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immunodeficiency obesity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994599/a-metabolomics-and-lipidomics-study-of-mouse-models-of-type-1-diabetes-highlights-divergent-metabolism-in-purine-and-tryptophan-metabolism-prior-to-disease-on-set
#1
Steven A Murfitt, Paula Zaccone, Xinzhu Wang, Animesh Acharjee, Yvonne Sawyer, Albert Koulman, Lee D Roberts, Anne Cooke, Julian Griffin
With the increase in incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1DM), particularly in Westernised societies, there is an urgent need to understand the early molecular and metabolic alterations that accompany the autoimmune disease. This is not least because in murine models early intervention can prevent the development of overt disease. In this study we have applied a liquid chromatography (LC-) and gas chromatography (GC-) mass spectrometry (MS) metabolomics and lipidomics analysis of blood plasma and pancreas tissue extracts to follow the progression of disease in three models related to autoimmune diabetes: the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, which is susceptible to the development of autoimmune diabetes, and the NOD-E (transgenic NOD mice that express the I-E heterodimer of the major histocompatibility complex II) and NOD- severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse strains, two models protected from the development of diabetes...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993467/lamtor-ragulator-is-a-negative-regulator-of-arl8b-and-borc-dependent-late-endosomal-positioning
#2
Przemyslaw A Filipek, Mariana E G de Araujo, Georg F Vogel, Cedric H De Smet, Daniela Eberharter, Manuele Rebsamen, Elena L Rudashevskaya, Leopold Kremser, Teodor Yordanov, Philipp Tschaikner, Barbara G Fürnrohr, Stefan Lechner, Theresia Dunzendorfer-Matt, Klaus Scheffzek, Keiryn L Bennett, Giulio Superti-Furga, Herbert H Lindner, Taras Stasyk, Lukas A Huber
Signaling from lysosomes controls cellular clearance and energy metabolism. Lysosomal malfunction has been implicated in several pathologies, including neurodegeneration, cancer, infection, immunodeficiency, and obesity. Interestingly, many functions are dependent on the organelle position. Lysosomal motility requires the integration of extracellular and intracellular signals that converge on a competition between motor proteins that ultimately control lysosomal movement on microtubules. Here, we identify a novel upstream control mechanism of Arl8b-dependent lysosomal movement toward the periphery of the cell...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987189/diseases-of-the-peripheral-nerves
#3
Istvan Katona, Joachim Weis
This chapter reviews the diseases of the peripheral nerves from a neuropathologic point of view, with a special focus on specific morphologic changes, and includes a summary of the histopathologic methods available for their diagnosis. As the rate of obesity and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes increase, diabetic neuropathy is the most common cause of peripheral neuropathy. Many systemic disorders with metabolic origin, like amyloidosis, hepatic failure, vitamin deficiencies, uremia, lipid metabolism disorders, and others, can also cause axonal or myelin alterations in the peripheral nervous system...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944123/preventing-cushing-iatrogenic-cushing-syndrome-due-to-ritonavir-fluticasone-interaction
#4
Fasil Tiruneh, Ahmad Awan, Abiot Didana, Saumil Doshi
Ritonavir is commonly used in low doses to boost plasma levels of protease inhibitors in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. It is also a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450. We present a 50-year-old African American male with past medical history of HIV on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which also included ritonavir and long standing asthma that has been treated with inhaled fluticasone, who presented with back pain. He had central obesity, prominent abdominal striae and wasted extremities on physical examination...
July 17, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927110/characteristics-of-primary-side-population-cervical-cancer-cells
#5
Zhen-Tong Wei, Xiao-Wei Yu, Jia-Xue He, Yan Liu, Song-Ling Zhang
The aim of the present study was to identify and characterize side population (SP) cells in primary cervical cancer. A primary culture was successfully established, and the SP cells were isolated via fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Subsequently, in vitro analysis of clonogenic capacity by soft agar assay and in vivo analysis of tumorigenicity were performed. The isolated SP cells accounted for ~4.73% of the total primary culture cells. The SP cells had a decreased proliferation rate and an increased distribution in G0/G1 compared with non-SP (NSP) cells...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927044/isolation-and-characterization-of-adult-mammary-stem-cells-from-breast-cancer-adjacent-tissues
#6
Ai-Ping Shi, Zhi-Min Fan, Ke-Wei Ma, Yan-Fang Jiang, Lei Wang, Ke-Wei Zhang, Shi-Bo Fu, Ning Xu, Zhi-Ru Zhang
Normal adult mammary stem cells (AMSCs) are promising sources for breast reconstruction, particularly following the resection of breast tumors. However, carcinogenic events can potentially convert normal AMSCs to cancer stem cells, posing a safety concern for the use of AMSCs for clinical tissue regeneration. In the present study, AMSCs and autologous primary breast cancer cells were isolated and compared for their ability to differentiate, their gene expression profile, and their potential to form tumors in vivo...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903508/effect-of-paritaprevir-ritonavir-ombitasvir-dasabuvir-and-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-regimens-on-survival-compared-with-untreated-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-persons-results-from-erchives
#7
Adeel Ajwad Butt, Peng Yan, Tracey G Simon, Abdul-Badi Abou-Samra
Background: Interferon-based regimens are associated with a substantial survival benefit for persons infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Survival data with direct-acting antiviral agents are not available. We conducted this study to quantify the effect of paritaprevir/ritonavir, ombitasvir, dasabuvir (PrOD) and ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) regimens upon mortality. Methods: In the Electronically Retrieved Cohort of HCV Infected Veterans (ERCHIVES), a well-established national cohort of HCV-infected Veterans, we identified HCV-infected persons initiated on PrOD or LDV/SOF, excluding those with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B surface antigen positivity, hepatocellular carcinoma, or missing HCV RNA or FIB-4 scores...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876555/an-overview-of-risk-factors-for-recurrent-breast-cancer
#8
A Mannell
The multidisciplinary management of Breast Cancer (BC) has evolved over the past 50 years: the patient is offered a choice of surgical procedures with or without radiation therapy, cytotoxics and treatments targeting the nuclei of the cancer cells. This has resulted in a reduction of disease recurrence and a significant increase in 5-year survival. But these good results deteriorate over time and almost 20% women with early stage, oestrogen-receptor (ER) positive BC will suffer recurrent cancer at 10 years...
