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urinary tract pathogens

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924030/altered-regulation-of-the-diguanylate-cyclase-yaic-reduces-production-of-type-1-fimbriae-in-a-pst-mutant-of-uropathogenic-e-coli-cft073
#1
Sébastien Crépin, Gaëlle Porcheron, Sébastien Houle, Josée Harel, Charles M Dozois
The pst gene cluster encodes the phosphate specific transport system (Pst). Inactivation of the Pst system constitutively activates the two-component regulatory system PhoBR and attenuates virulence of pathogenic bacteria. In uropathogenic E. coli strain CFT073, attenuation by inactivation of pst is predominantly attributed to the decreased expression of type 1 fimbriae. However, the molecular mechanisms connecting the Pst system and type 1 fimbriae are unknown. To address this, a transposon library was constructed in the pst mutant, and clones were tested for a regain in type 1 fimbriae production...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906365/the-antibiotic-susceptibility-patterns-of-uropathogens-among-children-with-urinary-tract-infection-in-shiraz
#2
Gholamreza Pouladfar, Mitra Basiratnia, Mojtaba Anvarinejad, Pejman Abbasi, Fatemeh Amirmoezi, Samaneh Zare
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in pediatrics. Delay in diagnosis and treatment can cause significant morbidity. The physicians knowledge regarding the symptoms, microorganisms that caused UTI, and effective antibiotics in a geographical area can help them to select the appropriate antibiotics. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of bacteria that cause UTI and their susceptibility to common antibiotics as well as the common symptoms and associated factors in children of Shiraz, Southern Iran...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906061/opposite-effect-of-polymorphic-mutations-on-the-electrostatic-aggregation-of-human-alanine-glyoxylate-aminotransferase-implications-for-the-pathogenesis-of-primary-hyperoxaluria-type-i
#3
Mirco Dindo, Carolina Conter, Barbara Cellini
Protein aggregates formation is the basis of several misfolding diseases, including those displaying loss-of-function pathogenesis. Although aggregation is often attributed to the population of intermediates exposing hydrophobic surfaces, the contribution of electrostatic forces has recently gained attention. Here we combined computational and in vitro studies to investigate the aggregation process of human peroxisomal alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase (AGT), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme involved in glyoxylate detoxification...
September 14, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904973/effects-of-bacillus-serine-proteases-on-the-bacterial-biofilms
#4
Olga Mitrofanova, Ayslu Mardanova, Vladimir Evtugyn, Lydia Bogomolnaya, Margarita Sharipova
Serratia marcescens is an emerging opportunistic pathogen responsible for many hospital-acquired infections including catheter-associated bacteremia and urinary tract and respiratory tract infections. Biofilm formation is one of the mechanisms employed by S. marcescens to increase its virulence and pathogenicity. Here, we have investigated the main steps of the biofilm formation by S. marcescens SR 41-8000. It was found that the biofilm growth is stimulated by the nutrient-rich environment. The time-course experiments showed that S...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904433/risk-factors-for-urinary-tract-infections-in-renal-allograft-recipients-experience-of-a-tertiary-care-center-in-hyderabad-south-india
#5
M V N L R Mohan, M Neeraja, S Sudhaharan, S B Raju, T Gangadhar, V Lakshmi
Renal transplantation is an effective and commonly performed procedure for end-stage renal disease. Urinary tract infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in renal transplant patients. As data on postrenal transplant urinary tract infections from the Indian subcontinent are limited, the present study was conducted to estimate the burden of urinary tract infections in this vulnerable group of patients. This was a prospective study on patients undergoing renal transplantation in 2014 at our tertiary hospital in South India with a follow-up of 2 years to evaluate the risk factors for urinary tract infections...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901793/intravenous-fosfomycin-for-the-treatment-of-hospitalized-patients-with-serious-infections
#6
Andrew F Shorr, Jason M Pogue, John F Mohr
With the worldwide increase in the rates of antimicrobial resistance, antimicrobials with novel mechanisms of action are needed to fill a void in the antimicrobial armamentarium. Areas Covered: Intravenous fosfomycin has been studied extensively in a wide variety of infections including cUTI, lower respiratory tract infection, bone and joint infections, endocarditis, meningitis, and bacteremia outside of the United States. This paper reviews the in vitro activity, pharmacokinetic properties, and clinical experience of intravenous fosfomycin in hospitalized patients with serious infections...
September 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895710/-trichosporon-asahii-sepsis-associated-with-urinary-catheter-in-a-pediatric-burn-unit-2-case-reports
#7
Florencia Escarrá, Jimena Lema, Beatriz Caracciolo, Susana Carnovale, Verónica Alvarez, Nidia Tramonti, Fabián Guarracino, M Teresa Rosanova
Trichosporon asahii is a ubiquitous fungus that has been isolated as part of human microbiota. There has been an emergence of this pathogen in recent years, causing superficial and deep seated infections. There are scarce reports of urinary tract infections in pediatric intensive care burn units caused by this agent. We describe the cases of 2 pediatric patients with prolonged hospitalization due to severe burns that had received several antibiotic courses for previous infections. Both presented sepsis secondary to catheter related urinary tract infection by Trichosporon asahii...
