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urinary tract pathogens

Niko Paalanne, Aleksi Husso, Jarmo Salo, Oskari Pieviläinen, Mysore V Tejesvi, Pirjo Koivusaari, Anna Maria Pirttilä, Tytti Pokka, Sampo Mattila, Juha Jyrkäs, Ari Turpeinen, Matti Uhari, Marjo Renko, Terhi Tapiainen
As urinary tract infection (UTI) pathogens originate from the gut, we hypothesized that the gut environment reflected by intestinal microbiome influences the risk of UTI. Our prospective case-control study compared the intestinal microbiomes of 37 children with a febrile UTI with those of 69 healthy children. We sequenced the regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and used the LefSe algorithm to calculate the size of the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect. We measured fecal lactoferrin and iron concentrations and quantitative PCR for Escherichia coli...
July 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Giulia Allavena, Doriana Debellis, Roberto Marotta, Chetanchandra S Joshi, Indira U Mysorekar, Benedetto Grimaldi
The cellular recycling pathway of autophagy plays a fundamental role in adaptive responses to nutrient deprivation and other forms of stress under physiological and pathological conditions. However, autophagy can also be a double-edge sword during certain bacterial infections (such as urinary tract infections) and in cancer, where it can be hijacked by the pathogens and cancer cells, respectively, to promote their own survival. Thus, autophagy modulation can potentially have multiple effects in multiple contexts and this property can be leveraged to improve outcomes...
July 13, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Melissa L Dawson, Meagan S Cramer, Dana R Thompson, Babak Vakili
Background/Aims: The rate of urinary tract infection (UTI) after pelvic reconstructive surgery ranges from 9 to 48% and the most common uropathogen is Escherichia coli ( E. coli ). The aim of the study is to identify the predominant uro-pathogen from urine cultures in women undergoing pelvic reconstructive surgery. Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on women who underwent pelvic reconstructive surgery at a tertiary care center from July 2013 to June 2015...
June 2018: Current Urology
Tessa E LeCuyer, Barbara A Byrne, Joshua B Daniels, Dubraska V Diaz-Campos, G Kenitra Hammac, Claire B Miller, Thomas E Besser, Margaret A Davis
Escherichia coli is the most common cause of human and canine urinary tract infection (UTI). Clonal groups, often with high levels of antimicrobial resistance, are a major component of the E. coli population that causes human UTI. While little is known about the population structure of E. coli that causes UTI in dogs, there is evidence that dogs and humans can share fecal strains of E.coli and that human-associated strains can cause disease in dogs. In order to better characterize the E. coli that cause canine UTI, we analyzed 295 E...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Ying-Lun Ou, Chin-Yu Liu, Tai-Lung Cha, Sheng-Tang Wu, Chih-Wei Tsao
RATIONALE: Ketamine abuse is an emerging issue in many countries, and ketamine cystitis (KC) is a growing disease which more and more urologists may encounter with. There was no gold standard diagnostic criteria of ketamine cystits established yet, but well-accepted with the positive substance abuse history and clinical symptoms. The clinical presentation of ketamine cystitis varies and may mimic those presented in interstitial cystitis (IC), such as voiding frequency, urgency with urge incontinence, dysuria, nocturia, burning sensation during urination, post urination pain, painful hematuria, and small bladder capacity, but there are still differences that KC presented with more urgency, hematuria, pyuria and upper urinary tract involvement such as ureteral stenosis, vesico-ureteric reflux, hydronephrosis and renal function impairment...
July 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ahmed G Abdelhamid, Aliaa Esaam, Mahmoud M Hazaa
The sharp increase in antibiotic resistance imposes a global threat to human health and the discovery of effective antimicrobial alternatives is needed. The use of probiotics to combat bacterial pathogens has gained a rising interest. Pathogenic Escherichia coli is causative of multiple clinical syndromes such as diarrheal diseases, meningitis and urinary tract infections. In this work, we evaluated the efficacy of probiotics to control multidrug-resistant E. coli and reduce their ability to form biofilms. Six E...