March 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800593/in-vivo-functional-and-morphological-characterization-of-bone-and-striated-muscle-microcirculation-in-nsg-mice
#9
Haider Mussawy, Lennart Viezens, Gerrit Hauenherm, Malte Schroeder, Christian Schaefer
Organ-specific microcirculation plays a central role in tumor growth, tumor cell homing, tissue engineering, and wound healing. Mouse models are widely used to study these processes; however, these mouse strains often possess unique microhemodynamic parameters, making it difficult to directly compare experiments. The full functional characterization of bone and striated muscle microcirculatory parameters in non-obese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency/y-chain; NOD-Prkds IL2rg (NSG) mice has not yet been reported...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792285/awareness-and-management-of-elevated-blood-pressure-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-adults-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy-in-urban-zambia-a-call-to-action
#10
Sophie Bauer, Mwanza Wa Mwanza, Roma Chilengi, Charles B Holmes, Zude Zyambo, Hansjakob Furrer, Matthias Egger, Gilles Wandeler, Michael J Vinikoor
The prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) and hypertension (HTN), awareness of the diagnoses, and use of anti-hypertensive drugs were examined among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Zambia's capital Lusaka. Within a prospective cohort based at two public sector ART clinics, BP was measured at ART initiation and every 6 months thereafter as a routine clinic procedure. Predictors of HBP (systolic BP ≥140 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg) during one year on ART were analyzed using logistic regression, and the proportion with HTN (2+ episodes of HBP >3 months apart) described...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759039/elevated-tumor-ldlr-expression-accelerates-ldl-cholesterol-mediated-breast-cancer-growth-in-mouse-models-of-hyperlipidemia
#11
E J Gallagher, Z Zelenko, B A Neel, I M Antoniou, L Rajan, N Kase, D LeRoith
Obesity is associated with an increase in cancer-specific mortality in women with breast cancer. Elevated cholesterol, particularly low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), is frequently seen in obese women. Here, we aimed to determine the importance of elevated circulating LDL, and LDL receptor (LDLR) expression in tumor cells, on the growth of breast cancer using mouse models of hyperlipidemia. We describe two novel immunodeficient mouse models of hyperlipidemia (Rag1(-/)(-)/LDLR(-/)(-) and Rag1(-/)(-)/ApoE (apolipoprotein E)(-/)(-) mice) in addition to established immunocompetent LDLR(-/)(-) and ApoE(-/)(-) mice...
July 31, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755448/short-term-in%C3%A2-vivo-precision-of-whole-body-composition-measurements-on-the-horizon-a-densitometer
#12
Michael Nowitz, Paula Monahan
INTRODUCTION: Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is increasingly being used to assess abnormalities in body composition associated with a wide variety of conditions including obesity, sarcopenia, diabetes, anorexia, human immunodeficiency virus lipodystrophy, malabsorption and neuromuscular disorders. The objective of this study was to determine the short-term in vivo precision and least significant change in serial body composition measurements provided by the Hologic Horizon A densitometer as there is no published, peer reviewed body composition precision data on Horizon scanners in the medical literature...
July 29, 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725640/risk-factors-for-impaired-fasting-glucose-or-diabetes-among-hiv-infected-patients-on-art-in-the-copperbelt-province-of-zambia
#13
Perfect Shankalala, Choolwe Jacobs, Samuel Bosomprah, Michael Vinikoor, Patrick Katayamoyo, Charles Michelo
BACKGROUND: Africa has a high prevalence of both Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) but in Zambia there are few data on co-morbid NCDs like Diabetes Mellitus (DM) among HIV-infected individuals. We aimed to identify risk factors for impaired fasting glucose or diabetes among HIV-infected Zambians on long-term Combined Antiretroviral Treatment (cART). METHODS: This was a cross sectional study of adult HIV patients in five health facilities of Copperbelt Province in Zambia...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700773/association-of-multiple-primary-skin-cancers-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-cd4-count-and-viral-load
#14
Maryam M Asgari, G Thomas Ray, Charles P Quesenberry, Kenneth A Katz, Michael J Silverberg
Importance: Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a 2.8-fold higher risk than HIV-uninfected persons of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), defined as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Individuals with a prior NMSC history are at increased risk for subsequent NMSC, but the magnitude of risk and its relation to HIV disease-related factors, including CD4 count and viral load (VL), are unknown. Objective: To better understand how laboratory markers currently used to evaluate HIV disease progression may be associated with subsequent NMSC risk...
