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obesity infections

Sergey Shlyapnikov, Arturo Jauregui, Nana N Khachatryan, Asok Kurup, Javier de la Cabada-Bauche, Hoe N Leong, Li Li, Mark H Wilcox
INTRODUCTION: Tedizolid phosphate 200 mg, once daily for 6 days, has recently been approved for the treatment of patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) in several countries; however, clinical experience in real-life settings is currently limited. Here, we report on the use of tedizolid with an extended treatment duration for complex and severe ABSSSIs in real-world clinical settings. METHODS: Two patients with cellulitis and two patients with surgical site infection (SSI), aged 26-60 years, were treated with tedizolid phosphate 200 mg, intravenous/oral (IV/PO) or IV only, once daily at four different institutions...
July 12, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Francesc Simo Alari, Israel Gutierrez
A 72-year-old woman with morbid obesity and history of psychosis attended the emergency room due to abdominal pain. CT scan revealed a mesenteric infiltration surrounding a thickened wall bowel agglomeration; inside, a dense 2 cm foreign body with no pneumoperitoneum or peritoneal effusion. Surgery revealed four contained bowel perforations due to a blister pill pack inside the ileum; consequently, a 30 cm bowel resection was performed. Ingestion was restarted on day 2, a superficial wound infection was evacuated on day 4 and the patient was discharged 6 days after surgery...
July 11, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Qi Ma, Li Fang, Rui Su, Liang Ma, Guohai Xie, Yue Cheng
Uric acid stones account for 10%-15% of all urinary stones. Changes in dietary habits, environment or both can result in the increase of uric acid stones. The formation of uric acid stones is related to hyperuricosuria, low urinary volume and persistently low urinary pH. Diabetes and obesity also significantly increase the risk of stone formation. Dual-energy CT provides a convenient and reliable method for diagnosis. Stone composition analysis and 24-hour urine metabolic evaluations should be considered for further evaluation...
July 12, 2018: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Katiuska Tuttis, Daryne Lu Maldonado Gomes da Costa, Higor Lopes Nunes, Ana Flávia Leal Specian, Juliana Mara Serpeloni, Lourdes Campaner Dos Santos, Eliana Aparecida Varanda, Wagner Vilegas, Wilner Martínez-Lopez, Ilce Mara de Syllos Cólus
Pouteria ramiflora (Mart.) Radlk., popularly known as curriola, is commonly used in Brazil as medicinal plant to treat worm infections, dysentery, pain, inflammation, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. At present the safety of this extract when used therapeutically in human remains to be determined. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine cytotoxicity, antiproliferative, and antimutagenic actions of this extract. The hydroalcoholic extract from P. ramiflora leaves consisted of flavonoids identified and quantified as myricetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (13...
July 12, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Kristina A Wihbey, Ellen M Joyce, Zachary T Spalding, Hayley J Jones, Todd A MacKenzie, Rebecca H Evans, June L Fung, Marlene B Goldman, Elisabeth Erekson
OBJECTIVE: To compare the occurrence of superficial surgical site infections in obese women using prophylactic negative pressure therapy with standard dressings after cesarean delivery. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled, nonblinded, two-center study of prophylactic negative pressure therapy compared with standard surgical dressings placed at the time of primary closure at cesarean delivery in obese women with body mass indexes (BMI) of 35 or higher (ie, class II and III obesity)...
July 10, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Tyler S Wahl, Fenil C Patel, Lauren E Goss, Daniel I Chu, Jayleen Grams, Melanie S Morris
BACKGROUND: Obese patients undergoing colorectal surgery are at increased risk for adverse outcomes. It remains unclear whether these risks can be further defined with more discriminatory stratifications of obesity. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to understand the association between BMI and 30-day postoperative outcomes, including surgical site infection, among patients undergoing colorectal surgery. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study...
