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urinary tract pathogens

Vivek Srinivas, Hugo Lebrette, Daniel Lundin, Yuri Kutin, Margareta Sahlin, Michael Lerche, Jürgen Eirich, Rui M M Branca, Nicholas Cox, Britt-Marie Sjöberg, Martin Högbom
Ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) catalyses the only known de novo pathway for the production of all four deoxyribonucleotides that are required for DNA synthesis1,2 . It is essential for all organisms that use DNA as their genetic material and is a current drug target3,4 . Since the discovery that iron is required for function in the aerobic, class I RNR found in all eukaryotes and many bacteria, a dinuclear metal site has been viewed as necessary to generate and stabilize the catalytic radical that is essential for RNR activity5-7 ...
November 2018: Nature
Claudia M Barberis, Eduardo Montalvo, Soledad Imas, Germán Traglia, Marisa N Almuzara, Carlos Hernán Rodriguez, Angela Famiglietti, Octavio Mazzocchi, Carlos Vay
Introduction: Corynebacterium coyleae is a Gram-stain-positive non-lipophilic coryneform rod first described in blood samples and pleural fluid. There is scarce information about the clinical relevance of C. coyleae and none on complicated urinary tract infections has been described so far. Case presentation: A 36-year-old woman with a history of chronic kidney failure, under thrice-weekly haemodialysis since 2014 due to polycystic kidney disease, presented with hypogastric pain, lower left quadrant pain and nausea...
September 2018: JMM Case Reports
Solomon Taye, Motuma Getachew, Zelalem Desalegn, Abera Biratu, Khan Mubashir
OBJECTIVE: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the commonest infections affecting millions worldwide, especially pregnant women. It can lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Untreated UTI can be associated with serious obstetric complications. So the objective of present study was to determine the bacterial profile, antibiotic susceptibility pattern and associated factors of UTI among pregnant women in Goba and Sinana Woredas, Bale Zone, Southeast Ethiopia. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of UTI was 44/169 (26%) with 18/51 (35...
November 8, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Aurélie Morand, Florent Cornu, Jean-Charles Dufour, Michel Tsimaratos, Jean-Christophe Lagier, Didier Raoult
The aim of this article is to review the human repertoire of bacteria already described by culture and metagenomic techniques in urine, and published in the literature. Our study led us to compare this repertoire with other human repertoires available.We followed automatic and manual bibliographical methods and found 562 bacterial species reported in the literature as part of the human urinary microbiota. Of the 562 species, 322 were described only by culture, 101 by both culture and metagenomics, and 139 only by metagenomic...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Alice N Hemenway, Alyssa Christensen, Christopher Schriever
PURPOSE: The clinical and microbiological data for urinary tract infections (UTIs) for 6 organisms detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) at community health systems were examined. SUMMARY: The use of precision microbiological diagnostic testing such as MALDI-TOF and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction has increased the ability to detect a wider spectrum of organisms. This has raised questions of the clinical relevance of infrequently encountered organisms, especially when cultured from urine...
November 15, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
David C Griffith, Mojgan Sabet, Ziad Tarazi, Olga Lomovskaya, Michael N Dudley
Vaborbactam is a novel beta-lactamase inhibitor with activity against important beta-lactamases, in particular, serine carbapenemases, and is currently approved in combination with meropenem as Vabomere™ for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis. This combination is highly active against Gram-negative pathogens, especially KPC-producing, carbapenem-resistant, Enterobacteriaceae The objective of these studies was to evaluate vaborbactam pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) relationships for efficacy in a neutropenic mouse thigh infection model and as well in an in vitro hollow fiber infection model, in combination with a fixed exposure of meropenem using KPC-containing strains of Enterobacteriaceae For both models, the meropenem dosage regimen was designed to simulate a 2 g dose administered every eight hours (q8h) by three hour infusion...
November 5, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Larry A Weinrauch, Karim H Anis, John A D'Elia
Solid organ transplant candidates undergo very strict screening for cardiovascular risk. Such screening has permitted significant decreases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality over the ensuing decades of follow up. Long term follow-up has enabled us to identify an increasing incidence of pulmonary and urinary tract infections with or without sepsis as competing factors of morbidity and mortality. Indeed, all-cause mortality may now be dominated by infection-related endpoints. No population of transplant recipients is more naturally susceptible to infection as a diabetic subset, now submitted to immunosuppression...
