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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346450/structural-modeling-of-protein-rna-complexes-using-crosslinking-of-segmentally-isotope-labeled-rna-and-ms-ms
#1
Georg Dorn, Alexander Leitner, Julien Boudet, Sébastien Campagne, Christine von Schroetter, Ahmed Moursy, Ruedi Aebersold, Frédéric H-T Allain
Ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) are key regulators of cellular function. We established an efficient approach, crosslinking of segmentally isotope-labeled RNA and tandem mass spectrometry (CLIR-MS/MS), to localize protein-RNA interactions simultaneously at amino acid and nucleotide resolution. The approach was tested on polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1 and U1 small nuclear RNP. Our method provides distance restraints to support integrative atomic-scale structural modeling and to gain mechanistic insights into RNP-regulated processes...
March 27, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345385/activation-of-5-ht1a-receptors-in-the-rat-dorsomedial-hypothalamus-inhibits-stress-induced-activation-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#2
Christopher E Stamper, James E Hassell, Adam J Kapitz, Kenneth J Renner, Miles Orchinik, Christopher A Lowry
Acute activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, leading to the release of corticosteroid hormones into the circulation, is an adaptive response to perceived threats. Persistent activation of the HPA axis can lead to impaired physiological or behavioral function with maladaptive consequences. Thus, efficient control and termination of stress responses is essential for well-being. However, inhibitory control mechanisms governing the HPA axis are poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that serotonergic systems, acting within the medial hypothalamus, play an important role in inhibitory control of stress-induced HPA axis activity...
March 27, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345016/-by-slapping-their-laps-the-patient-will-know-that-you-truly-care-for-her-a-qualitative-study-on-social-norms-and-acceptability-of-the-mistreatment-of-women-during-childbirth-in-abuja-nigeria
#3
Meghan A Bohren, Joshua P Vogel, Özge Tunçalp, Bukola Fawole, Musibau A Titiloye, Akinpelu Olanrewaju Olutayo, Agnes A Oyeniran, Modupe Ogunlade, Loveth Metiboba, Olubunmi R Osunsan, Hadiza A Idris, Francis E Alu, Olufemi T Oladapo, A Metin Gülmezoglu, Michelle J Hindin
BACKGROUND: Many women experience mistreatment during childbirth in health facilities across the world. However, limited evidence exists on how social norms and attitudes of both women and providers influence mistreatment during childbirth. Contextually-specific evidence is needed to understand how normative factors affect how women are treated. This paper explores the acceptability of four scenarios of mistreatment during childbirth. METHODS: Two facilities were identified in Abuja, Nigeria...
December 2016: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342768/role-of-the-lateral-preoptic-area-in-cardiovascular-and-neuroendocrine-responses-to-acute-restraint-stress-in-rats
#4
Josiane O Duarte, Karina S Gomes, Ricardo L Nunes-de-Souza, Carlos C Crestani
The lateral preoptic area (LPO) is connected with limbic structures involved in physiological and behavioral responses to stress. Accordingly, exposure to stressors stimuli activates neurons within the LPO. In spite of these evidence, an involvement of the LPO on cardiovascular and neuroendocrine adjustments during aversive threats has not yet been investigated. Therefore, in the present study we tested the hypothesis that the LPO is involved in the control of cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to acute restraint stress in rats...
March 22, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341609/effects-of-chronic-restraint-stress-on-the-global-dna-methylation-profile-of-rat-lung-cells-modulation-by-physical-exercise
#5
L V Toffoli, V L Volpini, L M Nascimento, W R Silva, G G Pelosi, M V Gomes
The potential of behavioral stress to affect epigenetic mechanisms of non-encephalic tissues is still underestimated. In the present study we evaluated the effects of chronic behavioral stress on the DNA methylation profile of rat lung cells. Furthermore, we evaluated the potential of physical exercise to modulate the changes evoked by behavioral stress in lung cells. Male Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups: (1) animals submitted to chronic restraint stress (CRS) (ST group) during the period of the 67th-80th postnatal day (PND); (2) animals submitted to physical exercise (EX group) during the 53rd-79th PND; (3) animals submitted to swimming during the 53rd-79th PND and to CRS during the 67th-80th PND (EX-ST group); and (4) animals not submitted to stress or swimming protocols (CTL)...
March 21, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341608/the-dual-pathway-model-of-binge-eating-is-there-a-need-for-modification
#6
Marie Sehm, Petra Warschburger
The dual-pathway model proposes that body dissatisfaction might lead to binge eating (BE) through restraint eating and negative affect. Both pathways have been confirmed longitudinally, but there is evidence that the affect-pathway might rather be found in the short-term, whereas other variables might be involved over longer periods. Research suggests that self-esteem represents a key-factor in the etiology of BE in adolescent girls and might serve as a mediator between body dissatisfaction and eating pathology...