August 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Marius Rademaker, Diana M Rubel, Karen Agnew, Megan Andrews, Katherine Sarah Armour, Christopher Baker, Peter Foley, Kurt Gebauer, Michelle Sy Goh, Monisha Gupta, Gillian Marshman, H Miles Prince, John Sullivan
Patients with psoriasis have an increased risk of cancer, which may be due to impaired immune surveillance, immune modulatory treatments, chronic inflammation and/or co-risk factors such as obesity. The increase in treatment-independent solid cancers, including urinary/bladder cancers, oropharynx/larynx, liver/gallbladder and colon/rectal cancers, seem to be linked to alcohol and smoking. Lung cancer and nonmelanoma skin cancer are also increased in patients with psoriasis. The risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer increases with age and severity of psoriasis...
July 10, 2018: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
Kristina L Bajema, Helen C Stankiewicz Karita, Mark W Tenforde, Stephen E Hawes, Renee Heffron
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in pregnancy has been associated with risk of adverse maternal and infant outcomes in highly endemic settings, but this association is not well characterized in the United States. Methods: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study in Washington State using linked birth certificate and hospital discharge records from 1992-2014. Among pregnant women with hepatitis B (n = 4391) and a hepatitis B-negative group (n = 22 410), we compared the risk of gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, placenta previa, preterm delivery, low birthweight, small for gestational age, and large for gestational age using multivariate logistic regression...
June 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Alaa Badawi, Russanthy Velummailum, Seung Gwan Ryoo, Arrani Senthinathan, Sahar Yaghoubi, Denitsa Vasileva, Emma Ostermeier, Mikayla Plishka, Marcel Soosaipillai, Paul Arora
BACKGROUND: Flavivirus diseases such as dengue fever (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), Zika and yellow fever represent a substantial global public health concern. Preexisting chronic conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obesity, and asthma were thought to predict risk of progression to severe infections. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to quantify the frequency of chronic comorbidities in flavivirus diseases to provide an estimate for their prevalence in severe and non-severe infections and examine whether chronic diseases contribute to the increased risk of severe viral expression...
2018: PloS One
Niels V Johnsen, Alex J Vanni, Bryan B Voelzke
BACKGROUND: There exists significant controversy regarding the use of suprapubic tubes (SPT) in pelvic fracture urethral injury (PFUI) patients undergoing internal fixation (IF) as to the potential risk of infection. Utilizing the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), we sought to examine if placement of a SPT in patients with traumatic urethral injuries undergoing IF of pelvic fractures increases the risks of infectious complications during the index hospitalization. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Utilizing ICD-9 and AIS codes, patients with PFUI were identified in the NTDB between 2002 and 2014...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Traian Dumitrascu, Pascal Pineau
Pancreatic cancer (i.e., pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, PDAC) is an important healthcare issue and a highly lethal disease. Thus, almost 80% of patients with PDAC will die within one year after diagnosis. Several factors including smoking, obesity, advanced age, diabetes mellitus and chronic pancreatitis have been associated with increased risk of PDAC. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is also considered as a risk factor for PDAC development in some studies. However, the role of HBV infection in PDAC is poorly explored...
May 2018: Chirurgia
Rami S Kantar, William J Rifkin, Stelios C Wilson, Joshua A David, J Rodrigo Diaz-Siso, Jamie P Levine, Alyssa R Golas, Daniel J Ceradini
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Obesity along with bariatric surgery and massive weight loss requiring panniculectomy is increasing in the United States. The effect of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) on outcomes following panniculectomy remains poorly defined despite its prevalence. Our study aims to evaluate the impact of DM on complications following panniculectomy and determine risk factors for adverse events. METHODS: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement (ACS NSQIP) database was used to identify patients undergoing panniculectomy between 2010 and 2015...
July 2, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Samantha I Pitts, Nisa M Maruthur, Gayle E Langley, Tracy Pondo, Kathleen A Shutt, Rosemary Hollick, Stephanie J Schrag, Ann Thomas, Megin Nichols, Monica Farley, James P Watt, Lisa Miller, William Schaffner, Corinne Holtzman, Lee H Harrison
Background: Rates of invasive group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease, obesity, and diabetes have increased in US adults. We hypothesized that obesity would be independently associated with an increased risk of invasive GBS disease. Methods: We identified adults with invasive GBS disease within Active Bacterial Core surveillance during 2010-2012 and used population estimates from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to calculate invasive GBS incidence rates...
