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obesity infections

Isabelle Soerjomataram, Kevin Shield, Claire Marant-Micallef, Jerome Vignat, Catherine Hill, Agnes Rogel, Gwenn Menvielle, Laure Dossus, Jean-Nicolas Ormsby, Jurgen Rehm, Lesley Rushton, Paolo Vineis, Max Parkin, Freddie Bray
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a major cause of premature illness and death in France. To quantify how cancer prevention could reduce the burden, we present estimates of the contribution of lifestyle and environmental risk factors to cancer incidence in France in 2015, comparing these with other high-income countries. METHOD: Prevalences of, and relative risks for tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, inadequate diet, overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, exogenous hormones, suboptimal breastfeeding, infectious agents, ionising radiation, air pollution, ultraviolet exposure, occupational exposures, arsenic in drinking water and indoor benzene were obtained to estimate the population attributable fraction (PAF) and the number of attributable cancers by the cancer site and sex...
November 13, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Araz Boghossian, Mandy Wang, Angeline Nagu, Alan Tong, David Knox
INTRODUCTION: Evidence is lacking on the profile of gynaecological conditions affecting women in the Solomon Islands, including the availability and quality of surgical management. METHODS: Prospective analysis of hospital records was undertaken on all patients who underwent gynaecological surgery at Gizo Hospital, Western Province during a 6-day program led by volunteer Australian surgeons. Patient data on pre-operative history, investigation results, performed surgical procedures and postoperative recovery were collected...
November 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Elena Minakova, Barbara B Warner
Maternal immune activation (MIA) refers to a maternal immune system triggered by infectious or infectious-like stimuli. A cascade of cytokines and immunologic alterations are transmitted to the fetus, resulting in adverse phenotypes most notably in the central nervous system. Epidemiologic studies implicate maternal infections in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. In animal models, MIA causes neurochemical and anatomic changes in the brain that correspond to those found in humans with the disorders...
November 14, 2018: Birth Defects Research
Monika Fazekas-Lavu, Katherine T T Tonks, Katherine Samaras
Treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with high rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), metabolic syndrome and central obesity/body fat partitioning disorders. To our knowledge, there are no available data comparing diabetes care in people with both HIV+DM vs. DM alone (DM-controls) within the same service and evaluating if benchmarked standards of care are being met in people with HIV+DM. This study evaluated the frequency that people with HIV+DM met the benchmarked American Diabetes Association (ADA) standards of care in diabetes (targets for HbA1c, blood pressure, lipid levels, complication screening, and healthy weight), compared to age- and sex- matched controls with diabetes, in an urban teaching hospital...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
T Kaneko, K Funahashi, M Ushigome, S Kagami, M Goto, T Koda, Y Nagashima, H Shiokawa, J Koike
PURPOSE: Incisional hernia is a major complication after stoma closure and can cause uncomfortable symptoms. In this study, we evaluated the risk factors for hernia formation with the aim of reducing the incidence of incisional hernia. METHODS: A total of 134 oncology patients underwent closure of a temporary loop ileostomy between May 2004 and December 2013. The incidence of incisional hernia was determined by routine follow-up computed tomography scanning every 6 months...
November 13, 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
Nicole Bozzi Cionci, Loredana Baffoni, Francesca Gaggìa, Diana Di Gioia
The human intestinal microbiota, establishing a symbiotic relationship with the host, plays a significant role for human health. It is also well known that a disease status is frequently characterized by a dysbiotic condition of the gut microbiota. A probiotic treatment can represent an alternative therapy for enteric disorders and human pathologies not apparently linked to the gastrointestinal tract. Among bifidobacteria, strains of the species Bifidobacterium breve are widely used in paediatrics. B. breve is the dominant species in the gut of breast-fed infants and it has also been isolated from human milk...
November 10, 2018: Nutrients
Massimo Bonacchi, Edvin Prifti, Marco Bugetti, Orlando Parise, Guido Sani, Daniel M Johnson, Francesco Cabrucci, Sandro Gelsomino
Background: The incidence and potential factors influencing deep sternal wound infection (DSWI) in a cohort of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using skeletonized bilateral internal thoracic artery (BITA) was explored. Furthermore, we studied influence of DSWI on long-term survival, major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) and repeat coronary revascularization (RCR). Methods: The study cohort consisted of 1,325 consecutive patients who were divided in two groups: patients experiencing DSWI (n=33, group 1) and those who did not have sternal infection (n=1,292, group 2)...