October 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893918/enterococcus-faecalis-promotes-innate-immune-suppression-and-polymicrobial-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infection
#8
Brenda Yin Qi Tien, Hwee Mian Sharon Goh, Kelvin Kian Long Chong, Soumili Bhaduri-Tagore, Sarah Holec, Regine Dress, Florent Ginhoux, Molly A Ingersoll, Rohan B H Williams, Kimberly A Kline
Enterococcus faecalis, a member of the human gastrointestinal microbiota, is an opportunistic pathogen associated with hospital-acquired wound, bloodstream, and urinary tract infections. E. faecalis can subvert or evade immune-mediated clearance, although the mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we examined E. faecalis-mediated subversion of macrophage activation. We observed that E. faecalis actively prevents NF-κB signaling in mouse RAW264.7 macrophages in the presence of Toll-like receptor agonists and during polymicrobial infection with Escherichia coliE...
September 11, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889208/detection-of-human-antibodies-binding-with-smooth-and-rough-lpss-from-proteus-mirabilis-o3-strains-s1959-r110-r45
#9
J Gleńska-Olender, K Durlik, I Konieczna, P Kowalska, J Gawęda, W Kaca
Bacteria of the genus Proteus of the family Enterobacteriaceae are facultative human pathogens responsible mainly for urinary tract and wound infections, bacteremia and the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We have analyzed and compared by ELISA the titer of antibodies in plasmas of healthy individuals and in sera of rheumatoid arthritis patients recognizing a potential host cross-reactive epitope (lysine-galacturonic acid epitopes) present in Proteus lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In our experiments LPSs isolated from two mutants of smooth Proteus mirabilis 1959 (O3), i...
September 9, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885921/acquisition-of-multidrug-resistant-gram-negative-organisms-during-travel
#10
Clinton K Murray, Dana M Blyth
The rate of multidrug resistance has continued to increase worldwide, presenting clinicians with further challenges related to patient care. In this article, we review information related to the acquisition of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative organisms among travelers, including deployed personnel, as well as the potential impact on wound microbiology and travelers' diarrhea. Travel to Asia, experiencing travelers' diarrhea, and use of antibiotics, whereas abroad have been associated with an increased risk of acquiring MDR Enterobacteriaceae colonization...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884476/probiotics-for-preventing-urinary-tract-infection-in-people-with-neuropathic-bladder
#11
REVIEW
Swee-Ling Toh, Claire L Boswell-Ruys, Bon San B Lee, Judy M Simpson, Kate R Clezy
BACKGROUND: Neuropathic or neurogenic bladder describes a process of dysfunctional voiding as the result of injury in the brain, spinal cord or nerves innervating the bladder. People with neuropathic bladder, such as from spinal cord injury (SCI), are at significant risk of morbidity from urinary tract infections (UTI). Effective methods to prevent UTI in people with SCI have been sought for many years. Probiotics (micro-organisms that exert beneficial health effects in the host) have been recommended for bacterial interference of the urological tract to reduce colonisation by uropathogen and to manage the dual problems of infection and antibiotic resistance...
September 8, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882904/frontline-science-proliferation-of-ly6c-monocytes-during-urinary-tract-infections-is-regulated-by-il-6-trans-signaling
#12
Akanksha Dixit, Jenny Bottek, Anna-Lena Beerlage, Jana Schuettpelz, Stephanie Thiebes, Alexandra Brenzel, Christoph Garbers, Stefan Rose-John, Hans-Willi Mittrücker, Anthony Squire, Daniel R Engel
Ly6C(+) monocytes are important components of the innate immune defense against infections. These cells have been shown to proliferate in the bone marrow of mice with systemic infections. However, the proliferative capacity of Ly6C(+) monocytes in infected peripheral tissues as well as the associated regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we analyzed the proliferative capacity of Ly6C(+) monocytes in the urinary bladder after infection with uropathogenic E. coli, one of the most prevalent pathogen worldwide, and in LPS-induced peritonitis...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877671/surveillance-of-device-associated-infections-and-mortality-in-a-major-intensive-care-unit-in-the-republic-of-cyprus
#13
Stelios Iordanou, Nicos Middleton, Elizabeth Papathanassoglou, Vasilios Raftopoulos
BACKGROUND: Device-associated health care-associated infections (DA-HAI) pose a threat to patient safety, particularly in the intensive care unit. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of DA-HAIs, mortality and crude excess mortality at a General Hospital's Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in the Republic of Cyprus for 1 year period. METHODS: A prospective cohort, active DA-HAIs surveillance study with the use of Health Acquired Infections (HAIs) ICU Protocol (v1...