June 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Wesley M Durand, Adam E M Eltorai, J Mason Depasse, JaeWon Yang, Alan H Daniels
Study Design: Retrospective cohort study. Objectives: Unplanned reoperation following lumbar spinal fusion is detrimental to patients, providers, and health systems. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with unplanned reoperation following elective posterior lumbar spinal fusion and assess the reasons for reoperation. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 22 151 patients from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data set between 2012 and 2015 was completed...
June 2018: Global Spine Journal
M Mahendra, B S Jayaraj, Sneha Limaye, S K Chaya, Raja Dhar, P A Mahesh
Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in India. There is a need to understand the risk factors associated with severity of CAP in our population. This study was part of the international global initiative for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia study to evaluate MRSA. Methods: A total of 100 consecutive cases of pneumonia admitted to the Department of Pulmonary Medicine in a tertiary care hospital were recruited in the study during March-July 2015...
July 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
Gustav van Niekerk, Anna-Mart Engelbrecht
Inflammatory mediators have a well-established role in mediating metabolic disturbances. Chronic low-grade inflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and the development of metabolic syndrome. This phenomenon is even more pronounced in severe inflammatory states such as in critically ill patients where hyperglycaemia invariably manifests. Similarly, though inflammatory mediators have a well-established role in promoting bone resorption, the adaptive function of this process remains unknown. Here we review emerging evidence from the field of immunometabolism suggesting that these two processes serve a common goal, namely, to sustain the rapid proliferation of immune cells during an infection...
June 28, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Ahmed M Al-Mazrou, Laura Z Hyde, Kunal Suradkar, Ravi P Kiran
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: While the use of oral antibiotic (OA) for bowel preparation is gaining popularity, it is unknown whether it increases the risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). This study aimed to evaluate the impact of OA on the development of CDI after colectomy. METHODS: Patients who underwent colectomy from the ACS-NSQIP data (2015 and 2016) were included. Patients who received OA as bowel preparation were compared to those who did not with respect to demographics, comorbidities, primary diagnosis, procedure type and approach, and 30-day postoperative complications...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Chi Xu, Heng Guo, Qiaojie Wang, Pengfei Qu, Kerri Bell, Jiying Chen
BACKGROUND: Although a large number of studies have identified obesity as an independent risk factor for the development of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), the synergistic impacts of obesity with other factors on PJI remains unknown. Additionally, few studies have specifically explored the risk factors of PJI within a Chinese population. AIMS: The purposes of the study were to 1) investigate the association between obesity and PJI in a Chinese population, and 2) identify synergistic impacts of obesity with other risk factors on the development of PJI...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Gershim Asiki, Shukri F Mohamed, David Wambui, Caroline Wainana, Stella Muthuri, Michelle Ramsay, Catherine Kyobutungi
BACKGROUND: Body mass index (BMI) is rising globally with a faster increase in urban areas in low- and middle-income countries. It is critical to identify modifiable risk factors for BMI to prevent the occurrence of associated health consequences. OBJECTIVE: To investigate socio-demographic, behavioural and biological factors associated with BMI in Nairobi slums. METHODS: In 2014-2015, a cross sectional study of men and women aged 40-60 years in Nairobi slums (Korogocho and Viwandani) was conducted...
2018: Global Health Action
Yuan-Yuei Chen, Wen-Hui Fang, Chung-Ching Wang, Tung-Wei Kao, Yaw-Wen Chang, Hui-Fang Yang, Chen-Jung Wu, Yu-Shan Sun, Wei-Liang Chen
Accumulated evidence has suggested associations between glucose abnormalities and insulin resistance with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. However, few studies have reported the effect of hepatitis virus infections on body composition. Our aim was to explore the association of hepatitis virus infections with percent body fat (PBF) in a cross-sectional analysis. A total of 69226 subjects obtained from the health examinations at Tri-Service General Hospital (TSGH) from 2010 to 2016 were enrolled in the study...
2018: PloS One
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