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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214185/characteristics-of-patients-with-liver-cancer-in-the-biobank-japan-project
#1
Shigekazu Ukawa, Emiko Okada, Koshi Nakamura, Makoto Hirata, Akiko Nagai, Koichi Matsuda, Zentaro Yamagata, Yoichiro Kamatani, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Yutaka Kiyohara, Kaori Muto, Michiaki Kubo, Yusuke Nakamura, Akiko Tamakoshi
BACKGROUND: Liver cancer is the fifth cause of cancer-related deaths in Japan. The BioBank Japan (BBJ) project included 200,000 patients with 47 diseases and samples; their clinical information can be used for further studies. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with liver cancer (n = 1733; 1316 men, 417 women) were included. Histology, patient characteristics, clinical characteristics, and causes of death were collected. Cumulative and relative survival rates for liver cancer were calculated...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214071/lipocalin-2-a-master-mediator-of-intestinal-and-metabolic-inflammation
#2
REVIEW
Alexander R Moschen, Timon E Adolph, Romana R Gerner, Verena Wieser, Herbert Tilg
Lipocalin-2 (LCN2), also known as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), is released by various cell types and is an attractive biomarker of inflammation, ischemia, infection, and kidney damage. Both intestinal and metabolic inflammation, as observed in obesity and related disorders, are associated with increased LCN2 synthesis. While LCN2 in the intestinal tract regulates the composition of the gut microbiota and shows anti-inflammatory activities, it also exhibits proinflammatory activities in other experimental settings...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212629/cardiometabolic-risk-in-a-population-of-older-adults-with-multiple-co-morbidities-in-rural-south-africa-the-haalsi-health-and-aging-in-africa-longitudinal-studies-of-indepth-communities-study
#3
Thomas A Gaziano, Shafika Abrahams-Gessel, F Xavier Gomez-Olive, Alisha Wade, Nigel J Crowther, Sartaj Alam, Jennifer Manne-Goehler, Chodziwadziwa W Kabudula, Ryan Wagner, Julia Rohr, Livia Montana, Kathleen Kahn, Till W Bärnighausen, Lisa F Berkman, Stephen Tollman
BACKGROUND: A consequence of the widespread uptake of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is that the older South African population will experience an increase in life expectancy, increasing their risk for cardiometabolic diseases (CMD), and its risk factors. The long-term interactions between HIV infection, treatment, and CMD remain to be elucidated in the African population. The HAALSI cohort was established to investigate the impact of these interactions on CMD morbidity and mortality among middle-aged and older adults...
February 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209676/what-is-hidradenitis-suppurativa
#4
REVIEW
Erika Yue Lee, Raed Alhusayen, Perla Lansang, Neil Shear, Jensen Yeung
OBJECTIVE: To provide family physicians with an understanding of the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). SOURCES OF INFORMATION: A PubMed literature search was performed using the MeSH term hidradenitis suppurativa. MAIN MESSAGE: Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic, recurrent, and debilitating skin condition. It is an inflammatory disorder of the follicular epithelium, but secondary bacterial infection can often occur...
February 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197336/embracing-the-gut-microbiota-the-new-frontier-for-inflammatory-and-infectious-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Lieke Wj van den Elsen, Hazel C Poyntz, Laura S Weyrich, Wayne Young, Elizabeth E Forbes-Blom
The gut microbiota provides essential signals for the development and appropriate function of the immune system. Through this critical contribution to immune fitness, the gut microbiota has a key role in health and disease. Recent advances in the technological applications to study microbial communities and their functions have contributed to a rapid increase in host-microbiota research. Although it still remains difficult to define a so-called 'normal' or 'healthy' microbial composition, alterations in the gut microbiota have been shown to influence the susceptibility of the host to different diseases...
