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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352171/a-urine-dependent-human-urothelial-organoid-offers-a-potential-alternative-to-rodent-models-of-infection
#1
Harry Horsley, Dhanuson Dharmasena, James Malone-Lee, Jennifer L Rohn
Murine models describe a defined host/pathogen interaction for urinary tract infection, but human cell studies are scant. Although recent human urothelial organoid models are promising, none demonstrate long-term tolerance to urine, the natural substrate of the tissue and of the uropathogens that live there. We developed a novel human organoid from progenitor cells which demonstrates key structural hallmarks and biomarkers of the urothelium. After three weeks of transwell culture with 100% urine at the apical interface, the organoid stratified into multiple layers...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345620/functional-role-of-the-type-1-pilus-rod-structure-in-mediating-host-pathogen-interactions
#2
Caitlin N Spaulding, Henry Louis Schreiber, Weili Zheng, Karen W Dodson, Jennie E Hazen, Matt S Conover, Fengbin Wang, Pontus Svenmarker, Areli Luna-Rico, Olivera Francetic, Magnus Andersson, Scott Hultgren, Edward H Egelman
Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC), which cause urinary tract infections (UTI), utilize type 1 pili, a chaperone usher pathway (CUP) pilus, to cause UTI and colonize the gut. The pilus rod, comprised of repeating FimA subunits, provides a structural scaffold for displaying the tip adhesin, FimH. We solved the 4.2 Å resolution structure of the type 1 pilus rod using cryo-electron microscopy. Residues forming the interactive surfaces that determine the mechanical properties of the rod were maintained by selection based on a global alignment of fimA sequences...
January 18, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343141/novel-%C3%AE-lactam-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitors-versus-alternative-antibiotics-for-the-treatment-of-complicated-intra-abdominal-infection-and-complicated-urinary-tract-infection-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#3
Mengmeng Chen, Minjie Zhang, Peixian Huang, Qiongyu Lin, Cheng Sun, Hongke Zeng, Yiyu Deng
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of novel BL/BLIs with alternative antibiotics for the treatment of Complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI) and complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI). METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials comparing novel β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors (BL/BLIs) with other antibiotics for the treatment of cIAI and cUTI. The primary outcome included clinical and microbiological treatment success...
January 18, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342469/the-2017-update-of-the-german-clinical-guideline-on-epidemiology-diagnostics-therapy-prevention-and-management-of-uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infections-in-adult-patients-part%C3%A2-1
#4
Jennifer Kranz, Stefanie Schmidt, Cordula Lebert, Laila Schneidewind, Falitsa Mandraka, Mirjam Kunze, Sina Helbig, Winfried Vahlensieck, Kurt Naber, Guido Schmiemann, Florian M Wagenlehner
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to update the 2010 evidence- and consensus-based national clinical guideline on the diagnosis and management of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) in adult patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An interdisciplinary group consisting of 17 representatives of 12 medical societies and a patient representative was formed. Systematic literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, -EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library to identify literature published in 2010-2015...
January 17, 2018: Urologia Internationalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339394/population-pharmacokinetics-of-finafloxacin-in-healthy-volunteers-and-patients-with-complicated-urinary-tract-infections
#5
Max Taubert, Mark Lückermann, Andreas Vente, Axel Dalhoff, Uwe Fuhr
Background: Finafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone with increased antibacterial activity at acidic pH and reduced susceptibility to several resistance mechanisms. A phase II study revealed a good efficacy/safety profile in patients with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) while pharmacokinetics was characterized by highly variable concentration vs. time profiles, suggesting the need for an elaborated pharmacokinetic model.Methods: Data from three clinical trials were evaluated; 127 healthy volunteers were dosed orally (N=77) or intravenously (N=50) and 139 patients with cUTI received finafloxacin intravenously...
January 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339393/early-clinical-assessment-of-the-antimicrobial-activity-of-finafloxacin-compared-to-ciprofloxacin-in-sub-sets-of-microbiologically-characterized-isolates
#6
Andreas Vente, Christine Bentley, Mark Lückermann, Paul Tambyah, Axel Dalhoff
INTRODUCTION: Two phase II studies were performed in patients with uncomplicated (uUTI) and complicated urinary tract infections or acute pyelonephritis (cUTI/PN) to compare finafloxacin (300 mg b.i.d, p.o. for uUTI 800 mg q.d., i.v. for cUTI/PN) and ciprofloxacin (250 mg b.i.d, p.o. for uUTI and 400 mg b.i.d., i.v. for cUTI/PN). The early response to the study medications was evaluated in the microbiological-intent-to treat population (mITT) at day 3. RESULTS: 21% of the isolates were ciprofloxacin-resistant, 13...
