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Motor neurone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551743/effects-of-deltamethrin-on-striatum-and-hippocampus-mitochondrial-integrity-and-the-protective-role-of-quercetin-in-rats
#1
Salim Gasmi, Rachid Rouabhi, Mohamed Kebieche, Samira Boussekine, Aya Salmi, Nadjiba Toualbia, Chahinez Taib, Zina Bouteraa, Hajer Chenikher, Sara Henine, Belgacem Djabri
The present work is to evaluate the neurotoxicity induced by pyrethroid insecticide "Deltamethrin" at 0.32 mg/kg/day in two main regions of the Wistar rat brain (hippocampus and striatum) and the protective effects of Quercetin at 10 mg/kg/day on this toxicity after 90 days of exposure. The assay of brain parameters showed that Deltamethrin caused a significant increase of mitochondrial metabolite level (proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates) and enzyme activity (glutathione S-transferase and superoxide dismutase); a decreased amount of mitochondrial glutathione level and catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities; and an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) acid levels of the two regions...
May 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551275/genetic-analysis-of-vcp-and-wash-complex-genes-in-a-german-cohort-of-sporadic-als-ftd-patients
#2
Matthias Türk, Rolf Schröder, Katharina Khuller, Andreas Hofmann, Carolin Berwanger, Albert C Ludolph, Gabriele Dekomien, Kathrin Müller, Jochen H Weishaupt, Christian T Thiel, Christoph S Clemen
Mutations of the human valosin-containing protein, p97 (VCP) and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and SCAR homolog (WASH) complex genes cause motor neuron and cognitive impairment disorders. Here, we analyzed a cohort of German patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration comorbidity (ALS/FTD) for VCP and WASH complex gene mutations. Next-generation panel sequencing of VCP, WASH1, FAM21C, CCDC53, SWIP, strumpellin, F-actin capping protein of muscle Z-line alfa 1 (CAPZA1), and CAPZB genes was performed in 43 sporadic ALS/FTD patients...
May 3, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551099/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-plays-an-essential-role-in-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-mediated-neuroprotection-of-dopaminergic-neurons-in-a-mouse-parkinson-s-disease-model
#3
Yuan Liu, Shuai Hao, Beibei Yang, Yi Fan, Xiaodong Qin, Yun Chen, Jun Hu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with an incidence second only to Alzheimer's disease. The main pathological feature of PD is the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Nicotinic receptor agonists are neuroprotective in several PD models and there is considerable evidence that α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs) are important therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases. However, the involvement of α7-nAChRs and underlying signaling mechanisms in PD pathogenesis are unclear...
May 24, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550267/amyloid-precursor-protein-haploinsufficiency-preferentially-mediates-brain-iron-accumulation-in-mice-transgenic-for-the-huntington-s-disease-mutation
#4
Kiersten Berggren, Sonal Agrawal, Julia A Fox, Justin Hildenbrand, Ryan Nelson, Ashley I Bush, Jonathan H Fox
BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by a CAG expansion in the huntingtin gene that results in expression of mutant huntingtin protein. Iron accumulates in HD brain neurons. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) promotes neuronal iron export. However, the role of APP in brain iron accumulation in HD is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of APP insufficiency on HD in YAC128 mice. METHODS: We crossed APP hemizygous mice (APP+/-) with YAC128 mice that are transgenic (Tg) for human mutant huntingtin (hmHTT) to generate APP+/+ hmHTT-/-, APP+/- hmHTT-/-, APP+/+ hmHTT+/- and APP+/- hmHTT+/- progeny...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Huntington's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549966/lentivirus-mediated-inhibition-of-aqp4-accelerates-motor-function-recovery-associated-with-ngf-in-spinal-cord-contusion-rats
#5
Jianmin Chen, Xi Zeng, Shengnan Li, Zhanqiong Zhong, Xi Hu, Hongyu Xiang, Ying Rao, Lixin Zhang, Xiuya Zhou, Qingjie Xia, Tinghua Wang, Xiao Zhang
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is a water channel protein in spinal cord and plays a critical role in the pathophysiological process of spinal cord injury (SCI). However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of AQP4 involved in SCI. The present study was performed to investigate the possible molecules regulated by AQP4 after SCI by use of lentiviral-mediated RNA interference (RNAi). First, the motor function was evaluated by Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scale and the expression of AQP4 was measured by western blot, immunohistochemical staining and immunofluorescence in rats after contusion spinal cord injury (cSCI)...