September 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Yun-Jing Zhang, Shi-Liang Han, Xi-Feng Sun, Shu-Xiang Wang, Hong-Yun Wang, Xiao Liu, Li Chen, Ling Xia
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency and tolerability of empagliflozin (EMPA) as monotherapy or add-on to existing therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing efficacy and safety of EMPA vs placebo or EMPA plus other antidiabetes drugs vs placebo plus other oral antidiabetes drugs (OADs) in T2DM were recruited from electronic database Pubmed, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), supplemented by a hand search of the reference lists of selected articles...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jennifer L Ather, Oliver Dienz, Jonathan E Boyson, Vikas Anathy, Eyal Amiel, Matthew E Poynter
Serum amyloid A (SAA) proteins are a family of acute phase apolipoproteins implicated to directly modulate innate and adaptive immune responses. However, new studies comparing endogenous SAAs and recombinant forms of these proteins have questioned the function of SAA in inflammation and immunity. We generated SAA3 knockout mice to evaluate the contribution of SAA3 to lung development and immune-mediated lung disease. While SAA3 deficiency does not affect the generation of house dust mite-induced allergic asthma, mice lacking SAA3 develop adult-onset obesity, intrinsic airway hyperresponsiveness, increased inflammatory and fibrotic gene expression in the lung, and elevated levels of lung citrullinated proteins...
November 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fan Ping, Yu Xiu Li
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD)refers to hepatic steatosis without other known causes such as alcohol abuse or hepatic virus infection. NAFLD has become a chronic disease worldwide,and its prevalence is constantly growing. Hepatic insulin resistance caused by obesity results in the deposition of triglycerides in the liver,promoting the occurrence and development of NAFLD. Weight loss is the only safe and effective method for NAFLD. Lifestyle intervention plays a cornerstone role in treating NAFLD;however,most patients can not achieve and maintain the ideal body weight by lifestyle intervention alone...
October 30, 2018: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
Claudia Lasagni, Laura Bigi, Andrea Conti, Giovanni Pellacani
PURPOSE: Biologic therapy in psoriatic patients with multiple comorbidities is challenging due to worsening of associated diseases and possible side effects of concomitant medications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We describe three patients with multiple comorbidities documenting successful treatment of psoriasis with secukinumab following failure of multiple conventional and biologic DMARDs. RESULTS: The first case is an obese 59-year-old woman (HBV + with latent tuberculosis) with arterial hypertension and 12-year history of breast cancer...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Guenter Weiss, Tomas Ganz, Lawrence T Goodnough
Anemia of inflammation (AI) also known as anemia of chronic disease (ACD) is regarded as the most frequent anemia in hospitalized and chronically ill patients. It is prevalent in patients with diseases that cause prolonged immune activation including infection, auto-immune diseases and cancer. More recently, the list has grown to include chronic kidney disease, congestive heart failure, chronic pulmonary diseases and obesity. Inflammation-inducible cytokines and the master regulator of iron homeostasis, hepcidin, block intestinal iron absorption and cause iron retention in reticuloendothelial cells resulting in iron-restricted erythropoiesis...
November 6, 2018: Blood
Mehmet H Akay, Sriram S Nathan, Rajko Radovancevic, Gregor Poglajen, Mateja K Jezovnik, Isabella N Candelaria, Barbara L Averill, Manish K Patel, Biswajit Kar, Igor D Gregoric
In patients with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), the association of driveline infection (DLI) and body mass index (BMI) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to explore a potential correlation between BMI and DLI in the LVAD patient population. A retrospective, single-center study evaluated patients who underwent LVAD implantation between May 2012 and July 2016. Driveline infection was evaluated per Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support established criteria. Of 222 included patients, 80% were male, the average age was 55 years, and the main underlying heart failure diagnosis was nonischemic cardiomyopathy (56%)...