March 21, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341607/do-emotion-regulation-difficulties-when-upset-influence-the-association-between-dietary-restraint-and-weight-gain-among-college-students
#7
Tyler K Hunt, Kelsie T Forbush, Kelsey E Hagan, Danielle A N Chapa
Obesity is a significant public health concern that affects more than one-fifth of adolescents aged 12-19 in the United States. Theoretical models suggest that prolonged dietary restraint leads to binge-eating behaviors, which in turn increases individuals' risk for weight gain or obesity. Results from the literature indicate a potential role for negative urgency (the tendency to act rashly when distressed) as a mediating variable that explains the link between dietary restraint and binge-eating episodes. The current study tested short-term, prospective longitudinal associations among dietary restraint, binge eating, negative urgency, and weight gain among college students - a population at increased risk for the development of overweight and obesity...
March 22, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337845/nurses-attitudes-towards-the-use-of-prn-psychotropic-medications-in-acute-and-forensic-mental-health-settings
#8
Lesley Barr, Dianne Wynaden, Karen Heslop
Many countries now have national mental health policies and guidelines to decrease or eliminate the use of seclusion and restraint yet the use of Pro Re Nata (PRN) medications has received less practice evaluation. This research aimed to identify mental health nurses' attitudes towards the use of PRN medications with mental health consumers. Participants were working in forensic mental health and non-forensic acute mental health settings. The "Attitudes towards PRN medication use survey" was used and data were collected online...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336441/chronic-stress-induced-dendritic-reorganization-and-abundance-of-synaptosomal-pka-dependent-cp-ampa-receptor-in-the-basolateral-amygdala-in-a-mouse-model-of-depression
#9
Eun-Surk Yi, Seikwan Oh, Jang-Kyu Lee, Yea-Hyun Leem
Chronic stress is a precipitating factor for disorders including depression. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) is a critical substrate that interconnects with stress-modulated neural networks to generate emotion- and mood-related behaviors. The current study shows that 3 h per day of restraint stress for 14 days caused mice to exhibit long-term depressive behaviors, manifested by disrupted sociality and despair levels, which were rescued by fluoxetine. These behavioral changes corresponded with morphological and molecular changes in BLA neurons, including chronic stress-elicited increases in arborization, dendritic length, and spine density of BLA principal neurons...
March 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335673/modifiable-risk-factors-for-delirium-in-critically-ill-trauma-patients
#10
Marc-Alexandre Duceppe, David R Williamson, Audrée Elliott, Mélissa Para, Marie-Christine Poirier, Marie-Soleil Delisle, Dan Deckelbaum, Tarek Razek, Monique Desjardins, Jean-Claude Bertrand, Francis Bernard, Philippe Rico, Lisa Burry, Anne Julie Frenette, Marc Perreault
OBJECTIVE: Intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired delirium has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Prevention strategies including modification of delirium risk factors are emphasized by practice guidelines. No study has specifically evaluated modifiable delirium risk factors in trauma ICU patients. Our goal was to evaluate modifiable risk factors for delirium among trauma patients admitted to the ICU. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Two level 1 trauma ICU centers...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335489/effects-of-the-mediterranean-diet-before-and-after-weight-loss-on-eating-behavioral-traits-in-men-with-metabolic-syndrome
#11
Élise Carbonneau, Marie-Michelle Royer, Caroline Richard, Patrick Couture, Sophie Desroches, Simone Lemieux, Benoît Lamarche
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) consumed before and after weight loss on eating behavioral traits as measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). In this fixed sequence study, 19 men with MetS (National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria), aged between 24 and 62 years, first consumed a five-week standardized North American control diet followed by a five-week MedDiet, both under weight-maintaining controlled-feeding conditions...
March 19, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334154/ethical-issues-of-crispr-technology-and-gene-editing-through-the-lens-of-solidarity
#12
John J Mulvihill, Benjamin Capps, Yann Joly, Tamra Lysaght, Hub A E Zwart, Ruth Chadwick
Background: The avalanche of commentaries on CRISPR-Cas9 technology, a bacterial immune system modified to recognize any short DNA sequence, cut it out, and insert a new one, has rekindled hopes for gene therapy and other applications and raised criticisms of engineering genes in future generations. Sources of data: This discussion draws on articles that emphasize ethics, identified partly through PubMed and Google, 2014-2016. Areas of agreement: CRISPR-Cas9 has taken the pace and prospects for genetic discovery and applications to a high level, stoking anticipation for somatic gene engineering to help patients...
February 23, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332863/male-and-female-worldsid-and-post-mortem-human-subject-responses-in-full-scale-vehicle-tests
#13
Narayan Yoganandan, John Humm, Frank Pintar, Heather Rhule, Kevin Moorhouse, Brian Suntay, Jim Stricklin, Rodney Rudd, Matthew Craig
Structured ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the responses of male and female WorldSID dummies with post mortem human subject (PMHS) responses in full-scale vehicle tests. METHODS: Tests were conducted according to the FMVSS-214 protocols and using the United States Side impact New Car Assessment Program change in velocity to match PMHS experiments, published earlier. Moving deformable barrier (MDB) tests were conducted with the male and female surrogates in the left front and left rear seats...
