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immunodeficiency obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480255/risk-factors-for-influenza-associated-severe-acute-respiratory-illness-hospitalization-in-south-africa-2012-2015
#1
Stefano Tempia, Sibongile Walaza, Jocelyn Moyes, Adam L Cohen, Claire von Mollendorf, Florette K Treurnicht, Marietjie Venter, Marthi Pretorius, Orienka Hellferscee, Senzo Mtshali, Mpho Seleka, Akhona Tshangela, Athermon Nguweneza, Johanna M McAnerney, Nicole Wolter, Anne von Gottberg, Halima Dawood, Ebrahim Variava, Shabir A Madhi, Cheryl Cohen
BACKGROUND: Data on risk factors for influenza-associated hospitalizations in low- and middle-income countries are limited. METHODS: We conducted active syndromic surveillance for hospitalized severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) and outpatient influenza-like illness (ILI) in 2 provinces of South Africa during 2012-2015. We compared the characteristics of influenza-positive patients with SARI to those with ILI to identify factors associated with severe disease requiring hospitalization, using unconditional logistic regression...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469924/anorexia-cachexia-syndrome-like-hypothalamic-neuroendocrine-dysfunction-in-a-patient-with-a-papillary-craniopharyngioma
#2
Lourdes Balcázar-Hernández, Guadalupe Vargas-Ortega, Yelitza Valverde-García, Victoria Mendoza-Zubieta, Baldomero González-Virla
The craniopharyngiomas are solid cystic suprasellar tumors that can present extension to adjacent structures, conditioning pituitary and hypothalamic dysfunction. Within hypothalamic neuroendocrine dysfunction, we can find obesity, behavioral changes, disturbed circadian rhythm and sleep irregularities, imbalances in the regulation of body temperature, thirst, heart rate and/or blood pressure and alterations in dietary intake (like anorexia). We present a rare case of anorexia-cachexia syndrome like a manifestation of neuroendocrine dysfunction in a patient with a papillary craniopharyngioma...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453849/association-between-frailty-and-components-of-the-frailty-phenotype-with-modifiable-risk-factors-and-antiretroviral-therapy
#3
Kristine M Erlandson, Kunling Wu, Susan L Koletar, Robert C Kalayjian, Ronald J Ellis, Babafemi Taiwo, Frank J Palella, Katherine Tassiopoulos
The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on frailty among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults has not been well described. HIV-infected participants aged ≥40 years with initial ART receipt through a randomized, controlled AIDS Clinical Trials Group trial completed a frailty assessment. Ordinal logistic regression models examined factors associated with frailty. Of 1016 participants, 6% were frail, and 38% were prefrail. Frailty was associated with lower education, older age, Medicare/Medicaid, initial efavirenz, smoking, obesity, and neurocognitive impairment; physical activity and alcohol use were protective...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446206/cooperation-of-neurotrophin-receptor-trkb-and-her2-in-breast-cancer-cells-facilitates-brain-metastases
#4
Cecilia Choy, Khairul I Ansari, Josh Neman, Sarah Hsu, Matthew J Duenas, Hubert Li, Nagarajan Vaidehi, Rahul Jandial
BACKGROUND: Patients with primary breast cancer that is positive for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2+) have a high risk of developing metastases in the brain. Despite gains with systemic control of Her2+ disease using molecular therapies, brain metastases remain recalcitrant to therapeutic discovery. The clinical predilection of Her2+ breast cancer cells to colonize the brain likely relies on paracrine mechanisms. The neural niche poses unique selection pressures, and neoplastic cells that utilize the brain microenvironment may have a survival advantage...