November 1, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Victor Ramzes Chavez Herrera, Maria Fernanda Rosas De Silva, Homero Orendain Alcaraz, Gabriel Ceja Espiritu, Karla Carrazco Peña, Valery Melnikov
BACKGROUND: Cedecea lapagei bacterium was discovered in 1977 but was not known to be pathogenic to humans until 2006. In the medical literature there are very few clinical case reports of Cedecea lapagei; none have reported a catastrophic death secondary to a soft tissue hemorrhagic bullae infection. As well as soft tissue infection, rare cases of pneumonia, urinary tract infections, peritonitis, osteomyelitis, bacteremia, and sepsis have been documented with the majority having good outcomes...
November 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Masoud Karimi, Jenny von Salomé, Christos Aravidis, Gustav Silander, Marie Stenmark Askmalm, Isabelle Henriksson, Samuel Gebre-Medhin, Jan-Erik Frödin, Erik Björck, Kristina Lagerstedt-Robinson, Annika Lindblom, Emma Tham
Background: Lynch Syndrome is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome caused by pathogenic germ-line variants in one of the DNA-mismatch-repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 . Carriers are predisposed to colorectal and endometrial cancer, but also other cancer types. The purpose of this retrospective study was to characterize the tumour spectrum of the Swedish Lynch syndrome families. Methods: Data were obtained from genetically verified 235 Lynch families from five of the six health care regions in Sweden...
2018: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
Yamirot Merga Duffa, Kumera Terfa Kitila, Dereje Mamuye Gebretsadik, Adane Bitew
Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is considered as the most common bacterial infection seen among the pediatric patients. Objective: This study was carried out in order to determine the prevalence of urinary tract infection in pediatric patients, identify bacterial uropathogens responsible for the infection, and study the antibiotic sensitivity patterns of bacterial isolates. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study designed and conducted from January to April 2014...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Amit Aurora, Tuan D Le, Kevin S Akers, Dana M Blyth, John C Graybill, Michael S Clemens, Kevin K Chung, Julie A Rizzo
INTRODUCTION: Surviving the first episode of bacteremia predisposes burn casualties to its recurrence. Herein, we investigate the incidence, mortality, bacteriology, and source of infection of recurrent bacteremia in military burn casualties admitted to the U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research Burn Center over a 10year period. METHODS: Bacteremia was defined as the growth of Gram-positive or Gram-negative organisms in a blood culture that excluded probable skin contaminants...
October 29, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Emily Schifano, Massimiliano Marazzato, Maria Grazia Ammendolia, Elena Zanni, Marta Ricci, Antonella Comanducci, Paola Goldoni, Maria Pia Conte, Daniela Uccelletti, Catia Longhi
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although a number of bacteria can cause UTIs, most cases are due to infection by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC are a genetically heterogeneous group that exhibit several virulence factors associated with colonization and persistence of bacteria in the urinary tract. Caenorhabditis elegans is a tiny, free-living nematode found worldwide. Because many biological pathways are conserved in C. elegans and humans, the nematode has been increasingly used as a model organism to study virulence mechanisms of microbial infections and innate immunity...
October 31, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
C Vipin, M Mujeeburahiman, A B Arun, P Ashwini, Suryavanshi V Mangesh, P D Rekha
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the natural variation in the antibiotic sensitivity, biofilm formation and virulence among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from the catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) from a single centre. METHODS AND RESULTS: P. aeruginosa strains were isolated from the patients with CAUTI after obtaining informed consent. These isolates were identified by routine biochemical methods and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Antibiotic sensitivity and virulence factors were measured using standard protocols...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
S X Yang, C Song
Endoscopic surgery has become the most common urological procedure for calculus in upper urinary tract. However, the widespread usage of minimally invasive endoscopic techniques failed to end the occurrence of perioperative complications, especially some fatal complications. The most severe complication of urolithiasis related endoscopic procedure is urosepsis, which is closely related to the backflow of irrigation fluid induced by the high pressure of renal pelvic during the procedure. By controlling the perfusion and drainage during the operation, the liquid backflow can be reduced effectively, thus may reduce the spread of infectious toxins and pathogens, and incidence of infectious complications can be controlled accordingly...