September 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870433/antibacterial-activity-of-3-3-4-trihydroxyflavone-from-justicia-wynaadensis-against-diabetic-wound-and-urinary-tract-infection
#14
Dorin Dsouza, Lakshmidevi Nanjaiah
The present investigation was designed to study the effect of an active compound isolated from Justicia wynaadensis against multi drug resistant organisms (MDRO's) associated with diabetic patients. The drug resistant pathogens implicated in wound and urinary tract infection of diabetic patients were isolated and identified by molecular sequencing. Solvent-solvent fractionation of crude methanol extract produced hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol-water fraction, among which chloroform fraction was found to be potent when compared with other three fractions...
August 10, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861522/a-serendipitous-mutation-reveals-the-severe-virulence-defect-of-a-klebsiella-pneumoniae-fepb-mutant
#15
Michelle Palacios, Christopher A Broberg, Kimberly A Walker, Virginia L Miller
Klebsiella pneumoniae is considered a significant public health threat because of the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and the challenge associated with treating life-threatening infections. Capsule, siderophores, and adhesins have been implicated as virulence determinants of K. pneumoniae, yet we lack a clear understanding of how this pathogen causes disease. In a previous screen for virulence genes, we identified a potential new virulence locus and constructed a mutant (smr) with this locus deleted...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861143/artificial-urine-for-teaching-urinalysis-concepts-and-diagnosis-of-urinary-tract-infection-in-the-medical-microbiology-laboratory
#16
Latifa B Khan, Hannah M Read, Stephen R Ritchie, Thomas Proft
Dipstick urinalysis is an informative, quick, cost-effective and non-invasive diagnostic tool that is useful in clinical practice for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTIs), kidney diseases, and diabetes. We used dipstick urinalysis as a hands-on microbiology laboratory exercise to reinforce student learning about UTIs with a particular focus on cystitis, which is a common bacterial infection. To avoid exposure to potentially contaminated human urine samples, we prepared artificial urine using easily acquired and affordable ingredients, which allowed less-experienced students to perform urinalysis without the risk of exposure to pathogenic organisms and ensured reliable availability of the urine samples...
2017: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861082/polyvinylpyrrolidone-capped-silver-nanoparticle-inhibits-infection-of-carbapenem-resistant-strain-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-the-human-pulmonary-epithelial-cell
#17
Vishvanath Tiwari, Monalisa Tiwari, Vandana Solanki
Acinetobacter baumannii, an opportunistic ESKAPE pathogen, causes respiratory and urinary tract infections. Its prevalence increases gradually in the clinical setup. Pathogenicity of Acinetobacter is significantly influenced by its ability to infect and survive in human pulmonary cells. Therefore, it is important to study the infection of A. baumannii in human pulmonary host cell (A-549), monitoring surface interacting and internalized bacteria. It was found that during infection of A. baumannii, about 40% bacteria adhered to A-549, whereas 20% got internalized inside pulmonary cell and induces threefold increase in the reactive oxygen species production...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861072/uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-upec-infections-virulence-factors-bladder-responses-antibiotic-and-non-antibiotic-antimicrobial-strategies
#18
REVIEW
Maria E Terlizzi, Giorgio Gribaudo, Massimo E Maffei
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common pathological conditions in both community and hospital settings. It has been estimated that about 150 million people worldwide develop UTI each year, with high social costs in terms of hospitalizations and medical expenses. Among the common uropathogens associated to UTIs development, UroPathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the primary cause. UPEC strains possess a plethora of both structural (as fimbriae, pili, curli, flagella) and secreted (toxins, iron-acquisition systems) virulence factors that contribute to their capacity to cause disease, although the ability to adhere to host epithelial cells in the urinary tract represents the most important determinant of pathogenicity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851843/widespread-fosfomycin-resistance-in-gram-negative-bacteria-attributable-to-the-chromosomal-fosa-gene
#19
Ryota Ito, Mustapha M Mustapha, Adam D Tomich, Jake D Callaghan, Christi L McElheny, Roberta T Mettus, Robert M Q Shanks, Nicolas Sluis-Cremer, Yohei Doi
Fosfomycin is a decades-old antibiotic which is being revisited because of its perceived activity against many extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. FosA proteins are Mn(2+) and K(+)-dependent glutathione S-transferases which confer fosfomycin resistance in Gram-negative bacteria by conjugation of glutathione to the antibiotic. Plasmid-borne fosA variants have been reported in fosfomycin-resistant Escherichia coli strains. However, the prevalence and distribution of fosA in other Gram-negative bacteria are not known...
August 29, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845948/-resistance-of-urinary-tract-pathogens-and-the-choice-of-antimicrobial-therapy-deceptive-simplicity
#20
V V Rafalskiy, E V Dovgan
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common reasons for prescribing antibiotics in outpatient and inpatient settings. One of the main criteria for selecting antimicrobial drugs for treating UTI is data on the antibiotic resistance of uropathogens. The article discusses the difficulties in interpreting the results of antimicrobial sensitivity testing of uropathogens and the impact of antibiotic resistance of uropathogens on the clinical effectiveness of managing UTI.
July 2017: Urologii︠a︡
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