May 23, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549933/orexin-exerts-excitatory-effects-on-reticulospinal-neurons-in-the-rat-gigantocellular-reticular-nucleus-through-the-activation-of-postsynaptic-orexin-1-and-orexin-2-receptors
#6
Nian Yang, Guan-Zhong Wang, Si-Yi Wen, Qi-Cheng Qiao, Yu-Hui Liu, Jun Zhang
Previous studies have revealed that orexin may actively participate in central motor control. The gigantocellular reticular nucleus (Gi) is a key element of the brainstem motor inhibitory system. The descending orexinergic projections also reach Gi region, and microinjection of orexin into Gi causes robust muscle tone inhibition. However, the modulation effects of orexin on Gi neurons remain unclear. In the present study, using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we initially observed that orexin elicited an inward current in Gi neurons at a holding potential of -70mV in a concentration-dependent manner...
May 23, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549898/brainstem-mechanisms-underlying-the-cough-reflex-and-its-regulation
#7
REVIEW
Donatella Mutolo
Cough is a very important airway protective reflex. Cough-related inputs are conveyed to the caudal nucleus tractus solitarii (cNTS) that projects to the brainstem respiratory network. The latter is reconfigured to generate the cough motor pattern. A high degree of modulation is exerted on second-order neurons and the brainstem respiratory network by sensory inputs and higher brain areas. Two medullary structures proved to have key functions in cough production and to be strategic sites of action for centrally active drugs: the cNTS and the caudal ventral respiratory group (cVRG)...
May 23, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549787/the-gut-brain-axis-in-parkinson-s-disease-possibilities-for-food-based-therapies
#8
Paula Perez-Pardo, Tessa Kliest, Hemraj B Dodiya, Laus M Broersen, Johan Garssen, Ali Keshavarzian, Aletta D Kraneveld
Parkinson's disease (PD) is usually characterized by cardinal motor impairments. However, a range of non-motor symptoms precede the motor-phase and are major determinants for the quality of life. To date, no disease modifying treatment is available for PD patients. The gold standard therapy of levodopa is based on restoring dopaminergic neurotransmission, thereby alleviating motor symptoms, whereas non-motor symptoms remain undertreated. One of the most common non-motor symptoms is gastrointestinal dysfunction usually associated with alpha-synuclein accumulations and low-grade mucosal inflammation in the enteric nervous system...
May 23, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549587/neuronally-differentiated-adipose-derived-stem-cells-and-aligned-phbv-nanofiber-nerve-scaffolds-promote-sciatic-nerve-regeneration
#9
Feihu Hu, Xiaofeng Zhang, Haixia Liu, Peng Xu, Doulathunnisa, Gaojun Teng, Zhongdang Xiao
Through a combination of biomaterials and stem cells, tissue engineering strategies for restoring and regenerating damaged peripheral nerves have recently been used to meet the challenges posed by nerve injury. In a previous study, we revealed a new way to induce neuronal differentiation of stem cells based on the temporally sequential use of miR-218 and Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2) in vitro (FGF2-miR-218 induction approach). In the present study, we sought to investigate the application of this novel approach in repairing sciatic nerve damage in vivo...
May 23, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549131/a-novel-cortical-target-to-enhance-hand-motor-output-in-humans-with-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Jinyi Long, Paolo Federico, Monica A Perez
A main goal of rehabilitation strategies in humans with spinal cord injury is to strengthen transmission in spared neural networks. Although neuromodulatory strategies have targeted different sites within the central nervous system to restore motor function following spinal cord injury, the role of cortical targets remain poorly understood. Here, we use 180 pairs of transcranial magnetic stimulation for ∼30 min over the hand representation of the motor cortex at an interstimulus interval mimicking the rhythmicity of descending late indirect (I) waves in corticospinal neurons (4...