July 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
A F Silva, P J A Farias, M L C R Silva, J P Araújo Júnior, C D Malossi, L S Ullmann, D F Costa, S S S Higino, S S Azevedo, C J Alves
Although some studies in sheep have indicated leptospire colonization of the genital tract, further studies are needed to clarify the role of genital carriers in this species. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the colonization of pathogenic leptospires in the genital and urinary tract of slaughtered sheep. Fifty-seven adult, female woolless sheep destined for slaughter were used. Renal (n = 57), bladder (n = 57), ovary (n = 34), uterine tube (n = 44), and uterus (n = 33) samples were collected for molecular detection of Leptospira sp...
July 9, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Chengcheng Hou, Ou Jin, Xi Zhang
To investigate the clinical characteristics of infection in SLE patients and analyze the risk factors of infection. A retrospective analysis method was used and the data were collected from 173 case times of 142 hospitalized patients. We found the incidence rate of infections in SLE was 50.7%. The most common infection sites were lungs, followed by upper respiratory tracts and urinary tracts. The most common pathogens were bacteria, followed by fungi. The infection-associated risk factors were duration of hospitalization, lupus activity state, the use of high-dose corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents, the low serum level of complements 3 and 4 (C3 and C4), fever, the high level of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP), the abnormality of white blood cell (< 4 × 109 /L or > 10 × 109 /L), and the low level of albumin (P < 0...
July 9, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Valentina Virginia Ebani, Simona Nardoni, Fabrizio Bertelloni, Luisa Pistelli, Francesca Mancianti
Urinary tract infections are frequently encountered in small animal practice. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. are the most common agents associated to these infections, even though other bacteria and yeasts, such as Candida albicans and Candida famata, may be involved. In view of the increasing problem of the multi-drug resistance, the aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from star anise ( Illicium verum Hook.f.), basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.), origanum ( Origanum vulgare L...
July 9, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
E F Zampar, E H T Anami, G Kerbauy, L F T Queiroz, C M D M Carrilho, L T Q Cardoso, C M C Grion
The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence of hospital acquired infections (HAIs) in burn patients, and to determine the principle infection sites and the sensitivity profile of the microorganisms to antimicrobials. This is a retrospective cohort study, conducted in a specialized centre for the treatment of burns from January 2009 to December 2013. The sample consisted of 404 patients, divided into two groups: the first group comprised 142 patients without infection, and the second group was made up of 262 patients who had acquired HAIs...
December 31, 2017: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
Patrick Temi Adegun, Michael Simidele Odimayo, Julius Gbenga Olaogun, Eyitayo Ebenezer Emmanuel
OBJECTIVE: Advanced age is one of the notable risk factors for catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), and differences between middle aged and elderly men with CAUTIs is poorly understood. This study aimed at comparing the pattern of urinary pathogens and antibiotic susceptibility in ambulant catheterized middle-aged and elderly Nigerian men. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and fifty-four patients catheterized for >48 hours had provided clean catch mid-stream urine samples for microscopic analysis, culture and sensitivity tests...
June 5, 2018: Turkish Journal of Urology
Gianpaolo Perletti, Vittorio Magri, Tommaso Cai, Konstantinos Stamatiou, Alberto Trinchieri, Emanuele Montanari
Urinary tract infections are among the most common infectious diseases in humans. Today, resistance to nearly all antimicrobial classes is dramatically growing, and extremely drug-resistant or even pan-drug resistant pathogens are increasingly isolated around the world. It is foreseen that in the next decades the world will be facing a major medical emergency generated by the rapid spread of pathogens carrying resistance determinants of unprecedented power. Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, multidrug- resistant Enterococci and fluoroquinolone resistance determinants in both Gram-negative and Gram-positive uropathogens are among the greatest emergencies...
June 30, 2018: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
Alexander Shulman, Yael Yair, Dvora Biran, Thomas Sura, Andreas Otto, Uri Gophna, Dörte Becher, Michael Hecker, Eliora Z Ron
Many strains of Escherichia coli carry a 29,250-bp ETT2 pathogenicity island (PAI), which includes genes predicted to encode type III secretion system (T3SS) components. Because it is similar to the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) system, encoding a T3SS in Salmonella enterica , it was assumed that ETT2 also encodes a secretion system injecting effectors into host cells. This assumption was checked in E. coli serotype O2-associated with urinary tract infections and septicemia-which has an intact ETT2 gene cluster, in contrast to most strains in which this cluster carries deletions and mutations...