January 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325882/pathophysiology-of-escherichia-coli-pneumonia-respective-contribution-of-pathogenicity-islands-to-virulence
#7
Mathilde Phillips-Houlbracq, Jean-Damien Ricard, Arnaud Foucrier, Deborah Yoder-Himes, Stéphane Gaudry, Julie Bex, Jonathan Messika, Dimitri Margetis, Jérémie Chatel, Ulrich Dobrindt, Erick Denamur, Damien Roux
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains the most frequent life-threatening nosocomial infection. Enterobacteriaceae including Escherichia coli are increasingly involved. If a cumulative effect of pathogenicity islands (PAIs) has been shown for E. coli virulence in urinary tract or systemic infections, very little is known regarding pathophysiology of E. coli pneumonia. This study aimed to determine the role of each of the 7 PAIs present in pathogenic E. coli strain 536 in pneumonia pathophysiology. We used mutant strains to screen pathophysiological role of PAI in a rat pneumonia model...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325748/cranberry-proanthocyanidin-chitosan-hybrid-nanoparticles-as-a-potential-inhibitor-of-extra-intestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-invasion-of-gut-epithelial-cells
#8
Emilia Alfaro-Viquez, Daniel Esquivel-Alvarado, Sergio Madrigal-Carballo, Christian G Krueger, Jess D Reed
Chitosan interacts with proanthocyanidins through hydrogen-bonding, which allows encapsulation and development of stable nanoparticles via ionotropic gelation. Cranberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) are associated with the prevention of urinary tract infections and PAC inhibit invasion of gut epithelial cells by extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC). We determined the effect of cranberry proanthocyanidin-chitosan hybrid nanoparticles (PAC-CHTNp) on the ExPEC invasion of gut epithelial cells in vitro...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324795/nanodiamonds-facilitate-killing-of-intracellular-uropathogenic-e-coli-in-an-in-vitro-model-of-urinary-tract-infection-pathogenesis
#9
Janaki Kannan Iyer, Alexia Dickey, Parvaneh Rouhani, Anil Kaul, Nirmal Govindaraju, Raj Narain Singh, Rashmi Kaul
About 25-44% of women will experience at least one episode of recurrent UTI and the causative agent in over 70% of UTI cases is uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). UPEC cause recurrent UTI by evading the bladder's innate immune system through internalization into the bladder epithelium where antibiotics cannot reach or be effective. Thus, it is important to develop novel therapeutics to eliminate these intracellular pathogens. Nanodiamonds (NDs) are biocompatible nanomaterials that serve as promising candidates for targeted therapeutic applications...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324763/factors-associated-with-urinary-tract-infections-among-hiv-1-infected-patients
#10
Agata Skrzat-Klapaczyńska, Bartłomiej Matłosz, Agnieszka Bednarska, Marcin Paciorek, Ewa Firląg-Burkacka, Andrzej Horban, Justyna D Kowalska
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections remain an important yet underinvestigated clinical problem among HIV infected patients. Here we analyze factors associated with its occurrence and the spectrum of bacterial pathogens identified in the group of patients followed at the HIV Out-Patient Clinic in Warsaw. METHODS: Clinic database collected all medical information on patients routinely followed since 1994 to 2015. All patients with available urine culture were included into analyses, only the first culture was included...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323625/catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infections-in-persons-with-neurogenic-bladders
#11
Todd A Linsenmeyer
This review is based on the author's Donald Munro Lecture given at the annual conference of the Academy of Spinal Cord Injury Professionals in New Orleans, LA. Indwelling catheters play an important role in bladder management following SCI for many individuals with neurogenic bladders. There is an increased risk of UTI compared to other types of bladder management with indwelling urethral catheters but not SP catheters. To minimize the risk of symptomatic UTI, the following steps are essential: prevent bladder wall distention and resulting ischemia, maintain colonization with "good" bacteria, and prevent bladder stones...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322236/-urosepsis
#12
Mathias W Pletz, Sebastian Weis, Christina Forstner, Florian Wagenlehner
Urosepsis is defined as a severe disease due to organ failure caused by a urinary tract infection. An empirical antibiotic therapy should be instigated within the first hour after diagnosis. Urine cultures and blood cultures should be performed before antibiotic treatment. Further diagnostics should be carried out at an early stage to enable an interventional focus control in the case of urinary tract obstruction or abscess formation, if necessary. Gram-negative pathogens are most frequently isolated. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) forming bacteria as a cause of urosepsis are increasing...
January 10, 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321722/distinct-virulent-network-between-healthcare-and-community-associated-staphylococcus-aureus-based-on-proteomic-analysis
#13
Lei He, Hongwei Meng, Qian Liu, Mo Hu, Yanan Wang, Xiaoying Chen, Xiaoyun Liu, Min Li
Background: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus or SA) is a leading cause of healthcare-associated (HA-) and community-associated (CA) infection. HA-SA isolates usually cause nosocomial pneumonia, bloodstream infections, catheter-related urinary tract infections, etc. On the other hand, CA-SA isolates usually cause highly fatal diseases, such as SSTIs as well as post influenza necrotic hemorrhagic pneumonia. The differences of the infection types are partially due to the unique characteristics between HA-SA and CA-SA isolates...