April 26, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423509/histone-lysine-methyltransferase-g9a-is-a-novel-epigenetic-target-for-the-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
Masayuki Yokoyama, Tetsuhiro Chiba, Yoh Zen, Motohiko Oshima, Yuko Kusakabe, Yoshiko Noguchi, Kaori Yuki, Shuhei Koide, Shiro Tara, Atsunori Saraya, Kazumasa Aoyama, Naoya Mimura, Satoru Miyagi, Masanori Inoue, Toru Wakamatsu, Tomoko Saito, Sadahisa Ogasawara, Eiichiro Suzuki, Yoshihiko Ooka, Akinobu Tawada, Masayuki Otsuka, Masaru Miyazaki, Osamu Yokosuka, Atsushi Iwama
Histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) is mainly regulated by the histone lysine methyltransferase G9a and is associated with the repression of transcription. However, both the role of G9a and the significance of H3K9me2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells remain unclear. In this study, we conducted loss-of-function assay of G9a using short-hairpin RNA and pharmacological interference. Knockdown of G9a reduced H3K9me2 levels and impaired both HCC cell growth and sphere formation. However, transforming growth factor β1-induced epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) was not suppressed by G9a knockdown...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404888/ecto-5-nucleotidase-cd73-is-a-biomarker-for-clear-cell-renal-carcinoma-stem-like-cells
#6
Lei Song, Wenling Ye, Yong Cui, Jianzhong Lu, Yanan Zhang, Nan Ding, Wentao Hu, Hailong Pei, Zhongjin Yue, Guangming Zhou
Identification of a specific biomarker for cancer stem cells (CSCs) is of potential applications in the development of effective therapeutic strategies for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this study, both the RCC cell line 786-O and surgically removed clear cell RCC (ccRCC) tissues were implemented to grew as spheroids in serum-free medium supplemented with mitogens. This subpopulation possessed key characteristics defining CSCs. We also identified that surgically removed ccRCC tissues were heterogenic and there was a subpopulation of cells that was highly stained with rhodamine-123...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356069/broad-induction-of-immunoregulatory-mechanisms-after-a-short-course-of-anti-il-7r%C3%AE-antibodies-in-nod-mice
#7
Cristina Vazquez-Mateo, Justin Collins, Michelle Fleury, Hans Dooms
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease caused by T cell-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreas. Therefore, approaches that effectively halt the pathogenic T cell response are predicted to have preventive or therapeutic benefit for type 1 diabetes patients. We previously demonstrated that long-term blocking of IL-7 signaling, which is critical for the survival and function of T cells, prevented and reversed type 1 diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice...
March 29, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352127/insights-from-engraftable-immunodeficient-mouse-models-of-hyperinsulinaemia
#8
Michelle L Maugham, Patrick B Thomas, Gabrielle J Crisp, Lisa K Philp, Esha T Shah, Adrian C Herington, Chen Chen, Laura S Gregory, Colleen C Nelson, Inge Seim, Penny L Jeffery, Lisa K Chopin
Hyperinsulinaemia, obesity and dyslipidaemia are independent and collective risk factors for many cancers. Here, the long-term effects of a 23% Western high-fat diet (HFD) in two immunodeficient mouse strains (NOD/SCID and Rag1 (-/-)) suitable for engraftment with human-derived tissue xenografts, and the effect of diet-induced hyperinsulinaemia on human prostate cancer cell line xenograft growth, were investigated. Rag1 (-/-)and NOD/SCID HFD-fed mice demonstrated diet-induced impairments in glucose tolerance at 16 and 23 weeks post weaning...
