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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786645/skeletal-muscle-micrornas-as-key-players-in-the-pathogenesis-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#1
REVIEW
Lorena Di Pietro, Wanda Lattanzi, Camilla Bernardini
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder, for which, to date, no effective treatment to ameliorate the clinical manifestations is available. The long-standing view of ALS as affecting only motor neurons has been challenged by the finding that the skeletal muscle plays an active role in the disease pathogenesis and can be a valuable target for therapeutic strategies. In recent years, non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs, have emerged as important molecules that play key roles in several cellular mechanisms involved in the pathogenic mechanisms underlying various human conditions...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786639/chemogenetic-enhancement-of-axon-regeneration-following-peripheral-nerve-injury-in-the-slick-a-mouse
#2
Poonam B Jaiswal, Olivia C Mistretta, Patricia J Ward, Arthur W English
The effects of chemogenetics on axon regeneration following peripheral nerve transection and repair were studied in mice expressing a Cre-dependent excitatory designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) and Cre-recombinase/yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in a subset of motor and sensory neurons and cortical motoneurons (SLICK-A). Sciatic nerves were cut and repaired and mice were treated either once, at the time of injury, or five days per week for two weeks with clozapine N-oxide (CNO) (1 mg/kg, i...
May 22, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786422/mechanisms-regulating-the-association-of-protein-phosphatase-1-with-spinophilin-and-neurabin
#3
Michael C Edler, Asma B Salek, Darryl S Watkins, Harjot Kaur, Cameron W Morris, Bryan K Yamamoto, Anthony J Baucum
Protein phosphorylation is a key mediator of signal transduction, allowing for dynamic regulation of substrate activity. Whereas protein kinases obtain substrate specificity by targeting specific amino acid sequences, serine/threonine phosphatase catalytic subunits are much more promiscuous in their ability to dephosphorylate substrates. To obtain substrate specificity, serine/threonine phosphatases utilize targeting proteins to regulate phosphatase subcellular localization and catalytic activity. Spinophilin and its homolog neurabin are two of the most abundant dendritic spine-localized protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) targeting proteins...
May 22, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786160/aberrant-learning-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-neurocomputational-study-on-bradykinesia
#4
Mauro Ursino, Chiara Baston
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive decline in motor functions, such as bradykinesia, caused by the pathological denervation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons within the basal ganglia (BG). It is acknowledged that dopamine (DA) directly affects the modulatory role of BG towards the cortex. However, a growing body of literature is suggesting that DA induced aberrant synaptic plasticity could play a role in the core symptoms of PD, thus recalling for a "reconceptualization" of the pathophysiology...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786072/mptp-driven-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-microglia-plays-a-central-role-in-dopaminergic-neurodegeneration
#5
Eunju Lee, Inhwa Hwang, Sangjun Park, Sujeong Hong, Boreum Hwang, Yoeseph Cho, Junghyun Son, Je-Wook Yu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and the reduction of dopamine levels in the striatum. Although details of the molecular mechanisms underlying dopaminergic neuronal death in PD remain unclear, neuroinflammation is also considered a potent mediator in the pathogenesis and progression of PD. In the present study, we present evidences that microglial NLRP3 inflammasome activation is critical for dopaminergic neuronal loss and the subsequent motor deficits in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD...
May 21, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785199/physical-exercise-for-parkinson-s-disease-clinical-and-experimental-evidence
#6
REVIEW
Alessandro Oliveira de Carvalho, Alberto Souza Sá Filho, Eric Murillo-Rodriguez, Nuno Barbosa Rocha, Mauro Giovanni Carta, Sergio Machado
Background: National projections about the increase in the elderly population over 60 years bring with it an increase in the number of people affected by Parkinson's Disease (PD), making it an important public health problem. Therefore, the establishment of effective strategies for intervention in people with PD needs to be more clearly investigated. Objective: The study aimed to report the effectiveness of exercise on functional capacity and neurobiological mechanisms in people with PD...
