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diabetes and infections

Satyanarayana Swamy Cheekatla, Deepak Tripathi, Sambasivan Venkatasubramanian, Pavan Kumar Nathella, Padmaja Paidipally, Munenori Ishibashi, Elwyn Welch, Amy R Tvinnereim, Mitsuo Ikebe, Vijaya Lakshmi Valluri, Subash Babu, Hardy Kornfeld, Ramakrishna Vankayalapati
In this study, we developed a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using streptozotocin and nicotinamide and identified factors that increase susceptibility of T2DM mice to infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). All Mtb-infected T2DM mice and 40% of uninfected T2DM mice died within 10 months, whereas all control mice survived. In Mtb-infected mice, T2DM increased the bacterial burden and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in the lungs relative to those in uninfected T2DM mice and infected control mice...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Marlon E Buncamper, Wouter B van der Sluis, Roos S D van der Pas, Müjde Özer, Jan Maerten Smit, Birgit I Witte, Mark-Bram Bouman, Margriet G Mullender
BACKGROUND: For many transgender women, vaginoplasty is the final stage in the gender-confirming process. Penile inversion vaginoplasty is considered the gold standard for vaginal construction in transgender women. In this study, the authors assessed intraoperative and postoperative complications after penile inversion vaginoplasty. METHODS: All patients who underwent penile inversion vaginoplasty between January of 2000 and January of 2014 were identified retrospectively from the authors' hospital registry...
November 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Adriano M Pellicelli, Valeria Pace Palitti, Pascal Vignally, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstain, Massimo Siciliano, Valerio Giannelli, Alessandra Moretti, Pierluigi Tarquini, Gaetano Scifo, Vincenzo Messina, Antonio Ascione, Antonio Izzi, Massimo Marignani, Cecilia D'Ambrosio, Lucia Fondacaro, Giuseppe M Ettorre, Pasquale Ialongo, Rodolfo Sacco, Carlo Federico Perno, Giorgio Barbarini
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The proportion of HCV infected patients over age 65 years in Western countries is increasing. This growth and the advent of new antiviral therapy bring into the question the real world efficacy and safety of the combination of Sofosbuvir (SOF) and Simeprevir (SMV) plus a flat dose of 800 mg/d ribavirin (RBV) in elderly patients with liver cirrhosis compared to younger patients. METHODS: Retrospective observational multicenter real life investigation study of SOF/SMV/RBV for a duration of 12 weeks in HCV genotype 1-infected patients with liver cirrhosis...
October 26, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Christopher J Berg, Jonathan D Kaunitz
The ability of humans to sense chemical signals in ingested substances is implicit in the ability to detect the five basic tastes; sweet, sour, bitter, salty, and umami. Of these, sweet, bitter, and umami tastes are detected by lingual G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recently, these receptors were also localized to the gut mucosa. In this review, we will emphasize recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of foregut luminal chemosensing, with special emphasis on cell surface GPCRs such as the sweet and proteinaceous taste receptors (TASRs), short- and long-chain fatty acid (FA) receptors, and bile acid receptors...
2016: F1000Research
Adriaan J van der Meer, Jordan J Feld, Harald Hofer, Piero L Almasio, Vincenza Calvaruso, Conrado M Fernández-Rodríguez, Soo Aleman, Nathalie Ganne-Carrié, Roberta D'Ambrosio, Stanislas Pol, Maria Trapero-Marugan, R Maan, Ricardo Moreno-Otero, Vincent Mallet, Rolf Hultcrantz, Ola Weiland, Karoline Rutter, Vito Di Marco, Sonia Alonso, Savino Bruno, Massimo Colombo, Robert J de Knegt, Bart J Veldt, Bettina E Hansen, Harry L A Janssen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is reduced but not eradicated among patients with HCV-induced advanced hepatic fibrosis who attained sustained viral response (SVR). We aimed to assess the risk of cirrhosis-related complications in this specific group of patients. METHODS: Data from previously reported Western cohort studies including patients with chronic HCV infection and bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis who attained SVR were pooled for survival analyses on the individual patient level...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Laura E Gleeson, Frederick J Sheedy
Successful immune responses to pathogens rely on efficient host innate processes to contain and limit bacterial growth, induce inflammatory response and promote antigen presentation for the development of adaptive immunity. This energy intensive process is regulated through multiple mechanisms including receptor-mediated signaling, control of phago-lysomal fusion events and promotion of bactericidal activities. Inherent macrophage activities therefore are dynamic and are modulated by signals and changes in the environment during infection...
