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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734512/the-burden-of-enteropathy-and-subclinical-infections
#1
REVIEW
Elizabeth T Rogawski, Richard L Guerrant
Environmental enteropathy is a chronic condition of the small intestine associated with increased intestinal permeability, mucosal inflammation, malabsorption, and systemic inflammation. It is commonly accompanied by enteric infections and is misleadingly considered a subclinical disease. Potential effects of enteric infections and enteropathy on vaccine responses, child growth, cognitive development, and even later life obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are increasingly being recognized. Herein, we review the evolving challenges to defining environmental enteropathy and enteric infections, current evidence for the magnitude and determinants of its burden, new assessment tools, and relevant interventions...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734103/levels-of-wound-calprotectin-and-other-inflammatory-biomarkers-aid-in-deciding-which-patients-with-a-diabetic-foot-ulcer-need-antibiotic-therapy-induce-study
#2
J R Ingram, S Cawley, E Coulman, C Gregory, E Thomas-Jones, T Pickles, R Cannings-John, N A Francis, K Harding, K Hood, V Piguet
AIMS: Deciding if a diabetic foot ulcer is infected in a community setting is challenging without validated point-of-care tests. Four inflammatory biomarkers were investigated to develop a composite algorithm for mildly infected diabetic foot ulcers: venous white cell count, C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin, and a novel wound exudate calprotectin assay. Calprotectin is a marker of neutrophilic inflammation. METHODS: In a prospective study, people with uninfected or mildly infected diabetic foot ulcers who had not received oral antibiotics in the preceding 2 weeks were recruited from community podiatry clinics for measurement of inflammatory biomarkers...
July 22, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733598/role-of-hdac9-foxo1-axis-in-the-transcriptional-program-associated-with-hepatic-gluconeogenesis
#3
Jizheng Chen, Zhilei Zhang, Ning Wang, Min Guo, Xiumei Chi, Yu Pan, Jing Jiang, Junqi Niu, Sulaiman Ksimu, John Zhong Li, Xinwen Chen, Qian Wang
Histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9) regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis by deacetylating Forkhead box O 1 (FoxO1). HDAC9 upregulation is involved in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated exaggerated gluconeogenesis. Herein, we found in addition to FoxO1, HDAC9 also regulates other gluconeogenic transcription factors, including peroxisomeproliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Unlike FoxO1, which is regulated by post-translational modification responses to HDAC9, HDAC9 regulates PGC-1α, CREB and GR by altering gene expression...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733564/the-clinical-features-and-treatment-outcome-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-with-pegylated-interferon-and-ribavirin-in-routine-care
#4
S S Tan, Z Adlin Nadia
AIM: To describe the clinical characteristic of hepatitis C (HCV) patients and the results of pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) therapy in a routine clinical practice. METHODS: A retrospective review of consecutive HCV patients treated with PegIFN/RBV in 2004 to 2012. RESULTS: A total of 273 patients received treatment. The mean age was 44.16 ± 10.5 years and 76% were male. The top 2 self-reported risks were blood or blood product transfusion before 1994 and injection drug use, found in 57...
June 2017: Medical Journal of Malaysia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733432/should-bilateral-internal-thoracic-artery-grafting-be-used-in-patients-after-recent-myocardial-infarction
#5
Dan Loberman, Dmitry Pevni, Rephael Mohr, Yosef Paz, Nahum Nesher, Mohamad Khaled Midlij, Yanai Ben-Gal
BACKGROUND: Bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting (BITA) is associated with improved survival. However, surgeons do not commonly use BITA in patients after myocardial infarction (MI) because survival is good with single internal thoracic artery grafting (SITA). We aimed to compare the outcomes of BITA with those of SITA and other approaches in patients with multivessel disease after recent MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 938 patients with recent MI (<3 months) who underwent BITA between 1996 and 2011 were compared with 682 who underwent SITA...
July 21, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733376/detection-of-osteomyelitis-in-the-diabetic-foot-by-imaging-techniques-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-comparing-mri-white-blood-cell-scintigraphy-and-fdg-pet
#6
REVIEW
Chiara Lauri, Menno Tamminga, Andor W J M Glaudemans, Luis Eduardo Juárez Orozco, Paola A Erba, Paul C Jutte, Benjamin A Lipsky, Maarten J IJzerman, Alberto Signore, Riemer H J A Slart
OBJECTIVE: Diagnosing bone infection in the diabetic foot is challenging and often requires several diagnostic procedures, including advanced imaging. We compared the diagnostic performances of MRI, radiolabeled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy (either with (99m)Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime [HMPAO] or (111)In-oxine), and [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET)/computed tomography. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We searched Medline and Embase as of August 2016 for studies of diagnostic tests on patients known or suspected to have diabetes and a foot infection...
