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obesity infections

Andreas Keyser, Alois Philipp, Florian Zeman, Matthias Lubnow, Dirk Lunz, Markus Zimmermann, Christof Schmid
BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal life support systems are well-established devices for treating patients with acute cardiopulmonary failure. Severe or morbid obesity may result in complications such as limb ischemia, bleeding, unsuccessful cannulation, or infection at the cannulation sites. This article reports on our experience with cannulation and associated complications in severely and morbidly obese patients. METHODS: Between January 2006 and September 2016, 153 severely or morbidly obese patients with a body mass index >35 kg/m2 were cannulated percutaneously for extracorporeal life support at our center...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Jennifer C Duckworth, Mary Waldron
BACKGROUND: Most research linking weight status and timing of first sexual intercourse is cross-sectional in design, with few longitudinal analyses published to date. We examined associations between childhood weight status and subsequent onset of first sexual intercourse within a survival analytic framework, testing for differences among Hispanic, black, and white females and males. METHODS: Data were drawn from 6379 child respondents of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth aged 13 and older at last assessment...
September 18, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Helen E Cejtin, Charlesnika T Evans, Ruth Greenblatt, Howard Minkoff, Kathleen M Weber, Rodney Wright, Christine Colie, Elizabeth Golub, L Stewart Massad
OBJECTIVE: To compare etiologies of prolonged amenorrhea in a cohort of HIV-infected women with a cohort of similar uninfected at-risk women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study were seen every 6 months, and completed surveys including questions about their menstruation. Those who reported no vaginal bleeding for at least 1 year ("prolonged amenorrhea") with subsequent resumption of bleeding were compared with women in whom bleeding had stopped permanently ("menopause")...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
Mario Spaggiari, Frances Rose Lendacki, Caterina Di Bella, Pier Cristoforo Giulianotti, Enrico Benedetti, Jose Oberholzer, Ivo Tzvetanov
The pre-transplant weight loss required of end-stage renal disease patients is often unachievable. Though robot-assisted procedures among extremely obese have shown minimal complication, long-term outcomes are understudied. Previously, we reported no difference in 6-month patient and graft survival among 28 robot-assisted transplant cases (2009-2013), and 28 open controls (2004-2010). Groups were frequency-matched on age, sex, race, donor compatibility, disease and dialysis history. Cases had greater median pre-transplant BMI (42...
September 14, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
Nadin N Toaima, Rasha H El-Owaidy, Dina L Zaki, Lerine B Eldin
INTRODUCTION: There is a possible association between obesity and infections. We sought to investigate phagocytic functions in obese children and their relation to serum leptin levels. METHODS: A cross sectional, controlled study was conducted, comprising 40 cases with simple visceral-type obesity. Subjects were evaluated for percentage of caloric intake, frequency and type of infections, body mass index (BMI) z score, in addition to complete blood counting, serum leptin assay (ELISA) and Dihydrorhodamine (DHR) flowcytometry...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Ling Shen, Zongtong Lin, Xing Lin, Zhongjie Yang
Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome is caused by multiple factors. The present study aimed to investigate the potential risks of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and their correlation with the disease severity. A total of 338 pediatric patients with OSAHS (polysomnography (PSG) diagnosis) were enrolled between June 2008 and October 2010. These pediatric patients were divided into mild, moderate and severe subgroups according to the obstructive apnea index (OAI) and/or apnea hypoventilation index (AHI)...
2018: PloS One
Moises A Huaman, David Henson, Paola L Rondan, Eduardo Ticona, Gustavo Miranda, Richard J Kryscio, Raquel Mugruza, Ernesto Aranda, Cesar Ticona, Susan Abarca, Paula Heredia, Andres Aguirre, Timothy R Sterling, Beth A Garvy, Carl J Fichtenbaum
BACKGROUND: We previously reported increased unstimulated blood levels of interferon-gamma in persons with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in the United States, suggesting enhanced immune activation in LTBI. To investigate this further in a TB-endemic setting, we assessed interferon-gamma levels in persons with and without LTBI in Peru. METHODS: We analyzed data from patients with and without a recent type 1 (spontaneous) acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who were enrolled from two public hospital networks in Lima, Peru, and underwent LTBI testing using the QuantiFERON® TB Gold In-tube (QFT) assay...
