analyzed using DNA methylation arrays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228027/an-insulin-resistance-associated-neural-correlate-of-impulsivity-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#14
Kristen L Eckstrand, Nishit Mummareddy, Hakmook Kang, Ronald Cowan, Minchun Zhou, David Zald, Heidi J Silver, Kevin D Niswender, Malcolm J Avison
Central insulin resistance (IR) influences striatal dopamine (DA) tone, an important determinant of behavioral self-regulation. We hypothesized that an association exists between the degree of peripheral IR and impulse control, mediated by the impact of IR on brain circuits controlling the speed of executing "go" and/or "stop" responses. We measured brain activation and associated performance on a stop signal task (SST) in obese adults with type 2 diabetes (age, 48.1 ± 6.9 yrs (mean ± SD); BMI, 36.5 ± 4...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227868/systemic-mastocytosis-associates-with-cardiovascular-events-despite-lower-plasma-lipid-levels
#15
Swasti Indhirajanti, Paul L A van Daele, Sven Bos, Monique T Mulder, Ilze Bot, Jeanine E Roeters van Lennep
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mast cells have been implicated in the development and progression of atherosclerosis in animal models and human autopsy studies. However, it is unknown whether long-term exposure to excess of mast cells is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in humans. Our objective was to compare the prevalence of CVD and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM) and controls. METHODS: In 50 patients with SM and 50 age and sex matched controls, the history of CVD and presence of cardiovascular risk factors were assessed...
December 8, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227579/obesity-type-2-diabetes-increases-inflammation-periosteal-reactive-bone-formation-and-osteolysis-during-staphylococcus-aureus-implant-associated-bone-infection
#16
Christopher W Farnsworth, Eric M Schott, Abigail M Benvie, Jacob Zukoski, Stephen L Kates, Edward M Schwarz, Steven R Gill, Michael J Zuscik, Robert A Mooney
Obese and type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients have a 5-fold increased rate of infection following placement of an indwelling orthopaedic device. Though implant infections are associated with inflammation, periosteal reactive bone formation and osteolysis, the effect of obesity/T2D on these complicating factors has not been studied. To address this question, C57BL/6J mice were fed a high fat diet (60% Kcal from fat) to induce obesity/T2D, or a control diet (10% Kcal from fat) for three months, and challenged with a transtibial pin coated with a bioluminescent USA300 strain of S...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227505/neurobiology-of-sexual-assault-and-osteopathic-considerations-for-trauma-informed-care-and-practice
#17
Kristen M Cuevas, Jane Balbo, Krista Duval, Elizabeth A Beverly
Sexual assault is a traumatic event with potentially devastating lifelong effects on physical and emotional health. Sexual assault is associated with gastrointestinal, neurologic, and reproductive symptoms, as well as obesity, diabetes, and chronic pain. With 1 in 3 women and 1 in 6 men experiencing some form of unwanted sexual violence in their lifetime, sexual assault is a significant public health problem that necessitates attention in the medical community. This review discusses relevant literature on the neurobiologic changes that occur as a consequence of sexual assault, such as how the brain responds during a traumatic experience and the impact of trauma on memory...
December 11, 2017: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227187/laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy-endoscopic-findings-and-gastroesophageal-reflux-symptoms-at-18-month-follow-up
#18
Germán Viscido, Verónica Gorodner, Franco Signorini, Luciano Navarro, Lucio Obeide, Federico Moser
INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has shown excellent results in terms of weight loss and resolution of comorbidities. Despite that, the effect of LSG on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is still a controversial topic. Our objective was to evaluate the presence of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, erosive esophagitis (EE), and hiatal hernia (HH) in obese patients undergoing LSG. METHODS: Prospective observational study. LSG patients were studied before and at 18-month follow-up...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227165/sex-hormone-binding-globulin-an-important-biomarker-for-predicting-pcos-risk-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Ritu Deswal, Arun Yadav, Amita Suneja Dang
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is a glycoprotein which regulates bioavailability of sex steroid hormones. Interest in SHBG has escalated in recent years because of its inverse association with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), obesity, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes type II. This meta-analysis was performed to examine the associations of SHBG with PCOS and to correlate serum SHBG levels with various PCOS associated endocrine and metabolic dysregulation as well as to determine the effects of various therapeutic agents on serum SHBG levels in PCOS patients in order to assess the true accuracy of SHBG in the prediction of PCOS...
December 11, 2017: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227046/prevalence-of-comorbidities-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnoea-syndrome-overlap-syndrome-obesity-hypoventilation-syndrome
#20
Donato Lacedonia, Giovanna Elisiana Carpagnano, Giulia Patricelli, Mauro Carone, Crescenzio Gallo, Incoronata Caccavo, Roberto Sabato, Annarita Depalo, Maria Aliani, Alberto Capozzolo, Maria Pia Foschino Barbaro
INTRODUCTION: Sleep-disordered breathing causes a burden to the sufferer, the healthcare system, and the society. Most studies have focused on Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA), however, the prevalence of comorbidities in patients affected by Overlap Syndrome (OS) and Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome (OHS) has not been carefully evaluated. STUDY OBJECTIVES: The principal aim of this study was to identify the presence of comorbidities in patients suffering from OSA, OS, OHS and the differences in three groups of patients...
December 11, 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
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