June 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548988/toward-precision-medicine-tailoring-interventional-strategies-based-on-noninvasive-brain-stimulation-for-motor-recovery-after-stroke
#11
Philipp J Koch, Friedhelm C Hummel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To support the recovery of disability and the reduced functional capacity influencing the independence of daily life after focal brain lesions like stroke, the application of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation or transcranial electric stimulation has been found useful in the last decades. Still, a positive influence on the recovery seems to be restricted to specific subgroups of patients. Therefore, a closer look on individual parameters influencing the recovery course and the effect of NIBS is needed...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548606/anatomical-recruitment-of-spinal-v2a-interneurons-into-phrenic-motor-circuitry-after-high-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Lyandysha Viktorovna Zholudeva, Jordyn Karliner, Kimberly J Dougherty, Michael Lane
More than half of all spinal cord injuries (SCIs) occur at the cervical level, often resulting in impaired respiration. Despite this devastating outcome, there is substantial evidence for endogenous neuroplasticity after cervical SCI. Spinal interneurons are widely recognized as being an essential anatomical component of this plasticity by contributing to novel neuronal pathways that can result in functional improvement. The identity of spinal interneurons involved with respiratory plasticity post-SCI, however, has remained largely unknown...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546310/heterozygous-gnal-mice-are-a-novel-animal-model-to-study-dystonia-pathophysiology
#13
Assunta Pelosi, Fabien Menardy, Daniela Popa, Jean-Antoine Girault, Denis Hervé
Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions. Its pathophysiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. Dominant mutations of the GNAL gene are a cause of isolated dystonia (DYT25) in patients. Some mutations result in a complete loss of function of the encoded protein, Gαolf, an adenylyl-cyclase-stimulatory G protein highly enriched in striatal projection neurons, in which it mediates the actions of dopamine and adenosine. We used male and female heterozygous Gnal knockout mice (Gnal+/-) to study how GNAL haplodeficiency is implicated in dystonia...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545905/resveratrol-alleviates-oxidative-damage-in-enteric-neurons-and-associated-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-caused-by-chemotherapeutic-agent-oxaliplatin
#14
Elizabeth L Donald, Lily Stojanovska, Vasso Apostolopoulos, Kulmira Nurgali
Oxaliplatin is a first-line chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Its use is associated with severe gastrointestinal (GI) side-effects, associated with oxidative damage and neurotoxicity to the enteric neurons. Resveratrol is a potent anti-oxidant that has been shown to protect against oxidative damage and neurotoxicity in other neurons and could therefore prevent oxaliplatin-induced damage to enteric neurons. We determined whether co-administration of resveratrol with oxaliplatin alleviates enteric neuron toxicity and GI dysfunction in mice...
