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Motor neurone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937977/phase-changes-in-neuronal-postsynaptic-spiking-due-to-short-term-plasticity
#1
Mark D McDonnell, Bruce P Graham
In the brain, the postsynaptic response of a neuron to time-varying inputs is determined by the interaction of presynaptic spike times with the short-term dynamics of each synapse. For a neuron driven by stochastic synapses, synaptic depression results in a quite different postsynaptic response to a large population input depending on how correlated in time the spikes across individual synapses are. Here we show using both simulations and mathematical analysis that not only the rate but the phase of the postsynaptic response to a rhythmic population input varies as a function of synaptic dynamics and synaptic configuration...
September 22, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936769/nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-a-transgenic-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-model
#2
Agnese Gugliandolo, Sabrina Giacoppo, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disabling progressive disease characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons, leading to muscle atrophy and paralysis. The majority of cases are sporadic, but also a familiar form of ALS exists, and some genes causative of the pathology were found. In particular, mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) were found in 20% of familiar cases. It is known that neuroinflammation plays a pivotal role in several neurodegenerative disorders, including ALS. Inflammasomes are protein complexes that induce inflammation in response to various stimuli, involved also in neuroinflammation...
September 21, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936169/movement-related-activity-of-human-subthalamic-neurons-during-a-reach-to-grasp-task
#3
Monika Pötter-Nerger, Rene Reese, Frank Steigerwald, Jan Arne Heiden, Jan Herzog, Christian K E Moll, Wolfgang Hamel, Uri Ramirez-Pasos, Daniela Falk, Maximilian Mehdorn, Christian Gerloff, Günther Deuschl, Jens Volkmann
The aim of the study was to record movement-related single unit activity (SUA) in the human subthalamic nucleus (STN) during a standardized motor task of the upper limb. We performed microrecordings from the motor region of the human STN and registered kinematic data in 12 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery (seven women, mean age 62.0 ± 4.7 years) while they intraoperatively performed visually cued reach-to-grasp movements using a grip device. SUA was analyzed offline in relation to different aspects of the movement (attention, start of the movement, movement velocity, button press) in terms of firing frequency, firing pattern, and oscillation...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936162/rna-sequencing-analysis-reveals-a-regulatory-role-for-transcription-factor-fezf2-in-the-mature-motor-cortex
#4
Alison J Clare, Hollie E Wicky, Ruth M Empson, Stephanie M Hughes
Forebrain embryonic zinc finger (Fezf2) encodes a transcription factor essential for the specification of layer 5 projection neurons (PNs) in the developing cerebral cortex. As with many developmental transcription factors, Fezf2 continues to be expressed into adulthood, suggesting it remains crucial to the maintenance of neuronal phenotypes. Despite the continued expression, a function has yet to be explored for Fezf2 in the PNs of the developed cortex. Here, we investigated the role of Fezf2 in mature neurons, using lentiviral-mediated delivery of a shRNA to conditionally knockdown the expression of Fezf2 in the mouse primary motor cortex (M1)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936159/neural-coding-for-action-execution-and-action-observation-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-its-role-in-the-organization-of-socially-driven-behavior
#5
REVIEW
Stefano Rozzi, Leonardo Fogassi
The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPF) plays a fundamental role in planning, organizing, and optimizing behavioral performance. Neuroanatomical and neurophysiological studies have suggested that in this cortical sector, information processing becomes more abstract when moving from caudal to rostral and that such processing involves parietal and premotor areas. We review studies that have shown that the LPF, in addition to its involvement in implementing rules and setting behavioral goals, activates during the execution of forelimb movements even in the absence of a learned relationship between an instruction and its associated motor output...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935984/regulation-of-axonal-regeneration-by-the-level-of-function-of-the-endogenous-nogo-receptor-antagonist-lotus
#6
Tomoko Hirokawa, Yixiao Zou, Yuji Kurihara, Zhaoxin Jiang, Yusuke Sakakibara, Hiromu Ito, Kengo Funakoshi, Nobutaka Kawahara, Yoshio Goshima, Stephen M Strittmatter, Kohtaro Takei
Axonal regeneration in the adult mammalian central nervous system is limited in part by the non-permissive environment, including axonal growth inhibitors such as the Nogo-A protein. How the functions of these inhibitors can be blocked remains unclear. Here, we examined the role of LOTUS, an endogenous Nogo receptor antagonist, in promoting functional recovery and neural repair after spinal cord injury (SCI), as well as axonal regeneration after optic nerve crush. Wild-type untreated mice show incomplete but substantial intrinsic motor recovery after SCI...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935857/sensorimotor-computation-underlying-phototaxis-in-zebrafish
#7
Sébastien Wolf, Alexis M Dubreuil, Tommaso Bertoni, Urs Lucas Böhm, Volker Bormuth, Raphaël Candelier, Sophia Karpenko, David G C Hildebrand, Isaac H Bianco, Rémi Monasson, Georges Debrégeas
Animals continuously gather sensory cues to move towards favourable environments. Efficient goal-directed navigation requires sensory perception and motor commands to be intertwined in a feedback loop, yet the neural substrate underlying this sensorimotor task in the vertebrate brain remains elusive. Here, we combine virtual-reality behavioural assays, volumetric calcium imaging, optogenetic stimulation and circuit modelling to reveal the neural mechanisms through which a zebrafish performs phototaxis, i.e...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934250/changes-in-striatal-activity-and-functional-connectivity-in-a-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#8