October 22, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
Robert Westermann, Chris A Anthony, Kyle R Duchman, Yubo Gao, Andrew J Pugely, Carolyn M Hettrich, Ned Amendola, Brian R Wolf
Infection following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is rare. Previous authors have concluded that diabetes, tobacco use, and previous knee surgery may influence infection rates following ACLR. The purpose of this study was to identify a cohort of patients undergoing ACLR and define (1) the incidence of infection after ACLR from a large multicenter database and (2) the risk factors for infection after ACLR. We identified patients undergoing elective ACLRs in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database between 2007 and 2013...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Knee Surgery
Elina Seppälä, Saara Sillanpää, Noora Nurminen, Heini Huhtala, Jorma Toppari, Jorma Ilonen, Riitta Veijola, Mikael Knip, Markku Sipilä, Jussi Laranne, Sami Oikarinen, Heikki Hyöty
BACKGROUND: Human enteroviruses (HEVs) and rhinoviruses (HRVs) have been linked to acute otitis media (AOM). OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluates the aforementioned association in a birth cohort setting. STUDY DESIGN: The cohort included 286 healthy infants (191 boys) followed from birth up to the age of 2 years in the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention study in Finland. Stool samples were collected monthly and analyzed for the presence of HRV and HEV RNA using RT-PCR...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Karen E Burtt, Alexis D Rounds, Hyuma A Leland, Ram K Alluri, Ketan M Patel, Joseph N Carey
Infections in the traumatized lower extremity are a significant source of morbidity and expense. Outcomes after vascularized soft tissue reconstruction were analyzed to determine impact on infection rates. A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was performed, including 114 trauma patients requiring soft tissue reconstruction of lower extremity injuries at an urban Level I tertiary referral center from 2008 to 2015. Patient characteristics and perioperative outcomes were analyzed. After trauma, 39 (34...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Da Hae Lee, Bart Keymeulen, Robert Hilbrands, Zhidong Ling, Ursule Van de Velde, Daniel Jacobs-Tulleneers-Thevissen, Geert Maleux, Bruno Lapauw, Laurent Crenier, Christophe De Block, Chantal Mathieu, Daniel Pipeleers, Pieter Gillard
BACKGROUND: Induction therapy with a T cell depleting agent followed by mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and tacrolimus (Tac) is presently the most frequently used immune suppression (IS) regimen in islet transplantation. This study assesses its safety and tolerability in nonuremic type 1 diabetic recipients. METHODS: Fifty-one patients (ages between 29-63 years) with high glycemic variability and problematic hypoglycemia received intraportal islet grafts under anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG)-MMF-Tac protocol...
October 25, 2016: Transplantation
Yu Liu, Jinsong Han, Tao Liu, Zhonglu Yang, Hui Jiang, Huishan Wang
Objective. To investigate the effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB). Method. A total of 728 patients with DM and 1380 patients without DM who underwent OPCAB treatment from March 2012 to April 2015 were reviewed. The effects of DM on intraoperative variables and postoperative complications were determined using propensity score analysis. Results. Two well-matched subgroups were selected using propensity score analysis (DM = 728, no-DM = 728) to compare the perioperative outcome...
2016: BioMed Research International
Sayeh Ezzikouri, Fatima Zahra Jadid, Salsabil Hamdi, Lahcen Wakrim, Kyoko Tsukiyama-Kohara, Soumaya Benjelloun
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) present a significant health burden, with increasing complications and mortality rates worldwide. Pycnogenol® (PYC), a natural product, possesses antidiabetic and antiviral properties that may improve HCV-associated T2DM. In this review, we present previously published data on the effectiveness of PYC against HCV replication and T2DM. We believe that supplementing conventional treatment with PYC may improve the current HCV therapy, attenuate HCV-associated T2DM, and reduce the risk of complications such as cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma and cardiovascular disease...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
E J Kyriopoulos, A Kyriakopoulos, A Karonidis, A Gravvanis, I Gamatsi, C Tsironis, D Tsoutsos
Mucor fungus infection is a rare opportunistic infection, rapidly progressive and often fatal in immunocompromised patients, or in patients with chronic debilitating diseases. We report six cases of trauma patients with mucormycosis. Three had severe thermal burns, one of them with a medical history of diabetes mellitus. The other three patients suffered from severe soft tissue injuries caused by traffic accidents. In all cases there had been spontaneous exposure and contact of the wounds with soil. During hospitalization, fungi cultures and/or biopsies of all wounds were performed and all resulted positive...