2018: PloS One
Akiko Mano, Ahmet Kilic, Brent C Lampert, Sakima A Smith, Bryan Whitson, Ayesha K Hasan
Obesity could be a risk factor portending a poor prognosis after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. We sought to determine the impact of change in body mass index (BMI) on outcomes in obese patients supported by LVAD. Fifty-nine patients, who received LVAD between January 2010 and June 2015, with BMI ≥30 kg/m at the time of LVAD implantation, were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups based upon whether BMI after 6 months of device support decreased when compared with before...
September 5, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Marek Zubrzycki, Andreas Liebold, Christian Skrabal, Helmut Reinelt, Mechthild Ziegler, Ewelina Perdas, Maria Zubrzycka
Analysis of the problem of surgical pain is important in view of the fact that the success of surgical treatment depends largely on proper pain management during the first few days after a cardiosurgical procedure. Postoperative pain is due to intraoperative damage to tissue. It is acute pain of high intensity proportional to the type of procedure. The pain is most intense during the first 24 hours following the surgery and decreases on subsequent days. Its intensity is higher in younger subjects than elderly and obese patients, and preoperative anxiety is also a factor that increases postoperative pain...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Cristina Campoy, Daniel Campos, Tomás Cerdó, Estefanía Diéguez, José Antonio García-Santos
While a wide knowledge exists on the effects of breast milk or infant formula on growth and infant development, less attention has been paid to the importance of complementary feeding (CF). This review focuses on current recommendations for optimal introduction of CF in healthy full-term European infants and discusses the potential impact of this type of feeding on health outcomes. Overall, exclusive breastfeeding is recommended at least for 4 months and preferable for 6 months, followed by the introduction of CF alongside breast milk; infants' nutrient requirements must meet the differences between nutrients provided by breast milk and the estimated total needs...
2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Stephen J Forest, Rongbing Xie, James K Kirklin, Jennifer Cowger, Yu Xia, Anne I Dipchand, Cumara Sivathasan, Chris Merry, Lars H Lund, Robert Kormos, Margaret M Hannan, Takeshi Nakatani, Ulrich Jorde, Daniel J Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Limited data exist describing impact of body mass index (BMI) on post‒left ventricular assist device (post-LVAD) outcomes. We sought to define the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and adverse events (AEs) after LVAD implantation by examining the ISHLT Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (IMACS) registry. METHODS: Patients implanted with a contemporary continuous flow (CF)-LVAD were stratified into 4 groups using pre-operative BMI: underweight (UW; BMI ≤18...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Robin Som, Nicky Seymour, Sri G Thrumurthy, Sophia Khattak, Shivani Joshi, Paolo G Sorelli
Introduction: Emergency appendicectomy (EA) is a commonly performed operation, with an increasing number of EAs being performed as day-case. The aim of this study is to establish if there is a need for post-operative follow-up and if this could prevent adverse outcomes. Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent EA at multiple centres over a six-month period was undertaken. They were contacted by telephone and a standardised questionnaire was used to ascertain post-operative outcomes, including duration of analgesia use, duration before return to normal daily activity (ADLs), surgical site infection rates (SSI) and rates of re-presentation to medical services...
October 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Kyuwoong Kim, Seulggie Choi, Sang Min Park
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether elevated fasting serum glucose level and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), irrespective of obesity in patients with chronic hepatitis B. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Our study population comprised 214,167 Korean men with chronic hepatitis B in the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database between January 2002 and December 2006. Data on new events of HCC were obtained by records of the NHIS during the follow-up...
