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urinary tract pathogens

Yan Liu, Dong Xiao, Xiao-Hui Shi
This retrospective study tried to find the potential approach for reducing the urinary tract infection (UTI) in intensive care patients (ICPs) among adult population.In total, 96 eligible ICP cases were included. Of these, 48 cases received 10% povidone-iodine and were assigned to the intervention group, while the other 48 cases underwent sterile water, and were assigned to the control group for the prevention of catheter-associated UTI before indwelling urinary catheter insertion in ICP. The primary outcome was the occurrence of an UTI after the indwelling catheter...
September 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Cristina Colomer-Winter, Ana L Flores-Mireles, Shannon P Baker, Kristi L Frank, Aaron J L Lynch, Scott J Hultgren, Todd Kitten, José A Lemos
Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient that is not readily available to pathogens during infection due to an active host defense mechanism known as nutritional immunity. To overcome this nutrient restriction, bacteria utilize high-affinity transporters that allow them to compete with host metal-binding proteins. Despite the established role of Mn in bacterial pathogenesis, little is known about the relevance of Mn in the pathophysiology of E. faecalis. Here, we identified and characterized the major Mn acquisition systems of E...
September 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Huan Yang, Qianqian Li, Changying Wang, Jingyu Wang, Junqiang Lv, Lei Wang, Zhi-Song Zhang, Zhi Yao, Quan Wang
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) induce cystitis, pyelonephritis, and can cause kidney scarring and failure if inflammation is not under control. The detailed effects of cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), the key UPEC toxin, on the pathogenicity of UPEC remain unclear. CD36 is an important scavenger receptor, responsible for pathogen and apoptotic cell clearance, and plays an essential role in host immune defense and homeostasis. Regulation of CD36 by bacterial toxins has not been reported...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jianguo Li, Mark Lovern, Michelle L Green, Joannellyn Chiu, Diansong Zhou, Craig Comisar, Yuan Xiong, Jeremy Hing, Merran MacPherson, James G Wright, Todd Riccobene, Timothy J Carrothers, Shampa Das
Ceftazidime-avibactam is a novel β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combination for the treatment of serious infections caused by resistant Gram-negative pathogens. Population pharmacokinetic (PK) models were built to incorporate PK data from five Phase III trials in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infection, complicated urinary tract infection or nosocomial (including ventilator-associated) pneumonia. Ceftazidime and avibactam PK were well-described by two-compartment disposition models, with creatinine clearance (CrCL) the key covariate determining clearance variability...
September 17, 2018: Clinical and Translational Science
Natividad Castro-Alarcón, Rubén Rodríguez-García, María Ruíz-Rosas, José Francisco Muñoz-Valle, Iris Paola Guzmán-Guzmán, Isela Parra-Rojas, Mirna Vázquez-Villamar
Escherichia coli is the main etiological agent of urinary tract infections. Its virulence factors are important during the initial interaction stage with the host as they enable colonization of urinary tract tissues. The genetic markers evidencing susceptibility to develop recurrent infections have been previously described. Toll-like receptors are critical sensors of microbial attacks, and they are also effectors of the individual's innate defense for elimination of pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between functional polymorphisms (896 A>G, 1196 C>T, - 2570 A>G, - 2081 G>A) and susceptibility to develop urinary tract infections as well as E...
September 15, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
Matthijs Oyaert, Joris Delanghe
New technological advances have paved the way for significant progress in automated urinalysis. Quantitative reading of urinary test strips using reflectometry has become possible, while complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has enhanced analytical sensitivity and shown promise in microalbuminuria testing. Microscopy-based urine particle analysis has greatly progressed over the past decades, enabling high throughput in clinical laboratories. Urinary flow cytometry is an alternative for automated microscopy, and more thorough analysis of flow cytometric data has enabled rapid differentiation of urinary microorganisms...
January 2019: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
Jia-Mo Zhang, Juan Liu, Ke Wang, Xuan Zhang, Tao Zhao, Hua-Ming Luo
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to observe the morphological characteristics of bacterial biofilm on the surface of ureteral stents and analyze distribution characteristics of pathogens on the bacterial biofilm and drug resistance. METHODS: Ureteral stents were sampled from 129 patients. A scanning electron microscope was used to observe the morphological characteristics of bacterial biofilms, and the Congo red medium was applied to screen bacterial biofilm strains on the renal pelvis section, ureter section, and bladder section respectively...
September 13, 2018: Urologia Internationalis
Fatma Devrim, Erkin Serdaroğlu, İlknur Çağlar, Yeliz Oruç, Nevbahar Demiray, Nuri Bayram, Hasan Ağın, Sebnem Çalkavur, Yelda Sorguç, Nida Dinçel, Yüce Ayhan, Ebru Yılmaz, Ilker Devrim
Background: Healthcare-associated infections results in increased health care costs and mortality. There are limited studies concerning the distribution of the etiologic agents and the resistance patterns of the microorganisms causing healthcare-associated urinary tract infections (HA-UTI) in pediatric settings. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of pathogens causing HA-UTI in children. Material and Methods: Isolates from 138 children with UTI who were hospitalized in pediatric, neonatal and pediatric surgery intensive care units were reviewed...
2018: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
Marianne Stærk, Sara A Tolouee, Jens J Christensen
Introduction: Haemophilus influenzae commonly causes upper respiratory tract infections and has only rarely been reported etiology of urinary tract infections. Since the introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) vaccine, non-typable haemophilus species now cause the majority of invasive disease in Europe. Case Report: We report a case of an adult man with non-typable Haemophilus influenzae septicemia, urinary tract infection and bilateral renal stone disease...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
E Abramovich, O Barrett, J Dreiher, V Novack, M Abu-Shakra
Background Infections are common among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Objectives To determine whether SLE is an independent risk factor for short- and long-term mortality in patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with sepsis, and to identify the characteristics of SLE patients admitted to an ICU with sepsis. Methods A retrospective age- and sex-matched cohort study, based on data of the SEPSIS-ISR (Sepsis Israel) Registry, an ongoing study that collects data on all patients admitted with sepsis to the ICUs...