Magali Cabanas, Fares Bassil, Nicole Mons, Maurice Garret, Yoon H Cho
Hereditary Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with progressive motor, cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. A primary consequence of the HD mutation is the preferential loss of medium spiny projection cells with relative sparing of local interneurons in the striatum. In addition, among GABAergic striatal projection cells, indirect pathway cells expressing D2 dopamine receptors are lost earlier than direct pathway cells expressing D1 receptors. To test in vivo the functional integrity of direct and indirect pathways as well as interneurons in the striatum of male R6/1 transgenic mice, we assessed their c-Fos expression levels induced by a striatal-dependent cognitive task and compared them with age-matched wild-type littermates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933219/suppression-of-trim32-enhances-motor-function-repair-after-traumatic-brain-injury-associated-with-antiapoptosis
#9
Zi-Bin Zhang, Liu-Lin Xiong, Bin-Tuan Lu, Hui-Xiang Zhang, Piao Zhang, Ting-Hua Wang
To investigate the role of Trim32 in traumatic brain injury (TBI), adult male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and mice were randomly divided into sham (n = 6) and TBI groups ( n = 24), respectively. Then, mice were assigned into Trim32 knockout mice (Trim32-KO [+/-]) and wild-type (WT) littermates. The TBI model used was the Feeney free-falling model, and neurological function was evaluated after TBI using a neurological severity score (NSS). Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemistry were used to investigate the expression of Trim32 in the damaged cortex...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933068/functional-neuroimaging-in-obesity-research
#10
Liliana Letra, Daniela Pereira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
Functional neuroimaging is beginning to yield valuable insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of the effects of obesity on neural circuits. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies have been used to identify aberrant activation patterns in regions implicated in reward (e.g., striatum, orbitofrontal cortex, insula), emotion and memory (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus), sensory and motor processing (e...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931824/boosted-regeneration-and-reduced-denervated-muscle-atrophy-by-neuroheal-in-a-pre-clinical-model-of-lumbar-root-avulsion-with-delayed-reimplantation
#11
David Romeo-Guitart, Joaquim Forés, Xavier Navarro, Caty Casas
The "gold standard" treatment of patients with spinal root injuries consists of delayed surgical reconnection of nerves. The sooner, the better, but problems such as injury-induced motor neuronal death and muscle atrophy due to long-term denervation mean that normal movement is not restored. Herein we describe a preclinical model of root avulsion with delayed reimplantation of lumbar roots that was used to establish a new adjuvant pharmacological treatment. Chronic treatment (up to 6 months) with NeuroHeal, a new combination drug therapy identified using a systems biology approach, exerted long-lasting neuroprotection, reduced gliosis and matrix proteoglycan content, accelerated nerve regeneration by activating the AKT pathway, promoted the formation of functional neuromuscular junctions, and reduced denervation-induced muscular atrophy...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931609/movement-related-activity-in-the-periarcuate-cortex-of-monkeys-during-coordinated-eye-and-hand-movements
#12
Kiyoshi Kurata
To determine the role of the periarcuate cortex during coordinated eye and hand movements in monkeys, the present study examined neuronal activity in this region during movement with the hand, eyes, or both as effectors toward a visuospatial target. Similar to the primary motor cortex (M1), the dorsal premotor cortex contained a higher proportion of neurons that were closely related to hand movements, whereas saccade-related neurons were frequently recorded from the frontal eye field (FEF). Interestingly, neurons that exhibited activity related to both eye and hand movements were recorded most frequently in the ventral premotor cortex (PMv), located between the FEF and M1...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931573/chd7-collaborates-with-sox2-to-regulate-activation-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-after-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Toru Doi, Toru Ogata, Junji Yamauchi, Yasuhiro Sawada, Sakae Tanaka, Motoshi Nagao
Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) act as a reservoir of new oligodendrocytes (OLs) in homeostatic and pathological conditions. OPCs are activated in response to injury, to generate myelinating OLs; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we show that Chd7 regulates OPC activation after spinal cord injury (SCI). Chd7 is expressed in OPCs in the adult spinal cord and its expression is upregulated with a concomitant increase in Sox2 expression following SCI. OPC-specific ablation of Chd7 in the injured mice leads to reduced OPC proliferation, the loss of OPC identity, and impaired OPC differentiation...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931491/global-regional-and-national-burden-of-neurological-disorders-during-1990-2015-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2015
#14
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Comparable data on the global and country-specific burden of neurological disorders and their trends are crucial for health-care planning and resource allocation. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study provides such information but does not routinely aggregate results that are of interest to clinicians specialising in neurological conditions. In this systematic analysis, we quantified the global disease burden due to neurological disorders in 2015 and its relationship with country development level...