January 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196555/dohad-at-the-intersection-of-maternal-immune-activation-and-maternal-metabolic-stress-a-scoping-review
#6
J A Goldstein, S A Norris, D M Aronoff
The prenatal environment is now recognized as a key driver of non-communicable disease risk later in life. Within the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) paradigm, studies are increasingly identifying links between maternal morbidity during pregnancy and disease later in life for offspring. Nutrient restriction, metabolic disorders during gestation, such as diabetes or obesity, and maternal immune activation provoked by infection have been linked to adverse health outcomes for offspring later in life...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191320/is-diabetes-prevalence-higher-among-hiv-infected-individuals-compared-with-the-general-population-evidence-from-mmp-and-nhanes-2009-2010
#7
Alfonso C Hernandez-Romieu, Shikha Garg, Eli S Rosenberg, Angela M Thompson-Paul, Jacek Skarbinski
BACKGROUND: Nationally representative estimates of diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalence among HIV-infected adults in the USA are lacking, and whether HIV-infected adults are at increased risk of DM compared with the general adult population remains controversial. METHODS: We used nationally representative survey (2009-2010) data from the Medical Monitoring Project (n=8610 HIV-infected adults) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n=5604 general population adults) and fit logistic regression models to determine and compare weighted prevalences of DM between the two populations, and examine factors associated with DM among HIV-infected adults...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190400/infant-fungal-communities-current-knowledge-and-research-opportunities
#8
REVIEW
Tonya L Ward, Dan Knights, Cheryl A Gale
The microbes colonizing the infant gastrointestinal tract have been implicated in later-life disease states such as allergies and obesity. Recently, the medical research community has begun to realize that very early colonization events may be most impactful on future health, with the presence of key taxa required for proper immune and metabolic development. However, most studies to date have focused on bacterial colonization events and have left out fungi, a clinically important sub-population of the microbiota...
February 13, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188301/hospital-variations-in-unexpected-complications-among-term-newborns
#9
Yuri V Sebastião, Lindsay S Womack, Humberto López Castillo, Maya Balakrishnan, Karen Bruder, Paige Alitz, Linda A Detman, Emily A Bronson, John S Curran, William M Sappenfield
OBJECTIVES: To examine contributing factors and potential reasons for hospital differences in unexpected newborn complication rates in Florida. METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study of linked birth certificate and hospital discharge records from 2004 to 2013. The study population included 1 604 774 term, singleton live births in 124 hospitals. Severe and moderate complications were identified via a published algorithm. Logistic mixed-effects models were used to examine risk factors for complications and to estimate the percentage of hospital variation explained by factors...
February 10, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182612/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-hiv-infection
#10
Juan Macías, Juan A Pineda, Luis M Real
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most frequent chronic hepatic conditions worldwide. The spectrum of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease goes from hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are metabolic, mainly obesity and the accompanying consequences. Treatment and prevention of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease should target those metabolic abnormalities. The frequency of and the factors associated with hepatic steatosis in HIV infection seem to be similar to those reported in the general population, though direct comparisons are lacking...
January 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182101/periductal-mastitis-an-inflammatory-disease-related-to-bacterial-infection-and-consequent-immune-responses
#11
Lu Liu, Fei Zhou, Pin Wang, Lixiang Yu, Zhongbing Ma, Yuyang Li, Dezong Gao, Qiang Zhang, Liang Li, Zhigang Yu
Periductal mastitis (PDM) is a prolonged inflammatory disease, but the cause of PDM is poorly understood. In the present case control study, 87 PDM and 87 healthy controls were enrolled and the results were evaluated to identify the significant risk factors for PDM. To investigate the roles of bacterial infection and critical cytokines expression, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and bacterial culturing were conducted. We also measured the levels of interferon-γ, interleukin-12A, and interleukin-17A by semiquantitative immunohistochemistry method...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180024/ciliopathies-genetics-in-pediatric-medicine
#12
REVIEW
Machteld M Oud, Ideke J C Lamers, Heleen H Arts
Ciliary disorders, which are also referred to as ciliopathies, are a group of hereditary disorders that result from dysfunctional cilia. The latter are cellular organelles that stick up from the apical plasma membrane. Cilia have important roles in signal transduction and facilitate communications between cells and their surroundings. Ciliary disruption can result in a wide variety of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders with overlapping phenotypes. Because cilia occur widespread in our bodies many organs and sensory systems can be affected when they are dysfunctional...
March 2017: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178876/designing-fecal-microbiota-transplant-trials-that-account-for-differences-in-donor-stool-efficacy
#13
Scott W Olesen, Thomas Gurry, Eric J Alm
Fecal microbiota transplantation is a highly effective intervention for patients suffering from recurrent Clostridium difficile, a common hospital-acquired infection. Fecal microbiota transplantation's success as a therapy for C. difficile has inspired interest in performing clinical trials that experiment with fecal microbiota transplantation as a therapy for other conditions like inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, diabetes, and Parkinson's disease. Results from clinical trials that use fecal microbiota transplantation to treat inflammatory bowel disease suggest that, for at least one condition beyond C...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176883/association-of-body-mass-index-with-the-tuberculosis-infection-a-population-based-study-among-17796-adults-in-rural-china
#14
Haoran Zhang, Xiangwei Li, Henan Xin, Hengjing Li, Mufei Li, Wei Lu, Liqiong Bai, Xinhua Wang, Jianmin Liu, Qi Jin, Lei Gao
Body mass index (BMI) has been shown to be associated with host susceptibility to several infections. However, the link between BMI and the risk of tuberculosis (TB) infection has been sparsely studied in China and in worldwide. Based on the baseline survey of a population-based, prospective study in rural China, the association between BMI and TB infection among adults was estimated by means of cross-sectional analysis. TB infection status was tested using QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT), a commercial of interferon-γ release assay (IGRA)...