March 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332124/use-of-physical-restraints-among-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-in-ethiopian-mental-specialized-hospital-outpatient-department-cross-sectional-study
#14
Habte Belete
BACKGROUND: Even though United Nation announced that all persons with a mental illness shall be treated with humanity and respect for the inherent dignity of the human being, up to now, the use of coercion (physical restrain) is still considered as unavoidable in managing abnormal behavior of psychiatric patients. But, there is no information regarding the magnitude and contributing factors of physical restrain among bipolar patients in low-income countries like Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital from May 1 to June 1, 2015 among 400 participants who were selected by systematic random sampling technique...
December 2017: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330718/adult-glucocorticoid-receptor-mrna-expression-volatility-in-response-to-an-acute-stressor-and-juvenile-csf-corticotropin-releasing-factor-a-pilot-neurodevelopmental-study
#15
Shariful A Syed, Eric L P Smith, Olcay Batuman, Leonard A Rosenblum, Michael J Owens, Charles B Nemeroff, Jeremy D Coplan
INTRODUCTION: Early life stress (ELS) has been shown to play a role in establishing persistent maladaptive HPA axis modifications that may contribute to the pathogenesis of mood and anxiety disorders. Central glucocorticoid receptor (GR) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression may facilitate (mal)adaptive responsivity to ELS. The role of adult monocytic GR mRNA expression, a putative CNS proxy, during acute stress exposure was explored as well as the ELS marker, juvenile cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) corticotropin-releasing factor...
March 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329819/development-of-a-physical-environmental-observational-tool-for-dining-environments-in-long-term-care-settings
#16
Habib Chaudhury, Heather Keller, Kaylen Pfisterer, Lillian Hung
Purpose: This paper presents the first standardized physical environmental assessment tool titled Dining Environment Audit Protocol (DEAP) specifically designed for dining spaces in care homes and reports the results of its psychometric properties. Items rated include: adequacy of lighting, glare, personal control, clutter, staff supervision support, restraint use, and seating arrangement option for social interaction. Two scales summarize the prior items and rate the overall homelikeness and functionality of the space...
February 20, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326758/genetic-determinants-of-low-birth-weight
#17
Theresa Mallia, Alexia Grech, Abigail Hili, Jean Calleja Agius, Nikolai P Pace
Birth weight depends on the elaborate interaction between maternal and foetal genotypes, placental function, maternal nutrition and lifestyle and their effect on epigenetic regulators ofgene activity. The maternal environment in which the foetus develops is a critical factor indetermining birth weight. This review provides an overview of the effect of several geneticvariants leading to intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight. Irrespective of theexact cause of genetic variations of foetal genes, intrauterine growth restriction is most likelydue to alteration in the growth hormone and insulin like growth factor axis with distinctchanges in the growth factors and their interaction with corresponding receptors...
March 21, 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325154/the-behavioral-profile-of-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-and-%C3%AE-pyrrolidinopentiophenone-pvp-a-systematic-review
#18
Cornel N Stanciu, Thomas M Penders, Samantha A Gnanasegaram, Elvin Pirapakaran, Juvraj S Padda, Jeeven S Padda
BACKGROUND: New psychoactive substances are emerging at an alarming rate. With novel structures and properties they produce unique behavioral characteristics during intoxication. Synthetic cathinones are some of the most common. More and more are presenting to emergency departments due to consequences of use. Aside from isolated reports, little is known about these compounds. OBJECTIVE: Here we review literature pertaining to two common synthetic cathinones, MDPV and alphaPVP, and correlate clinically with guidance on management of intoxications...
March 21, 2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323008/sub-chronic-variable-stress-induces-sex-specific-effects-on-glutamatergic-synapses-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#19
Anna Brancato, Dana Bregman, H Francisica Ahn, Madeline L Pfau, Caroline Menard, Carla Cannizzaro, Scott J Russo, Georgia E Hodes
Men and women manifest different symptoms of depression and under current diagnostic criteria, depression is twice as prevalent in woman. However, little is known of the mechanisms contributing to these important sex differences. Sub-chronic variable stress (SCVS), a rodent model of depression, induces depression-like behaviors in female mice only, modelling clinical evidence of higher susceptibility to mood disorders in women. Accumulating evidence indicates that altered neuroplasticity of excitatory synapses in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a key pathophysiological feature of susceptibility to social stress in males...
March 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322308/optimising-reliability-of-mouse-performance-in-behavioural-testing-the-major-role-of-non-aversive-handling
#20
Kelly Gouveia, Jane L Hurst
Handling laboratory animals during test procedures is an important source of stress that may impair reliability of test responses. Picking up mice by the tail is aversive, stimulating stress and anxiety. Responses among anxious animals can be confounded further by neophobia towards novel test environments and avoidance of test stimuli in open areas. However, handling stress can be reduced substantially by using a handling tunnel, or cupping mice without restraint on the open hand. Here we establish whether non-aversive handling, brief prior familiarisation with the test arena and alternative stimulus placement could significantly improve performance of mice in behavioural tests...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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