July 3, 2018: MBio
Andrea M Lencina, Thierry Franza, Matthew J Sullivan, Glen C Ulett, Deepak S Ipe, Philippe Gaudu, Robert B Gennis, Lici A Schurig-Briccio
The opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae is the major cause of meningitis and sepsis in a newborn's first week, as well as a considerable cause of pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and sepsis in immunocompromised adults. This pathogen respires aerobically if heme and quinone are available in the environment, and a functional respiratory chain is required for full virulence. Remarkably, it is shown here that the entire respiratory chain of S. agalactiae consists of only two enzymes, a type 2 NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2) and a cytochrome bd oxygen reductase...
July 3, 2018: MBio
S Derakhshan, M Pourzare, D Roshani
Escherichia coli is the major causative pathogen of urinary tract infection (UTI) in humans. Virulence and drug resistance play important roles in the pathogenesis of E. coli infections. The aims were to investigate the presence of uropathogenic virulence genes and to evaluate a relationship between antibiotic resistance and virulence in E. coli from UTI. A total of 132 E. coli were collected between April and June 2015 in two hospitals of Sanandaj, Iran. Isolates were examined for susceptibility to 16 antibiotic disks using the disk diffusion method and for possession of virulence genes by polymerase chain reaction...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Ji Young Park, Ki Wook Yun, Eun Hwa Choi, Hoan Jong Lee
Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 131 has emerged as a higher virulent and multidrug-resistant pathogen worldwide. This study aimed to identify the prevalence and characteristics of E. coli ST131 isolated from Korean children with bacteremia at a single center for 16 years. We retrospectively reviewed culture-proven E. coli bacteremia cases of children aged ≤18 years between 2000 and 2015. E. coli isolates were analyzed using multilocus sequence typing, fimH typing, and CTX-M typing. Among 177 children with E...
June 29, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Boudewijn Catry, Katrien Latour, Robin Bruyndonckx, Camellia Diba, Candida Geerdens, Samuel Coenen
Background: Treatment duration, treatment interval, formulation and type of antimicrobial (antibiotic) are modifiable factors that will influence antimicrobial selection pressure. Currently, the impact of the route of administration on the occurrence of resistance in humans is unclear. Methods: In this retrospective multi-center cohort study, we assessed the impact of different variables on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in pathogens isolated from the urinary tract in older adults...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Carrie F Coggon, Andrew Jiang, Kelvin G K Goh, Ian R Henderson, Mark A Schembri, Timothy J Wells
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the most common cause of urinary tract infection, which in some patients can develop into life-threatening urosepsis. Serum resistance is a key virulence trait of strains that cause urosepsis. Recently, we identified a novel method of serum resistance in patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections, where patients possessed antibodies that inhibited complement-mediated killing (instead of protecting against infection). These inhibitory antibodies were of the IgG2 subtype, specific to the O-antigen component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and coated the bacterial surface, preventing bacterial lysis by complement...
June 26, 2018: MBio
Jayaweera Arachchige Asela Sampath Jayaweera, Mohommed Reyes
BACKGROUND: In children, urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of a common bacterial infection. This study was conducted to detect the uropathogen, antimicrobial susceptibility, pathogen associated with recurrences and renal scarring in children initially taken care from general practitioners and later presented to tertiary care. METHODS: Every inward UTI episode, culture and antimicrobial susceptibility was done while on past 6-month, history of infections and use of antimicrobials was collected using clinical records and demonstration of antimicrobials...
June 25, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Vishvanath Tiwari, Neha Mishra, Keval Gadani, P S Solanki, N A Shah, Monalisa Tiwari
Acinetobacter baumannii is a multi-drug resistant opportunistic pathogen, which causes respiratory and urinary tract infections. Its prevalence increases gradually in the clinical setup. Carbapenems (beta-lactam) are most effective antibiotics till now against A. baumannii , but the development of resistance against it may lead to high mortality. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to develop an alternative drug against A. baumannii . In the present study, we have synthesized ZnO nanoparticle (ZnO-NP) and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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