August 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732078/impact-of-diabetes-mellitus-on-indeterminate-results-of-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-test-a-propensity-score-matching-analysis
#7
Hong-Joon Shin, Tae-Ok Kim, Hyung-Joo Oh, Ha-Young Park, Jin-Sun Chang, Seong Ahn, Yu-Il Kim, Sung-Chul Lim, Yong-Soo Kwon
BACKGROUND: The sensitivity of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection could be affected by conditions of immune dysregulation. For this reason, diabetes mellitus (DM) may increase the frequency of indeterminate results of IGRAs. However, there have been inconsistent reports of role of DM on indeterminate IGRA results. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube testing (QFT-GIT) at Chonnam National University Hospital...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731281/glycaemic-control-and-the-risk-of-hospitalisation-for-infection-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-hong-kong-diabetes-registry
#8
Andrea O Y Luk, Eric S H Lau, Kitty K T Cheung, Alice P Kong, Ronald C W Ma, Risa Ozaki, Francis C C Chow, Wing-Yee So, Juliana C N Chan
BACKGROUND: Infection occurs more commonly in diabetic compared to general population and is an under-recognised but important morbidity in patients with diabetes. We examined the impact of glycaemic control on hospitalisation for infection in a large prospective cohort of Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Between July 1994 and June 2014, 22,846 patients with type 2 diabetes underwent detailed assessment of metabolic control and diabetes complications...
July 21, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729881/outcomes-following-repair-of-incarcerated-and-strangulated-ventral-hernias-with-or-without-synthetic-mesh
#9
Sameh Hany Emile, Hesham Elgendy, Ahmad Sakr, Waleed Ahmed Gado, Ahmed Aly Abdelmawla, Mahmoud Abdelnaby, Alaa Magdy
BACKGROUND: The use of synthetic mesh for ventral hernia repair under contaminated conditions is a controversial issue due to the considerable risk of surgical site infection (SSI). This study aimed to review the outcomes of repair of incarcerated and strangulated ventral hernias with or without synthetic mesh in compliance with established clinical guidelines regarding the incidence of SSI and hernia recurrence. METHODS: The records of patients with complicated ventral hernias who were treated with or without synthetic mesh repair were reviewed...
2017: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729474/trilateral-overlap-of-tuberculosis-diabetes-and-hiv-1-in-a-high-burden-african-setting-implications-for-tb-control
#10
Tolu Oni, Natacha Berkowitz, Mmamapudi Kubjane, Rene Goliath, Naomi S Levitt, Robert J Wilkinson
The diabetes mellitus burden is growing in countries where tuberculosis (TB) and HIV-1 remain major challenges, threatening TB control efforts. This study determined the association between TB and diabetes/impaired glucose regulation in the context of HIV-1.A cross-sectional study was conducted at a TB clinic in Cape Town (South Africa). Participants were screened for diabetes and impaired glucose regulation using fasting plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c).414 TB and 438 non-TB participants were enrolled...
July 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729097/post-caesarean-section-surgical-site-infection-surveillance-using-an-online-database-and-mobile-phone-technology
#11
Eliana Castillo, Corrine McIsaac, Bhreagh MacDougall, Douglas Wilson, Rosemary Kohr
BACKGROUND: Obstetric surgical site infections (SSIs) are common and expensive to the health care system but remain under reported given shorter postoperative hospital stays and suboptimal post-discharge surveillance systems. SSIs, for the purpose of this paper, are defined according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (1999) as infection incurring within 30 days of the operative procedure (in this case, Caesarean section [CS]). PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate the feasibility of real-life use of a patient driven SSIs post-discharge surveillance system consisting of an online database and mobile phone technology (surgical mobile app - how2trak) among women undergoing CS in a Canadian urban centre...
August 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725640/risk-factors-for-impaired-fasting-glucose-or-diabetes-among-hiv-infected-patients-on-art-in-the-copperbelt-province-of-zambia
#12
Perfect Shankalala, Choolwe Jacobs, Samuel Bosomprah, Michael Vinikoor, Patrick Katayamoyo, Charles Michelo
BACKGROUND: Africa has a high prevalence of both Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) but in Zambia there are few data on co-morbid NCDs like Diabetes Mellitus (DM) among HIV-infected individuals. We aimed to identify risk factors for impaired fasting glucose or diabetes among HIV-infected Zambians on long-term Combined Antiretroviral Treatment (cART). METHODS: This was a cross sectional study of adult HIV patients in five health facilities of Copperbelt Province in Zambia...
2017: Journal of Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725323/the-elevation-of-cardio-ankle-vascular-index-in-a-patient-with-malignant-lymphoma-treated-with-a-combination-therapy-of-rituximab-and-cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-vincristine-and-prednisolone
#13
Naomi Shimizu, Noriko Ban, Yasuhiro Watanabe, Asami Rikitake, Rena Watanabe, Sho Tanaka, Yuta Sato, Haruki Imamura, Hidetoshi Kawana, Takashi Yamaguchi, Atsuhito Saiki, Ichiro Tatsuno, Kohji Shirai
An increased risk of arteriosclerosis has been noted in cancer survivors. Currently, there are only a few reports available that consider the risk of arteriosclerosis in patients treated with chemotherapy. Patients with an advanced stage B-cell malignant lymphoma are typically treated with a combination therapy of rituximab and cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP). Complications such as diabetes mellitus (DM), hyperlipidemia (HL), and osteoporosis due to prednisolone and cardiotoxicity due to anthracyclines are well known...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724879/infectious-complications-in-patients-with-cardiac-implantable-electronic-devices-risk-factors-prevention-and-prognosis
#14
Anna Polewczyk, Wojciech Jacheć, Aneta Maria Polewczyk, Andrzej Tomasik, Marianna Janion, Andrzej Kutarski
INTRODUCTION    Cardiac device infections (CDI) are still a significant problem. The knowledge of risk factors for CDI is crucial both for preventing infections and reducing mortality. OBJECTIVES    The assesment of the risk factors and long term survival of patients with CDI. PATIENTS AND METHODS    The clinical data of 1837 patients (40.9% CDI) undergoing transvenous leads extraction (TLE) at a single institution from 2006 to 2015 was analyzed. We compared the clinical and procedure-related factors for all types of CDI: isolated pocket infection (IPI), isolated lead-related infective endocarditis (ILRIE) and PI+LRIE...