November 5, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Jing Fang, Fengyuan Wang, Hetao Song, Zhengyi Wang, Zhicai Zuo, Hengmin Cui, Yiping Jia, Junliang Deng, Shumin Yu, Yanchun Hu, Liuhong Shen, Xiaoping Ma, Zhihua Ren, Liping Gou
To investigate the different effects of acute pulmonary infection induced by Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) on lipid metabolism between diet-induced obesity (DIO, fed with high-fat diet) mice and lean mice. A total of 180 ICR mice were selected to be challenged intranasally with phosphate-buffered saline or 109 CFUs/mL of E. coli , and the body character indexes, biochemical indexes and expressions of genes and proteins involved in lipid metabolism were examined pre- and post-infection. Results revealed that, before infection, DIO mice had significantly higher body weight, adipose and liver indexes, free fatty acid and triglyceride contents than lean mice...
November 6, 2018: Aging
J Chen-Xu, R Bessa-Melo, L Graça, J Costa-Maia
PURPOSE: The occurrence of incisional hernia (IH) is one of the main complications after open abdominal surgery. However, its incidence in hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery is not known. Studies on hepatectomy and necrotizing pancreatitis show that the incidence can reach up to 42%. This study aims at evaluating the incidence of IH and its risk factors. METHODS: Patients submitted to open hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery at our centre between 2010 and 2016 were selected...
November 3, 2018: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
Manasi Soni, Violeta J Rodriguez, Suat Babayigit, Deborah L Jones, Mahendra Kumar
OBJECTIVES: Racial minorities are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and CVD is the primary cause of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Cocaine use also has been associated with hypertension. This study examined the contribution of lifestyle factors to systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) among people living with HIV and cocaine users from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds. METHODS: Participants (N = 401: 213 men, 188 women) aged 18 to 50 years with no history of CVD were recruited from South Florida...
November 2018: Southern Medical Journal
Hernando Knobel, Pere Domingo, Ignacio Suarez-Lozano, Félix Gutierrez, Vicente Estrada, Rosario Palacios, Antonio Antela, José-Ramón Blanco, Xavier Fulladosa, Elena Refollo
BACKGROUND: The life expectancy of HIV-infected individuals has dramatically improved with potent antiretroviral therapies. However, organ-specific toxicities of some antiretrovirals and persistent inflammation and immune activation due to residual virus replication account for a high burden of age-associated comorbidities in the HIV population. METHODS: The prevalence of overt cardiovascular, renal and bone diseases as well as their major risk factors were cross-sectionally examined during the year 2014 in the VACH cohort, a large nationwide population of HIV-infected individuals in Spain...
October 30, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Petronel Mustăţea, Cătălin Bugă, Horia Doran, Octavian Mihalache, Florin Teodor Bobîrcă, Dragoş Eugen Georgescu, Alexandra Agache, Cristina Jauca, Andra Bîrligea, Ovidiu Chiriac, Vlad Marin, Traian Pătraşcu
Background: the patient with diabetes has an increased susceptibility to infections, with negative evolutionary potential leading to increased morbidity and mortality compared to the general population. The cause is the alteration of immune defense mechanisms, the hyperglycemic environment leading to alteration of neutrophil function, suppression of the antioxidant system and humoral activity, systemic micro and macroangiopathy, neuropathy, depression of antibacterial activity of the genitourinary and digestive tract...
2018: Chirurgia
Victoria Meliopoulos, Brandi Livingston, Lee-Ann Van de Velde, Rebekah Honce, Stacey Schultz-Cherry
Obese individuals are considered a high-risk group for developing severe influenza virus infection. While the exact mechanisms for increased disease severity remain under investigation, obese mouse models suggest that increased acute lung injury (ALI), potentially due to enhanced viral spread and decreased wound repair, are likely involved. We previously demonstrated that upregulation of the lung epithelial cell β6 integrin during influenza infection was involved in disease severity. Knocking out β6 (β6 KO) resulted in improved survival...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Virology
Parajeeta Dikshit, Senchhema Limbu, Rosina Bhattarai
INTRODUCTION: Oral health, the mirror of general well being, is altered by many mediators like infection, chronic inflammation, and genetic predisposition. Apart from these mediators, nutrition has been postulated as an alternative mediator. The present dietary pattern among children is contributing to childhood overweight as well as increasing the risk for developing dental caries. The food habits contributing to dental caries as well as obesity are similar. Undernutrition has also shown to be associated with the dental caries...
March 2018: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
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