December 31, 2015: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
T Schmitz
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short- and long-term benefits and risks associated with antenatal administration of a single course of corticosteroids and the related strategies: multiple and rescue courses. METHODS: The PubMed database, the Cochrane Library and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. RESULTS: Antenatal administration of a single course of corticosteroids before 34 weeks of gestation is associated in the neonatal period with a significant reduction of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and death (LE1), and in possibly childhood with a reduction of cerebral palsy and increased psychomotor development index and intact survival (LE3)...
October 21, 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
Matthew Ward
: Aim To understand the frequency, urgency, and rationale of emergency department and urgent care (ED/UC) use by diabetic patients of a Family Medicine Health Team (FHT). METHODS: A retrospective, observational study with comparison control groups was conducted from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2014. A total of 693 diabetic patients were compared with two, age-standardized non-diabetic groups: one with a higher disease burden based on International Classification of Diseases 9 diagnoses and the other from a randomized patient pool...
October 25, 2016: Primary Health Care Research & Development
Mani Nagarajan, Sakthirajan Ramanathan, Jeyachandran Dhanapriya, Thanigachalam Dineshkumar, T Bala Subramaniyan, Natarajan Gopalakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the major determinants of graft survival in kidney transplantation (KTx). Renal Transplant recipients are more vulnerable to develop AKI than general population. AKI in the transplant recipient differs from community acquired, in terms of risk factors, etiology and outcome. Our aim was to study the incidence, risk factors, etiology, outcome and the impact of AKI on graft survival. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 219 renal transplant recipients (both live and deceased donor) was done...
October 24, 2016: Renal Failure
Eleanor E Friedman, Wayne A Duffus
OBJECTIVES: To examine sociodemographic factors and chronic health conditions of people living with HIV (PLWHIV/HIV+) at least 65 years old and compare their chronic disease prevalence with beneficiaries without HIV. DESIGN: National fee-for-service Medicare claims data (parts A and B) from 2006 to 2009 were used to create a retrospective cohort of beneficiaries at least 65 years old. METHODS: Beneficiaries with an inpatient or skilled nursing facility claim, or outpatient claims with HIV diagnosis codes were considered HIV+...
October 23, 2016: AIDS
Sanjay K Agarwal, Dipankar Bhowmik, Sandeep Mahajan, Soumita Bagchi
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipient (RTR). Immunosuppressive drugs are one of the most important risk factor for post-transplant tuberculosis (PTTB). A paucity of data exists about the impact of the type of calcineurin inhibitor on PTTB. METHODS: In this retrospective study, all adult patients on calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression were included. Patients receiving TB chemoprophylaxis were excluded...
October 24, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
A P Delitala, G M Pes, A Errigo, M Maioli, G Delitala, M P Dore
OBJECTIVE: H. pylori infection is reportedly associated with autoimmune diseases such as chronic thyroiditis and autoimmune diabetes. The aim of this study is to determine the association between H. pylori infection and its virulent strain CagA with antibodies against thyroperoxidase (TPO Ab) and thyrotropin (TSH) in a cohort of latent autoimmune diabetes in adult (LADA) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 234 LADA patients (53.8% women). Antibodies against H...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Jason Gandhi, Gautam Dagur, Kelly Warren, Noel Smith, Sardar Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a vastly prevalent metabolic disorder with escalating global health concerns. Particularly when mismanaged, chronic micro- and macrovascular complications may highly impair physiological systems while immunodeficiency disposes us to infection. OBJECTIVE: We investigate infections, localized complications, and neoplasms of the genitourinary system secondary to the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus in males and females. METHOD: A comprehensive MEDLINE® search was guided using key words relevant to diabetes mellitus and the genitourinary system...
October 19, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
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