September 5, 2018: Lupus
M I A Abdel Maksoud, Gharieb S El-Sayyad, A H Ashour, Ahmed I El-Batal, Mahmmoud S Abd-Elmonem, Hassan A M Hendawy, E K Abdel-Khalek, Sh Labib, E Abdeltwab, M M El-Okr
Nanocrystalline spinel ferrite nanoparticles [Mx Co(1-x) Fe2 O4 ;(M = Zn,Cu,Mn;x = 0 and 0.5)] like: Cobalt ferrite (CFO), Zinc Cobalt ferrite (ZCFO), Copper Cobalt ferrite (CCFO), and Manganese Cobalt ferrite (MCFO) modified carbon paste electrodes (CPE) were synthesized via sol-gel technique utilizing citric acid and ethylene glycol as a polymerization agent. The synthesized ferrite NPs were used as bi-functional smart biosensor, not only used to determine the drug Anagrelide-HCl (ANDH) in urine and serum samples, but also possesses antimicrobial potential against some pathogenic microbes, founded in the biological samples...
November 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Jin Woo Kim, You Jin Lee, Jae-Wook Chung, Yun-Sok Ha, Jun Nyung Lee, Eun Sang Yoo, Tae Gyun Kwon, Bum Soo Kim
Purpose: Ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URS) is gaining popularity for the management of ureteral stones and even renal stones, with high efficacy and minimal invasiveness. Although this procedure is known to be safe and to have a low complication rate, febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) after URS is not rare. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the risk factors and causative pathogens of febrile UTI after URS. Materials and Methods: Between January 2013 and June 2015, 304 patients underwent URS for ureteral or renal stones...
September 2018: Investigative and Clinical Urology
Dan Peng, Xuan Li, Pin Liu, Mei Luo, Shuai Chen, Kewen Su, Zhongshuang Zhang, Qiang He, Jingfu Qiu, Yingli Li
BACKGROUND: In the intensive care unit (ICU), catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is the most common urinary tract infection. Nevertheless, there is no systematic review to investigate the epidemiology of pathogens and antimicrobial resistance of CAUTIs in ICUs. METHODS: Eight electronic databases were searched for eligible studies. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate the CAUTI incidence per 1,000 catheter days, the proportion of pathogen distribution, and the resistance rate with R3...
August 31, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
C A Kennedy, C Walsh, M Karczmarczyk, S O'Brien, N Akasheh, M Quirke, S Farrell-Ward, T Buckley, U Fogherty, K Kavanagh, C T Parker, T Sweeney, S Fanning
Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) possess the ability to cause extraintestinal infections such as urinary tract infections, neonatal meningitis and sepsis. While information is readily available describing pathogenic E. coli populations in food-producing animals, studies in companion/sports animals such as horses are limited. In addition, many antimicrobial agents used in the treatment of equine infections are also utilised in human medicine, potentially contributing to the spread of antibiotic resistance determinants among pathogenic strains...
September 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
Wei Liu, Ying-Yi Li, Xue-Jun Shang
Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) was first isolated by Tully from the urinary tract of the male patient with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) in 1981. MG is extremely difficult to be cultured and was rarely studied until the development and application of molecular biology technology. The research on MG in China is still in the primary stage. However, relevant studies abroad have found that it is an important pathogen causing human genitourinary tract infection and spreading worldwide. Male MG infection is reportedly related to NGU, prostatitis, epididymitis, balanoposthitis, male HIV infection, and male infertility...
July 2018: Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, National Journal of Andrology
A Huttner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 28, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Rudrajit Paul
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
Tommaso Cai, Tommaso Di Vico, Jacopo Durante, Alessio Tognarelli, Riccardo Bartoletti
INTRODUCTION: Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted pathogen and its potential role in the genesis of several diseases such as cervical, head and neck, anal and penile cancers, is now largely recognized. Aim of this review article is evaluate and summarize the state of the art of HPV-related uro-genital cancers, focusing on the potentially innovative methods for the diagnosis of infection that should be used to improve viral causative detection and prevent its diffusion through sexual intercourses...
August 29, 2018: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
Junfeng Gao, Xueyan Duan, Xiaoqi Li, Hong Cao, Yongqiang Wang, Shijun J Zheng
Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) are important human pathogens responsible for urinary tract infection and meningitis. Therefore, infection of chickens by highly pathogenic E. coli with multi-drug resistance has become a major concern to food safety. In this study, we isolated a strain of E. coli (HB2016) from the oviduct of a diseased chicken with colibacillosis. Inoculation of chickens with 2 × 106  CFU of the isolate E. coli HB2016 by intraperitoneal injection successfully reproduced colibacillosis in chickens...
August 26, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Elif Bozcal, Vahap Eldem, Sohret Aydemir, Mikael Skurnik
Background: Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is an important bacterium and responsible for many bloodstream infections, including urinary tract infections and even fatal bacteremia. The aim of this research was to investigate whether ExPEC strains isolated from Turkish blood cultures have a relationship between 16S rRNA based phylogenetic clusters and antibiotic resistance profiles, virulence factors or clonal lineages. Methods: Phenotypically identified ExPEC blood culture isolates ( n  = 104) were included in this study...
2018: PeerJ
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