September 1, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665062/metabolic-complications-among-korean-patients-with-hiv-infection-the-korea-hiv-aids-cohort-study
#15
Dong Hyun Oh, Jin Young Ahn, Sang Il Kim, Min Ja Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Woo Joo Kim, Ji Hyeon Baek, Shin Woo Kim, Bo Youl Choi, Mi Hwa Lee, Ju Yeon Choi, Myung Guk Han, Chun Kang, June Myung Kim, Jun Yong Choi
Currently, metabolic complications are the most common problem among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, with a high incidence. However, there have been very few studies regarding metabolic abnormalities published in Asia, especially in Korea. This cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for metabolic abnormalities in 1,096 HIV-infected patients of the Korea HIV/AIDS cohort study enrolled from 19 hospitals between 2006 and 2013. Data at entry to cohort were analyzed...
August 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649577/in%C3%A2-vivo-murine-matured-human-cd3-cells-as-a-preclinical-model-for-t-cell-based-immunotherapies
#16
Kevin G Haworth, Christina Ironside, Zachary K Norgaard, Willimark M Obenza, Jennifer E Adair, Hans-Peter Kiem
Adoptive cellular immunotherapy is a promising and powerful method for the treatment of a broad range of malignant and infectious diseases. Although the concept of cellular immunotherapy was originally proposed in the 1990s, it has not seen successful clinical application until recent years. Despite significant progress in creating engineered receptors against both malignant and viral epitopes, no efficient preclinical animal models exist for rapidly testing and directly comparing these engineered receptors...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639462/onychomycosis-in-the-21st-century-an-update-on-diagnosis-epidemiology-and-treatment
#17
Aditya K Gupta, Sarah G Versteeg, Neil H Shear
Onychomycosis accounts for 50% of all nail disease cases and is commonly caused by dermatophytes. Diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus, immunosuppression, obesity, smoking, and advancing age are predisposing factors of this fungal infection. Potassium hydroxide and culture are considered the current standard for diagnosing onychomycosis, revealing both fungal viability and species identification. Other diagnostic tests currently available include periodic acid-Schiff staining, polymerase chain reaction techniques, and fluorescent staining...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626237/cd4-t-cells-memorize-obesity-and-promote-weight-regain
#18
Jianghuan Zou, Beibei Lai, Mingzhu Zheng, Qin Chen, Shujun Jiang, Anying Song, Zan Huang, Peiliang Shi, Xin Tu, Di Wang, Linrong Lu, Zhaoyu Lin, Xiang Gao
Body weight regain often causes failure of obesity therapies while the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, we report that immune cells, especially CD4+ T cells, mediate the 'memory' of previous obese status. In a weight gain-loss-regain model, we found that C57BL/6J mice with an obesity history showed a much faster rate of body weight regain. This obesity memory could last for at least 2 months after previously obese mice were kept at the same body weight as non-obese mice. Surprisingly, such obesity memory was abrogated by dexamethasone treatment, whereas immunodeficient Rag1(-/-) and H2A(-/-) mice failed to establish such memory...
June 19, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614778/the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv1-protease-inhibitor-sanquinavir-activates-autophagy-and-removes-lipids-deposited-in-lipid-droplets
#19
A Polus, M Bociaga-Jasik, U Czech, J Goralska, U Cialowicz, M Chojnacka, M Polus, K Jurowski, A Dembinska-Kiec
Reduction in mortality and increased average life span of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with the risk of unwanted effects, such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia with cardiovascular complications. Antiretroviral therapy may also be associated with lipodystrophy characterized as peripheral lipoatrophy with central fat accumulation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of lipodystrophy caused by ART is important for therapeutic strategy and the prediction of side-effects...
April 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612196/cell-source-differentiation-functional-stimulation-and-potential-application-of-human-thermogenic-adipocytes-in-vitro
#20
REVIEW
Dinh-Toi Chu, Yang Tao, Le Hoang Son, Duc-Hau Le
Recent investigations have showed that the functional thermogenic adipocytes are present in both infants and adult humans. Accumulating evidence suggests that the coexistence of classical and inducible brown (brite) adipocytes in humans at adulthood and these adipocytes function to generate heat from energy resulting in reducing body fat and improving glucose metabolism. Human thermogenic adipocytes can be differentiated in vitro from stem cells, cell lines, or adipose stromal vascular fraction. Pre-activated human brite adipocytes in vitro can maintain their thermogenic function in normal or obese immunodeficient mice; therefore, they improve glucose homeostasis and reduce fat mass in obese animals...
August 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
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