October 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Tommaso Cai, Daniele Tiscione, Andrea Cocci, Marco Puglisi, Gianmartin Cito, Gianni Malossini, Alessandro Palmieri
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a combination of Hibiscus extract, vegetable proteases and Commiphora myrrha extract in the prophylaxis of symptomatic episode in women affected by recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTIs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this phase II clinical trial, all patients with history and diagnosis of rUTI were enrolled. All patients underwent the following treatment schedule: 1 tablet in the morning and 1 tablet in the evening for 7 days and, then, 1 tablet in the evening for 10 days (1 cycle every each month, for 6 months) of a combination of Hibiscus extract, vegetable proteases and Commiphora myrrha extract...
September 30, 2018: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
Néha Sihra, Anna Goodman, Rhana Zakri, Arun Sahai, Sachin Malde
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are highly prevalent, lead to considerable patient morbidity, incur large financial costs to health-care systems and are one of the most common reasons for antibiotic use worldwide. The growing problem of antimicrobial resistance means that the search for nonantibiotic alternatives for the treatment and prevention of UTI is of critical importance. Potential nonantibiotic measures and treatments for UTIs include behavioural changes, dietary supplementation (such as Chinese herbal medicines and cranberry products), NSAIDs, probiotics, D-mannose, methenamine hippurate, estrogens, intravesical glycosaminoglycans, immunostimulants, vaccines and inoculation with less-pathogenic bacteria...
October 25, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
Maryam Bahadori, Mohammad Motamedifar, Abdollah Derakhshandeh, Roya Firouzi, Azar Motamedi Boroojeni, Mohsen Alinejad, Zahra Naziri
It is common knowledge that fecal microbiota is a primary source of Escherichia coli causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) via the fecal-perineal-urethral route. But, it is still unknown whether E. coli UTI is mainly caused by dominant fecal E. coli isolates (prevalence hypothesis) or the isolates that possess more virulence factors (special pathogenicity hypothesis). In the present study, the urine E. coli isolates of 30 women with UTI were compared with the fecal E. coli isolates of the same patients and healthy control individuals according to the phylogenetic group, virulence genotype, and antibiotic susceptibility pattern...
October 25, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Hyukmin Lee, Eun-Jeong Yoon, Dokyun Kim, Seok Hoon Jeong, Eun Jeong Won, Jong Hee Shin, Si Hyun Kim, Jeong Hwan Shin, Kyeong Seob Shin, Young Ah Kim, Young Uh, Ji Woo Yang, Il Hwan Kim, Chan Park, Kwang Jun Lee
The Korean government established an antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance system, compatible with the Global AMR Surveillance System (GLASS): Kor-GLASS. We describe results from the first year of operation of the Kor-GLASS from May 2016 to April 2017, comprising all non-duplicated clinical isolates of major pathogens from blood , urine , faeces and urethral and cervical swabs from six sentinel hospitals. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out by disk diffusion, Etest, broth microdilution and agar dilution methods...
October 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Agata Kozioł, Katarzyna Macegoniuk, Ewa Grela, Agnieszka Grabowiecka, Monika Biernat, Stanisław Lochyński
Urease is an important virulence factor for a variety of pathogenic bacteria strains such as Helicobacter pylori, which colonizes human gastric mucosa, and Proteus sp., responsible for urinary tract infections. Specific inhibition of urease activity could be a promising adjuvant strategy for eradication of these pathogens. Due to the interesting antiureolytic activity of carvone and the scant information regarding the inhibitory properties of corresponding monoterpenes, we decided to study selected monoterpenic ketones and their oxygen derivatives...
October 22, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Prasanth Rathinam, Pragasam Viswanathan
Objective: Considering the emergence of biofilm-associated pathogens with multidrug resistance, the objective(s) of the present study was to evaluate the anti-virulence property of Syzygium aromaticum extracts/fractions against 2 multidrug-resistant catheter isolates. Materials and Methods: Pulverized clove buds were subjected to bioactivity-guided isolation to identify the bioactive extract/fraction(s) with significant anti-virulence property. The clove bud powder was subjected to Soxhlet extraction and all these extracts were investigated in terms of anti-virulent efficacy using initial readout assays...
September 2018: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
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