2018: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785110/prefrontoparietal-dysfunction-during-emotion-regulation-in-anxiety-disorder-a-meta-analysis-of-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-studies
#7
Hai-Yang Wang, Xiao-Xia Zhang, Cui-Ping Si, Yang Xu, Qian Liu, He-Tao Bian, Bing-Wei Zhang, Xue-Lin Li, Zhong-Rui Yan
Objective: Impairments in emotion regulation, and more specifically in cognitive reappraisal, are thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. However, the available evidence on such deficits is inconsistent. To further illustrate the neurobiological underpinnings of anxiety disorder, the present meta-analysis summarizes functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings for cognitive reappraisal tasks and investigates related brain areas. Methods: We performed a comprehensive series of meta-analyses of cognitive reappraisal fMRI studies contrasting patients with anxiety disorder with healthy control (HC) subjects, employing an anisotropic effect-size signed differential mapping approach...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784949/neuronal-activity-regulates-drosha-via-autophagy-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#8
Inês do Carmo G Gonçalves, Johanna Brecht, Maximilian P Thelen, Wiebke A Rehorst, Miriam Peters, Hyun Ju Lee, Susanne Motameny, Laura Torres-Benito, Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Natalia L Kononenko, Janine Altmüller, David Vilchez, Mustafa Sahin, Brunhilde Wirth, Min Jeong Kye
Dysregulated miRNA expression and mutation of genes involved in miRNA biogenesis have been reported in motor neuron diseases including spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Therefore, identifying molecular mechanisms governing miRNA expression is important to understand these diseases. Here, we report that expression of DROSHA, which is a critical enzyme in the microprocessor complex and essential for miRNA biogenesis, is reduced in motor neurons from an SMA mouse model. We show that DROSHA is degraded by neuronal activity induced autophagy machinery, which is also dysregulated in SMA...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784724/author-response-anti-cytosolic-5-nucleotidase-1a-cn1a-autoantibodies-in-motor-neuron-diseases
#9
Teerin Liewluck
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784723/reader-response-anti-cytosolic-5-nucleotidase-1a-cn1a-autoantibodies-in-motor-neuron-diseases
#10
Adrian Budhram
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784722/editors-note-anti-cytosolic-5-nucleotidase-1a-cn1a-autoantibodies-in-motor-neuron-diseases
#11
Chafic Karam, Steven Galetta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783994/large-scale-transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-that-pridopidine-reverses-aberrant-gene-expression-and-activates-neuroprotective-pathways-in-the-yac128-hd-mouse
#12
Rebecca Kusko, Jennifer Dreymann, Jermaine Ross, Yoonjeong Cha, Renan Escalante-Chong, Marta Garcia-Miralles, Liang Juin Tan, Michael E Burczynski, Ben Zeskind, Daphna Laifenfeld, Mahmoud Pouladi, Michal Geva, Iris Grossman, Michael R Hayden
BACKGROUND: Huntington Disease (HD) is an incurable autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder driven by an expansion repeat giving rise to the mutant huntingtin protein (mHtt), which is known to disrupt a multitude of transcriptional pathways. Pridopidine, a small molecule in development for treatment of HD, has been shown to improve motor symptoms in HD patients. In HD animal models, pridopidine exerts neuroprotective effects and improves behavioral and motor functions. Pridopidine binds primarily to the sigma-1 receptor, (IC50 ~ 100 nM), which mediates its neuroprotective properties, such as rescue of spine density and aberrant calcium signaling in HD neuronal cultures...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783988/tolerogenic-bone-marrow-derived-dendritic-cells-induce-neuroprotective-regulatory-t-cells-in-a-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Charles R Schutt, Howard E Gendelman, R Lee Mosley
BACKGROUND: Administration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) increases regulatory T cell (Treg) number and function with control of neuroinflammation and neuronal protection in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we demonstrated in an early phase 1 clinical trial that GM-CSF also improves motor skills in PD patients. However, the mechanisms of Treg induction and its effects on neuroprotective responses remain unknown...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783725/polyphenols-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-of-in-vivo-studies
#14
REVIEW
Małgorzata Kujawska, Jadwiga Jodynis-Liebert
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. However, therapeutic options treating only its symptoms are very disappointing. Therefore there is an ongoing search for compounds capable of tackling the multi-dimensional features of PD. Recently natural polyphenols have gained great interest as potential therapeutic agents. Herein, we have attempted to summarize results obtained in different animal models demonstrating their neuroprotective effects. The in vivo findings presented below are supported by human subject data and reports regarding the ability of polyphenols to cross the blood-brain barrier...