2018: Clinical Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319486/evaluating-factors-that-dictate-struvite-stone-composition-a-multi-institutional-clinical-experience-from-the-edge-research-consortium
#14
Ryan Kendrick Flannigan, Andrew Battison, Shubha De, Mitchell R Humphreys, Markus Bader, Ekaterina Lellig, Manoj Monga, Ben H Chew, Dirk Lange
INTRODUCTION: Struvite stones account for 15% of urinary calculi and are typically associated with urease-producing urinary tract infections and carry significant morbidity. This study aims to characterize struvite stones based on purity of stone composition, bacterial speciation, risk factors, and clinical features. METHODS: Retrospective data was collected from patients diagnosed with infection stones between 2008 and 2012. Stone analysis, perioperative urine cultures, bacterial speciation, and clinical data were collected and analyzed...
December 22, 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313868/pets-as-potential-carriers-of-multidrug-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-of-significance-to-public-health
#15
Giorgia Dotto, Michele Berlanda, Daniela Pasotto, Alessandra Mondin, Giorgio Zambotto, Maria Luisa Menandro
Enterococci are important opportunistic pathogens for humans and animals and have recently become one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections, raising concerns about their virulence and antimicrobial traits. This study describes a multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from a case of feline urinary tract infection. This strain was characterized for virulence and antimicrobial resistance markers, phylogenetic group and sensitivity to antimicrobial agents used routinely in veterinary and human practice...
January 9, 2018: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311232/context-dependent-requirements-for-fimh-and-other-canonical-virulence-factors-in-gut-colonization-by-extraintestinal-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#16
Colin W Russell, Brittany A Fleming, Courtney A Jost, Alexander Tran, Alan T Stenquist, Morgan A Wambaugh, Mary P Bronner, Matthew A Mulvey
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) act as commensals within the mammalian gut, but can induce pathology upon dissemination to other host environments such as the urinary tract and bloodstream. ExPEC genomes are likely shaped by evolutionary forces encountered within the gut where the bacteria spend much of their time, provoking the question of how their extraintestinal virulence traits arose. The principle of coincidental evolution, in which a gene that evolved in one niche happens to be advantageous in another, has been used to argue that ExPEC virulence factors originated in response to selective pressures within the gut ecosystem...
January 8, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310594/the-impact-of-cathelicidin-the-human-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37-in-urinary-tract-infections
#17
Ibrahim H Babikir, Elsir A Abugroun, Naser Eldin Bilal, Abdullah Ali Alghasham, Elmuataz Elmansi Abdalla, Ishag Adam
BACKGROUND: The defense mechanisms of the urinary tract are attributed mainly to the innate immune system and the urinary tract urothelium which represent the first line of defense against invading pathogens and maintaining sterility of the urinary tract. There are only a few publications regarding cathelicidin (LL-37) and a urinary tract infection (UTI). This study was done to investigate the plasma and urine levels of human LL-37 in patients with UTI. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted at Omdurman Hospital, Sudan during the period from August 2014 to May 2017...
January 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305956/pharmacokinetics-of-colistin-methanesulfonate-cms-in-healthy-chinese-subjects-after-single-and-multiple-intravenous-doses
#18
Miao Zhao, Xiao-Jie Wu, Ya-Xin Fan, Ying-Yuan Zhang, Bei-Ning Guo, Ji-Cheng Yu, Guo-Ying Cao, Yuan-Cheng Chen, Ju-Fang Wu, Yao-Guo Shi, Jian Li, Jing Zhang
High prevalence of extensive-drug resistance (XDR) gram-negative pathogens has forced clinicians to use colistin as the last-line therapy. Our knowledge on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS, an inactive prodrug) and colistin has increased substantially; however, the PK in Chinese population is still unknown due to the lack of a CMS product. This study aimed to evaluate the PK of a new CMS product developed in China for optimizing the dosing regimens. Twenty-four healthy subjects (12 female, 12 male) were enrolled in single- and multiple-dose PK studies...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295691/molecular-detection-of-tem-shv-and-ctx-m-genes-among-gram-negative-klebsiella-isolates
#19
Asma Naim, Asma Saeed, Taqdees Ara Malik
In the past few years, the use of antimicrobial drugs against a wide range of pathogens has increased significantly. This extensive use of drugs has increased the resistance rate in microbial community widely. Molecular techniques for the detection of resistance are more reliable as compared to the conventional phenotypic method. The family Enterobacteriaceae is considered to be an important cause of nosocomial infections due to its predominantly active species such as E. coli, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas. These organisms are mainly involved in causing pneumonia, sepsis, post-surgical and urinary tract infections...
January 1, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290480/cleaning-the-air-with-ultraviolet-germicidal-irradiation-lessened-contact-infections-in-a-long-term-acute-care-hospital
#20
Tina Ethington, Sherry Newsome, Jerri Waugh, Linda D Lee
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to determine whether removing bacteria from the air with ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UV-C) at the room level would reduce infection rates. METHODS: We reviewed infection data for 12 months before and after UV-C installation in the special care unit (SCU) of a long-term acute care hospital. All patients admitted to the SCU during the study time frame were included. Microbiologic impactor air sampling was completed in August 2015...
December 29, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
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