March 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323917/growth-hormone-treatment-in-children-with-prader-willi-syndrome-three-years-of-longitudinal-data-in-prepubertal-children-and-adult-height-data-from-the-kigs-database
#9
Nienke E Bakker, Anders Lindberg, Joseph Heissler, Hartmut A Wollmann, Cecilia Camacho-Hübner, Anita C Hokken-Koelega
Context: Longitudinal data of children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) treated with genotropin were registered in the Pfizer International Growth Database (KIGS). Objective: To evaluate efficacy and safety of growth hormone (GH) treatment in a large group of children with PWS. Design: Data registered in KIGS from 1987 to 2012. Setting: Worldwide retrospective cohort study. Patients: Patients included 522 prepubertal children treated with GH for three years and 173 children who had reached adult height...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252529/immunodeficiency-aids-related-pneumonia-and-risk-of-lung-cancer-among-hiv-infected-individuals
#10
Julia L Marcus, Wendy A Leyden, Chun R Chao, Michael A Horberg, Daniel B Klein, Charles P Quesenberry, William J Towner, Michael J Silverberg
OBJECTIVE: The objective is to clarify the role of immunodeficiency and pneumonia in elevated lung cancer risk among HIV-infected individuals. DESIGN: Cohort study of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults in a large integrated healthcare system in California during 1996-2011. METHODS: We used Poisson models to obtain rate ratios for lung cancer associated with HIV infection, overall and stratified by recent CD4 cells/μl (HIV-uninfected as reference group), with χ tests for trends across CD4 strata...
April 24, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243150/predictors-of-hypertension-in-an-urban-hiv-infected-population-at-the-university-of-calabar-teaching-hospital-calabar-nigeria
#11
Henry Ohem Okpa, Elvis Mbu Bisong, Ofem Egbe Enang, Emmanuel Monjok, Ekere James Essien
BACKGROUND: The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has remarkably improved the prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, at the expense of the development of long-term complications such as cardiovascular and renal diseases. Hypertension (HTN) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and its associated mortality. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of HTN and to identify possible predictors among HIV-infected patients attending the HIV Special Treatment Clinic at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220831/the-distribution-of-the-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-as-an-indicator-of-the-response-to-chemotherapeutics-in-ovarian-tumour-xenografts
#12
Monique C Tourell, Ali Shokoohmand, Marietta Landgraf, Nina P Holzapfel, Patrina S P Poh, Daniela Loessner, Konstantin I Momot
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) was used to evaluate the effects of single-agent and combination treatment regimens in a spheroid-based animal model of ovarian cancer. Ovarian tumour xenografts grown in non-obese diabetic/severe-combined-immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice were treated with carboplatin or paclitaxel, or combination carboplatin/paclitaxel chemotherapy regimens. After 4 weeks of treatment, tumours were extracted and underwent DW-MRI, mechanical testing, immunohistochemical and gene expression analyses...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193233/tacrolimus-in-the-prevention-of-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-and-diabetes-associated-embryopathies-in-obese-and-diabetic-mice
#13
Ahmad J H Albaghdadi, Melanie A Hewitt, Samantha M Putos, Michael Wells, Terence R S Ozolinš, Frederick W K Kan
BACKGROUND: T2DM is a high-risk pregnancy with adverse fetal and maternal outcomes including repeated miscarriages and fetal malformations. Despite the established association between placental insufficiency and poor maternal Th1-adaptability to the development of pregnancy complications in T2DM, there have been no established data to assess benefits of pre-pregnancy immunosuppression relative to gestational outcomes in T2DM. We hypothesized that pre-pregnancy macrolide immune suppression can re-establish normal placental development and uterine vascular adaptation in a mouse model of obesity-associated T2DM...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078997/lipoprotein-a-and-cardiovascular-risk-the-show-must-go-on
#14
Niki Katsiki, Khalid Al-Rasadi, Dimitri P Mikhailidis
Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is an independent but moderate, predictor for coronary heart disease (CHD) prevalence and severity. Several established and emerging cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including age, gender, ethnicity, smoking, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, alcohol consumption, arterial stiffness and hyperuricemia have been linked to Lp(a) metabolism. Apart from CHD, Lp(a) has been also associated with non-cardiac vascular diseases and diseases associated with increased CV risk such as chronic kidney disease, metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, erectile dysfunction, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, inflammatory bowel diseases and human immunodeficiency virus infection...