May 17, 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545543/inhibition-of-colony-stimulating-factor-1-receptor-early-in-disease-ameliorates-motor-deficits-in-sca1-mice
#15
Wenhui Qu, Andrea Johnson, Joo Hyun Kim, Abigail Lukowicz, Daniel Svedberg, Marija Cvetanovic
BACKGROUND: Polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in the protein Ataxin-1 (ATXN1) causes spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), a fatal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor deficits, cerebellar neurodegeneration, and gliosis. Currently, there are no treatments available to delay or ameliorate SCA1. We have examined the effect of depleting microglia during the early stage of disease by using PLX, an inhibitor of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSFR1), on disease severity in a mouse model of SCA1...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545516/improving-the-regenerative-potential-of-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-by-overexpressing-prostacyclin-synthetase-and-its-application-in-spinal-cord-repair
#16
May-Jywan Tsai, Chi-Ting Huang, Yong-San Huang, Ching-Feng Weng, Song-Kun Shyue, Ming-Chao Huang, Dann-Ying Liou, Yan-Ru Lin, Chu-Hsun Cheng, Huai-Sheng Kuo, Yilo Lin, Meng-Jen Lee, Wen-Hung Huang, Wen-Cheng Huang, Henrich Cheng
BACKGROUND: Olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC), specialized glia that ensheathe bundles of olfactory nerves, have been reported as a favorable substrate for axonal regeneration. Grafting OEC to injured spinal cord appears to facilitate axonal regeneration although the functional recovery is limited. In an attempt to improve the growth-promoting properties of OEC, we transduced prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) to OEC via adenoviral (Ad) gene transfer and examined the effect of OEC with enhanced prostacyclin synthesis in co-culture and in vivo...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545340/optimized-methods-for-rapidly-dissecting-spinal-cords-and-harvesting-spinal-motor-neurons-with-high-survival-and-purity-from-rats-at-different-embryonic-stages
#17
Shudong Chen, Ruimin Tian, Hui Li, Meihui Chen, Hu Zhang, Dingkun Lin
STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study, protocol optimization. OBJECTIVES: To investigate and compare the isolation of spinal motor neurons from embryonic rats at different embryonic stages, and develop optimized methods for rapidly dissecting spinal cords and harvesting spinal motor neurons with high survival and purity. SETTING: Guangdong Provincial Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China. METHODS: Embryonic rats at different embryonic stages (12-18 days) were used to isolate spinal motor neurons...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545157/the-aminoestrogen-prolame-increases-recognition-memory-and-hippocampal-neuronal-spine-density-in-aged-mice
#18
Alfonso Diaz, Samuel Treviño, Rubén Vázquez-Roque, Berenice Venegas, Blanca Espinosa, Gonzalo Flores, Juan Manuel Fernández-G, Luis F Montaño, Jorge Guevara
The aging brain shows biochemical and morphological changes in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons from the limbic system associated with memory loss. Prolame (N-(3-hydroxy-1,3,5 (10) -estratrien-17β-yl) -3-hydroxypropylamine) is a non-feminizing aminoestrogen with antithrombotic activity that prevents neuronal deterioration, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of prolame on motor and cognitive processes, as well as its influence on the dendritic morphology of neurons at the CA1, CA3 and granule cells of the dentate gyrus (DG) regions of hippocampus (HP), and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of aged mice...
May 25, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544974/cetuximab-modified-collagen-scaffold-directs-neurogenesis-of-injury-activated-endogenous-neural-stem-cells-for-acute-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#19
Xing Li, Yannan Zhao, Shixiang Cheng, Sufang Han, Muya Shu, Bing Chen, Xuyi Chen, Fengwu Tang, Nuo Wang, Yue Tu, Bin Wang, Zhifeng Xiao, Sai Zhang, Jianwu Dai
Studies have shown that endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) activated by spinal cord injury (SCI) primarily generate astrocytes to form glial scar. The NSCs do not differentiate into neurons because of the adverse microenvironment. In this study, we defined the activation timeline of endogenous NSCs in rats with severe SCI. These injury-activated NSCs then migrated into the lesion site. Cetuximab, an EGFR signaling antagonist, significantly increased neurogenesis in the lesion site. Meanwhile, implanting cetuximab modified linear ordered collagen scaffolds (LOCS) into SCI lesion sites in dogs resulted in neuronal regeneration, including neuronal differentiation, maturation, myelination, and synapse formation...
May 18, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543166/chronic-emgs-in-treadmill-running-sod1-mice-reveal-early-changes-in-muscle-activation
#20
K A Quinlan, E Kajtaz, J D Ciolino, R D Imhoff-Manuel, M C Tresch, C J Heckman, V M Tysseling
To improve our understanding of early disease mechanisms and find reliable biomarkers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive neurodegenerative disease, we measured electromyogram (EMG) activity in hind limb muscles of SOD1G93A mice. In contrast to clinical diagnostic measures using EMGs, which are performed on quiescent patients, we monitored activity during treadmill running in order to detect presymptomatic changes in motor patterning. Chronic EMG electrodes were implanted into vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris posterior (BFP), lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and tibialis anterior (TA) in mice from postnatal day (P) 55-100, and results were assessed using linear mixed models...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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