February 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174773/dietary-fibre-based-scfa-mixtures-promote-both-protection-and-repair-of-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-function-in-a-caco-2-cell-model
#15
Tingting Chen, Choon Young Kim, Amandeep Kaur, Lisa Lamothe, Maliha Shaikh, Ali Keshavarzian, Bruce R Hamaker
Impaired gut barrier function plays an important role in the development of many diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and in HIV infection. Dietary fibres have been shown to improve intestinal barrier function through their fermentation products, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and the effects of individual SCFAs have been studied. Here, different SCFA mixtures representing possible compositions from fibre fermentation products were studied for protective and reparative effects on intestinal barrier function...
February 8, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174094/recent-advances-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Rinku Dutta, Ram I Mahato
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), also called malignant hepatoma, is one of the deadliest cancers due to its complexities, reoccurrence after surgical resection, metastasis and heterogeneity. Incidence and mortality of HCC are increasing in Western countries and are expected to rise as a consequence of the obesity epidemic. Multiple factors trigger the initiation and progression of HCC including chronic alcohol consumption, viral hepatitis B and C infection, metabolic disorders and age. Although Sorafenib is the only FDA approved drug for the treatment of HCC, numerous treatment modalities such as transcatheter arterial chemoembolization/transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), radiotherapy, locoregional therapy and chemotherapy have been tested in the clinics...
February 5, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169840/bile-acid-disease-the-emerging-epidemic
#17
Ibironke Oduyebo, Michael Camilleri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our objective was to review advances in bile acids in health and disease published in the last 2 years. Bile acid diarrhea (BAD) is recognized as a common cause of chronic diarrhea, and its recognition has been facilitated by development of new screening tests. RECENT FINDINGS: Primary BAD can account for 30% of cases of chronic diarrhea. The mechanisms leading to BAD include inadequate feedback regulation by fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19) from ileal enterocytes, abnormalities in synthesis or degradation of proteins involved in FGF-19 regulation in hepatocytes and variations as a function of the bile acid receptor, TGR5 (GPBAR1)...
February 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163089/comparative-effectiveness-of-minimally-invasive-surgery-and-conventional-approaches-to-major-or-challenging-hepatectomy
#18
Lucas W Thornblade, Xu Shi, Alex Ruiz, David R Flum, James O Park
BACKGROUND: The benefits of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for low-risk or minor liver resection are well established. There is growing interest in MIS for major hepatectomy (MH) and other challenging resections, but there remain unanswered questions of safety that prevent broad adoption of this technique. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing hepatectomy at 65 hospitals participating in the NSQIP Hepatopancreatobiliary Collaborative in 2014...
February 2, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157428/incidence-of-biliary-reflux-esophagitis-after-laparoscopic-omega-loop-gastric-bypass-in-morbidly-obese-patients
#19
Tamer M Said Salama, Mohamed Ibrahim Hassan
BACKGROUND: Omega loop gastric bypass is a successful bariatric surgery with numerous favorable circumstances as being basic, effective on weight reduction and treatment of obesity associated metabolic disorder, the short expectation to learn and adapt, and the simplicity of correction and inversion. However, there are arguments about the possibility of biliary reflux and/or the potential danger of gastroesophageal malignancy after the procedure. METHODS: Fifty patients experiencing morbid obesity with body mass index >40 or >35 kg/m(2) with two related comorbidities, for example, diabetes type II, hypertension, or dyslipidemia, underwent omega loop gastric bypass with a follow-up period up to 18 months, investigating for any symptom of reflux infection by upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy and pH metry...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148665/the-impact-of-lifestyle-risk-factors-on-the-rate-of-infection-after-surgery-for-a-fracture-of-the-ankle
#20
L L Olsen, A M Møller, S Brorson, R B Hasselager, R Sort
AIMS: Lifestyle risk factors are thought to increase the risk of infection after acute orthopaedic surgery but the evidence is scarce. We aimed to investigate whether smoking, obesity and alcohol overuse are risk factors for the development of infections after surgery for a fracture of the ankle. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent internal fixation of a fracture of the ankle between 2008 and 2013. The primary outcome was the rate of deep infection and the secondary outcome was any surgical site infection (SSI)...
February 2017: Bone & Joint Journal
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