January 12, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060868/non-communicable-disease-preventive-screening-by-hiv-care-model
#15
Corinne M Rhodes, Yuchiao Chang, Susan Regan, Virginia A Triant
IMPORTANCE: The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic has evolved, with an increasing non-communicable disease (NCD) burden emerging and need for long-term management, yet there are limited data to help delineate the optimal care model to screen for NCDs for this patient population. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim was to compare rates of NCD preventive screening in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) by type of HIV care model, focusing on metabolic/cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer screening...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057522/nanomedicines-for-dysfunctional-macrophage-associated-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Hongliang He, Shobha Ghosh, Hu Yang
Macrophages play vital functions in host inflammatory reaction, tissue repair, homeostasis and immunity. Dysfunctional macrophages have significant pathophysiological impacts on diseases such as cancer, inflammatory diseases (rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease), metabolic diseases (atherosclerosis, diabetes and obesity) and major infections like human immunodeficiency virus infection. In view of this common etiology in these diseases, targeting the recruitment, activation and regulation of dysfunctional macrophages represents a promising therapeutic strategy...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056549/pegylated-long-circulating-liposomes-deliver-homoharringtonine-to-suppress-multiple-myeloma-cancer-stem-cells
#17
Miao Li, Fangfang Shi, Xiong Fei, Songyan Wu, Di Wu, Meng Pan, Shouhua Luo, Ning Gu, Jun Dou
The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the inhibiting effect of high proportion polyethyleneglycol of long-circulating homoharringtonine liposomes on RPMI8226 multiple myeloma cancer stem cells. The CD138(-)CD34(-) multiple myeloma cancer stem cells isolated from RPMI8226 cell line using magnetic activated cell sorting system were, respectively, incubated with the optimized formulation of polyethyleneglycol of long-circulating homoharringtonine liposomes and the homoharringtonine in vitro, and the multiple myeloma cancer stem cell proliferation, colony formation, and cell cycle were analyzed...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051979/barriers-and-health-beliefs-related-to-weight-management-among-veterans-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#18
Shannon Munro, Emily Dinatale, Sarah Hartley, Monica St Jacques, Kris Ann Oursler
INTRODUCTION: The success of antiretroviral therapy has led to dramatic changes in causes of morbidity and mortality among U.S. Veterans with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Among the 25,000 Veterans treated for HIV, 70% are over age 50 and the rate of obesity has doubled in this population. Veterans with HIV have a 50% increased risk of myocardial infarction yet have limited presence in prevention-related programs designed to lower cardiovascular disease risk. METHODS: This mixed methods study (focus groups, Schwarzer and Renner physical activity, and nutrition self-efficacy questionnaires) was used to explore factors related to health behavior and identify barriers that overweight Veterans with HIV face in enrolling in the MOVE weight management program...
January 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981440/visceral-fat-is-associated-with-brain-structure-independent-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-status
#19
Jordan E Lake, Mikhail Popov, Wendy S Post, Frank J Palella, Ned Sacktor, Eric N Miller, Todd T Brown, James T Becker
The combined effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), obesity, and elevated visceral adipose tissue (VAT) on brain structure are unknown. In a cross-sectional analysis of Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) participants, we determined associations between HIV serostatus, adiposity, and brain structure. Men (133 HIV+, 84 HIV-) in the MACS Cardiovascular 2 and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sub-studies with CT-quantified VAT and whole brain MRI measured within 1 year were assessed. Voxel-based morphometry analyzed brain volumes...
June 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925407/population-level-decline-in-bmi-and-systolic-blood-pressure-following-mass-hiv-treatment-evidence-from-rural-kwazulu-natal
#20
Pascal Geldsetzer, Andrea B Feigl, Frank Tanser, Dickman Gareta, Deenan Pillay, Till Bärnighausen
OBJECTIVE: Clinic-based studies have shown that patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gain weight after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study aimed to determine whether the scale-up of ART was associated with a population-level increase in body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) in a community with high HIV and obesity prevalence. METHODS: A household survey was conducted in rural KwaZulu-Natal before ART scale-up (in 2004) and when ART coverage had reached 25% (in 2010)...
January 2017: Obesity
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