May 19, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782884/semi-automated-quantification-and-neuroanatomical-mapping-of-heterogeneous-cell-populations
#15
Oscar A Mendez, Colin J Potter, Michael Valdez, Thomas Bello, Theodore P Trouard, Anita A Koshy
BACKGROUND: Our group studies the interactions between cells of the brain and the neurotropic parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Using an in vivo system that allows us to permanently mark and identify brain cells injected with Toxoplasma protein, we have identified that Toxoplasma-injected neurons (TINs) are heterogeneously distributed throughout the brain. Unfortunately, standard methods to quantify and map heterogeneous cell populations onto a reference brain atlas are time consuming and prone to user bias...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782882/prolonged-increase-in-ser31-tyrosine-hydroxylase-phosphorylation-in-substantia-nigra-following-cessation-of-chronic-methamphetamine
#16
Michael F Salvatore, Vicki A Nejtek, Habibeh Khoshbouei
Methamphetamine (MA) exposure may increase the risk of motor or cognitive impairments similar to Parkinson's disease (PD) by middle age. Although damage to nigrostriatal or mesoaccumbens dopamine (DA) neurons may occur during or early after MA exposure, overt PD-like symptoms at a younger age may not manifest due to compensatory mechanisms to maintain DA neurotransmission. One possible compensatory mechanism is increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation. In the rodent PD 6-OHDA model, nigrostriatal lesion decreases TH protein in both striatum and substantia nigra (SN)...
May 18, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782847/optogenetic-induction-of-colonic-motility-in-mice
#17
Timothy J Hibberd, Jing Feng, Jialie Luo, Pu Yang, Vijay K Samineni, Robert W Gereau, Nigel Kelley, Hongzhen Hu, Nick J Spencer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Strategies are needed to increase gastrointestinal transit without systemic pharmacologic agents. We investigated whether optogenetics, focal application of light to control enteric nervous system excitability, could be used to evoke propagating contractions and increase colonic transit in mice. METHODS: We generated transgenic mice with Cre-mediated expression of light-sensitive channelrhodopsin-2 (CHR2) in calretinin neurons (CAL-ChR2 Cre+ mice); Cre- littermates served as controls...
May 18, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781369/contralateral-extensive-cerebral-hemorrhagic-venous-infarction-caused-by-retrograde-venous-reflux-into-the-opposite-basal-vein-of-rosenthal-in-posttraumatic-carotid-cavernous-fistula-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#18
Prasert Iampreechakul, Adisak Tanpun, Punjama Lertbusayanukul, Somkiet Siriwimonmas
We describe a patient with traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF), subsequently developing contralateral extensive hemorrhagic venous infarction from retrograde venous reflux into the opposite basal vein of Rosenthal. A 54-year-old woman was involved in a motor vehicle accident and sustained severe traumatic brain injury. Two months later, she developed bilateral proptosis and audible bruit. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of the brain demonstrated the right direct CCF...
January 1, 2018: Interventional Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780300/encoding-of-sucrose-s-palatability-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-shell-and-its-modulation-by-exteroceptive-auditory-cues
#19
Miguel Villavicencio, Mario G Moreno, Sidney A Simon, Ranier Gutierrez
Although the palatability of sucrose is the primary reason for why it is over consumed, it is not well understood how it is encoded in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh), a brain region involved in reward, feeding, and sensory/motor transformations. Similarly, untouched are issues regarding how an external auditory stimulus affects sucrose palatability and, in the NAcSh, the neuronal correlates of this behavior. To address these questions in behaving rats, we investigated how food-related auditory cues modulate sucrose's palatability...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779945/moderate-uv-exposure-enhances-learning-and-memory-by-promoting-a-novel-glutamate-biosynthetic-pathway-in-the-brain
#20
Hongying Zhu, Ning Wang, Lei Yao, Qi Chen, Ran Zhang, Junchao Qian, Yiwen Hou, Weiwei Guo, Sijia Fan, Siling Liu, Qiaoyun Zhao, Feng Du, Xin Zuo, Yujun Guo, Yan Xu, Jiali Li, Tian Xue, Kai Zhong, Xiaoyuan Song, Guangming Huang, Wei Xiong
Sunlight exposure is known to affect mood, learning, and cognition. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that moderate UV exposure elevated blood urocanic acid (UCA), which then crossed the blood-brain barrier. Single-cell mass spectrometry and isotopic labeling revealed a novel intra-neuronal metabolic pathway converting UCA to glutamate (GLU) after UV exposure. This UV-triggered GLU synthesis promoted its packaging into synaptic vesicles and its release at glutamatergic terminals in the motor cortex and hippocampus...
May 7, 2018: Cell
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