September 3, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Francesca Di Cara, Margret Bülow, Andrew J Simmonds, Richard A Rachubinski
The gut has a central role in digestion and nutrient absorption, but it also serves in defending against pathogens, engages in mutually beneficial interactions with commensals, and is a major source of endocrine signals. Gut homeostasis is necessary for organismal health, and changes to the gut are associated with conditions like obesity and diabetes and inflammatory illnesses like Crohn's disease. We report that peroxisomes, organelles involved in lipid metabolism and redox balance, are required to maintain gut epithelium homeostasis and renewal in Drosophila and for survival and development of the organism...
September 6, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Stefan Wolter, Anna Duprée, Alexander ElGammal, Norbert Runkel, Johannes Heimbucher, Jakob R Izbicki, Oliver Mann, Philipp Busch
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of coaching on outcome in low volume centers of excellence and to evaluate the influence of mentorship programs on the center development. BACKGROUND: The number of bariatric procedures has increased steadily in the last years. Providing nationwide bariatric care on a high professional level needs structures to train and guide upcoming centers and ensure high quality in patient care. METHODS: A prospective multicentered, observational study including laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomies (SG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) procedures was performed...
September 5, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Nicolino Ambrosino, Enrica Bertella
Chronic respiratory diseases are among the four major human chronic diseases. Tobacco smoke as well as environmental pollutants, infections, physical activity and nutritional status play a role in the prevalence, development and/or progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Changes in lifestyle are possible and may be beneficial in prevention and comprehensive management of COPD. Population-level interventions aimed at early diagnosis, promotion of vaccinations and prevention of infections, and reductions in smoking, environmental pollutants, physical inactivity, obesity and malnutrition may increase the number of life-years lived in good health...
September 2018: Breathe
Si Ming Man
Inflammasome signalling is an emerging pillar of innate immunity and has a central role in the regulation of gastrointestinal health and disease. Activation of the inflammasome complex mediates both the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 and the execution of a form of inflammatory cell death known as pyroptosis. In most cases, these mediators of inflammation provide protection against bacterial, viral and protozoal infections. However, unchecked inflammasome activities perpetuate chronic inflammation, which underpins the molecular and pathophysiological basis of gastritis, IBD, upper and lower gastrointestinal cancer, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity...
September 5, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
A Van Rie, N S West, S R Schwartz, L Mutanga, C F Hanrahan, J Ncayiyana, J Bassett
BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in involving community health workers (CHWs) into the formal healthcare system in South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVES: To generate evidence for defining CHW tasks in urban SA. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of residents of Diepsloot, northern Johannesburg, was performed using geographically weighted random sampling, with home-based health assessment and a questionnaire on sociodemographics, medical history, experience of violence, health-seeking behaviour and perceived health priorities...
August 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Daria O Lahoda, Valentyna I Velychko, Victoriia E Nakhashova
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Clinical studies that were devoted to the analysis of the asthma course during concomitant obesity or excessive body weight, demonstrated a number of typical features. Both asthma and obesity or overweight are diseases that form a persistent chronic inflammatory process in the body. The combination and mutual enhancement of the factors of chronic inflammation leads to a more severe clinical course of asthma and reduced control of the disease. The aim: The main goal of our study was to determine the peculiarities of the course of bronchial asthma of various degrees of severity in patients with excessive body weight or obesity...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Mabel Toribio, Kathleen V Fitch, Lauren Stone, Markella V Zanni, Janet Lo, Chris de Filippi, Craig A Sponseller, Hang Lee, Ida Grundberg, Melanie A Thompson, Judith A Aberg, Steven K Grinspoon
BACKGROUND: People with HIV (PWH) demonstrate increased cardiovascular disease (CVD), due in part to increased immune activation, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: In a randomized trial (INTREPID), 252 HIV-infected participants with dyslipidemia and no history of coronary artery disease were randomized (1:1) to pitavastatin 4 mg vs. pravastatin 40 mg for 52 weeks. Using a proteomic discovery approach, 92 proteins biomarkers were assessed using Proximity Extension Assay technology to determine the effects of statins on key atherosclerosis and CVD pathways among PWH...
August 30, 2018: EBioMedicine
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