September 15, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931454/the-experience-of-informal-caregivers-of-patients-with-motor-neurone-disease-a-thematic-synthesis
#15
Lucy Holkham, Andy Soundy
OBJECTIVE: Research is required in order to illustrate and detail the experiences of informal caregivers of patients with motor neurone disease (pwMND) to further advance the research base and to inform the development of future support structures and services. Due to the heterogeneous nature of caregiving for pwMND, one way in which this can be achieved is through a qualitative review. A qualitative thematic analysis of existing qualitative studies has not, to the best of the authors' knowledge, been previously undertaken...
September 21, 2017: Palliative & Supportive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931039/abnormalities-in-substance-p-neurokinin-1-receptor-binding-in-key-brainstem-nuclei-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-related-to-prematurity-and-sex
#16
Fiona M Bright, Robert Vink, Roger W Byard, Jhodie R Duncan, Henry F Krous, David S Paterson
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) involves failure of arousal to potentially life threatening events, including hypoxia, during sleep. While neuronal dysfunction and abnormalities in neurotransmitter systems within the medulla oblongata have been implicated, the specific pathways associated with autonomic and cardiorespiratory failure are unknown. The neuropeptide substance P (SP) and its tachykinin neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) have been shown to play an integral role in the modulation of homeostatic function in the medulla, including regulation of respiratory rhythm generation, integration of cardiovascular control, and modulation of the baroreceptor reflex and mediation of the chemoreceptor reflex in response to hypoxia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930973/intracortical-inhibition-within-the-primary-motor-cortex-can-be-modulated-by-changing-the-focus-of-attention
#17
Yves-Alain Kuhn, Martin Keller, Jan Ruffieux, Wolfgang Taube
It is well recognized that an external focus (EF) compared with an internal focus (IF) of attention improves motor learning and performance. Studies have indicated benefits in accuracy, balance, force production, jumping performance, movement speed, oxygen consumption, and fatiguing task. Although behavioral outcomes of using an EF strategy are well explored, the underlying neural mechanisms remain unknown. A recent TMS study compared the activity of the primary motor cortex (M1) between an EF and an IF. More precisely, this study showed that, when adopting an EF, the activity of intracortical inhibitory circuits is enhanced...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930688/the-heterochronic-gene-lin-14-controls-axonal-degeneration-in-c-%C3%A2-elegans-neurons
#18
Fiona K Ritchie, Rhianna Knable, Justin Chaplin, Rhiannon Gursanscky, Maria Gallegos, Brent Neumann, Massimo A Hilliard
The disproportionate length of an axon makes its structural and functional maintenance a major task for a neuron. The heterochronic gene lin-14 has previously been implicated in regulating the timing of key developmental events in the nematode C. elegans. Here, we report that LIN-14 is critical for maintaining neuronal integrity. Animals lacking lin-14 display axonal degeneration and guidance errors in both sensory and motor neurons. We demonstrate that LIN-14 functions both cell autonomously within the neuron and non-cell autonomously in the surrounding tissue, and we show that interaction between the axon and its surrounding tissue is essential for the preservation of axonal structure...
September 19, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930607/transcriptomics-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#19
Marios G Krokidis, Panagiotis Vlamos
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset, incurable neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective death of upper and lowers motor neurons in the spinal cord, brainstem and motor cortex, which ultimately leads to paralysis and death within 2-3 years of onset. ALS is poorly understood, although multiple studies have been proposed to explain the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disorder. The development of microarray technology, for simultaneous analysis of the transcriptional expression of thousands of genes, has provided new possibilities to get better insights into the pathogenesis of ALS, and most important, potential new candidate targets for novel treatments...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929247/are-parrots-poor-at-motor-self-regulation-or-is-the-cylinder-task-poor-at-measuring-it
#20
Can Kabadayi, Anastasia Krasheninnikova, Laurie O'Neill, Joost van de Weijer, Mathias Osvath, Auguste M P von Bayern
The ability to inhibit unproductive motor responses triggered by salient stimuli is a fundamental inhibitory skill. Such motor self-regulation is thought to underlie more complex cognitive mechanisms, like self-control. Recently, a large-scale study, comparing 36 species, found that absolute brain size best predicted competence in motor inhibition, with great apes as the best performers. This was challenged when three Corvus species (corvids) were found to parallel great apes despite having much smaller absolute brain sizes...
September 19, 2017: Animal Cognition
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