July 19, 2017: Polish Archives of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724387/risk-factors-for-acute-surgical-site-infections-after-lumbar-surgery-a-retrospective-study
#15
Qi Lai, Quanwei Song, Runsheng Guo, Haidi Bi, Xuqiang Liu, Xiaolong Yu, Jianghao Zhu, Min Dai, Bin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Currently, many scholars are concerned about the treatment of postoperative infection; however, few have completed multivariate analyses to determine factors that contribute to the risk of infection. Therefore, we conducted a multivariate analysis of a retrospectively collected database to analyze the risk factors for acute surgical site infection following lumbar surgery, including fracture fixation, lumbar fusion, and minimally invasive lumbar surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data from patients who underwent lumbar surgery between 2014 and 2016, including lumbar fusion, internal fracture fixation, and minimally invasive surgery in our hospital's spinal surgery unit...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723471/urinary-tract-infections-in-immunocompromised-patients-with-diabetes-chronic-kidney-disease-and-kidney-transplant
#16
REVIEW
Zafer Tandogdu, Tommaso Cai, Bela Koves, Florian Wagenlehner, Truls Erik Bjerklund-Johansen
CONTEXT: This paper provides a brief overview of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in immunocompromised patients from the perspective of a practicing urologist. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to provide an update on UTIs in immunocompromised patients. Diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic kidney disease, and kidney transplant (KT) are the most common clinical cases encountered by urologists. Diagnosis, management, and future research needs are summarised. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We conducted a nonsystematic review of the literature...
October 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722566/molecular-epidemiology-of-staphylococcus-aureus-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-the-lao-people-s-democratic-republic
#17
Alicia D Yeap, Kate Woods, David A B Dance, Bruno Pichon, Sayaphet Rattanavong, Viengmon Davong, Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh, Paul N Newton, Nandini Shetty, Angela M Kearns
This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus from skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in Laos. We selected a random sample of 96 S. aureus SSTI isolates received by the Microbiology Laboratory, Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, between July 2012 and June 2014, including representation from seven referral hospitals. Isolates underwent susceptibility testing by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods, spa typing and DNA microarray analysis, with whole genome sequencing for rare lineages...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722354/risk-factors-for-amputation-in-patients-with-diabetic-foot-infection-a-prospective-study
#18
Serhat Uysal, Bilgin Arda, Meltem I Taşbakan, Şevki Çetinkalp, Ilgın Y Şimşir, Anıl M Öztürk, Ayşe Uysal, İlgen Ertam
There is a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms for diabetic foot infections (DFIs). Some of them are too difficult to be applied in routine clinical approach. In the routine clinical approach, it is necessary to find new risk factors and end up with a quick and easy assessment of DFIs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the independent risk factors for osteomyelitis, amputation and major amputation in patients with DFI using standard scoring procedures. We prospectively studied 379 patients with DFI...
July 19, 2017: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721575/gastroparesis-medical-and-therapeutic-advances
#19
REVIEW
Christopher M Navas, Nihal K Patel, Brian E Lacy
Gastroparesis is a chronic, bothersome, and often disabling neuromuscular disorder of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The most frequently reported symptoms of gastroparesis include nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, early satiety, and unintentional weight loss. Etiologies of gastroparesis include diabetes, connective tissue disorders, prior infection, mesenteric ischemia, and post-surgical complications. The largest category of gastroparesis patients is comprised of those in whom no definitive cause can be identified (idiopathic gastroparesis)...
July 18, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720399/prenatal-and-postnatal-administration-of-prebiotics-and-probiotics
#20
REVIEW
Kristin Sohn, Mark A Underwood
Colonization of the neonatal gut by beneficial bacteria is important for the establishment and maintenance of the mucosal barrier, thus protecting the neonate from enteric pathogens and local and systemic inflammation. The neonatal microbiome is influenced by infant diet, environment, and the maternal microbiome. Dysbiosis in pregnancy increases the risk of pre-eclampsia, diabetes, infection, preterm labor, and later childhood atopy. Dysbiosis of the neonatal gut plays an important role in colic in the term infant, in the disease processes which plague preterm infants, including necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis, and in the long-term outcomes of neonates...
July 15, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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